WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid neutralizing capacity

  1. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  2. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands

  3. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; Todd C. McDonnell; R. Brion Salter

    2013-01-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially...

  4. Influence of carbonation on the acid neutralization capacity of cements and cement-solidified/stabilized electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanyuan; Zhang, Lina; Ke, Yujuan; Hills, Colin; Kang, Yanming

    2009-02-01

    Portland cement (PC) and blended cements containing pulverized fuel ash (PFA) or granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) were used to solidify/stabilize an electroplating sludge in this work. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of the hydrated pastes increased in the order of PC > PC/GGBS > PC/PFA. The GGBS or PFA replacement (80 wt%) reduced the ANC of the hydrated pastes by 30-50%. The ANC of the blended cement-solidified electroplating sludge (cement/sludge 1:2) was 20-30% higher than that of the hydrated blended cement pastes. Upon carbonation, there was little difference in the ANC of the three cement pastes, but the presence of electroplating sludge (cement/sludge 1:2) increased the ANC by 20%. Blended cements were more effective binders for immobilization of Ni, Cr and Cu, compared with PC, whereas Zn was encapsulated more effectively in the latter. Accelerated carbonation improved the immobilization of Cr, Cu and Zn, but not Ni. The geochemical code PHREEQC, with the edited database from EQ3/6 and HATCHES, was used to calculate the saturation index and solubility of likely heavy metal precipitates in cement-based solidification/stabilization systems. The release of heavy metals could be related to the disruption of cement matrices and the remarkable variation of solubility of heavy metal precipitates at different pH values.

  5. Recovery of young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in acidified streams: What are the critical values for acid-neutralizing capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesthagen, T.; Fiske, P.; Saksgård, R.

    2016-12-01

    The recovery of young allopatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) grouped into YoY (age 0+) and older parr (age ≥1+) fish, was studied in acid-sensitive streams in a Norwegian watershed during a 24-year-period (1987-2010). Their abundance was assessed by electrofishing. Most sites typically had 5.0-5.5 in pH, 0.4-0.7 mg L-1 Ca, 10-20 μg L-1 inorganic toxic aluminum (Ali) and acid-neutralizing capacity adjusted for organic acids (ANCOAA) of - 15 to +25 μeq L-1. Densities of both YoY and older parr increased significantly during the study period. Water quality also improved in recent years with respect to pH (5.8-6.0), Ali (5-15 μg L-1) and ANCOAA (10-20 μeq L-1). However, some negative trends in both fish density and water chemistry were found during both the first (1987-1993) and last years (2004-2008) of the study. Initially, YoY densities remained at about 16-20 specimens 100 m-2 (1987-1990), declined to 10-15 specimens 100 m-2 in the early/mid 1990s, and rosed to 30-50 specimens 100 m-2 in recent years (1997-2010). Their densities correlated significantly with ANCOAA, and at least three stages in the recovery process were recognised: (i) Low density with 10-20 specimens 100 m-2 at -18 to -5 μeq L-1, (ii) medium and unstable density with 20-30 specimens 100 m-2 at -5 to 10 μeq L-1, and (iii) increasing density to 40-50 specimens 100 m-2 at 10-25 μeq L-1. The decline in brown trout density in the early-mid 1990s coincided with high sea salt depositions, which caused increased acidification. Component 1 in a PCA explained 51% of the variation in fish densities, including conductivity, Mg, Ca, Na, alkalinity and TOC. Component 2 explained an additional 31% of the variation, including pH, Ali and ANCOAA. Multiple regression analysis coefficients showed that the two components explained 41% of the variance in total fish density. Young brown trout suffered a high mortality during the initial phase of the study in spite of relative low levels of Ali. This is

  6. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  7. 对硫糖铝制酸力检查方法的改进建议%Improvement of Acid-neutralizing Capacity Test for Sucralfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 申兰慧; 陈国清

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To improve the acid-neutralizing capacity test for sucralfate and sucralfate tablets. Methods: Combined with the pharmacopeia standard of the acid-neutralizing rate of sucrelfate, the effects of the time and speed of vibration, methods of end-point indication on the acid-neutralizing capacity test were discussed. Results: The vibration time was shorten to 20 min at the speed of 150r·min-1. And the potentiometric method was recommended to indicate the end-point. Conclusion: This modified method is accurate, reliable and can control the quality of this product more effectively.%目的:改进硫糖铝的制酸力检查法.方法:结合硫糖铝制酸速度的研究,探讨《中国药典》2010年版硫糖铝制酸力检查的振摇时间、振摇频率和终点指示方式对检测结果的影响.结果:将原标准硫酸铝制酸力检查的振摇时间缩短为20 min,振摇频率改为150次/min,且用电位法指示终点.结论:改进后的方法准确、可靠,可更有效地控制产品质量.

  8. The influence of total organic carbon (TOC) on the relationship between acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and fish status in Norwegian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Espen; Larssen, Thorjørn; Fjeld, Eirik

    2004-06-29

    Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is the parameter most commonly used as chemical indicator for fish response to acidification. Empirical relationships between fish status of surface waters and ANC have been documented earlier. ANC is commonly calculated as the difference between base cations ([BC]=[Ca2+]+[Mg2+]+[N+]+[K+]) and strong acid anions ([SAA]=[SO4(2)-]+[NO3-]+[Cl-]). This is a very robust calculation of ANC, because none of the parameters incorporated are affected by the partial pressure of CO2, in contrast to the remaining major ions in waters, pH ([H+]), aluminum ([Aln+]), alkalinity ([HCO3-/CO3(2)-]) and organic anions ([An-]). Here we propose a modified ANC calculation where the permanent anionic charge of the organic acids is assumed as a part of the strong acid anions. In many humic lakes, the weak organic acids are the predominant pH-buffering system. Because a significant amount of the weak organic acids have pK-values4.5). This means that they will be permanently present as anions, equal to the strong acid inorganic anions, SO4(2)-, NO3- and Cl-. In the literature, natural organic acids are often described as triprotic acids with a low pK1 value. Assuming a triprotic model, we suggest to add 1/3 of the organic acid charge density to the strong acid anions in the ANC calculation. The suggested organic acid adjusted ANC (ANC(OAA)), is then calculated as follows: ANC(OAA)=[BC]-([SAA]+1/3CD*TOC) where TOC is total organic carbon (mg C L(-1)), and CD=10.2 is charge density of the organic matter (microeq/mg C), based on literature data from Swedish lakes. ANC(OAA) gives significant lower values of ANC in order to achieve equal fish status compared with the traditional ANC calculation. Using ANC(OAA) the humic conditions in lakes are better taken into account. This may also help explain observations of higher ANC needed to have reproducing fish populations in lakes with higher TOC concentrations. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of Neutralizing Capacity of Different Commercial Brands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... This study is based on the evaluation of acid neutralizing capacity of five different commercial brands ... Titration of each sample tablet (0.5 g) dissolved in 20 cm3 of 0.1 M HCl with ... Antacid is any substance, generally a base.

  10. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration. This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached solution from

  11. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  12. Impaired acid neutralization in the duodenum in pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S K; Russell, R M; Iber, F L

    1979-10-01

    The influence of severe exocrine pancreatic disease on the acid-neutralizing capacity of the duodenum was studied in five patients with pancreatic insufficiency (PI) and six control subjects using duodenal perfusion-marker technique. Hydrochloric acid (0.1 N containing 1% PEG) was infused at constant rates (1.2, 4.5 and 7.0 ml/min) into the duodenum just distal to the duodenal bulb. Samples were aspirated from the tip of the duodenal perfusion tube located at the ligament of Treitz. All samples were analyzed for volume, pH, titrable acidity, PEG and [14C]PEG (gastric marker) determination. Patients with PI demonstrated significantly diminished ability to neutralize various acid loads as compared to controls who virtually completely neutralized acid loads in the range of maximal gastric acid secretion. Exogenous secretin did not significantly improve percent acid neutralized in PI. These data clearly indicate that patients with PI have significantly impaired ability to neutralize even small loads of acid in the duodenum.

  13. Neutralization method for a hydrofluoric acid release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Deacon, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of methods for neutralizing a release at the hydrofluoric acid tank farm at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has revealed that the best neutralization method incorporates the use of a lime/water slurry. In this method, settling of suspended solids in the liquid is enhanced by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate, which causes immediate flocculation and settling. Dilution and expulsion of the supernatant liquid above the flocculated solids result in an effluent which meets the one part per million fluoride limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A fluoride specific ion electrode is used to determine fluoride concentration. This method presently is being adapted for use in the hydrofluoric acid tank farm and is being considered for use at the plant's fluorine generation facility. It could be adapted for use in any facility that contains fluoride in aqueous solution

  14. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  15. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-12-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties in maintaining this level of protein intake). Patients are therefore able to follow a more "normal" diet than those adhering to a PKU diet with AA supplementation (in which only 20% of the daily protein requirement is provided from the diet and 80% from AA supplementation). LNAAs have also been used to treat older patients with untreated/late-diagnosed PKU who show profound intellectual, psychological, and behavioral impairments. Treatment with LNAAs has been shown to improve measures of concentration and awareness of external stimuli in some of these patients and thus enhance their socialization, emotionality, frustration tolerance, and mood.

  16. Studies of Latent Acidity and Neutral Buffered Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osteryoung, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Studies on ionic liquids composed of aluminum chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride were carried out, with emphasis on understanding and explaining acidity and latent acidity in "neutral buffered" melts...

  17. The neutralization of acidic coal mine lakes by additions of natural organic matter: a mesocosm test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Gastineau, J.; Ratcliff, E.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical polyethylene enclosures 3 m in length and 1 m in diameter reaching from the surface to the bottom were constructed in an acid (pH=3.1) lake on a coal surface mine in southern Illinois. Wheat straw was added to the enclosures to test the effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on water chemistry. Added straw increased sulfide concentrations, raised pH to 6.5, reduced O 2 and increased acid neutralizing capacity of the enclosed water columns when compared with a control enclosure and with the open lake. Generation of acid neutralizing capacity exceeded the standing stock of sulfide indicating that sulfide was removed either by precipitation of FeS or outgassing of H 2 S. The pH and acid neutralizing capacity within the enclosures eventually returned to the level of the surrounding lake because of water exchange around the enclosure walls. Our results show that additions of organic matter to acid surface mine lakes result in the generation of acid neutralizing capacity

  18. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I. Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte. 58 references.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I - Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte.

  20. Gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Gomes, L.R.; Schröder, B.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid (BA) was proven using the experimental technique called the "in vacuum sublimation/vaporization Calvet microcalorimetry drop method". To overcome known experimental shortfalls, the gaseous phase heat capacity of BA monomer was estimated by ab initio

  1. Soil microbial community responses to acid exposure and neutralization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doyun; Lee, Yunho; Park, Jeonghyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil

    2017-12-15

    Changes in microbial community induced by acid shock were studied in the context of potential release of acids to the environment due to chemical accidents. The responses of microbial communities in three different soils to the exposure to sulfuric or hydrofluoric acid and to the subsequent neutralization treatment were investigated as functions of acid concentration and exposure time by using 16S-rRNA gene based pyrosequencing and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Measurements of soil pH and dissolved ion concentrations revealed that the added acids were neutralized to different degrees, depending on the mineral composition and soil texture. Hydrofluoric acid was more effectively neutralized by the soils, compared with sulfuric acid at the same normality. Gram-negative ß-Proteobacteria were shown to be the most acid-sensitive bacterial strains, while spore-forming Gram-positive Bacilli were the most acid-tolerant. The results of this study suggest that the Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratio may serve as an effective bio-indicator in assessing the impact of the acid shock on the microbial community. Neutralization treatments helped recover the ratio closer to their original values. The findings of this study show that microbial community changes as well as geochemical changes such as pH and dissolved ion concentrations need to be considered in estimating the impact of an acid spill, in selecting an optimal remediation strategy, and in deciding when to end remedial actions at the acid spill impacted site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. STATINS AND URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID: COOPERATION OR NEUTRALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Grigorieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of combined therapy of gallstone disease (GSD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and hypercholesterolemia (HCE with statins and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA are analyzed. In GSD statin therapy was often accompanied with reduction of bile lithogenicity but did not always accelerate stone litholysis under their combination with UDCA. Statin induced liver injuries are often observed in NAFLD and NASH, adjuvant UDCA therapy shown positive effect on inflammatory and histological liver parameters in these diseases. Serum lipid levels in patients with HCE were reduced most effectively with statin combined with UDCA. Combined therapy with statin and UDCA is recommended in patient with HCE and chronic liver diseases.

  3. STATINS AND URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID: COOPERATION OR NEUTRALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Grigorieva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of combined therapy of gallstone disease (GSD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and hypercholesterolemia (HCE with statins and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA are analyzed. In GSD statin therapy was often accompanied with reduction of bile lithogenicity but did not always accelerate stone litholysis under their combination with UDCA. Statin induced liver injuries are often observed in NAFLD and NASH, adjuvant UDCA therapy shown positive effect on inflammatory and histological liver parameters in these diseases. Serum lipid levels in patients with HCE were reduced most effectively with statin combined with UDCA. Combined therapy with statin and UDCA is recommended in patient with HCE and chronic liver diseases.

  4. Neutralization of acid-mine water with calcium-carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Lime is used for the neutralization of acidic effluents. Calcium carbonate should be considered as an alternative because of considerations such as lower cost, low solubility at pH values greater than 7 and simple dosing system...

  5. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  6. Complexation of metal ions with humic acid: charge neutralization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of different approaches are being used for describing the complexation equilibrium of actinide ions with humic or fulvic acid. The approach chosen and verified experimentally by Tu Muenchen will be discussed with notable examples from experiment. This approach is based on the conception that a given actinide ion is neutralized upon complexation with functional groups of humic or fulvic acid, e.g. carboxylic and phenolic groups, which are known as heterogeneously cross-linked polyelectrolytes. The photon energy transfer experiment with laser light excitation has shown that the actinide ion binding with the functional groups is certainly a chelation process accompanied by metal ion charge neutralization. This fact is in accordance with the experimental evidence of the postulated thermodynamic equilibrium reaction. The experimental results are found to be independent of origin of humic or fulvic acid and applicable for a broad range of pH. (authors). 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Toxicity of binary chemical munition destruction products: methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphinic acid, 2-diisopropylaminoethanol, DF neutralent, and QL neutralent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca E; Hafez, Ahmed M; Kremsky, Jonathan N; Bizzigotti, George O

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity and environmental impact of neutralents produced from the hydrolysis of binary chemical agent precursor chemicals DF (methylphosphonic difluoride) and QL (2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl ethyl methylphosphonite). Following a literature review of the neutralent mixtures and constituents, basic toxicity tests were conducted to fill data gaps, including acute oral and dermal median lethal dose assays, the Ames mutagenicity test, and ecotoxicity tests. For methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a major constituent of DF neutralent, the acute oral LD(50) in the Sprague-Dawley rat was measured at 1888 mg/kg, and the Ames test using typical tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli was negative. The 48-h LC(50) values for pH-adjusted DF neutralent with Daphnia magna and Cyprinodon variegatus were > 2500 mg/L and 1593 mg/L, respectively. The acute oral LD(50) values in the rat for QL neutralent constituents methylphosphinic acid (MP) and 2-diisopropylaminoethanol (KB) were both determined to be 940 mg/kg, and the Ames test was negative for both. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant ecotoxicity tests for MP and KB gave 48-h D. magna EC(50) values of 6.8 mg/L and 83 mg/L, respectively. GLP-compliant 96-h C. variegatus assays on MP and KB gave LC(50) values of 73 and 252 mg/L, respectively, and NOEC values of 22 and 108 mg/L. QL neutralent LD(50) values for acute oral and dermal toxicity tests were both > 5000 mg/kg, and the 48-h LD(50) values for D. magna and C. variegatus were 249 and 2500 mg/L, respectively. Using these data, the overall toxicity of the neutralents was assessed.

  8. A comparison of neutralization efficiency of chemicals with respect to acidic Kopili River water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Nibedita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2017-09-01

    Among all the renewable sources of energy, hydropower is the most potential source which is economical, non-polluting and eco-friendly. The efficiency of hydropower plant in the long run depends on many factors like water and sediment quality. Erosive and corrosive wear of machine parts like turbine is a complex phenomenon. The problem becomes more acute if the hydroenvironment is acidic in nature. The wear and tear due to corrosion/erosion caused by acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines reduces the efficiency and the life of the equipments. In this work, neutralization of the acidic water of the Kopili River, Assam, India was investigated using a number of basic chemicals and quantitatively estimating their effectiveness and actual requirement. The acidic water of the river, used as the cooling water, has been found responsible for damaging the equipments of the Kopili Hydro Electric Power Project (KHEP), Assam/Meghalaya, India by reducing the life of all metallic parts through corrosion. In this work, use is made of a number of basic materials like calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia to examine their neutralization efficiency with respect to the acidic water and it was found that quick lime or raw lime (CaO) has the highest neutralization capacity. Suggestions have been made for meeting the problem of acidity of the river water.

  9. Heat capacity of poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyda, M.; Bopp, R.C.; Wunderlich, B.

    2004-01-01

    The heat capacity of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported from T=(5 to 600) K as obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) and adiabatic calorimetry. The heat capacity of solid PLA is linked to its group vibrational spectrum and the skeletal vibrations, the latter being described by a Tarasov equation with Θ 1 =574 K, Θ 2 =Θ 3 =52 K, and nine skeletal vibrations. The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to ±3% between T=(5 and 300) K. The experimental heat capacity of liquid PLA can be expressed by C p (liquid)=(120.17+0.076T) J · K -1 · mol -1 and has been compared to the ATHAS Data Bank, using contributions of other polymers with the same constituent groups. The glass transition temperature of amorphous PLA occurs at T=332.5 K with a change in heat capacity of 43.8 J · K -1 · mol -1 . Depending on thermal history, semi-crystalline PLA has a melting endotherm between T=(418 and 432) K with variable heats of fusion. For 100% crystalline PLA, the heat of fusion is estimated to be (6.55 ± 0.02) kJ · mol -1 at T=480 K. With these results, the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs function of crystalline and amorphous PLA were obtained. For semi-crystalline samples, one can check changes of crystallinity with temperature and judge the presence of rigid-amorphous fractions

  10. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  11. Uptake of neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids by human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Røigaard, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids...

  12. Specific lysosomal transport of small neutral amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisoni, R.L.; Flickinger, K.S.; Thoene, J.G.; Christensen, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of amino acid exodus from lysosomes have allowed us previously to describe transport systems specific for cystine and another for cationic amino acids in fibroblast lysosomes. They are now able to study amino acid uptake into highly purified fibroblast lysosomes obtained by separating crude granular fraction on gradients formed by centrifugation in 35% isoosmotic Percoll solutions. Analog inhibition and saturation studies indicate that L-[ 14 C]proline (50 μM) uptake by fibroblast lysosomes at 37 0 C in 50 mM citrate/tris pH 7.0 buffer containing 0.25 M sucrose is mediated by two transport systems, one largely specific for L-proline and the other for which transport is shared with small neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine and threonine. At 7 mM, L-proline inhibits L-[ 14 C]proline uptake almost completely, whereas ala, ser, val, thr, gly, N-methylalanine and sarcosine inhibit proline uptake by 50-65%. The system shared by alanine, serine and threonine is further characterized by these amino acids strongly inhibiting the uptakes of each other. Lysosomal proline transport is selective for the L-isomer of the amino acid, and is scarcely inhibited by 7 mM arg, glu, asp, leu, phe, his, met, (methylamino) isobutyrate, betaine or N,N-dimethylglycine. Cis or trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline inhibit proline uptake only slightly. In sharp contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane in which Na + is required for most proline and alanine transport, lysosomal uptake of these amino acids occurs independently of Na +

  13. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100 0 C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100 0 C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100 0 C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters

  14. Not All Children with Cystic Fibrosis Have Abnormal Esophageal Neutralization during Chemical Clearance of Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Frederick W; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Nemastil, Christopher J; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kaul, Ajay; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Mousa, Hayat

    2017-09-01

    Acid neutralization during chemical clearance is significantly prolonged in children with cystic fibrosis, compared to symptomatic children without cystic fibrosis. The absence of available reference values impeded identification of abnormal findings within individual patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that significantly more children with cystic fibrosis have acid neutralization durations during chemical clearance that fall outside the physiological range. Published reference value for acid neutralization duration during chemical clearance (determined using combined impedance/pH monitoring) was used to assess esophageal acid neutralization efficiency during chemical clearance in 16 children with cystic fibrosis (3 to chemical clearance exceeded the upper end of the physiological range in 9 of 16 (56.3%) children with and in 3 of 16 (18.8%) children without cystic fibrosis ( p =0.0412). The likelihood ratio for duration indicated that children with cystic fibrosis are 2.1-times more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance, and children with abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance are 1.5-times more likely to have cystic fibrosis. Significantly more (but not all) children with cystic fibrosis have abnormally prolonged esophageal clearance of acid. Children with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance. Additional studies involving larger sample sizes are needed to address the importance of genotype, esophageal motility, composition and volume of saliva, and gastric acidity on acid neutralization efficiency in cystic fibrosis children.

  15. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  16. Influences of neutralization of superabsorbent hydrogel from hydroxyethyl cellulose on water swelling capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Ajaman; Klinpituksa, Pairote; Kaesaman, Azizon

    2017-08-01

    In this research, superabsorbent hydrogels were synthesized by graft copolymerization of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) under the initiation of potassium persulfate (KPS). The polymer networks were constructed using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), and the reaction was performed in an aqueous solution. The extent of grafting products was evaluated form grafting efficiency (%GE) and percentage of add-ons at HEC/AM ratios of 1: 10. The water swelling capacities, in terms of swelling capacity and weight loss, of resultant superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) after solvent extraction were determined for swelling behaviors. The result showed that the SAP had poor water absorption of approximately up to 23 g/g. To enhance swelling capacity of SAPs, an alkaline hydrolysis was done by using two types of alkaline bases, i.e., 2 M NaOH and 2 M KOH solution. The obtained treatment SAPs were neutralized by washing with distilled water and 0.5 M HCl until the liquors pH was nearly 7. They were found that the treatment SAPs showed the highest water absorption up to 317 g/g. Influences of various fluids pH values ranging between 4 and 10, on water swelling capacities of SAPs were also investigated. Under optimal pH value, the highest water absorptions of SAP was 382 g/g. To confirm the grafting reaction of PAM onto HEC backbone, FT-IR analysis was used. The results revealed absorption bands of the HEC backbone and new absorption bands from the grafted copolymer. Furthermore, the FT-IR spectrum was proved that washing with distilled water can alter the chemical functional group of SAPs.

  17. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  18. Selection of Clostridium spp. in biological sand filters neutralizing synthetic acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Welz, Pamela J; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Tuffin, Marla I; Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three biological sand filter (BSF) were contaminated with a synthetic iron- [1500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(II), 500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(III)] and sulphate-rich (6000 mg L⁻¹ SO₄²⁻) acid mine drainage (AMD) (pH = 2), for 24 days, to assess the remediation capacity and the evolution of autochthonous bacterial communities (monitored by T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries). To stimulate BSF bioremediation involving sulphate-reducing bacteria, a readily degradable carbon source (glucose, 8000 mg L⁻¹) was incorporated into the influent AMD. Complete neutralization and average removal efficiencies of 81.5 (±5.6)%, 95.8 (±1.2)% and 32.8 (±14.0)% for Fe(II), Fe(III) and sulphate were observed, respectively. Our results suggest that microbial iron reduction and sulphate reduction associated with iron precipitation were the main processes contributing to AMD neutralization. The effect of AMD on BSF sediment bacterial communities was highly reproducible. There was a decrease in diversity, and notably a single dominant operational taxonomic unit (OTU), closely related to Clostridium beijerinckii, which represented up to 65% of the total community at the end of the study period. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material: experimental and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvimba, John N; Siyakatshana, Njabulo; Mathye, Matlhodi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material over 90 days, with monitoring of the parameters' quality and assessment of their removal kinetics. The quality was observed to significantly improve over time with most parameters removed from the influent during the first 10 days. In this regard, removal of acidity, Fe(II), Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was characterized by fast kinetics while removal kinetics for Mg and SO 4 2- were observed to proceed slowly. The fast removal kinetics of acidity was attributed to fast release of alkalinity from slag minerals under mildly acidic conditions of the influent water. The removal of acidity through generation of alkalinity from the passive treatment system was also observed to generally govern the removal of metallic parameters through hydroxide formation, with overall percentage removals of 88-100% achieved. The removal kinetics for SO 4 2- was modelled using two approaches, yielding rate constant values of 1.56 and 1.53 L/(day mol) respectively, thereby confirming authenticity of SO 4 2- removal kinetics experimental data. The study findings provide insights into better understanding of the potential use of slags and their limitations, particularly in mine closure, as part of addressing this challenge in South Africa.

  20. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen

  1. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO 3 , to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH) 2 , neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO 3 neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH) 2 to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH) 2 as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO 4 are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies

  2. Micromotors Spontaneously Neutralize Gastric Acid for pH-Responsive Payload Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Liu, Wenjuan; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Xu, Mingli; Sandraz, Elodie; Wang, Xiaolei; Delezuk, Jorge; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2017-02-13

    The highly acidic gastric environment creates a physiological barrier for using therapeutic drugs in the stomach. While proton pump inhibitors have been widely used for blocking acid-producing enzymes, this approach can cause various adverse effects. Reported herein is a new microdevice, consisting of magnesium-based micromotors which can autonomously and temporally neutralize gastric acid through efficient chemical propulsion in the gastric fluid by rapidly depleting the localized protons. Coating these micromotors with a cargo-containing pH-responsive polymer layer leads to autonomous release of the encapsulated payload upon gastric-acid neutralization by the motors. Testing in a mouse model demonstrate that these motors can safely and rapidly neutralize gastric acid and simultaneously release payload without causing noticeable acute toxicity or affecting the stomach function, and the normal stomach pH is restored within 24 h post motor administration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.

    2014-01-01

    production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial...... degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic...

  4. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  5. Acidic and neutral liquid ingestion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dafne Calsoni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0) and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8). The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  6. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-10-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes; solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 references.

  7. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-11-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium and potassium to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes: solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 refs.

  8. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan Mg; Taudorf, Sarah; Bailey, Damian M

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along...

  9. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan Mg; Taudorf, Sarah; Bailey, Damian M

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along with a ...

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some neutral and acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The effect of solvent composition indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increase in the po- larity of the medium. Addition of ... oxidation of several neutral and acidic α-amino ac- ids by TBATB in aqueous acetic acid solution, and the mechanistic aspects are discussed in this paper. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials.

  11. Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in 'anoxic' limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.I.; Cravotta, C.A.; Savela, C.E.; Nord, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Processes affecting neutralization of acidic coal mine drainage were evaluated within 'anoxic' limestone drains (ALDs). Influents had pH???3.5 and dissolved oxygen treatment step is indicated to promote Al removal before diverting acidic mine water into alkalinity-producing materials. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose to bio-oil under acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) at acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Bio-oil compositions varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Reaction mechanisms varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► HTL should be classified to acidic, neutral and alkaline processes. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to bio-oil under alkaline or neutral conditions has been widely reported in literature. However, there has been limited data available in literature on comparing HTL of biomass to bio-oil under acidic, neutral, and alkaline in terms of chemical compositions and yields by using the same reaction conditions and reactor. Using cellulose as a feedstock we conducted the comparative studies for pH = 3, 7 and 14 at temperatures of 275–320 °C with reaction residence times of 0–30 min. Results showed that the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were different for acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the main composition of HTL bio-oil was 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). Under alkaline conditions, the main compounds became C 2–5 carboxylic acids. For bio-oil yields, it was observed that high temperatures and long residence times had negative effects, regardless of the pH levels. However, the corresponding reaction mechanisms are different. Under acidic conditions, the decrease in the bio-oil yields was mainly caused by polymerization of 5-HMF to solids. Under neutral conditions, the bio-oil yields decreased because 5-HMF was converted to both solid and gaseous products. Under alkaline conditions, the bio-oil decomposed to gases through the formation of short chain acids and aldehydes. Therefore, although they were all referred to as HTL bio-oil in literature, they were formed by different reaction pathways and had different properties due to their different chemical compositions. Given these differences, different strategies are recommended in this study to

  13. Dynamic Buffer Capacity in Acid-Base Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    The generalized concept of 'dynamic' buffer capacity β V is related to electrolytic systems of different complexity where acid-base equilibria are involved. The resulting formulas are presented in a uniform and consistent form. The detailed calculations are related to two Britton-Robinson buffers, taken as examples.

  14. Dynamic Buffer Capacity in Acid?Base Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Micha?owska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M.; Micha?owski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The generalized concept of ?dynamic? buffer capacity ? V is related to electrolytic systems of different complexity where acid?base equilibria are involved. The resulting formulas are presented in a uniform and consistent form. The detailed calculations are related to two Britton?Robinson buffers, taken as examples.

  15. The effect of electro-activation and eggshell powder on the neutralization of acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kastyuchik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD production by sulfide mine tailing (SMT is a major environmental preoccupation because it can degrade water surface quality on account of its strong acidity and advanced content of sulfide, iron (Fe and other metals and metalloids. Acid neutralization and the precipitation of metals present in AMD were carried out by electro-activation with ion-exchange membranes, which is based on the self-generation of necessary conditions for acid neutralization and metal precipitation. The treatment of SMT was carried out by using an electro-activation cell generated alkaline solution in the cathode compartment. After 60 min of electro-activation, a pHcatholyte of 7.9–9.6, depending on the experimental conditions, was obtained. The absence of Fe and other trace metal ions in the catholyte provide evidence that the electro-activation of SMT promotes the precipitation of insoluble trace metals in the cathode compartment. This approach can be applied to real conditions in combination with a pretreatment of SMT neutralization, in which biological calcareous amendments are available. Finally, the electro-activation technology of acid mine drainage may be a feasible, cost-effective approach for SMT neutralization because it focuses on sustainable development.

  16. Groundwater leaching of neutralized and untreated acid-leached uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Begej, C.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Sauter, N.N.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tailings neutralization was examined to determine the effect of neutralization on contaminant release. Column leaching of acid extracted uranium mill tailings from Exxon Highland Mill, Wyoming, Pathfinder Gas Hills Mill, Wyoming, and the Dawn Midnite Mill, Washington, resulted in the flushing of high concentrations of salts in the first four pore volumes of leachate, followed by a steady decrease to the original groundwater salt concentrations. Neutralization decreased the concentration of salts and radionuclides leaching from the tailings and decreased the volume of solution required to return the solution to the groundwater pH and EC. Radium-226 and uranium-238 leached quickly from the tailings in the initial pore volumes of both neutralized and unneutralized tailings, and then decreased significantly. 6 figures, 5 tables

  17. Efficacy of tannins from Mimosa pudica and tannic acid in neutralizing cobra (Naja kaouthia venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FY Sia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of Mimosa pudica tannins (MPT in neutralizing the lethality of Naja kaouthia venom was compared with commercially derived tannins. Preincubation of MPT with N. kaouthia venom maintained 100% survival of mice after 24 hours. The mouse group in which there was no preincubation, no protection against the effects of the venom was observed. M. pudica tannin was found to be more effective in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom when compared to commercial tannic acid. Two protein spots were missing in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the MPT treated mouse indicating the down-regulation of venom proteins. The results from this study indicated that tannins obtained from M. pudica are better than tannic acid in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom in vitro. However, further investigations are required to establish that M. pudica has potential for treating N. kaouthia snakebites.

  18. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  19. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaf, Nader Al [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Melhem, Racha Abi [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M. [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Patra, Digambara, E-mail: dp03@aub.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-07-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E{sub T}30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  20. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danaf, Nader Al; Melhem, Racha Abi; Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E T 30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  1. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...

  2. Neutralization and Acid Dissociation of Hydrogen Carbonate Ion: A Thermochemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Shigedomi, Kana; Kimura, Tomoyasu; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Mishima, Saki

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory inquiry into the thermochemical relationships in the reaction between aqueous solutions of NaHCO[subscript 3] and NaOH is described. The enthalpy change for this reaction, delta[subscript r]H, and that for neutralization of strong acid and NaOH(aq), delta[subscript n]H, are determined calorimetrically; the explanation for the…

  3. PcMtr, an aromatic and neutral aliphatic amino acid permease of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, H; Evers, ME; Driessen, AJM

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an aromatic and neutral aliphatic amino acid permease of Penicillium chrysogenum was cloned, functionally expressed and characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae M4276. The permease, designated PcMtr, is structurally and functionally homologous to Mtr of Neurospora crassa, and

  4. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Process for production of electrical energy from the neutralization of acid and base in a bipolar membrane cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical energy is generated from acid-base neutralization reactions in electrodialytic cells. Permselective bipolar membranes in these cells are contacted on their cation selective faces by aqueous acid streams and on their anion-selective faces by aqueous base streams. Spontaneous neutralization reactions between the basic anions and acidic cations through the bipolar membranes produce electrical potential differences between the acid and base streams. These potential differences are transmitted to electrodes to produce electrical energy which is withdrawn from the cell

  6. Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.J.; Fife, K.W.

    1995-10-01

    The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (K sp = 1.3 x 10 -11 ) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (K sp = 5.5 x 10 -6 ) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH) 2 produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH) 2 is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH) 2 offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes

  7. Comparison and trend study on acidity and acidic buffering capacity of particulate matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lihong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qingyue; Yang, XiaoYang; Tang, Dagang

    2011-12-01

    The acidity of about 2000 particulate matter samples from aircraft and ground-based monitoring is analyzed by the method similar to soil acidity determination. The ground-based samples were collected at about 50 urban or background sites in northern and southern China. Moreover, the acidic buffering capacity of those samples is also analyzed by the method of micro acid-base titration. Results indicate that the acidity level is lower in most northern areas than those in the south, and the acidic buffering capacity showed inverse tendency, correspondingly. This is the most important reason why the pollution of acidic-precipitation is much more serious in Southern China than that in Northern China. The acidity increases and the acidic buffering capacity drops with the decreasing of the particle sizes, indicating that fine particle is the main influencing factor of the acidification. The ionic results show that Ca salt is the main alkaline substance in particulate matter, whereas the acidification of particulate matter is due to the SO 2 and NO x emitted from the fossil fuel burning. And among of them, coal burning is the main contributor of SO 2, however the contribution of NO x that emitted from fuel burning of motor vehicles has increased in recent years. By comparison of the experimental results during the past 20 years, it can be concluded that the acid precipitation of particulate matter has not been well controlled, and it even shows an increasing tendency in China lately. The acid precipitation of particulate matter has begun to frequently attack in part of the northern areas. Multiple regression analysis indicates that coefficient value of the ions is the lowest at the urban sites and the highest at the regional sites, whereas the aircraft measurement results are intermediate between those two kinds of sites.

  8. Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  9. Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Mohan Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148 in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s. The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  10. Interpretation of concentration‐discharge patterns in acid‐neutralizing capacity during storm flow in three small, forested catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Hornberger, George M.; Webb, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Episodic concentration‐discharge (c‐Q) plots are a popular tool for interpreting the hydrochemical response of small, forested catchments. Application of the method involves assuming an underlying conceptual model of runoff processes and comparing observed c‐Q looping patterns with those predicted by the model. We analyzed and interpreted c‐Q plots of acid‐neutralizing capacity (ANC) for 133 storms collected over a 7‐year period from three catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Because of their underlying lithologies the catchments represent a gradient in both hydrologic and geochemical behavior, ranging from a flashy, acidic, poorly buffered catchment to a moderate, neutral, well‐buffered catchment. The relative frequency of observed anticlockwise c‐Q loops in each catchment decreased along this gradient. Discriminant function analysis indicated that prestorm base flow ANC was an important predictor of loop rotation direction; however, the strength of the predictive relationship decreased along the same gradient. The trends were consistent with several equally plausible three‐component mixing models. Uncertainty regarding end‐member timing and relative volume and possible time variation in end‐member concentrations were key factors precluding identification of a unique model. The inconclusive results obtained on this large data set suggest that identification of underlying runoff mechanisms on the basis of a small number of c‐Q plots without additional supporting evidence is likely to be misleading.

  11. Charged and Neutral Binary Nucleation of Sulfuric Acid in Free Troposphere Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Duplissy, Jonathan; Merikanto, Joonas; Sellegri, Karine; Rose, Clemence; Asmi, Eija; Freney, Evelyn; Juninen, Heikki; Sipilä, Mikko; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Kulmala, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We present a data set of binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water, measured in the CLOUD chamber at CERN during the CLOUD3 and CLOUD5 campaigns. Four parameters have been varied to cover neutral and ion-induced binary nucleation processes: Sulfuric acid concentration (1e5 to 1e8 molecules per cm^(−3)), relative humidity (10% to 80%), temperature (208-293K) and ion concentration (0-4000 ions per cm^(−3)). In addition, classical nucleation theory implemented with hydrates and ion induced nu...

  12. Research on SOC Calibration of Large Capacity Lead Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W. Q.; Guo, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    Large capacity lead-acid battery is used in track electric locomotive, and State of Charge (SOC) is an important quantitative parameter of locomotive power output and operating mileage of power emergency recovery vehicle. But State of Charge estimation has been a difficult part in the battery management system. In order to reduce the SOC estimation error better, this paper uses the linear relationship of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and State of Charge to fit the SOC-OCV curve equation by MATLAB. The method proposed in this paper is small, easy to implement and can be used in the battery non-working state SOC estimation correction, improve the estimation accuracy of SOC.

  13. Ion-neutral Clustering of Bile Acids in Electrospray Ionization Across UPLC Flow Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Patrick; Broeckling, Corey D.; Murphy, James; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2018-02-01

    Bile acid authentic standards were used as model compounds to quantitatively evaluate complex in-source phenomenon on a UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS operated in the negative mode. Three different diameter columns and a ceramic-based microfluidic separation device were utilized, allowing for detailed descriptions of bile acid behavior across a wide range of flow regimes and instantaneous concentrations. A custom processing algorithm based on correlation analysis was developed to group together all ion signals arising from a single compound; these grouped signals produce verified compound spectra for each bile acid at each on-column mass loading. Significant adduction was observed for all bile acids investigated under all flow regimes and across a wide range of bile acid concentrations. The distribution of bile acid containing clusters was found to depend on the specific bile acid species, solvent flow rate, and bile acid concentration. Relative abundancies of each cluster changed non-linearly with concentration. It was found that summing all MS level (low collisional energy) ions and ion-neutral adducts arising from a single compound improves linearity across the concentration range (0.125-5 ng on column) and increases the sensitivity of MS level quantification. The behavior of each cluster roughly follows simple equilibrium processes consistent with our understanding of electrospray ionization mechanisms and ion transport processes occurring in atmospheric pressure interfaces. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Neutralizing salivary pH by mouthwashes after an acidic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mojdeh; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Kymer-Davis, Emily; Stewart, Colette W; Zhang, Yanhui H; Versluis, Antheunis; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the neutralizing effect of mouthwashes on salivary pH after an acidic challenge. Twelve participants were recruited for three visits, one morning per week. Resting saliva was collected at baseline and after 2-min swishing with 20 mL orange juice as an acidic challenge. Participants then rinsed their mouth for 30 s with 20 mL water (control), an over-the-counter mouthwash (Listerine), or a two-step mouthwash, randomly assigned for each visit. Saliva was collected immediately, 15, and 45 min after rinsing. The pH values of the collected saliva were measured and analyzed with anova, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (significance level: 0.05). Orange juice significantly lowered salivary pH. Immediately after rinsing, Listerine and water brought pH back to baseline values, with the pH significantly higher in the Listerine group. The two-step mouthwash raised pH significantly higher than Listerine and water, and higher than the baseline value. Salivary pH returned to baseline and was not significantly different among groups at 15 and 45 min post-rinsing. Mouth rinsing after an acidic challenge increased salivary pH. The tested mouthwashes raised pH higher than water. Mouthwashes with a neutralizing effect can potentially reduce tooth erosion from acid exposure. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Protein Nanopore-Based Discrimination between Selected Neutral Amino Acids from Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asandei, Alina; Rossini, Aldo E; Chinappi, Mauro; Park, Yoonkyung; Luchian, Tudor

    2017-12-19

    Nanopore probing of biological polymers has the potential to achieve single-molecule sequencing at low cost, high throughput, portability, and minimal sample preparation and apparatus. In this article, we explore the possibility of discrimination between neutral amino acid residues from the primary structure of 30 amino acids long, engineered peptides, through the analysis of single-molecule ionic current fluctuations accompanying their slowed-down translocation across the wild type α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the transient presence inside the α-HL of alanine or tryptophan residues from the primary sequence of engineered peptides results in distinct features of the ionic current fluctuation pattern associated with the peptide reversibly blocking the nanopore. We propose that α-HL sensitivity to the molecular exclusion at the most constricted region mediates ionic current blockade events correlated with the volumes that are occluded by at least three alanine or tryptophan residues, and provides the specificity needed to discriminate between groups of neutral amino acids. Further, we find that the pattern of current fluctuations depends on the orientation of the threaded amino acid residues, suggestive of a conformational anisotropy of the ensemble of conformations of the peptide on the restricted nanopore region, related to its relative axial orientation inside the nanopore.

  16. Impaired nutrient signaling and body weight control in a Na+ neutral amino acid cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G; Rasko, John E J; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-07-29

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na(+)-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B(0)AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B(0)AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation.

  17. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  18. The evolution of a mining lake - From acidity to natural neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira, E-mail: esienkie@twarda.pan.pl; Gąsiorowski, Michał, E-mail: mgasior@twarda.pan.pl

    2016-07-01

    Along the border of Poland and Germany (central Europe), many of the post-mining lakes have formed “an anthropogenic lake district”. This study presents the evolution of a mining lake ecosystem (TR-33) based on subfossil phyto- and zooplankton, isotopic data (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N), elemental analyses of organic carbon and nitrogen (C/N ratio and TOC) and sedimentological analyses. Recently, lake TR-33 became completely neutralized from acidification and an increase in eutrophication began a few years ago. However, the lake has never been neutralized by humans; only natural processes have influenced the present water quality. From the beginning of the existence of the lake (1920s) to the present, we can distinguish four stages of lake development: 1) very shallow reservoir without typical lake sediments but with a sand layer containing fine lignite particles and very poor diatom and cladoceran communities; 2) very acidic, deeper water body with increasing frequencies of phyto- and zooplankton; 3) transitional period (rebuilding communities of diatoms and Cladocera), meaning a deep lake with benthic and planktonic fauna and flora with wide ecological tolerances; and 4) a shift to circumneutral conditions with an essential increase in planktonic taxa that prefer more fertile waters (eutrophication). In the case of lake TR-33, this process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. - Highlights: • Originally acid water lake had poor phyto- and zooplankton populations. • Process of natural neutralization lasted approximately 23 years. • Presently, lake's ecosystem is similar to other shallow lakes in the region. • Changes in the lake are representative for other mine lakes.

  19. Equivalence-point electromigration acid-base titration via moving neutralization boundary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Fan, Liu-Yin; Huang, Shan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a novel method of acid-base titration, viz. the electromigration acid-base titration (EABT), via a moving neutralization boundary (MNR). With HCl and NaOH as the model strong acid and base, respectively, we conducted the experiments on the EABT via the method of moving neutralization boundary for the first time. The experiments revealed that (i) the concentration of agarose gel, the voltage used and the content of background electrolyte (KCl) had evident influence on the boundary movement; (ii) the movement length was a function of the running time under the constant acid and base concentrations; and (iii) there was a good linearity between the length and natural logarithmic concentration of HCl under the optimized conditions, and the linearity could be used to detect the concentration of acid. The experiments further manifested that (i) the RSD values of intra-day and inter-day runs were less than 1.59 and 3.76%, respectively, indicating similar precision and stability in capillary electrophoresis or HPLC; (ii) the indicators with different pK(a) values had no obvious effect on EABT, distinguishing strong influence on the judgment of equivalence-point titration in the classic one; and (iii) the constant equivalence-point titration always existed in the EABT, rather than the classic volumetric analysis. Additionally, the EABT could be put to good use for the determination of actual acid concentrations. The experimental results achieved herein showed a new general guidance for the development of classic volumetric analysis and element (e.g. nitrogen) content analysis in protein chemistry. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Volume reducing and modifying of neutralized sludge from acid waste water treatment of uranium ore heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Pingru; Ding Tongsen; Gu Jianghan

    1997-01-01

    A process is worked out on the basis of traditional lime neutralization, viz. acid waste water from uranium ore heap leaching is treated by limestone and lime double neutralizing-sludge recycling. First, the waste water is reacted with cheaper limestone to precipitate some metal ions, such as Fe and Al, which form hydroxides at lower pH, and neutralize strong acid, then neutralized with lime to required pH value. The formed precipitate as sludge is steadily recycled in the process. The principal advantage of the process over lime neutralization process is that reagent cost saved by 1/3 and formed sludge volume decreased by 2/3. Besides, the performances of sludge filtrating and settling are improved. The mechanism of sludge volume reducing and modification is also investigated

  1. FibreBags vs. FibreCaps for acid and neutral detergent fibre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto , Jason

    2003-01-01

    International audience; A new procedure for determining acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (ADF and NDF) was developed to reduce the need for filtration and to allow for batch processing of forage samples. The FibreBag system is an economically necessary evolution of the earlier FibreCap system. The purpose of this enquiry was to determine if the FibreBag is a suitable replacement for the FibreCap. The FibreBag method produced very similar results to the FibreCap system of analy...

  2. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  3. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  4. Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in 'anoxic' limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.I.; Cravotta, C.A.; Savela, C.E.; Nord, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Processes affecting neutralization of acidic coal mine drainage were evaluated within 'anoxic' limestone drains (ALDs). Influents had pH???3.5 and dissolved oxygen Al3+ and Fe3+ compounds. Cleavage mounts of calcite and gypsum that were suspended within the ALDs and later examined microscopically showed dissolution features despite coatings by numerous bacteria, biofilms, and Fe-Al-Si precipitates. In the drain exhibiting the greatest flow reduction, Al-hydroxysulfates had accumulated on limestone surfaces and calcite etch points, thus causing the decline in transmissivity and dissolution. Therefore, where Al loadings are high and flow rates are low, a pre-treatment step is indicated to promote Al removal before diverting acidic mine water into alkalinity-producing materials. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Long-term treatment of phenylketonuria with a new medical food containing large neutral amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concolino, D; Mascaro, I; Moricca, M T; Bonapace, G; Matalon, K; Trapasso, J; Radhakrishnan, G; Ferrara, C; Matalon, R; Strisciuglio, P

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. A low phenylalanine (Phe) diet is used to treat PKU. The diet is very restrictive, and dietary adherence tends to decrease as patients get older. Methods to improve dietary adherence and blood Phe control are continuously under investigation. A new formula Phe-neutral amino acid (PheLNAA) has been tested in this study with the purpose of improving the compliance and lowering blood phenylalanine. The formula has been tested for nitrogen balance, and it is nutritionally complete. It is fortified with more nutritional additives that can be deficient in the PKU diet, such as B12, Biotin, DHA, Lutein and increased levels of large neutral amino acids to help lower blood Phe. The new formula has been tested on 12 patients with a loading test of 4 weeks. Fifty-eight percent of patients had a significant decline in blood Phe concentration from baseline throughout the study. The PheLNAA was well tolerated with excellent compliance and without illnesses during the study. In conclusion, the new formula is suitable for life-long treatment of PKU, and it offers the PKU clinic a new choice for treatment.

  6. In-stream chemical neutralization: A whole watershed approach to mitigating acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The North Branch of the Potomac River is adversely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) throughout its entire length. As an alternative to mine-mouth treatment methods an in-stream AMD-neutralization demonstration program for an approximately 25-mile segment of the North Branch of the Potomac River was designed and implemented. This river segment was ranked as the highest priority site in Maryland for a demonstration project owing to its combination of very poor water quality and excellent potential for supporting a recreational sport fishery in the absence of toxic metal and acid loadings. A whole-watershed approach employing Scandinavian doser technologies and calcium carbonate neutralizing agents is the basis for the North Branch Potomac River demonstration project. The project involves four phases: feasibility (1), design (2), implementation (3), and monitoring (4). This watershed approach to mitigating AMD is expected to restore circumneutrial water quality and to promote desirable fishery resources throughout the mainstem and selected tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River Upstream of Jennings Randolph Dam. This paper summarizes Phases 1--3 of the demonstration project

  7. Membrane topology of rat sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yudan; Gu, Yanting; Wang, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhou

    2018-07-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) is a subtype of the amino acid transport system A that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. It plays critical roles in glutamic acid-glutamine circulation, liver gluconeogenesis and other biological pathway. However, the topology of the SNAT2 amino acid transporter is unknown. Here we identified the topological structure of SNAT2 using bioinformatics analysis, Methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal) chemical modification, protease cleavage assays, immunofluorescence and examination of glycosylation. Our results show that SNAT2 contains 11 transmembrane domains (TMDs) with an intracellular N terminus and an extracellular C terminus. Three N-glycosylation sites were verified at the largest extracellular loop. This model is consistent with the previous model of SNAT2 with the exception of a difference in number of glycosylation sites. This is the first time to confirm the SNAT2 membrane topology using experimental methods. Our study on SNAT2 topology provides valuable structural information of one of the solute carrier family 38 (SLC38) members. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of temperature, hydraulic residence time and elevated PCO2 on acid neutralization within a pulsed limestone bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Lee, P.C.; Sibrell, P.L.; Timmons, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Limestone has potential for reducing reagent costs and sludge volume associated with treatment of acid mine drainage, but its use is restricted by slow dissolution rates and the deposition of Fe, Al and Mn-based hydrolysis products on reactive surfaces. We evaluated a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) reactor (15 L/min capacity) that uses a CO2 pretreatment step to accelerate dissolution and hydraulic shearing forces provided by intermittent fluidization to abrade and carry away surface scales. We established the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT, 5.1-15.9 min), temperature (T, 12-22 ??C) and CO2 tension (PCO2, 34.5-206.8 kPa) on effluent quality when inlet acidity (Acy) was fixed at 440 mg/L (pH=2.48) with H2SO4. The PLB reactor neutralized all H+ acidity (N=80) while concurrently providing unusually high levels of effluent alkalinity (247-1028 mg/L as CaCO3) that allow for side-stream treatment with blending. Alkalinity (Alk) yields rose with increases in PCO2, HRT and settled bed height (BH, cm) and decreased with T following the relationship (R2=0.926; p<0.001): (Alk)non-filtered=-548.726+33.571??(PCO2)0.5+33.671??(HRT)+7.734??(BH)-5.197??(T). Numerical modeling showed CO2 feed requirements for a target Alk yield decrease with increases in HRT, T and the efficiency of off-gas (CO2) recycling. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of aniline polymerization reactions through the particle size formation in acidic and neutral medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribowo, Slamet; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar; Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we reported particle size kinetic studies on the conducting polyaniline (PANI) which synthesized through a chemical oxidative polymerization technique from aniline monomer. PANI was prepared using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidizing agent which carried out in acidic and neutral medium at various batch temperatures of respectively 20, 30 and 50 °C. From the studies, it was noticed that the complete polymerization reaction progressed within 480 minutes duration time. The pH of the solution during reaction kinetic reached values 0.8 - to 1.2 in acidic media, while in the neutral media the pH value reached values 3.8 - 4.9. The batch temperature controlled the polymerization reaction in which the reaction progressing, which followed by the temperature rise of solution above the batch temperature before settled down to the initial temperature. An increment in the batch temperature gave highest rise in the solution temperature for the two media which cannot be more than 50 °C. The final product of polymerization reaction was PANI confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrophotometer for molecule structure identification. The averages particle size of PANI which carried out in the two different media is evidently similar in the range 30 - 40 μm and insensitive to the batch temperature. However, the particle size of PANI which obtained from the polymerization reaction at a batch temperature of 50 °C under acidic condition reached ˜53.1 μm at the tip of the propagation stage which started in the first 5 minutes. The size is obviously being the largest among the batch temperatures. Whereas, under neutral condition the particle size is much larger which reached the size 135 μm at the batch temperature of 20 °C. It is concluded that the particle size formation during the polymerization reaction being one of the important parameter to determine particle growing of polymer which indicated the reaction kinetics mechanism of synthesize

  10. Polymerization of gallic acid enhances its antioxidant capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its polymer, tannic acid (TA) are ubiquitous phytochemicals and are found to co-exist in plants. However, the rationale for the polymerisation of GA in plants is rather obscure. Hence, the present study compared the free radical scavenging ability, iron chelating potency, ...

  11. Electrochemically enhanced microbial CO conversion to volatile fatty acids using neutral red as an electron mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chae Ho; Kim, Changman; Song, Young Eun; Oh, Sang-Eun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kim, Jung Rae

    2018-01-01

    Conversion of C1 gas feedstock, including carbon monoxide (CO), into useful platform chemicals has attracted considerable interest in industrial biotechnology. Nevertheless, the low conversion yield and/or growth rate of CO-utilizing microbes make it difficult to develop a C1 gas biorefinery process. The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway which utilize CO is a pathway suffered from insufficient electron supply, in which the conversion can be increased further when an additional electron source like carbohydrate or hydrogen is provided. In this study, electrode-based electron transference using a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was examined to compensate for the insufficient reducing equivalent and increase the production of volatile fatty acids. The BES including neutral red (BES-NR), which facilitated electron transfer between bacteria and electrode, was compared with BES without neutral red and open circuit control. The coulombic efficiency based on the current input to the system and the electrons recovered into VFAs, was significantly higher in BES-NR than the control. These results suggest that the carbon electrode provides a platform to regulate the redox balance for improving the bioconversion of CO, and amending the conventional C1 gas fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of WC-Co based hardmetal in neutral chloride and acid sulphate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, B.; Serra, M.; Fanigliulo, A.; Bogani, F. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione; Gaudenzi, G.P. de [Harditalia s.r.l. (OMCD Group), Genova (Italy)

    2002-05-01

    A comparative study of the corrosion behaviour of WC-Co based hardmetals with Ni and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} additions is carried out. The aggressive environments are neutral and acidic aerated aqueous solutions of NaCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This study is based on electrochemical (linear sweep voltammery), compositional (surface EDX analyses, AAS analyses of attack solutions), structural (XRD) and morphological (SEM) investigations. Electrochemical figures of merit were computed from linear sweep voltammograms in order to rank the corrosion behaviour close to free-immersion conditions in the studied environments and with presence of oxidising agents. EDX and XRD analyses allow to accurately characterise the penetration depth of the attack as well as the preferential dissolution of the constituents. Binders containing Ni show a significantly improved corrosion resistance in the studied systems. The amount of Ni in the binder is the single most important factor affecting corrosion performance. Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} additions to hardmetals with lower-Ni binders cannot balance the effect of Ni, but give an improved resistance in neutral chloride-containing solutions. (orig.)

  13. Acidic, neutral and alkaline forest ponds as a landscape element affecting the biodiversity of freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta

    2017-08-22

    In recent years, the number of areas remaining under the influence of acidity has increased. At all levels of ecosystems, biodiversity decreases with acidification, due to the elimination of species that are most sensitive to low pH. Forest ponds belong to a specific group that varied in location, a huge amount of leaf litter, and isolation from other aquatic environments. They are crucial in the industrial landscape with well-developed industry and human activity. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of water chemistry in explaining snail assemblage compositions and species richness in forest ponds of contrasting pH. Patterns in gastropod communities were determined from an analysis in 26 forest ponds with multivariate gradient analysis. Ponds ranged in a base mean pH from 3.0 to 9.0. pH has been found to be an important factor influencing gastropod fauna. Neutral ponds support diverse communities, typical of small water bodies. In two acidic pond types, snail fauna was different. Among the species characteristic for acidic ponds (pH landscape management and planning.

  14. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happi Emaga, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different hydrolysis procedures of flaxseed polysaccharides (chemical and enzymatic were carried out with H2SO4, HCl and TFA at different acid concentrations (0.2, 1 and 2 M and temperatures (80 and 100°C. Enzymatic and combined chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses of polysaccharide from flaxseed mucilage were also studied. Acid hydrolysis conditions (2 M H2SO4, 4 h, 100°C are required to quantify total monosaccharide content of flaxseed mucilage. The enzymatic pathway (Pectinex™ Ultra SP limits sugar destruction during hydrolysis, but it is also insufficient for complete depolymerization. The combination of the two treatments, i.e. moderate chemical hydrolysis (0.2 M H2SO4, 80°C, 48 h combined with enzymatic hydrolysis is not more effective compared to chemical hydrolysis in drastic conditions (2 M H2SO4 at 100°C. The strong interaction between the neutral and acid fractions of flaxseed mucilage may hinder total release of sugar residues. Physical treatment prior to the hydrolysis could be necessary to achieve complete depolymerisation of flaxseed mucilage.

  15. Acidic, neutral and alkaline forest ponds as a landscape element affecting the biodiversity of freshwater snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the number of areas remaining under the influence of acidity has increased. At all levels of ecosystems, biodiversity decreases with acidification, due to the elimination of species that are most sensitive to low pH. Forest ponds belong to a specific group that varied in location, a huge amount of leaf litter, and isolation from other aquatic environments. They are crucial in the industrial landscape with well-developed industry and human activity. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of water chemistry in explaining snail assemblage compositions and species richness in forest ponds of contrasting pH. Patterns in gastropod communities were determined from an analysis in 26 forest ponds with multivariate gradient analysis. Ponds ranged in a base mean pH from 3.0 to 9.0. pH has been found to be an important factor influencing gastropod fauna. Neutral ponds support diverse communities, typical of small water bodies. In two acidic pond types, snail fauna was different. Among the species characteristic for acidic ponds (pH aquatic ecosystems is still incomplete because anthropogenic acidification is a recent phenomenon. It is extremely important in forest habitats, since they react more intensively to climatic factors and are often used in landscape management and planning.

  16. Insight into acid-base nucleation experiments by comparison of the chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Federico; Praplan, Arnaud P; Sarnela, Nina; Dommen, Josef; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Jokinen, Tuija; Sipilä, Mikko; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, Joao; Breitenlechner, Martin; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Tomé, António; Virtanen, Annele; Viisanen, Yrjö; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Curtius, Joachim; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-12-02

    We investigated the nucleation of sulfuric acid together with two bases (ammonia and dimethylamine), at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. The chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters was studied using three Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers: two were operated in positive and negative mode to detect the chamber ions, while the third was equipped with a nitrate ion chemical ionization source allowing detection of neutral clusters. Taking into account the possible fragmentation that can happen during the charging of the ions or within the first stage of the mass spectrometer, the cluster formation proceeded via essentially one-to-one acid-base addition for all of the clusters, independent of the type of the base. For the positive clusters, the charge is carried by one excess protonated base, while for the negative clusters it is carried by a deprotonated acid; the same is true for the neutral clusters after these have been ionized. During the experiments involving sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, it was possible to study the appearance time for all the clusters (positive, negative, and neutral). It appeared that, after the formation of the clusters containing three molecules of sulfuric acid, the clusters grow at a similar speed, independent of their charge. The growth rate is then probably limited by the arrival rate of sulfuric acid or cluster-cluster collision.

  17. Passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material: experimental and modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zvimba, JN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available emission 147 spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Varian: Vista Pro CCD Simultaneous ICP-OES). The pH, acidity, 148 alkalinity of the AMD were determined using a Mettler Toledo Auto-titrator following 149 filtration. Fe(II) was determined using standard permanganate...

  18. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  19. Degradation of unglazed rough graphite-aluminium solar absorber surfaces in simulated acid and neutral rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konttinen, P.; Lund, P.D.; Salo, T.

    2005-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms of unglazed solar absorber surfaces based on aluminium substrate were studied. Rough graphite-aluminium surfaces were total-immersion subjected to aerated and de-aerated simulated neutral and acid rain. Test conditions were based on calculated absorber stagnation temperature and global rain acidity measurements. Changes in optical properties, elemental composition and sample mass were examined by spectrometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The absorbers exhibited almost no degradation at pH value of 3.5. At pH 5.5 alumina on the surface hydrated significantly degrading the optical properties of the surfaces severely in most cases. Therefore these absorber surfaces can not be recommended to be used in non-glazed applications if they are exposed to rain with pH exceeding ∼ 3.5-4.5. The total-immersion test needs to be developed further as the test results exhibited poor temperature and time dependency thus preventing accurate service lifetime estimates. Still, these tests were useful in determining favourable and non-favourable operating conditions for the absorber surfaces based on aluminium substrate. (author)

  20. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  1. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  2. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  3. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  4. Extraction of Uranium in The Mixtures of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids With Neutral and Basic Ligands in Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nampira, Y; Rahayu Imam, S; Djoyosubroto, H

    1998-01-01

    The tendency of uranium ion in the mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid's medium is to from uranyl sulphate complex. The compound of uranyl sulphate is containing into the heteropoly compound that has acid property. Regarding to the mentioned property, the U extraction process was carried out using a basic or neutral complexing agent containing a ligand that formed the soluble uranium complex in the organic solvent (kerosene).The use of basic complexing agent such as n,tri-octyl amine is more suitable than that of tri butyl phosphate as a neutral agent. The maximum distribution coefficient of uranium will be reached if the maximum concentration of nitric acid and sulphuric acid can be maintained at 0.3 M and 1.5 M respectively in the organic solvent medium consisted n,tri-octyl amine of 30% volume fraction

  5. Drying affects artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2010-02-10

    There is limited information on how postharvest drying of Artemisia annua affects artemisinin (ART) biosynthesis and A. annua antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants may boost the bioactivity of ART and the crop commercial value. We evaluated the effect of freeze, oven, shade, and sun drying, time of drying, and light intensity on the leaf concentration of ART, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and on the leaf antioxidant capacity. Freeze-dried samples had the lowest ART concentrations as compared to the other drying methods. However, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that freeze- and oven-dried samples had similarly high antioxidant activities, which declined significantly after plants were shade- and sun-dried. Shade drying for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, under ambient or low light, did not change the ART content but significantly decreased the leaf antioxidant activity, mainly if sun-dried. A significant decrease (82% average) in DHAA was observed for all drying procedures as compared to freeze drying, with a simultaneous, significant increase in ART (33% average). The average bioconversion of DHAA to ART was 43% for oven- and shade-dried plants and 94% for sun-dried plants, reiterating the hypothesis that DHAA, not AA, is the main biosynthetic precursor of ART and suggesting that sun drying improves the bioconversion from DHAA to ART. Data also indicate that oven drying for 24 h at 45 degrees C can provide good levels of both ART and antioxidants in leaves. These findings are valuable for the commercial production of ART and of bioactive antioxidants that might synergize with the antimalarial and anticancer effects of ART when combined in traditional preparations to improve human and animal health.

  6. Cyclic voltammetric study of electro-oxidation of methanol on platinum electrode in acidic and neutral media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.A.; Ahmed, R.; Mirza, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of methanol on electrochemically treated platinum foil was investigated in acidic and neutral media for comparison of cyclic voltammetric characteristics and elucidation of mechanism of electro-oxidation of methanol. The surface area and roughness factor of platinum electrode was calculated. The electro-oxidation of mathanol is an irreversible process giving. anodic peaks in both anodic and cathodic sweep. The characteristic peaks of electrooxidation of methanol appeared at almost the same potential region in both acidic and neutral media. In neutral medium, certain additional cathodic/anodic peaks appeared which were confirmed to arise by the reduction/oxidation of hydrogen ions. The exchange current density and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was higher in neutral medium as. compared with acidic medium. The thermodynamic parameters delta H, delta S, and delta G/sub 298/ were calculated. The values of delta H and delta G/sub 298/were positive which indicated that the process of electro-oxidation of methanol is an endothermic and nonspontaneous. The mechanism of electro-oxidation of methanol was same in both acidic and neutral media involving the formation of various adsorbed intermediate species through dissociative adsorption steps leading to the formation of Co adsorbed radicals, which are removed. during interaction with adsorbed hydrous oxides provided by the oxidation of adsorbed water molecules. The higher rate of electro-oxidation of methanol in neutral medium was interpreted in the tight of electrochemical mechanism and was attributed to the presence of comparatively small amount of hydrogen ions only along the surface of working electrode, which are produced during electro-oxidation of methanol. (author)

  7. A reassessment of the blood-brain barrier transport of large neutral amino acids during acute systemic inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rasmus H; Berg, Ronan M G; Taudorf, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    We reassessed data from a previous study on the transcerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) using a novel mathematical model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport. The study included twelve healthy volunteers who received a 4-h intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion...

  8. Neutralization and attenuation of metal species in acid mine drainage and mine leachates using magnesite: a batch experimental approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International Mine Water Association Conference – An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges, China University of Mining and Technogy, China, China, 18-22 August 2014 Neutralization and Attenuation of Metal Species in Acid Mine Drainage and Mine...

  9. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  10. Differential effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the neutral and acidic pathways of bile salt synthesis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Post, SM; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis, For this purpose, bile salt pool composition,

  11. The effect of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, E. A. M.; Hensgens, R. L.; Mihatsch, W. A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H. N.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants. In this explorative RCT, preterm infants

  12. Acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot sequencing batch reactor using limestone from a paper and pulp industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vadapalli, VRK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of using two grades of limestone from a paper and pulp industry for neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In this regard, two grades of calcium carbonate were...

  13. Treatment of acidic mine water at uranium mine No. 711 by barium chloride-sludge recycle-fractional neutralization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chaowen; Wang Benyi; Ding Tongsen; Zhong Pingru; Liao Yongbing; Li Xiaochu; Lu Guohua

    1994-01-01

    The barium chloride-sludge recycle-fractional neutralization process for disposal of acidic mine water at Uranium Mine No. 711 was checked through laboratory and enlarged tests and one-year industrial trial-run. The results showed that the presented technology can meet the requirements of production and environmental protection

  14. Humic acid provenance influence to the adsorption capacity in uranium and thorium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is common knowledge that humic acid is organic compound without certain chemical composition since it is derived from different organic materials. Further this raises question whether the different humic acid sample used could lead to different adsorbent properties e.g. adsorption capacity. To address the problem, this paper is aimed to clarify the relation between the provenances of humic acid and synthesized adsorbent properties especially adsorption capacities by quantitative and qualitative functional groups determination including discussion on their effect to the metal ion adsorption mechanism using three humic acid samples. Two commercial samples were derived from recent compost while the other extracted from tertiary carbonaceous mudstone strata.

  15. Effects of organic acid supplementation on antioxidant capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four commercial organic acids and a reference antibiotic, Neoxyval, were administered to commercial broilers to evaluate the efficacy of these products during pre- and post-challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) on selected indicators of their antioxidant status and immune ...

  16. Antifungal Capacity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Salad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the use of lactic acid bacteria from fresh salad vegetables to inhibit fungal growth. The antifungal assay was done using the agar well diffusion method as reported by Schillinger and Lucke (1989). The largest zone of inhibition (25mm) was recorded by the antagonistic activity of the isolate identified to ...

  17. The role of chemical weathering in the neutralization of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asolekar, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical weathering of soils/minerals is an important process which controls the long-term neutralization of acid rain as well as the quality of surface water, ground water, and oceans. Few laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the response of real whole soils or soil fractions to acidification. In this research experiments were performed in a laboratory semi-continuous pH-stat reactor over the pH range 2.7 to 4.7 using Band C-horizon soil fractions from the Bear Brook Watershed, Maine, and in presence/absence of 1 to 20 mmol/L oxalate ligand in the bulk solution. Acid consumption rate and the corresponding release rates of sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, and silica were monitored in the laboratory reactor. Both H + -ion and oxalate promoted weathering rates were fractional order based on the concentration in bulk solution. The mixed kinetic model for the soils is: WR T = WR H + WR ox = K H (H + ) m + K ox [OX TD ] p , where m and p are fractional orders. The hydrogen ion consumption rates were approximately equal to cation release rates on an equivalent basis for hydrogen ion promoted weathering situations where secondary precipitation was unlikely (pH < 4.7) as well as for weathering of C-horizon light fraction at pH 4.0 and oxalate concentration 1 and 5 mmol/L. The relative proportions of released species were in the neighborhood of stoichiometric ratios of bulk soil chemistry for weatherable minerals in Band C-horizon soil fractions. The experimental ratios of H/Si, Al/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, Na/Si, and Mg/Si for linear weathering rates of Band C-horizon soil fractions were fairly constant in the presence and absence of oxalate ligand and strongly suggested that silica may be used as a tracer for primary mineral weathering assuming quartz is inert

  18. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD

  19. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD.

  20. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 916 Engineering Tower, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Ellis, R.; Antonio, M. [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 200 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  1. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  2. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions

  3. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  5. Negative plate macropore surfaces in lead-acid batteries: Porosity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, and capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V.; de O. Brito, G.A. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, DQ-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, CP 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the production of an electrochemically active area during the electrochemical formation of lead-acid battery negative plates based on solid-state reactions. Our proposal is supported by experimental data. This study includes a critical review of the literature on charge/discharge mechanisms, porosity, and BET area. The critical review, through the latter two parameters, indicates the existence of both macro and micropores in positive plates, but only macropores in negative plates, with characteristic surface roughness. In the present paper the surface sulfation of the precursor is controlled using various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions during an electrochemical formation process that does not include soaking. Our results confirm that variable roughness can be produced at the negative plate macropore surfaces. The morphological changes produced by different formation conditions are assessed by measuring the macroporosity, BET area, and capacity of single negative plates. Based on these concepts, a method was developed and applied to measure independently the contributions of geometrical surface macroporosity and roughness to the negative plate capacity. (author)

  6. Protonation of D-gluconate and its complexation with Np(V) in acidic to nearly neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Clark, S.B.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Zanonato, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the protonation of D-gluconic acid (HGH 4 (aq)) and its complexation with Np(V) have been studied in acidic to nearly neutral solutions at t = 25 C and I = 1 M NaClO 4 by potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry. The protonation constant (log K H ) and enthalpy (ΔH H ) of the carboxylate group are determined to be (3.30 ± 0.10) and -(4.03 ± 0.07) kJ mol -1 , respectively. Gluconate forms two Np(V) complexes in nearly neutral solutions. The formation constants and enthalpies of complexation are: log β 1 = (1.48 ± 0.03) and ΔH 1 = -(7.42 ± 0.13) kJ mol -1 for NpO 2 (GH 4 )(aq), log β = (2.14 ± 0.09) and ΔH 2 = -(12.08 ± 0.45) kJ mol -1 for NpO 2 (GH 4 ) 2 - . The thermodynamic parameters indicate that gluconic acid, like isosaccharinic acid and other α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, is a slightly stronger acid and forms stronger complexes with Np(V) than simple monocarboxylic acids. (orig.)

  7. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  8. ELISA to measure neutralizing capacity of anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies in plasma of angioedema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Rensink, Irma; Roem, Dorina; Brouwer, Mieke; Kalei, Asma; Perry, Dawn; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; Hamann, Dörte

    2015-01-01

    Neutralizing autoantibodies (NAbs) against plasma serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) are implicated in the rare disorder, acquired angioedema (AAE). There is insufficient understanding of the process of antibody formation and its correlation with disease progression and severity. We have developed an

  9. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  10. Acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants containing melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Yi; Piao, Yin-Zhu; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on the acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants. 45S5BAG (glass (180 ± 30 nm) and added into a resin matrix [Bis-GMA/TEGDMA 50/50 (wt%) containing 1% of DMAEMA/CQ 2:1 (wt%)] with varying filler proportions; 0% 45S5BAG+50% glass (BAG0); 12.5% 45S5BAG+37.5% glass (BAG12.5); 25% 45S5BAG+25% glass (BAG25); 37.5% 45S5BAG+12.5% glass (BAG37.5); and 50% 45S5BAG+0% glass (BAG50). To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0). Then, the change in pH and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 were measured. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility were analyzed. The acid neutralizing properties of each group exhibited increasing pH values as more 45S5BAG was added, and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 became shorter as the proportion of 45S5BAG increased (P0.05), except for BAG50. The novel pit and fissure sealants neutralized the acid solution (pH 4.0) and exhibited appropriate mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, these compounds are suitable candidates for caries-inhibiting dental materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-01-01

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature

  12. Holotoxin A1 Induces Apoptosis by Activating Acid Sphingomyelinase and Neutral Sphingomyelinase in K562 and Human Primary Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hoon Yun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine triterpene glycosides are attractive candidates for the development of anticancer agents. Holotoxin A1 is a triterpene glycoside found in the edible sea cucumber, Apostichopus (Stichopus japonicus. We previously showed that cladoloside C2, the 25(26-dihydro derivative of holotoxin A1, induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by activating ceramide synthase 6. Thus, we hypothesized that holotoxin A1, which is structurally similar to cladoloside C2, might induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through the same molecular mechanism. In this paper, we compared holotoxin A1 and cladoloside C2 for killing potency and mechanism of action. We found that holotoxin A1 induced apoptosis more potently than cladoloside C2. Moreover, holotoxin A1 induced apoptosis in K562 cells by activating caspase-8 and caspase-3, but not by activating caspase-9. During holotoxin A1-induced apoptosis, acid sphingomyelinase (SMase and neutral SMase were activated in both K562 cells and human primary leukemia cells. Specifically inhibiting acid SMase and neutral SMаse with chemical inhibitors or siRNAs significantly inhibited holotoxin A1–induced apoptosis. These results indicated that holotoxin A1 might induce apoptosis by activating acid SMase and neutral SMase. In conclusion, holotoxin A1 represents a potential anticancer agent for treating leukemia. Moreover, the aglycone structure of marine triterpene glycosides might affect the mechanism involved in inducing apoptosis.

  13. A novel technology for neutralizing acidity and attenuating toxic chemical species from acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite tailings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available neutralize and attenuate elevated concentrations of chemical species in AMD to within prescribed legal frameworks for water use in agricultural and industrial sectors in South Africa....

  14. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  15. Corrosion studies of carbon steel under impinging jets of simulated slurries of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for the disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes presently stored in double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site call for retrieval and processing of the waste to create forms suitable for permanent disposal. Waste will be retrieved from a tank using a submerged slurry pump in conjunction with one or more rotating slurry jet mixer pumps. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted tests using simulated waste slurries to assess the effects of a impinging slurry jet on the corrosion rate of the tank wall and floor, an action that could potentially compromise the tank's structural integrity. Corrosion processes were investigated on a laboratory scale with a simulated neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) slurry and in a subsequent test with simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurry. The test slurries simulated the actual NCRW and NCAW both chemically and physically. The tests simulated those conditions expected to exist in the respective double-shell tanks during waste retrieval operations. Results of both tests indicate that, because of the action of the mixer pump slurry jets, the waste retrieval operations proposed for NCAW and NCRW will moderately accelerate corrosion of the tank wall and floor. Based on the corrosion of initially unoxidized test specimens, and the removal of corrosion products from those specimens, the maximum time-averaged corrosion rates of carbon steel in both waste simulants for the length of the test was ∼4 mil/yr. The protective oxide layer that exists in each storage tank is expected to inhibit corrosion of the carbon steel

  16. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea SR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simon R Lea,1,* Hannah J Metcalfe,1,* Jonathan Plumb,1 Christian Beerli,2 Chris Poll,3 Dave Singh,1 Katharine H Abbott-Banner3 1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Diseases, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Horsham, West Sussex, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2 and acid SMase (aSMase, which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS, smokers (S, and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20 were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results: nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54% compared with NS (31.7% (P<0.05, and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2% and S (69.5% alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4% (P

  18. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  19. The Adsorption Study of Aflatoxin B1 by Nanocellulose Conjugated with Aptamer in acidic, alkali, and Neutral Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mirdehghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxin leads to liver cancer, its removal in the foodstuff is very important. The aim of this study is to investigate the adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by nanocellulose conjugated with aptamer in acidic, alkali, and neutral conditions. Methods: First, nanocellulose was synthesized by acid hydrolysis and then conjugated with aptamer by cross-linker. Then, serial concentrations of conjugated nanocellulose (0.6, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL were separately mixed with aflatoxin solution (1000µg/mL, and incubated at  37 °C for 0.5 h at pH of 1, 7, and 13. Then, the percentage of aflatoxin adsorption was measured at 340 nm.   Results: The decrease of pH led to increase of adsorption up to 40%. Statistically, there was significant difference between the quantity of adsorption at acidic condition and the quantity of adsorption at alkali and neutral conditions (P<0.05. Conclusion: Aflatoxin could be adsorbed by conjugated nanocellulose, and this power of adsorption is increased at acidic condition.

  20. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, Jose Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO 2 by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L -1 , iron 348 mg L -1 ) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s -1 for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO 2 and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  1. New Parameterizations for Neutral and Ion-Induced Sulfuric Acid-Water Particle Formation in Nucleation and Kinetic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Merikanto, Joonas; Henschel, Henning; Duplissy, Jonathan; Makkonen, Risto; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new parameterizations of electrically neutral homogeneous and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water particle formation for large ranges of environmental conditions, based on an improved model that has been validated against a particle formation rate data set produced by Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiments at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The model uses a thermodynamically consistent version of the Classical Nucleation Theory normalized using quantum chemical data. Unlike the earlier parameterizations for H2SO4-H2O nucleation, the model is applicable to extreme dry conditions where the one-component sulfuric acid limit is approached. Parameterizations are presented for the critical cluster sulfuric acid mole fraction, the critical cluster radius, the total number of molecules in the critical cluster, and the particle formation rate. If the critical cluster contains only one sulfuric acid molecule, a simple formula for kinetic particle formation can be used: this threshold has also been parameterized. The parameterization for electrically neutral particle formation is valid for the following ranges: temperatures 165-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1013 cm-3, and relative humidities 0.001-100%. The ion-induced particle formation parameterization is valid for temperatures 195-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1016 cm-3, and relative humidities 10-5-100%. The new parameterizations are thus applicable for the full range of conditions in the Earth's atmosphere relevant for binary sulfuric acid-water particle formation, including both tropospheric and stratospheric conditions. They are also suitable for describing particle formation in the atmosphere of Venus.

  2. Synthesis and HNO Donating Properties of the Piloty's Acid Analogue Trifluoromethanesulphonylhydroxamic acid: Evidence for Quantitative Release of HNO at Neutral pH Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Sonya K; Bharadwaj, Vinay; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jiuhong; Seed, Alexander J; Brasch, Nicola Elizabeth; Sampson, Paul

    2018-03-11

    Trifluoromethanesulphonylhydroxamic acid, CF3SO2NHOH, is shown to release HNO under physiological pH conditions. A two-step synthesis is presented with the first complete characterization of CF3SO2NHOH. This molecule rapidly decomposes in neutral aqueous solution to cleanly release HNO and CF3SO2-, demonstrated using the HNO traps TXPTS and HOCbl, and by 19F NMR spectroscopy. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yi Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS of three different types of orthodontic adhesives containing bioactive glasses (BAGs. 45S5, 45S5F and S53P4 BAGs were prepared using the melting technique and ground to fine particles. Orthodontic adhesives containing three types of BAGs were prepared as follows: 52.5% 45S5 BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5_A; 61.25% 45S5 BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5_B; 52.5% 45S5F BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5F_A; 61.25% 45S5F BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5F_B; 52.5% S53P4 BAG + 17.5% glass (S53P4_A; 61.25% S53P4 BAG + 8.75% glass (S53P4_B; and 70.0% glass (BAG_0. To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution, and pH changes were measured. SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. For all of the BAG-containing adhesives, the one with 61.25% of BAG showed a significantly greater increase of pH than the one with 52.5% of BAG (p < 0.05. Groups with 61.25% of BAG showed lower SBS than samples with 52.5% of BAG. 45S5F_A showed no significant difference of SBS compared to BAG_0 (p > 0.05. The adhesive containing 61.25% of 45S5F BAG exhibited clinically acceptable SBS and acid neutralizing properties. Therefore, this composition is a suitable candidate to prevent white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

  4. PNW cetacean muscle biochemistry - Muscle Myoglobin Content and Acid Buffering Capacity of Cetaceans from the Pacific Northwest to Assess Dive Capacity and the Development of Diving Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses the development of two important skeletal muscle adaptations for diving (enhanced myoglobin content and acid buffering capacities) in a range...

  5. Acid-neutralizing potential of minerals in intrusive rocks of the Boulder batholith in northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Briggs, Paul H.; Mazza, Nilah; Driscoll, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies show that fresh granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith in the Boulder River headwaters near Basin, Montana have significant acid-neutralizing potential and are capable of neutralizing acidic water derived from metal-mining related wastes or mine workings. Laboratory studies show that in addition to the acidneutralizing potential (ANP) of minor amounts of calcite in these rocks, biotite, tremolite, and feldspars will contribute significantly to long-term ANP. We produced 0.45 micrometer-filtered acidic (pH = 2.95) leachate for use in these ANP experiments by exposing metal-mining related wastes to deionized water in a waste:leachate ratio of 1:20. We then exposed these leachates to finely-ground and sized fractions of batholith rocks, and some of their mineral fractions for extended and repeated periods, for which results are reported here. The intent was to understand what reactions of metal-rich acidic water and fresh igneous rocks would produce. The reactions between the acidic leachates and the bulk rocks and mineral fractions are complex. Factors such as precipitation of phases like Fe-hydroxides and Alhydroxides and the balance between dissolved cations and anions that are sulfate dominated complicate analysis of the results. Research by others of acid neutralization by biotite and tremolite attributed a rise in pH to proton (H+) adsorption in sites vacated by K, Mg, and Ca. Destruction of the silicate framework and liberation of associated structural hydroxyl ions may contribute to ANP. Studies by others have indicated that the conversion of biotite to a vermiculite-type structure by removal of K at a pH of 4 consumes about six protons for every mole of biotite, but at a pH of 3 there is pronounced dissolution of the tetrahedral lattice. The ANP of fresh granitic rocks is much higher than anticipated. The three bulk Boulder igneous rock samples studied have minimum ANP equivalent to about 10-14 weight percent calcite. This ANP is in

  6. Application of HPLC capacity coefficients to characterize the sorption of polycyclic aromatic compounds to humic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Helweg, C.; Siigur, K.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption coefficients to humic acid of 46 PAC having a wide range in polarity were compared with the capacity coefficients of the PAC to a non-polar HPLC column material (ODS) and a polar one (Diol). It is shown that polar interactions contribute to the sorption of polar PAC in addition...

  7. Dependence of the extraction capacity of neutral bidentate organophosphorus compounds on their structure: a quantum chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarushkin, S.K.; Morgalyuk, V.P.; Tananaev, I.G.; Gribov, L.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2006-01-01

    Correlations between the extraction capacities and molecular structures of organic phosphorus compounds (reagents for extraction of transplutonium elements from spent nuclear fuel) were studied using a quantum chemical approach. The results of calculations are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. The approach proposed can be used for analysis of the extraction properties of all classes of organic phosphorus compounds and also for prediction of the most efficient organic phosphorus extractants with preset properties [ru

  8. The impacts of neutralized acid mine drainage contaminated water on the expression of selected endocrine-linked genes in juvenile Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus exposed in vivo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Truter, JC

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental concern due to detrimental impacts on river ecosystems. Little is however known regarding the biological impacts of neutralized AMD on aquatic vertebrates despite excessive discharge...

  9. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  10. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  11. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  12. Actions of four organic acids in radix isatidis on endotoxin-neutralization investigated by kinetic turbidimetric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Ying-jun; Li, You; Gong, Mu-xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate anti-endotoxin action of four OAs reacted with endotoxin by the LAL assay with KTA. Using a incubating kinetic tube reader and kinetic turbidimetric assay (KTA), the concentration-response time curve of endotoxin reacted with limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) at 37 degrees C were obtained and the action of four organic acids (OAs) on it were investigated. The four OAs were benzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid and 2-amino-benzoic acid from Radix isatidis. Meanwhile, the temperature variation caused by endotoxin with the four OAs was studied by the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT). It was showed that a low concentration (1 mg/mL) of the four OAs had a little effect of anti-endotoxin, and when the concentrations of the four OAs were 30 mg/mL, the endotoxin was neutralized completely. The relationships between the concentrations of endotoxin and the OAs were all linear with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9995, indicating that the four OAs all had strong anti-endotoxin action, while syringic acid had the strongest action among the four OAs with IC50 of 12.84 mg/mL. The investigations of KTA agreed well with the results obtained by means of RPT.

  13. Crop rotation and seasonal effects on fatty acid profiles of neutral and phospholipids extracted from no-till agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Alejandro E.; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John

    2015-01-01

    practices while NLFA 20:0 appears to be a good marker of HRsoils despite season or location. The PLFA-based taxonomic biomarkers for total bacteria, Gramnegativebacteria and arbuscular mycorrhiza showed a significant trend NE>HR>LR in the wintersampling. HR management was also characterized by high levels......Analysis of phospholipids (PLFA) and neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFA) was used to characterizeno-till productive agricultural soils associated with different crop rotation levels, replicated across a400 km transect in the Argentinean pampas, during two sampling seasons, summer and winter...

  14. Determination of Acid and Neutral Cannabinoids in Extracts of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa Using GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Elsayed A; Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Stamper, Brandon J; Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Ibrahim, Amany K; Ahmed, Safwat A; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. Trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major phytocannabinoids accounting for over 40% of the cannabis plant extracts, depending on the variety. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. sativa, with different concentration ratios of CBD and Δ 9 -THC, have been tissue cultured via micropropagation and cultivated. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. These cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabivarian, CBD, cannabichromene, trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ 9 -THC, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A. The concentration-response relationship of the method indicated a linear relationship between the concentration and peak area ratio with R 2  > 0.999 for all 10 cannabinoids. The precision and accuracy of the method were found to be ≤ 15% and ± 5%, respectively. The limit of detection range was 0.11 - 0.19 µg/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 0.34 - 0.56 µg/mL for all 10 cannabinoids. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties. The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants (buds, leaves, roots, and stems). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co 60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD 50 , without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  16. Preparation and Optimization of Amorphous Ursodeoxycholic Acid Nano-suspensions by Nanoprecipitation based on Acid-base Neutralization for Enhanced Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yike; Chen, Zhongjian; Su, Rui; Li, Ye; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, usually used to dissolve cholesterol gallstones in clinic, is a typical hydrophobic drug with poor oral bioavailability due to dissolution rate-limited performance. The objective of this study was to increase the dissolution of ursodeoxycholic acid by amorphous nanosuspensions. Nanoprecipitation based on acid-base neutralization was used to prepare the nanosuspensions with central composite design to optimize the formula. The nanosuspensions were characterized by particle size, morphology, crystallology and dissolution. The ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions showed mean particle size around 380 nm with polydispersion index value about 0.25. Scanning electron microscope observed high coverage of HPMC-E50 onto the surface of the nanosuspensions. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry revealed amorphous structure of the ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions. A significant increase of dissolution in acidic media was achieved by the amorphous nanosuspensions compared with the physical mixture. It can be predicted that the amorphous nanosuspensions show great potential in improving the oral bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  18. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cingolani, Gino, E-mail: cingolag@upstate.edu; Andrews, Dewan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood [Department of Pathology, Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail-fiber gp26 is described. To study possible pH-induced conformational changes in gp26 structure, native trimeric gp26 has been crystallized at acidic pH (4.6) and a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) has been crystallized at neutral and alkaline pH (7-10). Gp26 is one of three phage P22-encoded tail accessory factors essential for stabilization of viral DNA within the mature capsid. In solution, gp26 exists as an extended triple-stranded coiled-coil protein which shares profound structural similarities with class I viral membrane-fusion protein. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of P22 tail extracted from mature virions, gp26 forms an ∼220 Å extended needle structure emanating from the neck of the tail, which is likely to be brought into contact with the cell’s outer membrane when the viral DNA-injection process is initiated. To shed light on the potential role of gp26 in cell-wall penetration and DNA injection, gp26 has been crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH. Crystals of native gp26 grown at pH 4.6 diffract X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with a dimer of trimeric gp26 molecules in the asymmetric unit. To study potential pH-induced conformational changes in the gp26 structure, a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) was generated. Hexagonal crystals of MBP-gp26 were obtained at neutral and alkaline pH using the high-throughput crystallization robot at the Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. These crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Structural analysis of gp26 crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH is in progress.

  19. Evaluation of the application of enemas containing sucralfate in tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in experimental model of diversion colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Felipe Mendonça; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Dias, Alice Moreira; Silveira Júnior, Paulo Pedroso; Pereira, José Aires; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of sucralfate on tissue content of neutral and acids mucins in rats with diversion colitis. Thirty-six rats were submitted to a proximal right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks after intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, sucralfate at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and neutral and acid mucins by Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue techniques, respectively. The contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Student's t paired and ANOVA test were used to compare the contents of both types of mucins among groups, and to verify the variance with time, establishing level of signification of 5% for both (p<0.05). Enemas containing sucralfate improves the inflammation and increases the tissue contents of neutral and acid mucins. The content of neutral mucins does not change with the time or concentration of sucralfate used, while acid mucins increases with concentration and time of intervention. Sucralfate enemas improve the inflammatory process and increase the tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in colon without fecal stream.

  20. Reactivity of glycyl-amino acids toward hydroxyl radical in neutral aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Iwashita, Naomi; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Masaharu

    1978-01-01

    Rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several glycyl-amino acids were determined by a competition method using p-nitrosodimethylailine as a reference compound. For glycyl-aliphatic amino acids, the enhancement of reactivity was observed as compared with the corresponding free amino acids. The reactivity was explained qualitatively in terms of partial reactivities assigned to each C-H bond of the dipeptides. For glycyl-aromatic amino acids, the rate constants were found to be almost equal to those of the corresponding free amino acids. The reactivity of a protein toward hydroxyl radical was well understood by summation of the rate constants, corrected by steric factors, of amino acid residues located on surface of the protein. The enhanced reactivity of the aliphatic peptides was interpreted in terms of the difference in interaction energy between NH 2 - and NH 3 + -forms of an aliphatic amino acid, which was calculated for the system including glycine and hydroxyl radical according to CNDO/2 method. (auth.)

  1. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Lara, M A; Pagnanelli, F; Mainelli, S; Calero, M; Toro, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP>HPOP>OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na(+) in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  2. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Lara, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: marianml@ugr.es; Pagnanelli, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it; Mainelli, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Calero, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP > HPOP > OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na{sup +} in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Follow Distinct Aggregation Pathways During Production-Relevant Acidic Incubation and Neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Skamris; Tian, Xinsheng; Thorolfsson, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    and orthogonal analytical methods, including small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering and supplemented the experimental data with crystal structure-based spatial aggregation propensity (SAP) calculations. RESULTS: We revealed distinct solution behaviors between the three mAb models: At acidic p......PURPOSE: Aggregation aspects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of common concern to the pharmaceutical industry. Low pH treatment is applied during affinity purification and to inactivate endogenous retroviruses, directing interest to the mechanisms of acid-induced antibody...... distinguish between reversible and irreversible mAb aggregation pathways at early stages of acidic treatment....

  4. Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i milk products (n = 6, (ii cereals (n = 10, (iii root and pulp products (n = 5, (iv vegetable proteins (n = 11, (v meat and fish meal (n = 2, (vi medication (n = 3, (vii amino acids (n = 4, (viii minerals (n = 16, (ix acid salts (n = 4, (x acids (n = 10. A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a pH 4.0 (ABC-4 and (b pH 3.0 (ABC-3. Categories of food had significantly different (P

  5. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J.; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Parks, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance

  6. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xzhang@iavi.org [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Anzala, Omu [Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI)-Institute of Clinical Research, Nairobi (Kenya); Sanders, Eduard J. [Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kilifi, Kenya & Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Headington (United Kingdom); Kamali, Anatoli [MRC/UVRI Uganda Virus Research Unit on AIDS, Masaka and Entebbe (Uganda); Karita, Etienne [Projet San Francisco, Kigali (Rwanda); Allen, Susan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fast, Pat [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Gilmour, Jill [Human Immunology Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, London (United Kingdom); Price, Matt A. [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Parks, Christopher L. [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  7. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty Acid Diversity is Not Associated with Neutral Genetic Diversity in Native Populations of the Biodiesel Plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, Yesenia; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rico-Ponce, Héctor Rómulo; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Espinosa-García, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub native to Mexico and Central America, which produces seeds with a high oil content that can be converted to biodiesel. The genetic diversity of this plant has been widely studied, but it is not known whether the diversity of the seed oil chemical composition correlates with neutral genetic diversity. The total seed oil content, the diversity of profiles of fatty acids and phorbol esters were quantified, also, the genetic diversity obtained from simple sequence repeats was analyzed in native populations of J. curcas in Mexico. Using the fatty acids profiles, a discriminant analysis recognized three groups of individuals according to geographical origin. Bayesian assignment analysis revealed two genetic groups, while the genetic structure of the populations could not be explained by isolation-by-distance. Genetic and fatty acid profile data were not correlated based on Mantel test. Also, phorbol ester content and genetic diversity were not associated. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that total oil content was associated with altitude and seasonality of temperature. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was associated with altitude. Therefore, the cultivation planning of J. curcas should take into account chemical variation related to environmental factors. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  11. Neutralization of sulfuric acid solutions by calcite dissolution and the application to anoxic limestone drain design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huminicki, Danielle M.C.; Rimstidt, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    Batch reactor (BR) experiments were conducted to measure the effect of hydrodynamics and gypsum coatings on calcite neutralization rates. A factorial array of BR experiments measured the H + concentration change by calcite dissolution over a pH range of 1.5-3.5 and Na 2 SO 4 concentrations of 0-1 M. The rate of H + concentration change with time was determined by numerical differentiation of H + concentration versus time. Regression modeling showed that for uncoated calcite, rates are only significantly affected by pH, r=-10 -2.32 a H + 0.76 . Whereas, for calcite coated with gypsum only time had a significant effect on calcite dissolution rates, r = -10 -1.96 t -0.53 . Because transport-limited dissolution rates for uncoated calcite are a function of the pH and Reynolds number, a model was developed to express the effects of these two variables on the rate of H + consumption for a solution with a Darcy velocity, q, through a porous medium with a particle radius, r p , such that r ' =1.08x10 -3 q 0.31 r p -0.69 m H + 0.87 . This equation was integrated via a numerical model to simulate the performance of an idealized anoxic limestone drain (ALD). This model predicts the pH and alkalinity change along the length of an ALD. The model shows that the efficiency of an ALD is greater when the Darcy velocity is low and the particle radius is small. In addition, the growth of gypsum coatings causes the rate of H + neutralization to decline as the square root of time as they form and block the H + transport to the calcite surface. Supersaturation with respect to gypsum, leading to coating formation, can be avoided by diluting the ALD feed solution or by replacing limestone with dolomite

  12. Heavy Metals and Radioactivity Reduction from Acid Mine Drainage Lime Neutralized Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashifana, T.; Sithole, N.

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide known treatment processes of acid mine drainage result into the formation of hydrous ferric oxides that is amorphous, poorly crystalline and into the generation of hazardous voluminous sludge posing threat to the environment. Applicable treatment technologies to treat hazardous solid material and produce useful products are limited and in most cases nonexistence. A chemical treatment process utilizing different reagents was developed to treat hazardous acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge with the objectives to conduct radioactivity assessment of the sludge generated from lime treatment process and determine the reagent that provides the best results. Leaching with 0.5 M citric acid, 0.4 M oxalic acid, 0.5 M sodium carbonate and 0.5 M sodium bicarbonate was investigated. The leaching time applied was 24 hours at 25 °C. The characterization of the raw AMD revealed that the AMD sludge from lime treatment process is radioactive. The sludge was laden with radioactive elements namely, 238U, 214Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 214Bi. 0.5 M citric acid provided the best results and the hazardous contaminants were significantly reduced. The constituents in the sludge after treatment revealed that there is a great potential for the sludge to be used for other applications such as building and construction.

  13. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (psugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  15. Response on Pneumococcal Vaccine in Preterm Infants After Neutral and Acidic Oligosaccharides Supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation of oligosaccharides in premature infants was shown to influence the immune system. We determined the effect of combined short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody

  16. Response on Pneumococcal Vaccine in Preterm Infants After Neutral and Acidic Oligosaccharides Supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of oligosaccharides in premature infants was shown to influence the immune system. We determined the effect of combined short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on antibody

  17. Integration of the metal ion charge neutralization model for humic acid complexation into the geochemical speciation code EQ3/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendler, V.

    2002-01-01

    Geochemical modeling often requires the consideration of humics as major complexing agent and colloid. The metal ion charge neutralization model can handle respective interactions and has therefore been integrated into the speciation software EQ3/6. An application showing the influence of the pH-dependence of the loading capacity on actinide speciation is given. (orig.)

  18. Crystal structure of a 2:1 piroxicam–gentisic acid co-crystal featuring neutral and zwitterionic piroxicam molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstman, Elizabeth M.; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Woods, Toby J.; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2016-11-04

    A new 2:1 co-crystal of piroxicam and gentisic acid [systematic name: 4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-N-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide–2-(4-oxido-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-amido)pyridin-1-ium–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2C15H13N3O4S·C7H6O4] has been synthesized using a microfluidic platform and initially identified using Raman spectroscopy. In the co-crystal, one piroxicam molecule is in its neutral form and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The other piroxicam molecule is zwitterionic (proton transfer from the OH group to the pyridine N atom) and two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. The gentisic acid molecule shows whole-molecule disorder over two sets of sites in a 0.809(2):0.191(2) ratio. In the crystal, extensive hydrogen bonding between the components forms layers propagating in theabplane.

  19. Crystal structure of a 2:1 piroxicam–gentisic acid co-crystal featuring neutral and zwitterionic piroxicam molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Horstman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new 2:1 co-crystal of piroxicam and gentisic acid [systematic name: 4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-N-(pyridin-2-yl-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide–2-(4-oxido-1,1-dioxo-2H-1λ6,2-benzothiazine-3-amidopyridin-1-ium–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2C15H13N3O4S·C7H6O4] has been synthesized using a microfluidic platform and initially identified using Raman spectroscopy. In the co-crystal, one piroxicam molecule is in its neutral form and an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The other piroxicam molecule is zwitterionic (proton transfer from the OH group to the pyridine N atom and two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds occur. The gentisic acid molecule shows whole-molecule disorder over two sets of sites in a 0.809 (2:0.191 (2 ratio. In the crystal, extensive hydrogen bonding between the components forms layers propagating in the ab plane.

  20. Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy in chloride free neutral solutions by amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, N.H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Badawy, W.A., E-mail: wbadawy@cu.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12 613 Giza (Egypt)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Phenyl alanine at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} gives 93% corrosion inhibition efficiency for the corrosion of the Mg-Al-Zn alloy. > The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the active sites of the alloy surface by physical adsorption mechanism. > The adsorption free energy was 15.72 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy was investigated in stagnant naturally aerated chloride free neutral solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion rate was calculated in the absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using the polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental impedance data were fitted to theoretical data according to a proposed electronic circuit model to explain the behavior of the alloy/electrolyte interface under different conditions. The corrosion inhibition process was found to depend on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. Phenyl alanine has shown remarkably high corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 93% at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to depend on the concentration of the amino acid and its structure. The mechanism of the corrosion inhibition process was discussed and different adsorption isotherms were investigated. The free energy of the adsorption process was calculated for the adsorption of different amino acids on the Mg-Al-Zn alloy and the obtained values reveal a physical adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the alloy surface.

  1. Determination of the acidity constants of neutral red and bromocresol green by solution scanometric method and comparison with spectrophotometric results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2016-03-01

    The method is based on scanning cells containing the indicator solution with a scanner, and analyzing the color of each cell with a software written in visual basic (VB 6 media to red, green and blue values. The cells were made by making holes in the Plexiglas® sheet. Also, the acidity constants of the neutral red and bromocresol green indicators were studied with spectrophotometrically. HypSpec program has been applied for the estimation of pKa values based on spectrophotometric data. The agreement between obtained pKa values by solution scanometric, spectrophotometric method and values reported in the literature demonstrates the utility of the method here used. Also the HySS 2009 program was applied for drawing of the corresponding distribution diagrams.

  2. EXAFS study on the neptunium(V) complexation by various humic acids under neutral pH conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Reich, T. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Univ. Mainz, Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The structure of Np(V) humic acid (HA) complexes at pH 7 was studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (EXAFS). For the first time, the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation of HA and Np(V) in the neutral pH range was investigated using modified HAs with blocked phenolic OH groups and Bio-Rex70, a cation exchange resin having only carboxyl groups as proton exchanging sites. The formation of Np(V) humate complexes was verified by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Axial Np-O bond distances of 1.84-1.85 Aa were determined for the studied Np(V) humate complexes and the Np(V)-Bio-Rex70 sorbate. In the equatorial plane Np(V) is surrounded by about 3 oxygen atoms with bond lengths of 2.48-2.49 Aa. The comparison of the structural parameters of the Np(V) humates with those of Np(V)-Bio-Rex70 points to the fact that the interaction between HA and Np(V) in the neutral pH range is dominated by carboxylate groups. However, up to now a contribution of phenolic OH groups to the interaction process cannot be excluded completely. The comparison of the obtained structural data for the Np(V) humates to those of Np(V) carboxylates and Np(V) aquo ions reported in the literature indicates that humic acid carboxylate groups predominantly act as monodentate ligands. A differentiation between equatorial coordinated carboxylate groups and water molecules using EXAFS spectroscopy is impossible. (orig.)

  3. Brain, kidney and liver 203Hg-methyl mercury uptake in the rat: Relationship to the neutral amino acid carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, M.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effect of L-neutral amino acids on tissue levels of methyl mercury in the adult animal, rats were infused into the external jugular vein with solutions containing a) 0.05 mM 203 Hg-MeHgCl and saline, b) 0.05 mM 203 Hg-MgHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine, c) 0.05 mM 203 Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine-0.1 mM L-methionine, d) 0.05 mM 203 Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-leucine, or e) 0.05 mM 203 Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine-0.1 mM L-leucine. Groups of animals were sacrificed at 3 min. 7 hr, and 96 hr. Brain, kidney, and liver 203 Hg radioactivity was measured by means of gamma-scintillation spectrometry. Brain 203 Hg concentrations L-cysteine treated animals were significantly higher compared with saline treated animals (P 203 Hg uptake (P 203 Hg concentrations were not significantly different in any of the treatment groups compared with controls, irrespective of the sacrifice time. Furthermore, the percentage of diffusible 203 Hg (non-protein bound) at each sacrifice time was not statistically different irrespective of the treatment assigned. These results suggest that methyl mercury L-cysteine conjugates in the plasma may share a common transport step with the L-neutral amino acid carrier transport system and indicate the presence in brain capillaries of a transport system capable of selectively mediating methyl mercury uptake across the capillary endothelial cell membrane. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the content of neutral detergent fiber and acid through different procedures applied to forage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid (FDA of Marandu, Humidicula; Massai; Mombaça grass obtained by three different procedures with the conventional method (CON, the Filter Bag Technique Ankom® (FBT and adapted by EMBRAPA (EMB. The forage plants were obtained in the Southwest region of Mato Grosso in the September; the samples were collected from pastures planted the three years. There were three batteries (runs for each procedure (method for the determination of NDF and ADF of different forages. There were realised three batteries (runs for each procedure (method for the determination of NDF and ADF of different forages. We used a completely randomized design with three replications for each methodology. Statistical analysis of the variables studied was performed by analysis of variance and the differences obtained were analyzed by Tukey test, considering 5% significance level. It was observed that the different procedures (CON, FBT and EMB to determine the content NDF did not differ between them for different forages plants, with average values of 78.61% and 74.96% for the Marandu and Humidicula grass, respectively and 76.78% and 73.08% for Massai and Mombaça grass, respectively. The ADF content obtained by different procedures (CON, FBT and EMB showed no difference between them, with average values of 50.95% and 44.86% for Marandu and Humidicula grass, respectively and 52.21% and 51.56% for Massai and Mombaça grass, respectively. Thus, it is concluded that the content of neutral detergent fiber and acid Marandu, Humidicula; Massai and Mombaça grass can be determined by the procedure adapted by EMBRAPA, since this was not different compared to conventional methodology and the Filter Bag Technique Ankom®, besides having a lower waste of reagents and consequently lower cost.

  5. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides supplementation does not increase the vaccine antibody response in preterm infants in a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolice P van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib immunization in preterm infants. DESIGN: In this randomized clinical trial, preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g received enteral supplementation with scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS or placebo (maltodextrin between days 3 and 30 of life. Blood samples were collected at 5 and 12 months of age. RESULTS: In total, 113 infants were included. Baseline and nutritional characteristics were not different in both groups. Geometric mean titers were not different after prebiotic supplementation at 5 months, Ptx (37/44 EU/ml, FHA (78/96 EU/ml, Prn (78/80 EU/ml, Diphtheria (0.40/0.57 IU/ml, Tetanus (0.74/0.99 IU/ml and Hib (0.35/0.63 µg/ml, and at 12 months Ptx (55/66 EU/ml, FHA (122/119 EU/ml, Prn (116/106 Eu/ml, Diphtheria (0.88/1.11 IU/ml, Tetanus (1.64/1.79 IU/ml and Hib (2.91/2.55 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral supplementation of neutral (scGOS/lcFOS and acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS does not improve the immunization response in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN16211826 ISRCTN16211826.

  6. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  8. The effects of oral amino acid intake on ambulatory capacity in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Roldano; Avogaro, Angelo; Negut, Christian; Piccolotto, Roberto; de Kreutzenberg, Saula Vigili; Tiengo, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    The combination of high prevalence of inactivity in the older population, and high risk of ill-health and disability associated with inactivity, suggests that interventions that are successful in increasing levels of activity may have a great impact on population health in later life. With advancing age, the risk of developing serious nutritional deficiencies also increases. This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary amino acid supplementation on effort tolerance in healthy elderly subjects with reduced physical activity. Forty-four subjects (age > 65 years) with sedentary life-style and lower health-related quality of life were studied. Subjects, in an open-label fashion, received an oral amino acid mixture (AAM, 12 g/day) containing essential and non-essential amino acids for a 3-month period. Ambulatory dysfunction resulting in sedentary life-style was assessed by a 6-min walk test. A walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) was used to evaluate self-perceived ambulatory dysfunction. Maximal isometric muscular strength of the right hand was measured during isometric exercise by a handgrip dynamometer. The 6-min walk distance increased from 214.5 +/- 32 to 262.8 +/- 34.8 m (p oral amino acid supplement, as used in this pilot study, improves ambulatory capacity and maximal isometric muscle strength in elderly subjects without affecting the main metabolic parameters. Amino acid supplementation may thus represent useful non-pharmacological intervention to maintain physical fitness in these subjects.

  9. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Koenig, Brenda G; Struger, John

    2003-12-01

    Prescription and nonprescription drugs have been detected in rivers and streams in Europe and the United States. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source of these contaminants, but few data exist on the spatial distribution of drugs in surface waters near STPs. Samples of surface water were collected in the summer and fall of 2000 at open-water sites in the lower Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake Erie), at sites near the two STPs for the city of Windsor (ON, Canada), and at sites in Hamilton Harbour (ON, Canada), an embayment of western Lake Ontario that receives discharges from several STPs. In a follow-up study in the summer of 2002, samples of surface water and final effluent from adjacent STPs were collected from sites in Hamilton Harbour and Windsor. In addition, surface water and STP effluent samples were collected in Peterborough (ON, Canada). All samples of surface water and STP effluents were analyzed for selected acidic and neutral drugs. In the survey of Hamilton Harbour and Windsor conducted in 2000, acidic drugs and the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were detected at ng/L concentrations at sites that were up to 500 m away from the STP, but the hydrological conditions of the receiving waters strongly influenced the spatial distribution of these compounds. Drugs were not detected at open-water locations in western Lake Erie or in the Niagara River near the municipality of Niagara-on-the-Lake (ON, Canada). However, clofibric acid, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, and carbamazepine were detected in samples collected in the summer of 2000 at sites in Lake Ontario and at a site in the Niagara River (Fort Erie, ON, Canada) that were relatively remote from STP discharges. Follow-up studies in the summer of 2002 indicated that concentrations of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near the point of sewage discharge into the Little River (ON, Canada) STP were approximately equal to the concentrations in the final effluent from the STP. Caffeine and

  10. Haematological and physiological responses of brook charr, to untreated and limestone-neutralized acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, M.B.; Arnold, D.E.; Watten, B.J.; Krise, W.F. [ABR Inc, Forest Grove, OR (USA). Environmental Research and Services

    2001-07-01

    Brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, exhibited depressed plasma sodium and elevated plasma glucose concentrations in untreated acid mine drainage effluent (AMD), at two dilutions. Plasma sodium and glucose concentrations remained stable in treated AMD, pulsed, fluidized beds of limestone and carbon-dioxide pre-treatment of influent, and in AMD-free water. Results indicate that effluents produced by this treatment system were not toxic to these fish, despite still containing moderate concentrations of manganese (3-4 mg l{sup 1} following dilution in exposure systems), and provide justification for field deployment and further biological testing of this treatment in the field.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  12. Empirical equations for viscosity and specific heat capacity determination of paraffin PCM and fatty acid PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Ferrer, G.; Palacios, A.; Solé, A.; Inés Fernández, A.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems have been presented, over recent years, as one of the most effective options in energy storage. Paraffin and fatty acids are some of the most used PCM in TES systems, as they have high phase change enthalpy and in addition they do not present subcooling nor hysteresis and have proper cycling stability. The simulations and design of TES systems require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of PCM. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat capacity (Cp) can be experimentally determined, but these are material and time consuming tasks. To avoid or to reduce them, and to have reliable data without the need of experimentation, thermal properties can be calculated by empirical equations. In this study, five different equations are given to calculate the viscosity and specific heat capacity of fatty acid PCM and paraffin PCM. Two of these equations concern, respectively, the empirical calculation of the viscosity and liquid Cp of the whole paraffin PCM family, while the other three equations presented are for the corresponding calculation of viscosity, solid Cp, liquid Cp of the whole fatty acid family of PCM. Therefore, this study summarize the work performed to obtain the main empirical equations to measure the above mentioned properties for whole fatty acid PCM family and whole paraffin PCM family. Moreover, empirical equations have been obtained to calculate these properties for other materials of these PCM groups and these empirical equations can be extrapolated for PCM with higher or lower phase change temperatures within a lower relative error 4%.

  13. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  14. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid-base neutralization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huabing; Wan Jiangling; Wang Yirui; Mou Dongsheng; Liu Hongbin; Xu Huibi; Yang Xiangliang

    2008-01-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries

  15. Effect of Soil Amendments on Microbial Resilience Capacity of Acid Soil Under Copper Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounissamy, Vassanda Coumar; Kundu, Samaresh; Selladurai, Rajendiran; Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Biswas, Ashish Kumar; Adhikari, Tapan; Patra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-11-01

    An incubation study was undertaken to study microbial resilience capacity of acid soil amended with farmyard manure (FYM), charcoal and lime under copper (Cu) perturbation. Copper stress significantly reduced enzymatic activities and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil. Percent reduction in microbial activity of soil due to Cu stress was 74.7% in dehydrogenase activity, 59.9% in MBC, 48.2% in alkaline phosphatase activity and 15.1% in acid phosphatase activity. Soil treated with FYM + charcoal showed highest resistance index for enzymatic activities and MBC. Similarly, the highest resilience index for acid phosphatase activity was observed in soil amended with FYM (0.40), whereas FYM + charcoal-treated soil showed the highest resilience indices for alkaline, dehydrogenase activity and MBC: 0.50, 0.22 and 0.25, respectively. This investigation showed that FYM and charcoal application, either alone or in combination, proved to be better than lime with respect to microbial functional resistance and resilience of acid soil under Cu perturbation.

  16. A single amino-acid change in a highly conserved motif of gp41 elicits HIV-1 neutralization and protects against CD4 depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Achour, Abla; Dispinseri, Stefania; Malet, Isabelle; Sennepin, Alexis; Ho Tsong Fang, Raphaël; Crouzet, Joël; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies against conserved regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein is a major goal of vaccine strategies. We previously identified 3S, a critical conserved motif of gp41 that induces the NKp44L ligand of an activating NK receptor. In vivo, anti-3S antibodies protect against the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated CD4 depletion that occurs without efficient viral neutralization. Specific substitutions within the 3S peptide motif were prepared by directed mutagenesis. Virus production was monitored by measuring the p24 production. Neutralization assays were performed with immune-purified antibodies from immunized mice and a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Expression of NKp44L on CD4(+) T cells and degranulation assay on activating NK cells were both performed by flow cytometry. Here, we show that specific substitutions in the 3S motif reduce viral infection without affecting gp41 production, while decreasing both its capacity to induce NKp44L expression on CD4(+) T cells and its sensitivity to autologous NK cells. Generation of antibodies in mice against the W614 specific position in the 3S motif elicited a capacity to neutralize cross-clade viruses, notable in its magnitude, breadth, and durability. Antibodies against this 3S variant were also detected in sera from some HIV-1-infected patients, demonstrating both neutralization activity and protection against CD4 depletion. These findings suggest that a specific substitution in a 3S-based immunogen might allow the generation of specific antibodies, providing a foundation for a rational vaccine that combine a capacity to neutralize HIV-1 and to protect CD4(+) T cells.

  17. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstić, Jugoslav [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation conditions influence to self-assembly of nanocrystallites of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. • Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by filtration is microporous, Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by evaporation is non-porous. • Thermal properties of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and its soluble salts are similar. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite′s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  20. Insights into the Structure, Function, and Ligand Discovery of the Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesh Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, or SLC7A5 is a sodium- and pH-independent transporter, which supplies essential amino acids (e.g., leucine, phenylalanine to cells. It plays an important role at the Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB where it facilitates the transport of thyroid hormones, pharmaceuticals (e.g., l-DOPA, gabapentin, and metabolites into the brain. Moreover, its expression is highly upregulated in various types of human cancer that are characterized by an intense demand for amino acids for growth and proliferation. Therefore, LAT1 is believed to be an important drug target for cancer treatment. With the crystallization of the arginine/agmatine antiporter (AdiC from Escherichia Coli, numerous homology models of LAT1 have been built to elucidate the substrate binding site, ligand–transporter interaction, and structure–function relationship. The use of these models in combination with molecular docking and experimental testing has identified novel chemotypes of ligands of LAT1. Here, we highlight the structure, function, transport mechanism, and homology modeling of LAT1. Additionally, results from structure–function studies performed on LAT1 are addressed, which have enhanced our knowledge of the mechanism of substrate binding and translocation. This is followed by a discussion on ligand- and structure-based approaches, with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular basis of LAT1 inhibition. Finally, we provide an exhaustive summary of different LAT1 inhibitors that have been identified so far, including the recently discovered irreversible covalent inhibitors.

  1. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  2. Evaluation of Cholera Toxin Expression in Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera is a severe disease which is caused by Vibrio cholerae and it is typically transmitted by either contaminated food or water particularly in developing countries. The most important virulence factor of this bacterium is an enterotoxin called cholera toxin which is a protein complex secreted by the Vibrio cholerae. Objectives: In this project, we determined the production of cholera toxin at different pH values. Materials and Methods: Two standard strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar EL Tor N16961 and Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar Classic ATCC 14035 were used. After overnight cultivation of both the strains the total mRNA extracted and converted to total cDNA. Results: By Relative Real-Time PCR analysis the most cholera toxin production in classical and El Tor strains was at pH 8.5 and 8, respectively. Conclusions: Therefore, We may conclude that use of acidic diet will help in reduction of cholera toxin production.

  3. Novel cost effective full scale mussel shell bioreactors for metal removal and acid neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Z A; Weber, P A; Olds, W; Pope, J; Trumm, D; Chaganti, S R; Heath, D D; Weisener, C G

    2016-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted waters are a worldwide concern for the mining industry and countries dealing with this issue; both active and passive technologies are employed for the treatment of such waters. Mussel shell bioreactors (MSB) represent a passive technology that utilizes waste from the shellfish industry as a novel substrate. The aim of this study is to provide insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of a novel full scale MSB for AMD treatment. A combination of water quality data, targeted geochemical extractions, and metagenomic analyses were used to evaluate MSB performance. The MSB raised the effluent pH from 3.4 to 8.3 while removing up to ∼99% of the dissolved Al, and Fe and >90% Ni, Tl, and Zn. A geochemical gradient was observed progressing from oxidized to reduced conditions with depth. The redox conditions helped define the microbial consortium that consists of a specialized niche of organisms that influence elemental cycling (i.e. complex Fe and S cycling). MSB technology represents an economic and effective means of full scale, passive AMD treatment that is an attractive alternative for developing economies due to its low cost and ease of implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike

    2010-01-01

    . The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil......We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...

  5. The effects of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, peracetic acid, and etidronic acid on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite: in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür İlke Atasoy Ulusoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 18% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 2% peracetic acid (PAA, and 9% etidronic acid (HEBP on the organic tissue dissolution activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Materials and Method: Sixty samples with similar weight and dimensions were obtained from bovine muscle tissue. The tissue samples were blotted dry on filter paper and weighed with a precision balance. The specimens were immersed in following solutions: (1 2 mL 2.5% NaOCl, (2 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 18% EDTA, (3 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 2% PAA, (4 1 mL 5% NaOCl + 1 mL 9% HEBP. The specimens were then dried and weighed again. The weight loss of each specimen incubated in the test solutions was measured at 30 and 60 min. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. Results: Use of NaOCl (5% together with 18% EDTA resulted in minimal tissue dissolution capacity compared to the other groups at both time points (p<0.001. The tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl was also affected by 9% HEBP. The greatest tissue weight reduction values were obtained in the NaOCl+PAA group at 30 minutes (p<0.001. At 60 min, NaOCl and NaOCl+PAA groups exhibited the greatest tissue dissolution capacity (p<0.001; no significant difference was found between these two groups (p=0.169. Conclusion: EDTA and HEBP decreased the tissue dissolution capacity of NaOCl, whereas PAA did not have any negative effect on the ability of NaOCl to dissolve the organic tissue.

  6. The effect of enteral supplementation of specific neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota and intestinal microenvironment in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, E. A. M.; Slump, R. A.; Lafeber, H. N.; Knol, J.; Georgi, G.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of enteral supplementation of a prebiotic mixture of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS) on the faecal microbiota and microenvironment in preterm infants. Furthermore, we determined the influence of perinatal factors on the development of the

  7. Identification of a disulfide bridge important for transport function of SNAT4 neutral amino acid transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer

    Full Text Available SNAT4 is a member of system N/A amino acid transport family that primarily expresses in liver and muscles and mediates the transport of L-alanine. However, little is known about the structure and function of the SNAT family of transporters. In this study, we showed a dose-dependent inhibition in transporter activity of SNAT4 with the treatment of reducing agents, dithiothreitol (DTT and Tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP, indicating the possible involvement of disulfide bridge(s. Mutation of residue Cys-232, and the two highly conserved residues Cys-249 and Cys-321, compromised the transport function of SNAT4. However, this reduction was not caused by the decrease of SNAT4 on the cell surface since the cysteine-null mutant generated by replacing all five cysteines with alanine was equally capable of being expressed on the cell surface as wild-type SNAT4. Interestingly, by retaining two cysteine residues, 249 and 321, a significant level of L-alanine uptake was restored, indicating the possible formation of disulfide bond between these two conserved residues. Biotinylation crosslinking of free thiol groups with MTSEA-biotin provided direct evidence for the existence of a disulfide bridge between Cys-249 and Cys-321. Moreover, in the presence of DTT or TCEP, transport activity of the mutant retaining Cys-249 and Cys-321 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and this reduction is gradually recovered with increased concentration of H2O2. Disruption of the disulfide bridge also decreased the transport of L-arginine, but to a lesser degree than that of L-alanine. Together, these results suggest that cysteine residues 249 and 321 form a disulfide bridge, which plays an important role in substrate transport but has no effect on trafficking of SNAT4 to the cell surface.

  8. Buffer capacity of food components influences the acid tolerance response in Salmonella Typhimurium during simulated gastric passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2014-01-01

    Food composition, buffer capacity, and fat and protein content have been shown to effect the gastric acid survival of pathogens (Waterman & Small 1998). In this study, simple food-model substances with different buffer capacities were investigated for their ability to support survival of stationary...... Heart Infusion Broth having a higher buffer capacity. We suggest this to be associated with a varying ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to mount a stationary phase acid tolerance response (ATR) depending on the buffer capacity of the food vehicle....... phase Salmonella Typhimurium during simulated gastric acid passage. We used a computer-controlled fermentor to employ pH changes in synthetic gastric fluid, mimicking the dynamic pH during gastric passage. In order to minimise variation, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was contained in dialysis...

  9. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Boer, H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vesseur, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher

  10. Increased neutralization sensitivity and reduced replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 after short-term in vivo or in vitro passage through chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, T.; Broersen, S.; van Nuenen, A.; Huisman, H. G.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Heeney, J. L.; Schuitemaker, H.

    2000-01-01

    Development of disease is extremely rare in chimpanzees when inoculated with either T-cell-line-adapted neutralization-sensitive or primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), at first excluding a role for HIV-1 neutralization sensitivity in the clinical course of infection. Interestingly,

  11. Therapeutic brain modulation with targeted large neutral amino acid supplements in the Pah-enu2 phenylketonuria mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Mazzola, Priscila N; van Faassen, Martijn Hjr; de Blaauw, Pim; Pascucci, Tiziana; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Kema, Ido P; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2016-11-01

    Phenylketonuria treatment consists mainly of a Phe-restricted diet, which leads to suboptimal neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) has been suggested as an alternative dietary treatment strategy to optimize neurocognitive outcome in phenylketonuria and has been shown to influence 3 brain pathobiochemical mechanisms in phenylketonuria, but its optimal composition has not been established. In order to provide additional pathobiochemical insight and develop optimal LNAA treatment, several targeted LNAA supplements were investigated with respect to all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria. Pah-enu2 (PKU) mice received 1 of 5 different LNAA-supplemented diets beginning at postnatal day 45. Control groups included phenylketonuria mice receiving an isonitrogenic and isocaloric high-protein diet or the AIN-93M diet, and wild-type mice receiving the AIN-93M diet. After 6 wk, brain and plasma amino acid profiles and brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Brain Phe concentrations were most effectively reduced by supplementation of LNAAs, such as Leu and Ile, with a strong affinity for the LNAA transporter type 1. Brain non-Phe LNAAs could be restored on supplementation, but unbalanced LNAA supplementation further reduced brain concentrations of those LNAAs that were not (sufficiently) included in the LNAA supplement. To optimally ameliorate brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations, LNAA supplementation should include Tyr and Trp together with LNAAs that effectively reduce brain Phe concentrations. The requirement for Tyr supplementation is higher than it is for Trp, and the relative effect of brain Phe reduction is higher for serotonin than it is for dopamine and norepinephrine. The study shows that all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria can be targeted by specific LNAA supplements. The study thus

  12. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  13. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhujian [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • G–Fe chelate molecules were well preserved into montmorillonite. • The product shows an excellent catalytic activity under sunlight at neutral pH value. • G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes. - Abstract: To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G–Fe–Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G–Fe–Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G–Fe–Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G–Fe–Mt under neutral pH. G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  15. Stochastic multicomponent reactive transport analysis of low quality drainage release from waste rock piles: Controls of the spatial distribution of acid generating and neutralizing minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Mayer, K Ulrich; Beckie, Roger D

    2017-06-01

    In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite). We used a streamtube-based Monte-Carlo method to show why and to what extent bulk NPR can be a poor indicator of ARD occurrence. We simulated ensembles of WRPs identical in their geometry and bulk NPR, which only differed in their initial distribution of the acid generating and acid neutralizing minerals that control NPR. All models simulated the same principal acid-producing, acid-neutralizing and secondary mineral forming processes. We show that small differences in the distribution of local NPR values or the number of flow paths that generate acidity strongly influence drainage pH. The results indicate that the likelihood of ARD (epitomized by the probability of occurrence of pH<4 in a mixing boundary) within the first 100years can be as high as 75% for a NPR=2 and 40% for NPR=4. The latter is traditionally considered as a "universally safe" threshold to ensure non-acidic waters in practical applications. Our results suggest that new methods that explicitly account for mineralogical heterogeneity must be sought when computing effective (upscaled) NPR values at the scale of the piles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutralization of acidic pit lakes with biological methods complement the flooding with neutral surface water: strategies and sustainability; Neutralisation saurer Tagebauseen durch biologische Methoden als Ergaenzung zur Fremdflutung: Strategien und Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, B.; Deneke, R. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Institut fuer Boden, Wasser, Luft; Buettcher, H.; Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the mechanisms of biogenic alkalinity production in highly acidic surface waters in the post-mining landscape and to develop alternative or additional strategies to overcome acidity by the use of basic biological processes. Current approaches such as flooding with neutral surface water, extensive liming and technical treatments are not suitable for many lakes because of limited water supply and special water chemistry in mining lakes. Therefore, basic research is needed in order to develop ecotechnological measures for the multitude of small and medium sized highly acidic mining lakes. Future treatments are designed to combine water supply and biological measures with the management of water quality by use of in-lake microbial processes (bacteria, phytoplankton). Research focuses on alkalinity response of aquatic ecosystems on nutrient enrichment, their catchment areas and the use of 'Constructed Wetlands' and will be generalized by application of hydrogeochemical models for alkalinity production. (orig.)

  17. Dasatinib accelerates valproic acid-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell death by regulation of differentiation capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available Dasatinib is a compound developed for chronic myeloid leukemia as a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor against wild-type BCR-ABL and SRC family kinases. Valproic acid (VPA is an anti-epileptic drug that also acts as a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor. The aim of this research was to determine the anti-leukemic effects of dasatinib and VPA in combination and to identify their mechanism of action in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Dasatinib was found to exert potent synergistic inhibitory effects on VPA-treated AML cells in association with G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction involving the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and caspase-3, -7 and -9. Dasatinib/VPA-induced cell death thus occurred via caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors efficiently inhibited dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis. The combined effect of dasatinib and VPA on the differentiation capacity of AML cells was more powerful than the effect of each drug alone, being sufficiently strong to promote AML cell death through G1 cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK were found to control dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis as upstream regulators, and co-treatment with dasatinib and VPA to contribute to AML cell death through the regulation of differentiation capacity. Taken together, these results indicate that combined dasatinib and VPA treatment has a potential role in anti-leukemic therapy.

  18. Overexpression of PGC-1α Increases Fatty Acid Oxidative Capacity of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Nikolić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased, possibly due to upregulation of PDK4 mRNA. Expression of fast fiber-type gene marker (MHCIIa was decreased. Compared to skeletal muscle in vivo, PGC-1α overexpression increased expression of several genes, which were downregulated during the process of cell isolation and culturing. In conclusion, PGC-1α overexpression increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by improving lipid metabolism, increasing expression of genes involved in regulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and decreasing expression of MHCIIa. These results suggest that therapies aimed at increasing PGC-1α expression may have utility in treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Berber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials. The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g. The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%. The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5. Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  20. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  1. Fatty acid composition and natural antioxidant capacity of ten Serbian linseed cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about nutritional characteristics of linseed cultivars from some specific geographical area or country is scarce. For that very reason, following paper is presenting fatty acid (FA compositions and antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble (ACL components of ten native linseed cultivars from Serbia. These characteristics can be interesting, especially due to the increasing trend of linseed usage in human diet. Presented results show that there were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences between linseed kernels in FA composition. Negative correlation was found between FA C18:0 and α-linolenic acid (ALA. The cultivar with the highest ACL value was No. 10 (342.66 μmol trolox/kg d.m., meaning that it had very strong protection against oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs. Nevertheless, correlation between ACL and polyunsaturated FA content in cultivars was not statistically significant (p=0.84. ACL of the samples did not depend on FA composition of linseed, but it might depend on characteristics of a specific cultivar. The aforementioned results show potential usage in storage of linseeds or its products, while FA composition of linseed kernels might be one of criteria for authentication of linseed origin, and can be of great help in future selection of the cultivars, depending on purpose of linseed production.

  2. Improved acid neutralisation capacity assessment of iron carbonates by titration and theoretical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.A.; Thomas, J.E.; Skinner, W.M.; Smart, R.St.C.

    2004-01-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of a rock sample containing significant amounts of Fe carbonates, as conducted to determine net acid production potential (NAPP), can be a difficult parameter to determine. Various ANC tests are available to determine the ANC of carbonates. This work does not attempt to create another ANC test protocol; rather, it provides a refinement for existing tests. Results showed that a significant lag period may be needed (up to 432 h) after standard Sobek-type ANC tests for the complete hydrolysis of Fe associated with the ANC testing of siderite. This lag occurred even with standard industry modifications that include the addition of 2 drops of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5 during the back-titration. In this work the authors used a modification to the Sobek ANC test (the Modified Sobek ANC test) that included filtering and the addition of H 2 O 2 at pH 4.5. This test was further modified by the continuance of this H 2 O 2 addition (the H 2 O 2 ANC test) until there was no subsequent pH drop (which is due to Fe hydrolysis reactions), thereupon the back titration was continued to pH 7.0. Results indicated that the ANC for siderite (after 0 h) using the H 2 O 2 ANC test was similar to the ANC determined after 432 h lag by the Modified Sobek ANC test. This modification reduces the uncertainty related to static-test results for samples containing Fe carbonates. The test is simple to use, has industry application, and provides a better indication of the NAPP. The Modified Sobek ANC results for calcite and dolomite and the H 2 O 2 ANC test for siderite were in good agreement with the mineralogical carbonate ANC (ANC carb ). ANC carb was determined by calculation based on electron probe micro-analysis. Although lower than both the ANC carb and the ANC determined by titration, the chemical ANC calculated from the ions present in the ANC digestion liquor also provided a good indication of the overall acid neutralisation capacity of the sample

  3. Using self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces to calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for the sulfuric acid-water binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Toon, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    We construct tables of reaction enthalpies and entropies for the association reactions involving sulfuric acid vapor, water vapor, and the bisulfate ion. These tables are created from experimental measurements and quantum chemical calculations for molecular clusters and a classical thermodynamic model for larger clusters. These initial tables are not thermodynamically consistent. For example, the Gibbs free energy of associating a cluster consisting of one acid molecule and two water molecules depends on the order in which the cluster was assembled: add two waters and then the acid or add an acid and a water and then the second water. We adjust the values within the tables using the method of Lagrange multipliers to minimize the adjustments and produce self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces for the neutral clusters and the charged clusters. With the self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces, we calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for a variety of atmospheric conditions. Depending on the conditions, nucleation can be dominated by growth along the neutral channel or growth along the ion channel followed by ion-ion recombination.

  4. Sodium ions activated phosphofructokinase leading to enhanced D-lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus using sodium hydroxide as a neutralizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Liu, Mingqing; Sun, Jiaduo; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2017-05-01

    Sporolactobacillus inulinus is a superior D-lactic acid-producing bacterium and proposed species for industrial production. The major pathway for D-lactic acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, is mainly regulated via the two irreversible steps catalyzed by the allosteric enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase. The activity level of PFK was significantly consistent with the cell growth and D-lactic acid production, indicating its vital role in control and regulation of glycolysis. In this study, the ATP-dependent PFK from S. inulinus was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The PFK was allosterically activated by both GDP and ADP and inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate; the addition of activators could partly relieve the inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate. Furthermore, monovalent cations could enhance the activity, and Na + was the most efficient one. Considering this kind activation, NaOH was investigated as the neutralizer instead of the traditional neutralizer CaCO 3 . In the early growth stage, the significant accelerated glucose consumption was achieved in the NaOH case probably for the enhanced activity of Na + -activated PFK. Using NaOH as the neutralizer at pH 6.5, the fermentation time was greatly shortened about 22 h; simultaneously, the glucose consumption rate and the D-lactic acid productivity were increased by 34 and 17%, respectively. This probably contributed to the increased pH and Na + -promoted activity of PFK. Thus, fermentations by S. inulinus using the NaOH neutralizer provide a green and highly efficient D-lactic acid production with easy subsequent purification.

  5. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A single amino acid substitution in the S1 and S2 Spike protein domains determines the neutralization escape phenotype of SARS-CoV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuki, Yu-ya; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Takagi, Hirotaka; Oshima, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Terahara, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko

    2008-07-01

    In response to SARS-CoV infection, neutralizing antibodies are generated against the Spike (S) protein. Determination of the active regions that allow viral escape from neutralization would enable the use of these antibodies for future passive immunotherapy. We immunized mice with UV-inactivated SARS-CoV to generate three anti-S monoclonal antibodies, and established several neutralization escape mutants with S protein. We identified several amino acid substitutions, including Y442F and V601G in the S1 domain and D757N and A834V in the S2 region. In the presence of each neutralizing antibody, double mutants with substitutions in both domains exhibited a greater growth advantage than those with only one substitution. Importantly, combining two monoclonal antibodies that target different epitopes effected almost complete suppression of wild type virus replication. Thus, for effective passive immunotherapy, it is important to use neutralizing antibodies that recognize both the S1 and S2 regions.

  7. Buffer capacity of food components influences the acid tolerance response in Salmonella Typhimurium during simulated gastric passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Sidsel; Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2014-01-01

    tubes, enabling simultaneous testing of biological triplicates under varying conditions. Surprisingly, we found that less buffered media provided higher protection of Salmonella, compared to media with high buffer capacity. By investigating the relative gene expression of rpoS and ompR encoding for two...... Heart Infusion Broth having a higher buffer capacity. We suggest this to be associated with a varying ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to mount a stationary phase acid tolerance response (ATR) depending on the buffer capacity of the food vehicle....

  8. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The energy balance of the biomass generation of Chlamydomonas acidophila under acidic and neutral conditions and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; Die Energiebilanz der Biomasseneubildung von Chlamydomonas acidophila unter sauren und neutralen Bedingungen und von Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Uwe

    2009-01-16

    In this study the influence of pH < 3 as an extreme environment has been investigated for the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) acidophila. The limited number of trophic levels, consisting of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and macrophytes, is a special characteristic of extreme acidic water bodies. C. acidophila was isolated from an extreme acidic mining lake (RL 111) (Bissinger et al. 2000). A special feature of the examined algal species is its wide tolerance range of external pH values from 2 to 7 (Cassin 1874, Gerloff-Elias et al. 2005a). C. acidophila is a dominant species in the acidic mining lakes, it can grow up to chlorophyll maxima of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} during the summer time (Nixdorf et al. 1998, 2003). The alga can be found elsewhere in extreme acidic water bodies around the world. The hydrochemistry of the acidic mining lakes in the central regions of Germany and Lusatia show clear differences compared to neutral water bodies. Some of the characteristics of acidic mining lakes are high metal and heavy metal (aluminum) concentrations, high ion concentrations, which lead to high conductivity, as well as low phosphate concentrations, ammonium as the only nitrogen source and CO{sub 2} as the only inorganic carbon source. Many eukaryotic microalgae in acidic water bodies including C. acidophila show a neutral cytosolic pH. This is provided by special adaptations of the organisms. Thus, organisms in extreme acidic environments have a positive cell surface charge, a very efficient H{sup +}-ATPase and high internal buffer capacities. These mechanisms work contrary to the proton influx and the acidification of the cytosol and are therefore proof for the physiological impact of osmoregulation by microalgae in extreme acidic environments (Sekler et al.1991, Weiss et al. 1999). Hence, these mechanisms also complicate the access to nutrients for the algal cell. The passive influx of positively charged ions such as potassium or ammonium is reduced by

  10. Chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of aerosols and mechanisms of the neutralization of atmospheric acidity in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Karageorgos

    2007-06-01

    + and Cl, while SO42−, Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. In the fine particles, a low molar ratio of NH4+/SO42− indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, and together with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3 and SO42−, indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

  11. Determination of Some Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity, of Organic and Conventional Milk in Turkey Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ürkek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, determination of effect of production systems (conventional and organic and time of milk collection on some physicochemical properties, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity of conventional and organic raw milk in produced Turkey were aimed. In this research, the milk samples was collected from nine conventional farms and nine organic farms at bimonthly years for one year. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic matter, dry matter, fat, protein, ash, titratable acidity (lactic acid % and pH values of organic and conventional milk were investigated. According to results of this research, the mean values of conventional and organic milk samples respectively for dry matter, fat, protein, ash, specific gravity, acidity and pH was determined as 12.06-11.97%, 3.67-3.50%, 3.33-3.34%, 0.67-0.66%, 1.0381-1.0381 g mL-1, 0.18-0.16% and 6.67-6.73, respectively. Conjugated linoliec acid proportions changed between 1.39% and 2.87% in organic milk, between 1.67% and 2.96% in conventional milk. Consequently, the farm production type did not have effects on the milk compassion (dry matter, fat, protein and ash, fatty acid composition, EC50 and total phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the significant variations in the fat, protein, fatty acid proportions, EC50, inhibition and total phenolic compound values were determined as regarding time of milk collection.

  12. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  13. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  14. pKa value and buffering capacity of acidic monomers commonly used in self-etching primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, Ulrich; Mücke, Angela; Zimmermann, Jörg; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to characterize acidic monomers used in self-etching primers/adhesives by determination of their pKa values and by calculation of their calcium dissolving capacity in comparison with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid. The following acidic monomers were included in this study: 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), dimethacryloyloxyethyl hydrogen phosphate (di-HEMA-phosphate), ethyl 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxabutyl]acrylate (EAEPA), 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-ox-abutyl]acrylic acid (HAEPA), and 2,4,6 trimethylphenyl 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxabutyl]acrylate (MAEPA). The pKa values were obtained by titration with 0.1 mol/l NaOH in aqueous solution. The inflection points of the resulting potentiometric titration curve were determined as pKa values. In the case of the sparingly water-soluble acidic monomers MAEPA and 4-META, the co-solvent method using different water/ethanol ratios for MAEPA or water/acetone ratios for 4-META was used. The dissolving capacity of each acidic monomer is defined as the amount of hydroxyapatite (HA) dissolved by 1 g of acid. For each monomer, the HA dissolving capacity was calculated bythe corresponding pKa value and the molecular weight. To confirm the calculated dissolving capacities, increasing amounts of HA powder (100 mg portions) were slowly added to 15 mmol/l aqueous solutions of the monomers to determine how much HA could be dissolved in the acidic solutions. For all the investigated acidic monomers, pKal values between 1.7 to 2.5 were observed. The pKa2 values for the phosphate/phosphonate derivatives are between 7.0 and 7.3, and are comparable to phosphoric acid. For dicarboxylic acid derivatives, the pKa2 values are in the range of 4.2 to 4.5. Due to their comparable molecular weights and pKal values, the three tested acids di-HEMA phosphate, MDP and 4-META all possess comparable dissolving capacities for HA (ie, 0

  15. Investigating on the fermentation behavior of six lactic acid bacteria strains in barley malt wort reveals limitation in key amino acids and buffer capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning, Sorelle Dongmo; Fischer, Susann; Becker, Thomas

    2018-08-01

    Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined. Short growth phase coupled with prompt cell death and a decrease in metabolic activity was observed. Low wort BC caused rapid pH drop with lactic acid accumulation, which conversely increased the BC leading to less pH change at late-stage fermentation. Lactic acid content (≤3.9 g/L) was higher than the reported inhibitory concentration (1.8 g/L). Furthermore, sugars were still available but fructose and key amino acids lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were considerably exhausted (≤98%). Wort supplementations improved cell growth and viability leading to conclude that key amino acid depletion coupled with low BC limits LAB growth in malt wort. Then, a further increase in organic acid reduces LAB viability. This knowledge opens doors for LAB fermentation process optimization in malt wort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  17. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytoserols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Zuloeta, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A

  18. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3–4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains. PMID:27533024

  19. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from

  20. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M; de Jong, Menno D; Wolthers, Katja C

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3-4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  2. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telving, Rasmus; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2016-01-01

    -HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method......A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral...... was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng...

  4. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides supplementation does not increase the vaccine antibody response in preterm infants in a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2013-01-01

    In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain

  5. Enhancement of particle aggregation in the presence of organic matter during neutralization of acid drainage in a stream confluence and its effect on arsenic immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Guillermo; Montecinos, Mauricio; Guerra, Paula; Escauriaza, Cristian; Coquery, Marina; Pastén, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Acid drainage (AD) is an important environmental concern that impacts water quality. The formation of reactive Fe and Al oxyhydroxides during the neutralization of AD at river confluences is a natural attenuation process. Although it is known that organic matter (OM) can affect the aggregation of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides and the sorption of As onto their surfaces, the role of OM during the neutralization of AD at river confluences has not been studied. Field and experimental approaches were used to understand this role, using the Azufre River (pH 2) - Caracarani River (pH 8.6) confluence (northern Chile) as model system. Field measurements of organic carbon revealed a 10-15% loss of OM downstream the confluence, which was attributed to associations with Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that settle in the river bed. Laboratory mixtures of AD water with synthetic Caracarani waters under varying conditions of pH, concentration and type of OM revealed that OM promoted the aggregation of Fe oxyhydroxides without reducing As sorption, enhancing the removal of As at slightly acidic conditions (pH ∼4.5). At acidic conditions (pH ∼3), aggregation of OM - metal complexes at high OM concentrations could become the main removal mechanism. One type of OM promoted bimodal particle size distributions with larger mean sizes, possibly increasing the settling velocity of aggregates. This work contributes to a better understanding of the role of OM in AD affected basins, showing that the presence of OM during processes of neutralization of AD can enhance the removal of toxic elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  7. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  8. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  9. Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is long-known. Furthermore, new insights indicate the use of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids as valuable source for maintaining the level of intermediates of the citric acid cycle in brain mitochondria. Non-esterified LCFAs or their activated forms exert a large variety of harmful side-effects on mitochondria, such as enhancing the mitochondrial ROS generation in distinct steps of the β-oxidation and therefore potentially increasing oxidative stress. Hence, the question arises: Why do in brain energy metabolism mitochondria selectively spurn LCFAs as energy source? The most likely answer are the relatively higher content of peroxidation-sensitive polyunsaturated fatty acids and the low antioxidative defense in brain tissue. There are two remarkable peroxisomal defects, one relating to α-oxidation of phytanic acid and the other to uptake of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) which lead to pathologically high tissue levels of such fatty acids. Both, the accumulation of phytanic acid and that of VLCFAs give an enlightening insight into harmful activities of fatty acids on neural cells, which possibly explain why evolution has prevented brain mitochondria from the equipment with significant β-oxidation enzymatic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  11. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  12. Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fang Niu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Adem

  14. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  15. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of indigenous calcareous shale for neutralization and removal of arsenic and heavy metals from acid mine drainage in the Taxco mining area, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, F M; Núñez, L; Gutiérrez, M E; Armienta, M A; Ceniceros-Gómez, A E

    2011-02-01

    In the Taxco mining area, sulfide mineral oxidation from inactive tailings impoundments and abandoned underground mines has produced acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.2-2.9) enriched in dissolved concentrations (mg l⁻¹) sulfate, heavy metals, and arsenic (As): SO₄²⁻ (pH 1470-5454), zinc (Zn; 3.0-859), iron (Fe; pH 5.5-504), copper (Cu; pH 0.7-16.3), cadmium (Cd; pH 0.3-6.7), lead (Pb; pH acid-neutralizing potential of limestone decreases when surfaces of the calcite particles become less reactive as they are progressively coated by metal precipitates. This study constitutes first-stage development of passive-treatment systems for treating AMD in the Taxco mine area using indigenous calcareous shale. This geologic material consists of a mixture of calcite, quartz, muscovite, albite, and montmorillonite. Results of batch leaching test indicate that calcareous shale significantly increased the pH (to values of 6.6-7.4) and decreased heavy metal and As concentrations in treated mine leachates. Calcareous shale had maximum removal efficiency (100%) for As, Pb, Cu, and Fe. The most mobile metals ions were Cd and Zn, and their average percentage removal was 87% and 89%, respectively. In this natural system (calcareous shale), calcite provides a source of alkalinity, whereas the surfaces of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals possibly serve as a preferred locus of deposition for metals, resulting in the neutralizing agent (calcite) beings less rapidly coated with the precipitating metals and therefore able to continue its neutralizing function for a longer time.

  17. NOVEL POLY-GLUTAMIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AT HIGH CAPACITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various sorbent/ion exchange materials have been reported in the literature for metal ion entrapment. We have developed a highly innovative and new approach to obtain high metal pick-up utilizing poly-amino acids (poly-L-glutamic acid, 14,000 MW) covalently attached to membrane p...

  18. Sulfate passivation in the lead-acid system as a capacity limiting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, W.; Winsel, A.

    1982-10-01

    Calculations of the discharge capacity of Pb and PbO 2 electrodes as a function of various parameters are presented. They are based on the solution-precipitation mechanism for the discharge reaction and its formulation by Winsel et al. A logarithmic pore size distribution is used to fit experimental porosigrams of Pb and PbO 2 electrodes. Based on this pore size distribution the capacity is calculated as a function of current, BET surface, and porosity of the PbSO 4 diaphragm. The PbSO 4 supersaturation as the driving force of the diffusive transport is chosen as a free parameter.

  19. Sulfate passivation in the lead-acid system as a capacity limiting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.; Winsel, A.

    1982-09-15

    Calculations of the discharge capacity of Pb and PbO/sub 2/ electrodes as a function of various parameters are presented. They are based on the solution-precipitation mechanism for the discharge reaction and its formulation by Winsel et al. A logarithmic pore size distribution is used to fit experimental porosigrams of Pb and PbO/sub 2/ electrodes. Based on this pore size distribution the capacity is calculated as a function of current, BET surface, and porosity of the PbSO/sub 4/ diaphragm. The PbSO/sub 4/ supersaturation as the driving force of the diffusive transport is chosen as a free parameter.

  20. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Impressic acid from Acanthopanax koreanum, possesses matrix metalloproteinase-13 down-regulating capacity and protects cartilage destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun; Min, Dong Suk; Yun, Han Eul; Kim, Kil Tae; Sun, Ya Nan; Dat, Le Duc; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2017-09-14

    Acanthopanax koreanum (Araliaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for enhancing vitality, rheumatism, and bone-related pains. But its activity on cartilage protection has not been known yet. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has an important role in degrading cartilage materials under pathologic conditions such as arthritis. The present study was designed to find the inhibitory activity of impressic acid on MMP-13 expression and cartilage protective action. 70% ethanol extract of Acanthopanax koreanum leaves and impressic acid, a major constituent isolated from the same plant materials, were examined on MMP-13 down-regulating capacity in IL-1β-treated human chondrocyte cell line (SW1353) and rabbit cartilage explants. In IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells, impressic acid significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited MMP-13 expression at 0.5-10μM. Impressic acid was found to be able to inhibit MMP-13 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/-2 (STAT-1/-2) and activation of c-Jun and c-Fos among the cellular signaling pathways involved. Further, impressic acid was found to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA (47.7% inhibition at 10μM), glycosaminoglycan release (42.2% reduction at 10μM) and proteoglycan loss in IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explants culture. In addition, a total of 21 lupane-type triterpenoids structurally-related to impressic acid were isolated from the same plant materials and their suppressive activities against MMP-13 expression were also examined. Among these derivatives, compounds 2, 3, 16, and 18 clearly down-regulated MMP-13 expression. However, impressic acid was more potent than these derivatives in down-regulating MMP-13 expression. Impressic acid, its related triterpenoids, and A. koreanum extract have potential as therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation by inhibiting matrix protein degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ternary mixed-mode silica sorbent of solid-phase extraction for determination of basic, neutral and acidic drugs in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shupei; Qiao, Yinghua; Xing, Jun

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a ternary mixed-mode silica sorbent (TMSS) with octamethylene, carboxyl, and amino groups was prepared via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction and a subsequent reduction of azide to primary amine. While used in solid-phase extraction (SPE), the retention behavior of TMSS towards a total of nine kinds of basic, neutral, and acidic drugs was investigated in detail. The results revealed that hydrophobic, ion-exchange interaction, and electrostatic repulsion between TMSS and the analytes were closely related to the retention behavior of TMSS. Besides, the log K ow value of the analyte was also a factor influencing the retention behavior of analytes on TMSS. The nine analytes could be retained by TMSS simultaneously and then, were eluted into two fractions according to the acid-base property of the analytes for further determinations. The acidic and neutral analytes were in one fraction, and the basic ones in the other fraction. When used to treat the human serum spiked with the nine drugs, TMSS offered higher recoveries than BakerBond CBA and comparable recoveries to Oasis WCX. It should be noted TMSS had better purifying capability for human serum than Oasis WCX. Under the optimized SPE conditions, a method of SPE hyphenated to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for determination of the basic, neutral, and acidic drugs spiked in human serum was established. For the nine drugs, the linear ranges were all between 5.0 and 1000 μg L -1 with correlation coefficients (R 2 ) above 0.9990, and the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.8-2.3 μg L -1 . The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.3 and 8.8%, respectively. Graphical abstract Treating drugs in human serum by SPE with ternary mixed-mode silica sorbent.

  3. Interaction of nucleic acids with electrically charged surfaces. VII. The effect of ionic strength of neutral medium on the conformation of dna adsorbed on the mercury electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, V

    1980-02-01

    Triangular-wave direct current (d.c.) voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode and phase-selective alternating current (a.c.) polarography at a dropping mercury electrode were used for the investigation of adsorption of double-helical (ds) DNA at mercury electrode surfaces from neutral solutions of 0.05-0.4 M HCOONH4. It was found for the potential region T (from -0.1 V up to ca. -1.0 V) that the height of voltammetric peaks of ds DNA is markedly influenced by the initial potential only at relatively low ionic strength (mu) (from 0.05 up to ca. 0.3). Also a decrease of differential capacity (measured by means of a.c. polarography) in the region T depended markedly on the electrode potential only at relatively low ionic strength. The following conclusions were made concerning the interaction of ds DNA with a mercury electrode charged to potentials of the region T in neutral medium of relatively low ionic strength mu potentials in the Vicinity of the zero charge potential a higher number of ds DNA segments can be opened, probably as a consequence of the strain which could act on the ds DNA molecule in the course of the segmental adsorption/desorption process.

  4. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus : the reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic

  5. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  7. The impacts of neutralized acid mine drainage contaminated water on the expression of selected endocrine-linked genes in juvenile Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus exposed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Johannes Christoff; va Wyk, Johannes Hendrik; Oberholster, Paul Johan; Botha, Anna-Maria

    2014-02-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental concern due to detrimental impacts on river ecosystems. Little is however known regarding the biological impacts of neutralized AMD on aquatic vertebrates despite excessive discharge into watercourses. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the endocrine modulatory potential of neutralized AMD, using molecular biomarkers in the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus in exposure studies. Surface water was collected from six locations downstream of a high density sludge (HDS) AMD treatment plant and a reference site unimpacted by AMD. The concentrations of 28 elements, including 22 metals, were quantified in the exposure water in order to identify potential links to altered gene expression. Relatively high concentrations of manganese (~ 10mg/l), nickel (~ 0.1mg/l) and cobalt (~ 0.03 mg/l) were detected downstream of the HDS plant. The expression of thyroid receptor-α (trα), trβ, androgen receptor-1 (ar1), ar2, glucocorticoid receptor-1 (gr1), gr2, mineralocorticoid receptor (mr) and aromatase (cyp19a1b) was quantified in juvenile fish after 48 h exposure. Slight but significant changes were observed in the expression of gr1 and mr in fish exposed to water collected directly downstream of the HDS plant, consisting of approximately 95 percent neutralized AMD. The most pronounced alterations in gene expression (i.e. trα, trβ, gr1, gr2, ar1 and mr) was associated with water collected further downstream at a location with no other apparent contamination vectors apart from the neutralized AMD. The altered gene expression associated with the "downstream" locality coincided with higher concentrations of certain metals relative to the locality adjacent to the HDS plant which may indicate a causative link. The current study provides evidence of endocrine disruptive activity associated with neutralized AMD contamination in regard to alterations in the expression of key genes linked to the thyroid, interrenal and

  8. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral meat lipids of goats browsing in native pasture of Brazilian Semiarid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteles, Natália L O; Alves, Susana P; Madruga, Marta Suely; Queiroga, Rita R E; Andrade, Albericio P; Silva, Divan S; Leal, Amanda P; Bessa, Rui J B; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo N

    2018-05-01

    Thirty six male goats grazing Caatinga native pasture were randomly assigned to 4 concentrate supplementation levels (0, 5, 10 and 15g/kg of body weight) and slaughtered after 120days. Longissimus muscle meat lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar (PL) lipids. Supplementation of grazing goats increased linearly (Pmeat) and NL (0.3 to 1% of meat) but decreased linearly (P=0.044) the PL (0.66 to 0.50% of meat). On NL, supplementation increased linearly (P=0.047) the proportion of c9-18:1 (31 to 40% of FA) with supplementation. On PL, supplementation reduced linearly (Pmeat FA, supplementation led to an increase of the saturated and monounsaturated FA contents and a decrease of the long chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the synergic effect of some neutral organophosphoric compounds on the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions by D1-(2-Ethyl Hexyl) phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Khorfan, S.; Koudsi, Y.

    1998-05-01

    The extraction of uranium (VI) from pure phosphoric acid media by D2EHPA/Kerosene has been studied. The mechanism of the extraction was found as follows: The logarithm of the equilibrium constant of the extraction (LogKex) was found (3.06), (3.32), (3.24), (3.3) for the following phosphoric acid concentrations respectively (1), (2), (3), (4) Mol/1, and the enthalpy change DELTA H was found (-100.68 kj/mol). (-76 kj/mol) for (1), (2) mol/1 phosphoric acid concentrations. The synergic effect of TOPO, TBP, and TBPI with DEHPA have been studied during the extraction of uranium from pure phosphoric acid and Syrian commercial phosphoric acid. The synergic effect increases as follows: TBP< TBPI<< TOPO (In pure phosphoric acid), TBPI approx TBP<< TOPO (In Syrian commercial phosphoric acid). The difficulty of extracting uranium (VI) from Syrian commercial phosphoric acid in comparison with pure phosphoric acid is due to the presence of several impurities capable of complexing uranium, and a small amounts of solid and organic matters, all these are factors which reduce the distribution coefficient of uranium. (Author)

  11. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  12. Structural characterization of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhine primates: greater galago, aye-aye, Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Williams, Cathy; Tilden, Chris; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav; Urashima, Tadasu

    2012-04-01

    The structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (Galagidae: Otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (Daubentoniidae: Daubentonia madagascariensis), Coquerel's sifaka (Indriidae: Propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (Lemuridae: Eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide patterns observed among strepsirrhines did not appear to correlate to phylogeny, sociality or pattern of infant care. Both type I and type II neutral oligosaccharides were found in the milk of the aye-aye, but type II predominate over type I. Only type II oligosaccharides were identified in other strepsirrhine milks. α3'-GL (isoglobotriose, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milks of Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur, which is the first report of this oligosaccharide in the milk of any primate species. 2'-FL (Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milk of an aye-aye with an ill infant. Oligosaccharides containing the Lewis x epitope were found in aye-aye and mongoose lemur milk. Among acidic oligosaccharides, 3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all studied species, whereas 6'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (6'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all species except greater galago. Greater galago milk also contained 3'-N-glycolylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NGc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc). The finding of a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhines, as previously reported for haplorhines, suggests that such constituents are ancient rather than derived features, and are as characteristic of primate lactation is the classic disaccharide, lactose.

  13. Efficiency of the intermolecular interaction of salicylic acid neutral form and monoanion with Cd2 + ion studied by methods of absorption and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2018-02-01

    The methods of absorption and fluorescence were used to study the efficiency of the interaction between salicylic acid derivatives SAD (neutral SA form and SA monoanion) and Cd2 + ions (in CdBr2 salt) within the range pH = 1.5 ÷ 8. The efficiency was determined from the change in both the absorption band contour and the fluorescence intensity of various SAD forms. It has been established that depending on the SAD form, the addition of CdBr2 to a starting solution leads to the formation of additional absorption for both the shorter wave lengths in the absorption spectrum of the neutral form (at pH 4). In the fluorescence spectra, the intensity was observed to increase for the neutral SAD form (at pH 4) after addition of CdBr2. The spectral changes were interpreted in the framework of common notions about the effect of three physicochemical factors that determine the interaction between the SAD and the Cd2 + ion and affect the parameters of absorption and fluorescence spectra. These factors are: (1) the decrease in pH after addition of CdBr2 to the SAD solution, (2) the decrease in the efficiency of the H-bonding of SAD molecules to the water ones, and (3) the existence of electrostatic ion-ion interaction between the HSal- monoanion and the Cd2 + ion. The bimolecular fluorescence quenching constants Kq of HSal- monoanion fluorescence quenching by the Cd2 + ion appeared to be substantially less than those of the quenching which would follow either the dynamic (diffusion) or the concentration (static) mechanisms.

  14. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  15. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVneutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  16. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.; Jansen, M.L.A.; Visser, D.; Jong, de E.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314.

  17. Fe(II) oxidation during acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zvimba, JN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available crystallization for metal content using ICP-OES (Varian: Vista Pro CCD Simultaneous ICP- OES). The pH, acidity and alkalinity of the AMD were determined using a Mettler Toledo Auto-titrator following filtration. Fe(II) was determined by standard permanganate...

  18. The structure and diffusion behaviour of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neutral aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, M.M.; Esteso, M.A.; Barros, M.F.; Verissimo, L.M.P.; Romero, C.M.; Suarez, A.F.; Ramos, M.L.; Valente, A.J.M.; Burrows, H.D.; Ribeiro, A.C.F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Diffusion coefficients and densities of binary aqueous solutions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). • Dependence on both shape and size of GABA on its diffusion. • Interactions intramolecular and the solute-water interactions in these systems. - Abstract: GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a non-protein amino acid with important physiological properties, and with considerable relevance to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Particular interest has focused on its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cerebral cortex. In this paper, we report density and mutual diffusion coefficients of GABA in non-buffered aqueous solutions (0.001–0.100) mol·dm −3 at 298.15 K. Under these conditions, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy and pH measurements show that it is present predominantly as a monomeric zwitterionic species. Diffusion coefficients have been computed assuming that this behaves as the binary system GABA/water. From density and intermolecular diffusion coefficients measurements, the molar volume, hydrodynamic radii, R h , diffusion coefficients at infinitesimal concentration, D 0 , activity coefficients and the thermodynamic factors, F T , have been estimated. Within experimental error, the hydrodynamic volume calculated from this is identical to the molar volume obtained from density measurements. From the NMR spectra and literature data, it is suggested that this amino acid diffuses in aqueous solution as a curved, coil-like hydrated zwitterionic entity.

  19. In situ monitoring the effects of a magnetic field on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in acidic and neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Yang Wu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF) on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in static aqueous solutions are studied by in situ monitoring the responses of two electrochemical parameters to the applied magnetic field, i.e. the open-circuit potential (OCP) and the current under potentiostatic polarization. The applied magnetic field makes the OCP shift in the noble direction. Withdrawing the magnetic field causes a negative shift of the OCP in acidic solutions, but it does not cause any significant change of OCP in neutral solutions. Imposing a magnetic field induces a cathodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP without magnetic field. Withdrawing the magnetic field induces an anodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP with the magnetic field. The magnetic field effect is more significant in the acid solutions than in the salt solutions. The magnetic field effects on the oxygen reduction and on the activation-controlled iron dissolution reaction are found to be insignificant. The magnetic field effect on the hydrogen reduction reaction on iron in acidic solutions is demonstrated. Results show the possibility that a magnetic field would affect the hydrogen evolution by enhancing the electron-transfer process that has been categorized in the classical electrochemistry kinetics to be the rate-determining process. The memory effect of the magnetic field on the electrochemical reaction is identified and discussed

  20. Neutralization potential as an assay of alkalinity of environmental solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grube, W.E.Jr.; Ammons, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The method to determine neutralizing equivalence of agricultural limestone has been applied to quantify the amount of bases present in a broad diversity of mineral materials, solid reagents, and products involved in environmental processes. The capacity to neutralize native or imposed acidity must be known in many processes in order to preserve near-neutral material. The standard method for assaying agricultural limestones was adapted to quantify native alkalinity in calcareous rocks exposed by coal surface mining. Data from these analyses continue to provide the surface mining industry and regulating agencies with a measure of the extent to which acidic mine drainage may be neutralized by the natural components of surrounding rock strata and disturbed materials. This approach to determine base content has also been applied to commercially available industrial byproducts added to soils or wastes. Kiln dust, fly ash, sludge, and other additives have been evaluated routinely to measure their alkalinity contribution and also batch-to-batch uniformity. The application of this technique to monitor amounts of reagents added to neutralize acid waste materials by adding alkalis is discussed. Use of this procedure to evaluate different materials is documented with exemplary data. Results of analyses of a broad variety of rock and soil materials, amended soils, soil additives or amendments, industrial waste byproducts, sludge, and treated wastes are presented. Utility of the procedure for routine quality control in soil treatment, amendment uniformity, and product analysis is discussed

  1. Binding of Gallic Acid and Epigallocatechin Gallate to Heat-Unfolded Whey Proteins at Neutral pH Alters Radical Scavenging Activity of in Vitro Protein Digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-09-27

    Preheated (80 °C for 9 min) whey protein isolate (HWPI) was reacted with 20, 120, and 240 μmol/g (protein basis) gallic acid (GA) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at neutral pH and 25 °C. Isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorometry showed a similar trend that GA binding to HWPI was moderate but weaker than EGCG binding. However, the shift of maximal fluorescence emission wavelength in opposite directions in response to GA (blue) and EGCG (red) suggests discrepant binding patterns. Electrophoresis results showed that EGCG induced formation of HWPI complexes while GA only had a marginal effect. Both free and phenolic-bound HWPI exhibited mild antiradical activity. However, when subjected to in vitro digestion, synergistic radical-scavenging activity was produced between the phenolics and peptides with the highest synergism being observed on 120 μmol/g phenolics.

  2. The thermodynamics of extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid by neutral phosphorus-based organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, D.G.; Mason, G.W.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of Th(IV) and U(VI) from dilute nitric acid solution by several neutral phosphorus-based extractants has been studied as a function of temperature in the range of 0 to 50 0 C. From the variation of the distribution ratio (Ksub(d)) with temperature the thermodynamic quantities ΔG, ΔH and ΔS have been calculated for these extractions. The results of this study indicate that the steric bulk of the extractant plays a major role in determining how well Th(IV) is extracted. The size of the extractant appears to be of little or no importance in the extraction of U(VI). Similarly, the basicity of the extractant is of lesser importance in the extraction of uranyl ion relative to thorium ion. (author)

  3. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Dietary fatty acids specifically modulate phospholipid pattern in colon cells with distinct differentiation capacities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Slavík, J.; Ovesná, P.; Tylichová, Zuzana; Vondráček, Jan; Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena; Cigánek, M.; Kozubík, Alois; Knopfová, L.; Šmarda, J.; Machala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2017), s. 1493-1508 ISSN 1436-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09766S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-30585A Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : docosahexaenoic acid * cancer-cells * epithelial-cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 4.370, year: 2016

  5. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravković Jasmina M.; Aćamović-Đoković Gordana S.; Mladenović Jelena D.; Pavlović Radoš M.; Zdravković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L.) Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98...

  6. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  7. Binary boronic acid-functionalized attapulgite with high adsorption capacity for selective capture of nucleosides at acidic pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Shuqiang; Cheng, Ting; Wang, Shuxia; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for selective capture of cis-diols such as nucleosides. Adsorbents with features of low binding pH and high adsorption capacity are highly desired. However, most reported materials only possess one of the two features. We have synthesized a 1,3,5-triazine-containing binary boronic acid by reacting cyanuric chloride with 3-amino phenylboronic acid, and the product was then grafted onto attapulgite (a fibrous aluminum-magnesium silicate). The resulting functionalized attapulgite exhibit low binding pH (5.0) and display high adsorption capacity (19.5 ± 1.1 mg⋅g"−"1 for adenosine). The material exhibits high selectivity for cis-diols even in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of interferences. It was applied to the selective extraction of nucleosides from human urine. Typical features of the method include (a) limits of detection in the range from 4 to 17 ng⋅mL"−"1, (b) limits of quantification between 13 and 57 ng⋅mL"−"1, (c) relative standard deviations of ≤9.1 %, and (d) recoveries of nucleosides from spiked human urine between 85.0 and 112.9 %. In our perception, the material and method offer a promising strategy for selective capture of cis-diols in the areas of proteomics, metabolomics and glycomics. (author)

  8. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  9. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Shariatmadar Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1 and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2 or CPF alone (control. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD, clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG. SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups. Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained.

  10. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  11. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  12. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  13. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe n+ but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe n+ was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate

  14. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhigang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Chang, E-mail: zhangchang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zheng, Zuhong [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000, Hubei Province (China); Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe{sup n+} but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe {sup n+} was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where

  15. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  17. Neutral lipid fatty acid analysis is a sensitive marker for quantitative estimation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soil with crops of different mycotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vestberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of host mycotrophy on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF markers was studied in a temperate agricultural soil cropped with mycorrhizal barley, flax, reed canary-grass, timothy, caraway and quinoa and non-mycorrhizal buckwheat, dyer's woad, nettle and false flax. The percentage of AMF root colonization, the numbers of infective propagules by the Most Probable Number (MPN method, and the amounts of signature Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA 16:1ω5 and Neutral Lipid Fatty Acid (NLFA 16:1ω5 were measured as AMF markers.  Crop had a significant impact on MPN levels of AMF, on NLFA 16:1ω5 levels in bulk and rhizosphere soil and on PLFA 16:1ω5 levels in rhizosphere soil. Reed canary-grass induced the highest levels of AMF markers. Mycorrhizal markers were at low levels in all non-mycorrhizal crops. NLFA 16:1ω5 and the ratio of NLFA to PLFA 16:1ω5 from bulk soil are adequate methods as indicators of AMF biomass in soil.

  18. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  19. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  20. The role of calcium ions in the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariquit, Eden G; Salim, Chris; Hinode, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are natural organic matter derived from the decomposition of plant, algal, and microbial materials. They belong to the group of the most predominant type of natural organic matter present in ground and surface waters. HAs affect the mobility and bioavailability of aquatic contaminants. However, if they are left unremoved from the water before water treatment processes, they can form carcinogenic disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and other halogenated disinfection by-products, that can pose a threat to human beings. An advanced oxidation process using UV light and a commercially available titanium dioxide was used to oxidize HA at a pH that is similar to that of natural water. The effect of adding calcium ions to the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HAs was studied. The effect of varying the TiO(2) load was also investigated. The experiment was done using a photochemical batch reactor equipped with a mercury lamp emitting light with wavelengths of 310-580 nm. The absorbances by the samples were determined at wavelengths of 254 nm and 436 nm, which represent the aromatic-compound content of and the color of the solution, respectively. Results indicated calcium ions have an effect on both the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HA at a pH within 8.0 +/- 0.5. Calcium ions facilitated adsorption of HA onto the surface of TiO(2) and resulted to faster photocatalytic oxidation. The data were plotted with respect to the normalized absorbances and irradiation time.

  1. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Michele E; Shellis, R Peter

    2007-01-01

    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l -1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l -1 pH -1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature

  2. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter

    2007-02-01

    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

  3. pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China as influenced by incorporation of crop straw biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhao, An-zhen; Yuan, Jin-hua; Jiang, Jun [Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The key factors influencing pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions, and effects of soil evolution and incorporation of biochars on pH buffering capacity were investigated to develop suitable methods to increase pH buffering capacity of acid soils. Materials and methods: A total of 24 acid soils collected from southern China were used. The pH buffering capacity was determined using acid-base titration. The values of pH buffering capacity were obtained from the slope of titration curves of acid or alkali additions plotted against pH in the pH range 4.0-7.0. Two biochars were prepared from straws of peanut and canola using a low temperature pyrolysis method. After incubation of three acid soils, pH buffering capacity was then determined. Results and discussion: pH buffering capacity had a range of 9.1-32.1 mmol kg{sup -1} pH{sup -1} for 18 acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China. The pH buffering capacity was highly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.707) with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) measured with ammonium acetate method at pH 7.0 and decreased with soil evolution due to the decreased CEC. Incorporation of biochars at rates equivalent to 72 and 120 t ha{sup -1} increased soil pH buffering capacity due to the CEC contained in the biochars. Incorporation of peanut straw char which itself contained more CEC and alkalinity induced more increase in soil CEC, and thus greater increase in pH buffering capacity compared with canola straw char. At 5% of peanut straw char added, soil CEC increased by 80.2%, 51.3%, and 82.8% for Ultisol from Liuzhou, Oxisol from Chengmai and Ultisol from Kunlun, respectively, and by 19.8%, 19.6%, and 32.8% with 5% of canola straw char added, respectively; and correspondingly for these soils, the pH buffering capacity increased by 73.6%, 92.0%, and 123.2% with peanut straw char added; and by 31.3%, 25.6%, and 52.3% with canola straw char added, respectively. Protonation

  4. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine-H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine-HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  5. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline Particles—Water Based Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Siong Chew

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluid has attracted great attention due to its superior thermal properties. In this study, chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline was carried out in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA as a dopant. Particles of DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI with the size range of 15 to 50 nm were obtained, as indicated by transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results of ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopies as well as thermogravimetric analysis showed that PANI nanoparticles were doped with DBSA molecules. The doping level found was 36.8%, as calculated from elemental analysis data. Thermal conductivity of water was enhanced by 5.4% when dispersed with 1.0 wt% of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles. Specific heat capacity of water-based nanofluids decreased with increasing amount of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles.

  6. Evaluation of Tetrahydrobiopterin Therapy with Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation in Phenylketonuria: Effects on Potential Peripheral Biomarkers, Melatonin and Dopamine, for Brain Monoamine Neurotransmitters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Yano

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is due to a defective hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine (Phe hydroxylase. Transport of the precursor amino acids from blood into the brain for serotonin and dopamine synthesis is reported to be inhibited by high blood Phe concentrations. Deficiencies of serotonin and dopamine are involved in neurocognitive dysfunction in PKU.(1 To evaluate the effects of sapropterin (BH4 and concurrent use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA on the peripheral biomarkers, melatonin and dopamine with the hypothesis they reflect brain serotonin and dopamine metabolism. (2 To evaluate synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA. (3 To determine the effects of blood Phe concentrations on the peripheral biomarkers concentrations.Nine adults with PKU completed our study consisting of four 4-week phases: (1 LNAA supplementation, (2 Washout, (3 BH4 therapy, and (4 LNAA with BH4 therapy. An overnight protocol measured plasma amino acids, serum melatonin, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine in first void urine after each phase.(1 Three out of nine subjects responded to BH4. A significant increase of serum melatonin levels was observed in BH4 responders with decreased blood Phe concentration. No significant change in melatonin, dopamine or Phe levels was observed with BH4 in the subjects as a whole. (2 Synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA were observed in serum melatonin in BH4 responders. (3 The relationship between serum melatonin and Phe showed a significant negative slope (p = 0.0005 with a trend toward differing slopes among individual subjects (p = 0.066. There was also a negative association overall between blood Phe and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine (P = 0.040 and 0.047.Blood Phe concentrations affected peripheral monoamine neurotransmitter biomarker concentrations differently in each individual with PKU. Melatonin levels increased with BH4 therapy only when blood Phe decreased. Monitoring peripheral neurotransmitter metabolites may assist in

  7. A novel approach in red mud neutralization using cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sucharita; Pal, Bhatu Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, cow dung was identified as a neutralizing agent for red mud (RM). Present research estimated a significant reduction in pH value of red mud (10 g) from 10.28 to 8.15 and reduction in alkalinity of ~148 mg/L from ~488 mg/L by adding 80 g of cow dung in 40 days of anaerobic condition. XRD results exhibit a high intensity of quartz and found new compound, the calcium carbide. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of NRM reduces to ~0.87 from ~1.506 mol H + /kg. Based on the resultant research, present study proposes cow dung as an efficient neutralizing agent for reducing the pH and alkalinity in the red mud.

  8. Heat capacity and thermodynamics of solid and liquid pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) over the temperature range 296 K to 531 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Abhinav; Bernardes, Carlos E.S.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the heat capacity of solid and liquid nicotinic acid by DSC. ► We determined Δ 357.8K 305.6K H m o (NA,crII) by Calvet microcalorimetry. ► We studied the thermodynamics of the cr II → cr I phase transition. ► We determined the Δ f G m o –T diagram of nicotinic acid for T = (296 to 531) K. - Abstract: The molar heat capacity of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) for T = (296 to 531) K was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry. The measurements extended up to the liquid range and also covered the interval where a reversible and fast solid-solid (cr II → cr I) phase transition occurs. The molar enthalpies and entropies of that phase transition and of fusion were obtained as T trs = (455.0 ± 0.2) K, Δ trs H m o = (0.90 ± 0.10) kJ ⋅ mol −1 , Δ trs S m o = (1.98 ± 0.22) J ⋅ K −1 ⋅ mol −1 , T fus = (509.91 ± 0.04) K, Δ fus H m o = (28.2 ± 0.1) kJ ⋅ mol −1 , and Δ fus S m o = (55.30 ± 0.16) J ⋅ K −1 ⋅ mol −1 . By combining these experimental results with the previously reported Δ sub H m (NA,cr II) at T = 366.5 K, the corresponding entropy in the gaseous state calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and Δ f H m o (NA),cr II) at T = 298.15 K, it was possible to estimate the standard molar Gibbs energy of formation functions necessary for the construction of the Δ f G m ∘ vs. T diagram illustrating the enantiotropic nature of this system.

  9. Determination of buffering capacity of selected fermented feedstuffs and the effect of dietary acid-base status on ruminal fluid pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bujňák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the buffering capacity of some fermented feedstuffs and the effect of dietary acid-base status on ruminal fluid pH. The first experiment was performed with different types (n = 24 of wet and dry fermented feedstuffs to determine the buffering capacity and buffer value index. The buffer value index of wet corn silages was more negative than for dry corn silages account on acid loss during drying. In the second experiment, the effects of different concentrations of lactic acid on base-buffering capacity, buffer value index and indicators of fermentation process were studied in two groups of corn silages (n = 21. Two groups of analyzed values were compared using unpaired t-test. Differences among the groups in base-buffering capacity (P P P > 0.05 correlation was found between ruminal pH and dietary buffer value index. These results confirmed that dietary acid-base status alone is not adequate as a predictor of the need for buffers in the diet of lactating cows. It is the first report about using of buffering capacity determination methods for evaluation of feedstuffs and dietary acid-base status in dairy cows.

  10. Partitioning of uranyl between ferrihydrite and humic substances at acidic and circum-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublet, Gabrielle; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott; Kumar, Naresh; Lowry, Gregory V.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2017-10-01

    As part of a larger study of the reactivity and mobility of uranyl (U(VI)O22+) cations in subsurface environments containing natural organic matter (NOM) and hydrous ferric oxides, we have examined the effect of reference humic and fulvic substances on the sorption of uranyl on 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh), a common, naturally occurring nano-Fe(III)-hydroxide. Uranyl was reacted with Fh at pH 4.6 and 7.0 in the presence and absence of Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) (0-835 ppm) or Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) (0-955 ppm). No evidence was found for reduction of uranyl by either form of NOM after 24 h of exposure. The following three size fractions were considered in this study: (1) ≥0.2 μm (Fh-NOM aggregates), (2) 0.02-0.2 μm (dispersed Fh nanoparticles and NOM macro-molecules), and (3) <0.02 μm (dissolved). The extent to which U(VI) is sorbed in aggregates or dispersed as colloids was assessed by comparing U, Fe, and NOM concentrations in these three size fractions. Partitioning of uranyl between Fh and NOM was determined in size fraction (1) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Uranyl sorption on Fh-NOM aggregates was affected by the presence of NOM in different ways depending on pH and type of NOM (ESHA vs. SRFA). The presence of ESHA in the uranyl-Fh-NOM ternary system at pH 4.6 enhanced uranyl uptake more than the presence of SRFA. In contrast, neither form of NOM affected uranyl sorption at pH 7.0 over most of the NOM concentration range examined (0-500 ppm); at the highest NOM concentrations (500-955 ppm) uranyl uptake in the aggregates was slightly inhibited at pH 7.0, which is interpreted as being due to the dispersion of Fh aggregates. XAS at the U LIII-edge was used to characterize molecular-level changes in uranyl complexation as a result of sorption to the Fh-NOM aggregates. In the absence of NOM, uranyl formed dominantly inner-sphere, mononuclear, bidentate sorption complexes on Fh. However, when NOM concentration was increased at pH 4.6, the

  11. A Combination of Amino Acids and Caffeine Enhances Sprint Running Capacity in a Hot, Hypoxic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Tom R; Potter, Aaron; Billaut, François; Panchuk, Derek; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Chen, Ting-Ting; McQuade, Leon; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Heat and hypoxia exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. We therefore investigated whether essential amino acid (EAA) and caffeine ingestion attenuates CNS fatigue in a simulated team sport-specific running protocol in a hot, hypoxic environment. Subelite male team sport athletes (n = 8) performed a repeat sprint running protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in an extreme environment on 4 separate occasions. Participants ingested one of four supplements: a double placebo, 3 mg.kg-1 body mass of caffeine + placebo, 2 x 7 g EAA (Musashi Create)+placebo, or caffeine + EAA before each exercise session using a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Electromyography (EMG) activity and quadriceps evoked responses to magnetic stimulation were assessed from the dominant leg at preexercise, halftime, and postexercise. Central activation ratio (CAR) was used to quantify completeness of quadriceps activation. Oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean sprint work was higher (M = 174 J, 95% CI [23, 324], p beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition versus EAAs alone. The decline in EMG activity was less (M = 13%, 95% CI [0, 26]; p beneficial) in caffeine + EAA versus EAA alone. Similarly, the pre- to postexercise decrement in CAR was significantly less (M = -2.7%, 95% CI [0.4, 5.4]; p beneficial) when caffeine + EAA were ingested compared with placebo. Cerebral oxygenation was lower (M = -5.6%, 95% CI [1.0, 10.1]; p beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition compared with LNAA alone. Co-ingestion of caffeine and EAA appears to maintain muscle activation and central drive, with a small improvement in running performance.

  12. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  13. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Brain, kidney and liver sup 203 Hg-methyl mercury uptake in the rat: Relationship to the neutral amino acid carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschner, M [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, and the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Training Program, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (USA)

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effect of L-neutral amino acids on tissue levels of methyl mercury in the adult animal, rats were infused into the external jugular vein with solutions containing (a) 0.05 mM {sup 203}Hg-MeHgCl and saline, (b) 0.05 mM {sup 203}Hg-MgHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine, (c) 0.05 mM {sup 203}Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine-0.1 mM L-methionine, (d) 0.05 mM {sup 203}Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-leucine, or (e) 0.05 mM {sup 203}Hg-MeHgCl-0.1 mM L-cysteine-0.1 mM L-leucine. Groups of animals were sacrificed at 3 min. 7 hr, and 96 hr. Brain, kidney, and liver {sup 203}Hg radioactivity was measured by means of gamma-scintillation spectrometry. Brain {sup 203}Hg concentrations L-cysteine treated animals were significantly higher compared with saline treated animals (P<0.05) at 3 min., 7 hr and 96 hr. The coinjection or coinfusion of methyl mercury with L-cysteine and L-methionine abolished the L-cysteine-mediated brain {sup 203}Hg uptake (P<0.05), at each sacrifice time. Kidney and liver {sup 203}Hg concentrations were not significantly different in any of the treatment groups compared with controls, irrespective of the sacrifice time. Furthermore, the percentage of diffusible {sup 203}Hg (non-protein bound) at each sacrifice time was not statistically different irrespective of the treatment assigned. These results suggest that methyl mercury L-cysteine conjugates in the plasma may share a common transport step with the L-neutral amino acid carrier transport system and indicate the presence in brain capillaries of a transport system capable of selectively mediating methyl mercury uptake across the capillary endothelial cell membrane. (author).

  15. Proton-binding capacity of Staphylococcus aureus wall teichoic acid and its role in controlling autolysin activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Biswas

    Full Text Available Wall teichoic acid (WTA or related polyanionic cell wall glycopolymers are produced by most gram-positive bacterial species and have been implicated in various cellular functions. WTA and the proton gradient across bacterial membranes are known to control the activity of autolysins but the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. We demonstrate that WTA contributes substantially to the proton-binding capacity of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls and controls autolysis largely via the major autolysin AtlA whose activity is known to decline at acidic pH values. Compounds that increase or decrease the activity of the respiratory chain, a main source of protons in the cell wall, modulated autolysis rates in WTA-producing cells but did not affect the augmented autolytic activity observed in a WTA-deficient mutant. We propose that WTA represents a cation-exchanger like mesh in the gram-positive cell envelopes that is required for creating a locally acidified milieu to govern the pH-dependent activity of autolysins.

  16. Molecular structure investigation of neutral, dimer and anion forms of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Bilgili, Sibel; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-01-25

    In this study, the structural and vibrational analysis of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (3,4-PDCA) are presented using experimental techniques as FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV and quantum chemical calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid in the solid phase are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1), respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible monomer, dimer, anion(-1) and anion(-2) conformers of 3,4-PDCA are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. There are sixteen conformers (C1C16) for this molecule (neutral form). The most stable conformer of 3,4-PDCA is the C1 conformer. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra are recorded and the chemical shifts are calculated by using DFT/B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The UV absorption spectrum of the studied compound is recorded in the range of 200-400 nm by dissolved in ethanol. The optimized geometric parameters were compared with experimental data via the X-ray results derived from complexes of this molecule. In addition these, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic and electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and Mulliken atomic charges, are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  18. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  19. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  20. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  1. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  2. Effect of the impregnation of carbon cloth with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on its adsorption capacity for the adsorption of several metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Amini, Azadeh; Karimi, Ziba

    2008-01-01

    Effect of loading of C-cloth with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the adsorption capacity for the adsorption of several metal cations was studied. The concentration of ions in the solution was monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. The adsorption isotherm data for the cations were derived at 25 deg. C and treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models and was found that for most of the investigated cations Langmuir model was more successful. Adsorption capacities determined from Langmuir isotherms. Loading of the adsorbent with EDTA increased the adsorption capacity for the adsorption of all of the investigation ions

  3. Acid-base buffering in organ preservation solutions as a function of temperature: new parameters for comparing buffer capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J

    2002-08-01

    Control of acidity and preventing intracellular acidosis are recognized as critical properties of an effective organ preservation solution. Buffer capacity and efficiency are therefore important for comparing the relative merits of preservation fluids for optimum hypothermic storage, but these parameters are not available for the variety of organ preservation solutions of interest in transplantation today. Moreover, buffer capacity is dependent upon both concentration and pH such that buffer capacity is not easily predicted for a complex solution containing multiple buffer species. Using standard electrometric methods to measure acid dissociation constants, this study was undertaken to determine the maximum and relative buffer capacities of a variety of new and commonly used hypothermic preservation solutions as a function of temperature. The reference data provided by these measurements show that comparative buffer capacity and efficiency vary widely between the commonly used solutions. Moreover, the fluids containing zwitterionic sulfonic acid buffers such as Hepes possess superior buffering for alpha-stat pH regulation in the region of physiological importance.

  4. The acid-base buffer capacity of podzolic soils and its changes under the impact of treatment with the Mehra-Jackson and Tamm reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Yu. G.; Maryakhina, N. N.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2010-10-01

    The acid-base buffer capacity before and after the treatment with the Mehra-Jackson and Tamm reagents was assessed by continuous potentiometric titration for the main genetic horizons of two profiles of podzolic soils in the Central Forest State Reserve. The total buffer capacity was calculated in the pH range from the initial titration point (ITP) to 3 for the acid titration and from the ITP to 10 for the base titration, as well as the buffer capacities in the pH intervals of 0.25. It was found that both treatments abruptly decreased the base buffer capacity, which reached 70-90% in the E horizons. The high direct linear correlation of the difference between the total base buffer capacities before and after each treatment with the content of Fe in the Tamm extract was revealed. From the results obtained, a conclusion was drawn that finely dispersed Fe hydroxides were the main solid-phase constituents ensuring the base buffer capacity, and the deprotonation of hydroxyl groups on the surface of Fe hydroxides was the essential buffer reaction during the base titration.

  5. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 1: Cesium Exchange Capacity of a 15-cm3 Column and Dynamic Stability of the Exchange Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale column tests were performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution representative of liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtm IE-911 (UOP, Mt Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in 15 cm3 columns at a flow rate of 5 bed volumes per hour. These experiments showed the ion exchange material to have reasonable selectivity and capacity for removing cesium from the complex chemical matrix of the solution. However, previous testing indicated that partial neutralization of the feed stream was necessary to increase the stability of the ion exchange media. Thus, in these studies, CST degradation was determined as a function of throughput in order to better assess the stability characteristics of the exchanger for potential future waste treatment applications. Results of these tests indicate that the degradation of the CST reaches a maximum very soon after the acidic feed is introduced to the column and then rapidly declines. Total dissolution of bed material did not exceed 3% under the experimental regime used

  6. Dose-response relationship of tryptophan with large neutral amino acids, and its impact on physiological responses in the chick model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Alhassan Usman; Idrus, Zulkifli; Meng, Goh Yong; Narayan, Edward J; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani

    2018-05-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) has been associated with the regulation of several behavioral and physiological processes, through stimulation of serotonergic activity. Tryptophan utilization at the metabolic level is influenced by the competitive carrier system it shares with large neutral amino acids (LNAA). This study was carried out using meat-type chicken as a model, to investigate the dose response effects of Trp/LNAA on fear response (tonic immobility; TI) and hormonal responses, including corticosterone (CORT), serotonin (5-HT), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ). A total of 12 cages (48 birds) were assigned to each of the six experimental groups at 29-42 days of age. Experimental diets were formulated to have incremental levels of Trp/LNAA (0.025, 0.030, 0.035, 0.040, 0.045, and 0.050). The results revealed that, Trp/NAA had no significant effect on growth performance and TI of the birds. However, elevation of Trp/LNAA was concurred with a linear reduction in CORT (P < .0001, r 2  = 0.819) and linear increases in 5-HT (P < .0001, r 2  = 0.945), T 3 (P = .0003, r 2  = 0.403) and T 4 (P < .0001, r 2  = 0.937) levels. In conclusion, the results from the current study demonstrated that, although incremental levels of Trp/LNAA did not affect bird growth performance or fearfulness, it increased 5-HT, T 3 and T 4, and decreased CORT levels in a linear dose-dependent manner. Manipulation of Trp feeding levels could be applied to manage stressful conditions in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An ion-neutral model to investigate chemical ionization mass spectrometry analysis of atmospheric molecules - application to a mixed reagent ion system for hydroperoxides and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikes, Brian G.; Treadaway, Victoria; McNeill, Ashley S.; Silwal, Indira K. C.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2018-04-01

    An ion-neutral chemical kinetic model is described and used to simulate the negative ion chemistry occurring within a mixed-reagent ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). The model objective was the establishment of a theoretical basis to understand ambient pressure (variable sample flow and reagent ion carrier gas flow rates), water vapor, ozone and oxides of nitrogen effects on ion cluster sensitivities for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl peroxide (CH3OOH), formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc). The model development started with established atmospheric ion chemistry mechanisms, thermodynamic data and reaction rate coefficients. The chemical mechanism was augmented with additional reactions and their reaction rate coefficients specific to the analytes. Some existing reaction rate coefficients were modified to enable the model to match laboratory and field campaign determinations of ion cluster sensitivities as functions of CIMS sample flow rate and ambient humidity. Relative trends in predicted and observed sensitivities are compared as instrument specific factors preclude a direct calculation of instrument sensitivity as a function of sample pressure and humidity. Predicted sensitivity trends and experimental sensitivity trends suggested the model captured the reagent ion and cluster chemistry and reproduced trends in ion cluster sensitivity with sample flow and humidity observed with a CIMS instrument developed for atmospheric peroxide measurements (PCIMSs). The model was further used to investigate the potential for isobaric compounds as interferences in the measurement of the above species. For ambient O3 mixing ratios more than 50 times those of H2O2, O3-(H2O) was predicted to be a significant isobaric interference to the measurement of H2O2 using O2-(H2O2) at m/z 66. O3 and NO give rise to species and cluster ions, CO3-(H2O) and NO3-(H2O), respectively, which interfere in the measurement of CH3OOH using O2-(CH3OOH) at m/z 80. The CO3-(H2O

  8. Effects of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine A on Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiac Markers of Rat Isolated Heart After Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the important causes of death during old ages. Gallic acid as an antioxidant or cyclosporine A (CsA) as inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) alone could prevent these complications to some extent, but their combination effect has not been investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of gallic acid and CsA on antioxidant capacity of isolated heart tissues during ischemia reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to different groups: sham, control (Ca, received saline, 1 mL/kg); 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid (G1a: 7.5, G2a: 15, G3a: 30 mg/kg) for 10 days, and the other 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid and received CsA (0.2 µM) for 10 minutes before induction of ischemia and during the first 10 minutes of reperfusion (G1b, G2b and G3b) and the last group received CsA alone (Cb). After 10 days of pretreatment, the heart was isolated and transferred to the Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. After that cardiac markers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed in cardiac tissues. Results: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased in animals pretreated with gallic acid significantly. However, pretreatment with gallic acid followed by CsA during reperfusion improved the antioxidant capacity and cardiac marker enzymes and restored the lipid peroxidation more effective than gallic acid or CsA alone. Nevertheless, CsA did not change the cardiac marker enzymes significantly. Conclusions: Gallic acid and CsA combination improved antioxidant capacity and cell membrane integrity more than each one alone. Therefore, it can be a therapeutic approach to reduce the I/R injury. PMID:25068044

  9. "Greening" a Familiar General Chemistry Experiment: Coffee Cup Calorimetry to Determine the Enthalpy of Neutralization of an Acid-Base Reaction and the Specific Heat Capacity of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.; Perera, K. Nishanthi R.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee cup calorimetry, performed with calorimeters made with styrofoam coffee cups, is a familiar experiment in the general chemistry laboratory. These calorimeters are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide good insulation for most thermodynamics experiments. This paper presents the successful substitution of paper coffee cups for styrofoam cups…

  10. Synthesis of cryptocrystalline magnesite–bentonite clay composite and its application for neutralization and attenuation of inorganic contaminants in acidic and metalliferous mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to synthesize cryptocrystalline magnesite–bentonite clay composite by mechanochemical activation and evaluate its usability as low cost adsorbent for neutralization and attenuation of inorganic contaminants...

  11. Hyperbranched-polyol-tethered poly (amic acid) electrospun nanofiber membrane with ultrahigh adsorption capacity for boron removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yufeng; Meng, Jianqiang, E-mail: jianqiang.meng@hotmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber membranes were grafted with hyperbranched polyols. • The membrane had a maximum boron uptake of 5.68 mmol/g. • The membrane could adsorb 0.82 mmol/g boron from a 5 mg/L solution in 15 min. • The membrane obeyed the Langmuir and the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. • The regeneration efficiency remained over 90% after 10 cycled uses. - Abstract: The development of efficient adsorbents with high sorption capacity remains as a challenge for the removal of micropollutants occurred globally in water resources. In this work, poly (amic acid) (PAA) electrospun nanofiber membranes grafted with hyperbranched polyols were synthesized and used for boron removal. The PAA nanofiber was reacted with hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) and further with glycidol to introduce the vicinal hydroxyl groups. The chemical composition and surface characteristics of the obtained PAA-g-PG membranes were evaluated by FESEM, FTIR, XPS and water contact angles (WCA) measurements. The boron adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics were investigated systematically. The results showed that the PAA nanofiber spun from concentration of 15% had uniform morphology and narrow diameter distribution. The PAA-g-PG nanofiber membrane had a maximum boron uptake of 5.68 mmol/g and could adsorb 0.82 mmol/g boron from a 5 mg/L solution in 15 min. Both the high surface area of nanofibers and the hyperbranched structure should contribute to the high boron uptake and high adsorption rate. The nanofiber membrane obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model and the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The regeneration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane remained 93.9% after 10 cycled uses, indicating good regenerability of the membrane.

  12. Contribution to the study of the electrochemical behaviour of titanium and of its industrial shores in sulphuric environment. Characteristics of their resistance to pitting corrosion in neutral and acid halogenous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Jacques-Alain

    1975-01-01

    After a presentation of the general metallurgical, physical, and corrosion resistance characteristics of titanium and of its alloys, this research thesis presents the experimental means, discusses the influence of experimental conditions on the assessment of the electrochemical behaviour of titanium and of its alloys. It reports an investigation of the cathodic behaviour of non-alloyed titanium and notably the hydrogen release kinetics in a concentrated acid environment. It discusses the influence of alloy composition on their cathodic behaviour, addresses the anodic behaviour of titanium and of its alloys in sulphuric environment, and the pitting corrosion of titanium and of its alloys in an acid and neutral halogenous environment [fr

  13. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  14. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. and ascorbic acid on antioxidant capacity and oxidative status in rabbit burgers after cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric powder and ascorbic acid on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in cooked rabbit burgers. The burgers were derived from 3 different formulations (C, control, with no additives; Tu with 3.5% of turmeric powder and AA with 0.1% of ascorbic acid and were stored at 4°C for 0 and 7 d and cooked. The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] and antioxidant capacity (2,2-azinobis-[3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] {ABTS}, 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric reducing ability [FRAP] were evaluated. A significant interaction between storage time and formulation (P<0.001 was observed for DPPH, FRAP and TBARS in cooked burgers. At day 0 and day 7, the DPPH value was higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. At day 0, C showed a lower level of FRAP than the Tu and AA burgers. At day 7, the FRAP values tended to decrease but remained significantly higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. Lipid oxidation at day 0 in Tu and AA showed lower TBARS values compared to C burgers. The addition of 3.5% turmeric powder in rabbit burgers exerts an antioxidant effect during storage and it seems more effective in controlling lipid oxidation than ascorbic acid after cooking.

  15. Calagem em latossolo sob influência de coberturas vegetais: neutralização da acidez Liming in a latosol under influence of cover crops: acidity neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Raphael Pereira de Pádua

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A movimentação dos produtos da dissolução do calcário e a correção da acidez podem ser influenciadas pelo manejo da calagem e pela quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica presente no solo. Avaliou-se a correção da acidez de acordo com a aplicação de calcário superficial ou incorporado nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20 cm, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf sob diferentes coberturas vegetais anteriores (mata, eucalipto, pinus e pastagem. O estudo foi realizado de novembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003 no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, sendo avaliados, depois de 30 dias de reação do calcário, e antes do cultivo do algodão, os teores trocáveis de Ca2+ e Al3+, o pH e os níveis de saturação por bases (V em amostras de solo coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. A calagem superficial causou, na camada de 0-5 cm, uma elevação do pH e V para níveis acima dos considerados adequados para o cultivo do algodoeiro, caracterizando uma calagem excessiva. Foram verificados acréscimos, em relação à área sem calagem, do pH, Ca2+ e saturação por bases em camadas de solo além das camadas de incorporação do corretivo, principalmente nas amostras de solo com maior teor de matéria orgânica, mas esses efeitos não se estenderam à camada de subsolo (20-40 cm.Lime mobility and soil acidity correction can be influenced by liming management and the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. Acidity neutralization in function of the lime incoporation and surface liming was evaluated in a red Latosol (Oxisol under different antecedent vegetation covers (eucalyptus, forest, pasture and pine. The study was carried out from November 2002 to January 2003 at the Soil Science Department of the Lavras Federal University. After 30 days of incubation of soils with lime, the contents of Ca2+ e Al3+, pH and base saturation levels were quantified at the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm sample depths. At the

  16. Contributions of molecular size, charge distribution, and specific amino acids to the iron-binding capacity of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) ovum hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Cui, Pengbo; Jin, Ziqi; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Yixing; Lin, Songyi

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the contributions of molecular size, charge distribution and specific amino acids to the iron-binding capacity of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) ovum hydrolysates (SCOHs), and further explored their iron-binding sites. It was demonstrated that enzyme type and degree of hydrolysis (DH) significantly influenced the iron-binding capacity of the SCOHs. The SCOHs produced by alcalase at a DH of 25.9% possessed the highest iron-binding capacity at 92.1%. As the hydrolysis time increased, the molecular size of the SCOHs decreased, the negative charges increased, and the hydrophilic amino acids were exposed to the surface, facilitating iron binding. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared spectra, combined with amino acid composition analysis, revealed that iron bound to the SCOHs primarily through interactions with carboxyl oxygen of Asp, guanidine nitrogen of Arg or nitrogen atoms in imidazole group of His. The formed SCOHs-iron complexes exhibited a fold and crystal structure with spherical particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Online monitoring of electrocatalytic reactions of alcohols at platinum and gold electrodes in acidic, neutral and alkaline media by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (EC-CE-C4 D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Santos, Mauro Sérgio; Silva Lopes, Fernando; Gutz, Ivano Gebhardt Rolf

    2017-11-01

    An EC-CE-C 4 D flow system was applied to the investigation of electrocatalytic processes by monitoring carboxylic acids formed during the electro-oxidation at various potentials of primary alcohols (mixture of 1 mmol/L of ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol and n-pentanol) in acidic, neutral and alkaline media. The electro-oxidation was carried out on gold and platinum disk electrodes (3 mm of diameter) in a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell. Products were sampled 50 μm apart from the electrode directly into the capillary. All the generated carboxylates were determined in near real time (less than 2 min) by CE-C 4 D in counter-flow mode, with Tris/HCl buffer solution (pH 8.6) as BGE. Long sequences of 5-min experiments were run automatically, exploring the applied potential, electrolysis time and solution composition. Electro-oxidation at 1.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl quasi-reference) during 50 s in acidic medium was found appropriate for both Pt and Au electrodes when the determination of alcohols after derivatization is intended. A noteworthy selectivity effect was observed on the Au electrode. The signal corresponding to pentanoate is similar on both electrodes while the signal of ethanoate (acetate) is four times larger on gold than on platinum. The carboxylate signals were lower in alkaline medium (below the determination limit on Pt) than in acidic and neutral media. On gold, the formation of carboxylates was anticipated (0.85 V in alkaline medium versus 1.40 V in neutral medium). The automatic online monitoring of electrochemical processes by EC-CE-C 4 D holds great potential to investigate ionic/ionizable intermediates/products of new electrocatalysts and/or alternative fuels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  19. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Yung An, Chua; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Hawlader, Mohammad Nurul Islam; Azlan, Siti Amirah Binti Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.

  20. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  1. The effects of different lipid emulsions on the lipid profile, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant capacity of preterm infants: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Feng, Yi; Lu, Li-Na; Wang, Wei-Ping; He, Zhen-Juan; Xie, Li-Juan; Hong, Li; Tang, Qing-Ya; Cai, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil (OO), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) mixture and soybean oil (SO) lipid emulsions are currently used for preterm infants in China. The aim of our study was to compare the lipid profile, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant capacity of preterm infants administered OO, MCT/LCT, or SO lipid emulsions. In this study, 156 preterm infants (birth weight emulsions for a minimum of 14 d. On days 0, 7, and 14, the lipid profile, fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. On day 7, HDL levels in the MCT/LCT group were significantly lower than in the OO (1.06 ± 0.40 mmol/L) or SO groups. LDL levels were higher in the OO group than in the MCT/LCT or SO groups on day 7. A-I/B was higher in MCT/LCT than in OO or SO groups. Myristic acid (C14:0) levels on days 7 and 14 increased in MCT/LCT compared to the OO and SO groups. The OO group had higher oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels than the two other groups. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) were significantly lower in the OO group than in MCT/LCT or SO groups. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels decreased, and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acids levels increased in MCT/LCT and SO groups. No significant differences were obtained in SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, and T-AOC among the groups. The three lipid emulsions were safe and well tolerated in preterm infants. Oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels increased and LA (C18:2n6), ALA (C18:3n3), and EPA (C20:5n23) levels decreased in OO compared to MCT/LCT or SO. NCT01683162, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  3. Radioisotope binding capacity of serum for folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in hematologic and rheumatologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringelhann, B.; Revicky, A.; Arvai, I.; Megyeri, A.; Goemoer, B.; Josfay, L.; Csak, E.

    1980-01-01

    Folic acid, vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from hemic and rheumatic diseases, resp. Compared to the controls the folic acid levels were lower in some cases, the deficiency of folic acid absorption and distribution possibly being caused by the disease. Vitamin B 12 was only slightly decreased. In ankylosing spondylitis the transferrin level was similar to that of the controls, but in rheumatoid arthritis and in patients suffering from various diseases it was increased

  4. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutralization of wastewater from nitrite passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Mientki, B.; Wasag, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method for neutralization of wastewater formed in nitrite passivation has been presented. The method consists of introducing urea into wastewater and acidifying it with sulphuric acid. Wastewater is neutralized with lime. After clarification, wastewater can be drained outside the plant

  6. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  7. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80Mgha-1) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tes...

  8. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Enhancement in ex vivo phagocytic capacity of peritoneal leukocytes in mice by oral delivery of various lactic-acid-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Taik-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Lactic-acid-producing bacteria (LABs) are known to have immunomodulating activity. In the current study, various LABs were tested for their immunity-enhancing activity, especially the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. Viable but not heat-killed cells of Weissella kimchii strain PL9001, Lactobacillus fermentum strain PL9005, and L. plantarum strain PL9011 significantly increased the ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mouse peritoneal leukocytes to ingest fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Escherichia coli in a strain-dependent manner. Results of this and previous studies suggest these LABs as candidates for new probiotics. This is the first report of the enhancement of peritoneal leukocyte activity of these species.

  11. Bile acids, neutral steroids, and bacteria in feces as affected by a mixed, a lacto-ovovegetarian, and a vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Faassen, A; Bol, J; van Dokkum, W; Pikaar, N A; Ockhuizen, T; Hermus, R J

    1987-12-01

    In a metabolic ward 12 healthy male subjects consumed mixed Western (M), lacto-ovovegetarian (L), and vegan (V) diets in a randomized order for 20 d each. The concentrations of deoxycholic acid, isolithocholic acid, and total bile acids in 4-d composites of feces on the L and V diets were significantly lower than on the M diet. The chenodeoxycholic-to-isolithocholic plus lithocholic acid ratio was significantly higher on the V diet. The concentrations of coprostanol and of coprostanol plus cholesterol were highest on M diet and lowest on V diet. The number of fecal lactobacilli and enterococci on the V diet was significantly lower than on the M or the L diets. This study showed a decrease in the concentration of fecal (secondary) bile acids by the L and the V diets and an alteration of the fecal flora composition by the V diet.

  12. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  13. A Strategy Combining Higher Energy C-Trap Dissociation with Neutral Loss- and Product Ion-Based MSn Acquisition for Global Profiling and Structure Annotation of Fatty Acids Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qi-Rui; Hou, Jin-Jun; Yang, Min; Shen, Yao; Qi, Peng; Feng, Rui-Hong; Dai, Zhuo; Yan, Bing-Peng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acids conjugates (FACs) are ubiquitous but found in trace amounts in the natural world. They are composed of multiple unknown substructures and side chains. Thus, FACs are difficult to be analyzed by traditional mass spectrometric methods. In this study, an integrated strategy was developed to global profiling and targeted structure annotation of FACs in complex matrix by LTQ Orbitrap. Dicarboxylic acid conjugated bufotoxins (DACBs) in Venenum bufonis (VB) were used as model compounds. The new strategy (abbreviated as HPNA) combined higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) with product ion- (PI), neutral loss- (NL) based MS n (n ≥ 3) acquisition in both positive-ion mode and negative-ion mode. Several advantages are presented. First, various side chains were found under HCD in negative-ion mode, which included both known and unknown side chains. Second, DACBs with multiple side chains were simultaneously detected in one run. Compared with traditional quadrupole-based mass method, it greatly increased analysis throughput. Third, the fragment ions of side chain and steroids substructure could be obtained by PI- and NL-based MS n acquisition, respectively, which greatly increased the accuracy of the structure annotation of DACBs. In all, 78 DACBs have been discovered, of which 68 were new compounds; 25 types of substructure formulas and seven dicarboxylic acid side chains were found, especially five new side chains, including two saturated dicarboxylic acids [(azelaic acid (C 9 ) and sebacic acid (C 10 )] and three unsaturated dicarboxylic acids (u-C 8 , u-C 9 , and u-C 10 ). All these results greatly enriched the structures of DACBs in VB. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  15. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H-43, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H-43, campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    The well H-43 was drilled in Los Humeros Geothermal Field, Pue., in 2007 and 2008. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H-43 fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. This is a basic substance used to neutralize mainly the acid groups H+, and the goal was to raise the pH of the fluids to minimize its corrosive features. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of 244.4 mm (9 5/8 in) against corrosion and then all the surface installations. It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5.2 up to 6.8 without altering the steam production, thus demonstrating the neutralization procedure is feasible. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer (NaOH), and drilling the well are about 71.4 million pesos (around 5.5 million USD). We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 and a return on investment in five years, considering the income from energy sales at present value. [Spanish] El pozo H-43 fue perforado en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., en 2007-2008, y al evaluar su produccion se encontro que producia fluidos acidos de alto potencial corrosivo. Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esta es una sustancia basica que neutraliza principalmente los grupos acidos H+, con lo que se buscaba aumentar el pH del fluido lo necesario para reducir al maximo su caracter corrosivo. La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de 244.4 mm (9 5/8 pulgadas), y posteriormente a todos los equipos superficiales. Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5.2 a un maximo de 6

  16. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  17. Money neutrality: Rethinking the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaoui Fakhri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2, income (GDP, and prices (CPI. The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only meet motives of transaction, precaution, and speculation but also of fictional or quasi-fictional future demands due to the fact that they are created without real counterparts. The capacity of production systems in developed countries to respond to increases in money supply by creating more wealth, involves the assumption of money neutrality in the long-run. However, in developing countries, the excess of money supply may lead to inflation trends. The present study has confirmed the long-term non-neutrality of money supply in the USA, and its neutrality in Gabon and Morocco.

  18. Optimization of acid-activated bentonites on bleaching of cotton oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacin, O.; Sayan, E.; Kirali, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bentonites are commonly used adsorbent on bleaching cotton oil to produce edible oil products. Bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were investigated with acid-activated Arguvan and Kursunlu bentonites. Two models for acid activation of the bentonites were developed by using a full factorial experimental design and central composite design. The parameters used to develop these models were contact time, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and moisture of bentonite. By using a constrained optimization program, the maximum bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were determined as 99.99% and 48.5% for Arguvan and Kursunlu, respectively. Optimum results showed that Turkish bentonites (especially Arguvan bentonite) have high bleaching ability and they can be used efficiently to bleach neutralized cotton oil by considering the favorable volume weight, capacity of oil adsorbed and filtration rate. (author)

  19. The Effect of Acid Neutralization on Analytical Results Produced from SW846 Method 8330 after the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Explosives in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    lime addition. .............................................................................. 16  Figure 10. Effect of pre-extraction acidification of...approximately 20 grams of soil in a plastic pan and adding 20-mL of acid (two different acids were used, and are described below). The resulting soil...levels of soil moisture, and two conditions with pre-extraction acidification . Two of these conditions were controls without lime addition: condition A

  20. High-capacity hollow porous dummy molecular imprinted polymers using ionic liquid as functional monomer for selective recognition of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Haiyan; Peng, Mijun; Li, Hui; Peng, Sheng; Shi, Shuyun

    2017-01-30

    The existence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bond in salicylic acid (SA) weakens its intermolecular hydrogen bonding with functional monomer, then it is a challenge work to fabricate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for SA recognition with high capacity and good selectivity. Here, hollow porous dummy MIPs (HPDMIPs) were prepared using benzoic acid (BA) as dummy template, ionic liquid (i.e. 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) as functional monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. Factors that affected adsorption, such as type of template and porogen, mole ratio of template-functional monomer-cross-linker and type of binding solvent, were optimized in detail. Multiple strong interactions between SA and ionic liquid in HPDMIPs deduced higher binding capacity (29.75mg/g), imprinting factor (5.61) and selectivity than any previously reported MIPs by traditional or surface imprinting technology. The large surface area (543.9m 2 /g) with hollow porous structure resulted in faster kinetic binding (25min). The equilibrium data fitted well to Freundlich equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. Finally, HPDMIPs were successfully applied to selectively extract and enrich SA from Actinidia chinensis with a relatively high recovery (84.6-94.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of airborne, volatile amines from polyurethane foams by sorption onto a high-capacity cation-exchange resin based on poly(succinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, G; Buchmeiser, M R; Bonn, G K; Bertsch, T

    1998-06-05

    A high-capacity carboxylic acid-functionalized resin prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization based on cross-linked endo,endo-poly(norborn-2-ene-5,6-dicarboxylic acid) was used for the sampling of volatile, airborne amines from polyurethane (PU) foams. Six tertiary amines which represent commonly used promotors for the formation of PUs from diisocyanates and polyols, namely pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, diazabicyclooctane, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorphine, 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine, were sorbed onto the new resin. The sorption behavior of the new material was investigated in terms of loading capacities, the influence of concentration, flow-rate as well as of the amount of resin. Breakthrough curves were recorded from each single component as well as of mixtures thereof. Finally, the resin was used for the sampling of amines evaporating from PU foams applied in buildings. Further information about time dependent concentration profiles were obtained using a combination of GC-MS and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  2. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the extractive capacity of para-tert butyl calix[8]arene octa-phosphinoylated towards uranyl ions from an aqueous-acidic-salty medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano V, E. C.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction properties of octa-phosphinoylated para-tert butyl calix[8]arene (prepared in the laboratory) in chloroform towards uranyl ions from an aqueous-acidic-salty medium (HNO 3 -3.5 NaNO 3 ) containing uranyl nitrate salt, was investigated. Two spectroscopic techniques UV/Vis and Luminescence were used for this study. The latter permitted analyze the fluorescence from the uranyl ions influenced by the surrounding medium. Both permitted to learn about the power of this calixarene as extractant towards the mentioned ions. Its extraction ability or capability using this calixarene at 5.91 x 10 -4 M towards the uranyl ions was 400% as determined by UV/Vis while fluorescence revealed 100% of uranyl ion extraction. A closed analysis of the results obtained by using these techniques revealed that the stoichiometry of the main extracted species was 1calixarene:2 uranyl ions. The loading capacity of the calixarene ligand towards the uranyl ions was also investigated using both techniques. UV/Vis resulted to be inadequate for quantifying exactly the loading capacity of the calixarene whereas luminescence was excellent indeed, using a 5.91 x 10 -4 M calixarene concentration, its loading capacity was 0.157 M of free uranyl ions from 0.161 M of uranyl ions present in the aqueous-acidic-salty medium. The extracts from the ability and capacity studies were concentrated to dryness, purified and the dried extracts were analyzed by infrared and neutron activation analysis. By these techniques it was demonstrated that during the extraction of the uranyl ions by the calixarene ligand they form thermodynamically and kinetically stable complexes, since in the solid state, the 1:2, calixarene; uranyl ions stoichiometry was kept with the minimum formula: (UO 2 ) 2 B 8 bL 8 (NO 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) 4 CHCl 3 (CH 3 OH) 3 the methanol molecules come from its purification. It is proposed that B 8 bL 8 calixarene in chloroform medium is a good extractant for the treatment of nuclear wastes or

  4. Dependence of protein binding capacity of dimethylamino-γ-butyric-acid (DMGABA)-immobilized porous membrane on composition of solvent used for DMGABA immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanade, Akio; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu

    2013-01-01

    Dimethylamino-γ-butyric acid (DMGABA) as an ampholite was reacted with the epoxy group of the poly-glycidyl methacrylate chain grafted onto the pore surface of a porous hollow-fiber polyethylene membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. DMGABA was dissolved in a mixture of dioxane and water at various dioxane volume fractions, defined by dividing the dioxane volume by the total volume. The equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) of the DMGABA-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane for lysozyme was evaluated in the permeation mode. The EBC was varied from a 1/50-fold monolayer binding capacity to a 10-fold monolayer binding capacity by controlling the composition of the solvent used for DMGABA immobilization and the molar conversion of the epoxy group into the DMGABA group. - Highlights: ► A DMGABA membrane was immobilized by irradiation induced graft polymerization. ► The DMGABA was immobilized in a mixture of dioxane and water of various compositions. ► Lysozyme adsorptivity of DMGABA-immobilized membranes evaluated in the permeation mode. ► The composition of the DMGABA immobilized solvent can control adsorptivity

  5. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline Particles—Water Based Nanofluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Tze; Daik, Rusli; Hamid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Nanofluid has attracted great attention due to its superior thermal properties. In this study, chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline was carried out in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as a dopant. Particles of DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI) with the size range of 15 to 50 nm were obtained, as indicated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results of ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies as well ...

  7. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  8. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2016-12-01

    McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid-base transport protein abundance, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βm in vitro ), and exercise capacity in active men. Training intensity did not discriminate between adaptations for most proteins measured, with abundance of MCT1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 1, NBCe1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, and CAXIV increasing after 4 wk, whereas there was little change in CAIII and CAIV abundance. βm in vitro also did not change. However, MCT4 protein content only increased for HIITΔ20 [effect size (ES): 1.06, 90% confidence limits × / ÷ 0.77], whereas basigin protein content only increased for HIITΔ90 (ES: 1.49, × / ÷ 1.42). Repeated-sprint ability (5 × 6-s sprints; 24 s passive rest) improved similarly for both groups. Power at the lactate threshold only improved for HIITΔ20 (ES: 0.49; 90% confidence limits ± 0.38), whereas peak O 2 uptake did not change for either group. Detraining was characterized by the loss of adaptations for all of the proteins measured and for repeated-sprint ability 6 wk after removing the stimulus of HIIT. In conclusion, 4 wk of HIIT induced improvements in each of the acid-base transport protein families, but, remarkably, a 40

  10. Study of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Eisner, A.

    1975-01-01

    The range of physics problems for which a detector emphasizing neutrals is most suitable is discussed. The primary goals are the all neutrals cross section, sigma/sub o/ (e + e - → neutrals), the characterization of the neutral energy in multi-hadronic events, the search for monoenergetic photons, and good sensitivity in the difficult region of low energy photons. Those features of multi-hadronic events which are most relevant to a neutral detector were calculated using a jet model with parameters extrapolated from SPEAR energies. These distributions are presented and discussed

  11. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe2O3/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 M to 1.0 × 10 −4 M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10 −7 M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe 2 O 3 , graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor

  12. Electroactive behavior assessment of poly(acrylic acid)-graphene oxide composite hydrogel in the detection of cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bejarano-Jimenez, A.; Escobar-Barrios, V.A.; Kleijn, J.M.; Oritz-Ledon, C.A.; Chazaro-Ruiz, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers of acrylic acid-graphene oxide (PAA-GO) were synthesized with different percentage of chemical neutralization (0, 10, and 20%) of the acrylic acid monomer before its polymerization. The influence of their swelling and adsorption/desorption capacity of cadmium ions in aqueous

  13. Buffer capacity of 4% succinylated gelatin does not provide any advantages over acidic 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 for acid-base balance during experimental mixed acidaemia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esche, V; Russ, M; Melzer, S; Grossmann, B; Boemke, W; Unger, J K

    2008-11-01

    Four percent gelatine is an alkaline compound due to NH2 groups, whereas 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES130) has acidic features. We investigated whether these solutions lead to differences in acid-base balance in pigs during acidaemia and correction of pH. Anaesthetized pigs were randomized to HES130 or gelatine infusion (n = 5 per group). Animals received acid infusion (0.4 M solution of lactic acid and HCl diluted in normal saline) and low tidal volume ventilation (6-7 mL kg(-1), PaCO2 of 80-85 mmHg, pH 7.19-7.24). Measurements were made before and after induction of acidaemia, before and after correction of pH with haemofiltration (continuous venovenous haemofiltration) and tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane infusion. We measured parameters describing acid-base balance according to Stewart's approach, ketone body formation, oxygen delivery, haemodynamics, diuresis and urinary pH. Acid-base balance did not differ significantly between the groups. In HES130-treated pigs, the haemodilution-based drop of haemoglobin (1.4 +/- 1.0 g dL(-1), median +/- SD) was paralleled by an increase in the cardiac output (0.5 +/- 0.4 L min(-1). Lacking increases in cardiac output, gelatine-treated pigs demonstrated a reduction in oxygen delivery (149.4 +/- 106.0 mL min(-1)). Tris-hydroxymethylaminomethane volumes required for pH titration to desired values were significantly higher in the gelatine group (0.7 +/- 0.1 mL kg(-1) h(-1) vs. HES130: 0.5 +/- 0.2 mL kg(-1) h(-1)). The buffer capacity of gelatine did not lead to favourable differences in acid-base balance in comparison to HES130.

  14. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  15. Effects of chlorogenic acid on capacity of free radicals scavenging and proteomic changes in postharvest fruit of nectarine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To study how chlorogenic acid affects changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the proteins involved in ROS scavenging of nectarine during storage time, the fruits were treated with chlorogenic acid (CHA then stored at 25°C for further studies. The CHA-treatment significantly reduced O2-· production rate, H2O2 content, and membrane permeability of nectarine fruit during storage. The key proteins related the nectarine fruit senescence during storage were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Level and enzymatic activity of peroxidase were reduced, while both the protein levels and the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and monodehydroascorbate reductase were enhanced in nectarine fruit treated with CHA. In addition, levels of several pathogen-related proteins were also enhanced by CHA-treatment. Taking together, the present study showed that CHA could influence changes in defense related proteins and reduced oxidative damage in nectarine fruit during postharvest ripening.

  16. Influence of porous texture and surface chemistry on the CO₂ adsorption capacity of porous carbons: acidic and basic site interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Angela; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D

    2014-12-10

    Doped porous carbons exhibiting highly developed porosity and rich surface chemistry have been prepared and subsequently applied to clarify the influence of both factors on carbon dioxide capture. Nanocasting was selected as synthetic route, in which a polyaramide precursor (3-aminobenzoic acid) was thermally polymerized inside the porosity of an SBA-15 template in the presence of different H3PO4 concentrations. The surface chemistry and the porous texture of the carbons could be easily modulated by varying the H3PO4 concentration and carbonization temperature. Porous texture was found to be the determinant factor on carbon dioxide adsorption at 0 °C, while surface chemistry played an important role at higher adsorption temperatures. We proved that nitrogen functionalities acted as basic sites and oxygen and phosphorus groups as acidic ones toward adsorption of CO2 molecules. Among the nitrogen functional groups, pyrrolic groups exhibited the highest influence, while the positive effect of pyridinic and quaternary functionalities was smaller. Finally, some of these N-doped carbons exhibit CO2 heats of adsorption higher than 42 kJ/mol, which make them excellent candidates for CO2 capture.

  17. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.

    1980-09-01

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described

  18. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines

  19. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Adsorption of acidic, basic, and neutral proteins from aqueous samples using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, S.; Asadi, M.; Absalan, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared and characterized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and their binary mixtures (IL-Fe 3 O 4 ) with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as ionic liquid for use in the adsorption of lysozyme (LYS), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and myoglobin (MYO). The optimum operational conditions for the adsorption of proteins (at 0.05-2.0 mg mL -1 ) were 4.0 mg mL -1 of nanoparticles and a contact time of 10 min. The maximum adsorption capacities are 455, 182 and 143 mg for LYS, BSA, and MYO per gram of adsorbent, respectively. The Langmuir model better fits the adsorption isotherms, with adsorption constants of 0.003, 0.015 and 0.008 L mg -1 , in order, for LYS, BSA, MYO. The applicability of two kinetic models including pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model was estimated on the basis of comparative analysis of the corresponding rate parameters, equilibrium adsorption capacity and correlation coefficients. The adsorption processes are endothermic. The proteins can be desorbed from the nanoparticles by using NaCl solution at pH 9.5, and the nanoparticles thus can be recycled. (author)

  1. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannenas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys.

  3. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  4. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  5. Neutral beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral beam generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange partially neutralizes the high energy beam, is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are identified. (U.K.)

  6. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  7. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Apparent and standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes of aqueous tartaric acid and its sodium salts at elevated temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei; Trevani, Liliana; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Apparent molar heat capacities and volumes have been determined for aqueous solutions of tartaric acid (H 2 Tar, Tar=C 4 H 4 O 6 ), two buffer solutions of (H 2 Tar/NaHTar) and (NaHTar/Na 2 Tar), and solutions of disodium tartrate (Na 2 Tar) at four temperatures in the range 283.15≤T/K≤328.15 at p=1 MPa. Apparent molar volumes for H 2 Tar(aq) and Na 2 Tar(aq) have been measured at temperatures 377.15≤T/K≤529.15 and p=10.4 MPa. The experimental results have been represented with a model to describe the molality and temperature dependence. Extrapolations to infinite dilution yielded standard partial molar heat capacities C p 0 and volumes V 0 for the species H 2 Tar(aq), HTar - (aq) and Tar 2- (aq) over the range of experimental measurements. The temperature dependence of V 0 for Na 2 Tar(aq) is consistent with other aqueous electrolytes, while that of H 2 Tar(aq) may be anomalous, in that it does not show divergence towards increasingly positive values with increasing temperature

  9. Search for neutral leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references

  10. Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

    2013-03-01

    The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

  11. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus

  12. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  13. Construction and evaluation of a modular biofilm-forming chamber for microbial recovery of neodymium and semi-continuous biofilm preparation. Tolerance of Serratia sp.N14 on acidic conditions and neutralized aqua regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavlekas, Dimitrios A

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of neodymium from liquid metallic wastes and scrap leachates is a crucial step for its recycling, which can take place through the immobilized biofilms of Serratia sp. N14. These biofilms are produced in a fermentor vessel with a turnaround time of 10-14 days, which is unacceptable from an economic point of view for an industrial process. This study proposes the construction and evaluation of a modular system, whereby a biofilm-forming chamber is inserted into the continuous biomass outflow of the main chemostat vessel, for an alternative semi-continuous and economic production of biofilm. The activity of the biofilm from the outflow chamber was found to be the same as the one from the main chamber, which was stored in a cold room (4°C), for 9-12 months, depending on a 24 h nucleation step.Moreover, the ability of the biofilm to function in the presence of a leaching agent (aqua regia) or in acidic conditions was also evaluated. The biofilm of the main chamber can remain active even at 50% neutralized aqua regia (pH 3.0), while at acidic conditions, phosphate release of the cells is reduced to 50%. This strain proves to be very tolerant in low pH or high salt concentration solutions. The biofilm produced from the outflow of the main fermentor vessel is of acceptable activity, rather than being disposed.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  15. Neutralized transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental details on providing active neutralization of high brightness ion beam have been demonstrated for Heavy Ion Fusion program. A K + beam was extracted from a variable-perveance injector and transported through 2.4 m long quadrupole lattice for final focusing. Neutralization was provided by a localized cathode arc plasma plug and a RF volume plasma system. Effects of beam perveance, emittance, convergence focusing angle, and axial focusing position on neutralization have been investigated. Good agreement has been observed with theory and experiment throughout the study

  16. Neutral beam injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Integrated into the operation of the 2XIIB controlled fusion experiment is a 600-A, 20-keV neutral injection system: the highest neutral-beam current capacity of any existing fusion machine. This paper outlines the requirements of the injection system and the design features to which they led. Both mechanical and electrical aspects are discussed. Also included is a brief description of some operational aspects of the system and some of the things we have learned along the way, as well as a short history of the most significant developments

  17. Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Using a variety of different definitions of "neutrality," this study presents significant evidence against the neutrality to market risk of hedge funds in a range of style categories. I generalize standard definitions of "market neutrality," and propose five different neutrality concepts. I suggest statistical tests for each neutrality concept, and apply these tests to a database of monthly returns on 1423 hedge funds from five style categories. For the "market neutral" style, approximately o...

  18. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  19. Bunched beam neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency

  20. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  1. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  2. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  3. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation increases the rate of oxygen consumption and enhances the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Zhiyin; Lee, Do-Yup; Lim, James; Canaria, Christie A; Barnebey, Adam; Yanonne, Steven M; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2012-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a model to examine how RA influences MT during the differentiation process. We find that RA confers an approximately sixfold increase in the oxygen consumption rate while the rate of glycolysis modestly increases. RA treatment does not increase the number of MT or cause measurable changes in the composition of the electron transport chain. Rather, RA treatment significantly increases the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We propose a competition model for the therapeutic effects of RA. Specifically, the high metabolic rate in differentiated cells limits the availability of metabolic nutrients for use by the undifferentiated cells and suppresses their growth. Thus, RA treatment provides a selective advantage for the differentiated state. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  5. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Tina F.; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. Objectives To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of ‘new’ epitopes. Conclusions In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten. PMID:25207551

  6. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulezwan A. Malik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001 in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897 and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5. Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05 more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH was 1

  7. Water absorption in neutralized Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodmacq, B.; Roche, E.; Pineri, M.; Escoubez, M.; Duplessix, R.; Eisenberg, A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper some results are reported about the interactions between water and Nafion neutralized with different cations. The energy of water absorption have been measured in the whole range of relative humidity pressures. Moessbauer spectra permit to get information about the change of environment of the iron atoms during the hydration. Small angle neutron and X ray scattering experiments have then been performed to define a possible phase segregation. From these results a model of clustering in the Nafion membranes is proposed. The neutralized Nafion samples have been obtained by soaking the acid samples in solutions containing the different salts

  8. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ... to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach...

  9. SCC in acidic, neutral, and alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This group considered the following: (1) What features characterized SCC in the different environments? (2) What are the phenomenological correlations that presently describe SCC and how good are these? (3) What modeling is now available for all or some part of the subject? (4) What are the elements and sub-elements for an ideal model which would adequately describe the subject? and (5) What work has yet to be done to organize an adequate model?

  10. Neutral beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staten, H.S.

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer

  11. Neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the beam injection program for the Doublet-3 device is discussed. The design considerations for the beam line and design parameters for the Doublet-3 ion souce are given. Major components of the neutral beam injector system are discussed in detail. These include the neutralizer, magnetic shielding, reflecting magnets, vacuum system, calorimeter and beam dumps, and drift duct. The planned location of the two-injector system for Doublet-3 is illustrated and site preparation is considered. The status of beamline units 1 and 2 and the future program schedule are discussed

  12. Investigation of regularities of uranyl salts complexing with neutral bases in nonaqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Buchikhin, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Anhydrous uranyl chloride complexing with neutral oxygen-containing organic bases (sulfoxides, organic phosphates, phosphinates, phosphinoxides, N-oxides) in the acetone medium depending on the donor capacity of neutral molecules is discussed. The constants of 1:1 complexes dissociation are shown to detect no correlation with the donor capacity of neutral bases. At the same time stability constants of complexes increase as the donor capacity of ligands grows. But the dependence is of a complex character and is determined by the nature of neutral molecules. Estimation of uranyl chloride and 0-donor contributions into the values of stability constants and complex formation heats is given

  13. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  14. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  15. Development of partitioning method: adsorption behavior of Sr on titanic acid pelletized with binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr was examined with the titanic acid with the binder and with binderless titanic acid. Then the effect of the difference of the neutralizer was also examined. When the initial concentration of Sr was constant, distribution coefficient (Kd) increased with pH after adsorption. At pH 4, Kd decreased in order of the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution without the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution and pelletized with the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with KOH solution and pelletized with the binder. At pH 6, Kd decreased with increasing the concentration of Sr in the solution, but the decreasing tendency of Kd for each titanic acid was the same. Adsorption kinetics was examined with titanic acids neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution, keeping the initial concentration of Sr and the initial pH constant. It took about one hour to reach Kd of 100mL/g for the titanic acid without the binder but over 10 hours for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder. It was confirmed that by pelletizing titanic acid with the binder, Kd of Sr became small and it took very long time to reach the adsorption equilibrium. However, by sufficient conditioning with water of the titanic acid pelletized with the binder, 1) it took about half time of titanic acid without conditioning to reach Kd of 100mL/g, 2) after 24 hours mixing, Kd for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder was almost equal to that for the titanic acid without the binder, 3) apparent ion exchange capacity obtained through a column test became over about 1meq/g. (J.P.N.)

  16. Development of partitioning method: adsorption behavior of Sr on titanic acid pelletized with binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr was examined with the titanic acid with the binder and with binderless titanic acid. Then the effect of the difference of the neutralizer was also examined. When the initial concentration of Sr was constant, distribution coefficient (Kd) increased with pH after adsorption. At pH 4, Kd decreased in order of the titanic acid neutralized with NH 4 OH solution without the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with NH 4 OH solution and pelletized with the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with KOH solution and pelletized with the binder. At pH 6, Kd decreased with increasing the concentration of Sr in the solution, but the decreasing tendency of Kd for each titanic acid was the same. Adsorption kinetics was examined with titanic acids neutralized with NH 4 OH solution, keeping the initial concentration of Sr and the initial pH constant. It took about one hour to reach Kd of 100mL/g for the titanic acid without the binder but over 10 hours for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder. It was confirmed that by pelletizing titanic acid with the binder, Kd of Sr became small and it took very long time to reach the adsorption equilibrium. However, by sufficient conditioning with water of the titanic acid pelletized with the binder, 1) it took about half time of titanic acid without conditioning to reach Kd of 100mL/g, 2) after 24 hours mixing, Kd for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder was almost equal to that for the titanic acid without the binder, 3) apparent ion exchange capacity obtained through a column test became over about 1meq/g. (J.P.N.)

  17. Mod en neutral seksualitet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    Towards a Neutral Sexuality! or Roland Barthes as a Queer Thinker? This article argues that the work of Roland Barthes has interesting perspectives in common with the queer theory. This argument will be put forward by using his concept of ‘the neutral’ that Barthes defines as “that which outplays...

  18. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  19. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Di Pietro, E.; Bayetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  20. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna Birch; Rasmussen, Tina Frid

    2014-01-01

    the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products...... (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity...... by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level...

  1. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  2. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  3. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  4. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  5. Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions | Climate Neutral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuses | NREL Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions The term climate neutral evolved along with net zero and a number of other "green" and accuracy in these areas lets research campuses know exactly how close they are to climate

  6. Neutral Community Dynamics and the Evolution of Species Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco Túlio P; Rangel, Thiago F

    2018-04-01

    A contemporary goal in ecology is to determine the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate recurring structural patterns in mutualistic networks. One of the great challenges is testing the capacity of neutral processes to replicate observed patterns in ecological networks, since the original formulation of the neutral theory lacks trophic interactions. Here, we develop a stochastic-simulation neutral model adding trophic interactions to the neutral theory of biodiversity. Without invoking ecological differences among individuals of different species, and assuming that ecological interactions emerge randomly, we demonstrate that a spatially explicit multitrophic neutral model is able to capture the recurrent structural patterns of mutualistic networks (i.e., degree distribution, connectance, nestedness, and phylogenetic signal of species interactions). Nonrandom species distribution, caused by probabilistic events of migration and speciation, create nonrandom network patterns. These findings have broad implications for the interpretation of niche-based processes as drivers of ecological networks, as well as for the integration of network structures with demographic stochasticity.

  7. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  8. Dietary DHA/EPA ratio affected tissue fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of lipid-related genes but not growth in juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Monroig, Óscar; Lu, You; Yuan, Ye; Li, Yi; Ding, Liyun; Tocher, Douglas R; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1.16, 1.60, 2.03 and 2.67. There were no differences in growth performance and feed utilization among treatments. Fish fed higher DHA/EPA ratios had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in serum than lower ratios. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) content was significantly higher in fish fed the lowest DHA/EPA ratio. Tissue fatty acid profiles reflected the diets despite down-regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, fatty acyl desaturase 2 (fads2) and elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 5 (elovl5), by high DHA/EPA ratios. Expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (accα) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (cpt1a) were up-regulated by high DHA/EPA ratio, whereas sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (srebp-1) and hormone-sensitive lipase (hsl) were down-regulated. Fatty acid synthase (fas), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6pgd) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparα) showed highest expression in fish fed intermediate (1.16) DHA/EPA ratio. Overall, this study indicated that dietary DHA/EPA ratio affected fatty acid profiles and significantly influenced lipid metabolism including LC-PUFA biosynthesis and other anabolic and catabolic pathways, and also had impacts on antioxidant capacity and hematological characteristics.

  9. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R Hunt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies. Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs. Six E2 epitopes (E2(c,d,e,f,g,h bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody and mapped to amino acids (aa 182-207. Nothing is known about the human antibody repertoire to VEEV or epitopes that engage human virus-neutralizing antibodies. There is no specific treatment for VEE; however virus-neutralizing mMAbs are potent protective and therapeutic agents for mice challenged with VEEV by either peripheral or aerosol routes. Therefore, fully human MAbs (hMAbs with virus-neutralizing activity should be useful for prevention or clinical treatment of human VEE.We used phage-display to isolate VEEV-specific hFabs from human bone marrow donors. These hFabs were characterized by sequencing, specificity testing, VEEV subtype cross-reactivity using indirect ELISA, and in vitro virus neutralization capacity. One E2-specific neutralizing hFAb, F5n, was converted into IgG, and its binding site was identified using competitive ELISA with mMAbs and by preparing and sequencing antibody neutralization-escape variants.Using 11 VEEV-reactive hFabs we constructed the first human epitope map for the alphaviral surface proteins E1 and E2. We identified an important neutralization-associated epitope unique to the human immune response, E2 aa115-119. Using a 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of the Sindbis virus E2 protein, we showed the probable surface location of this human VEEV epitope.The VEEV-neutralizing capacity of the hMAb F5 nIgG is similar to that exhibited by the humanized mMAb Hy4 IgG. The Hy4 IgG has been shown to limit VEEV infection in mice both prophylactically and therapeutically. Administration

  10. Proteolytische activiteit bij neutrale pH in rundermilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, Jan

    1969-01-01

    Intracellular enzymes, hydrolysing proteins optimally at acid pH values (acid proteases), have been studied in detail by several investigators. The existence of proteolytic activity at neutral pH in animal tissue extracts, on the other hand, has often been mentioned, but with few reports on the

  11. Bremsstrahlung and neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the bremsstrahlung process in detecting parity violations from V-A weak neutral current interference is analysed in two ways. Firstly, bremsstrahlung from polarized lepton-nucleus scattering has an asymmetry with respect to the polarization of the incident leptons, and secondly, bremsstrahlung from unpolarized lepton nucleus scattering has a small circular polarization. The magnitude of each effect is calculated. The ratio of the parity violating contribution and the parity conserving contribution to the cross section is shown to be a misleading measure of the utility of these experiments. A parameter, the figure of merit, is introduced and used to discuss the feasibility of possible experiments

  12. Plasma neutralizer for H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutralization of H - beams by a hydrogen plasma is discussed. Optimum target thickness and maximum neutralization efficiency as a function of the fraction of the hydrogen target gas ionized is calculated for different H - beam energies. Also, the variation of neutralization efficiency with respect to target thickness for different H - beam energies is computed. The dispersion of the neutralized beam by a magnetic field for different energies and different values of B . z is found. Finally, a type of plasma jet is proposed, which may be suitable for a compact H - neutralizer

  13. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  14. On the use of dimensionless parameters in acid-base theory: VI. The buffer capacities of equimolar binary mixtures of monovalent weak protolytes as compared to that of bivalent protolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilbe, H

    1994-05-01

    The general equation for the relative molar buffer capacity, earlier shown to be valid for bivalent acids, bases, and ampholytes, is shown to hold also for equimolar, binary mixtures of monovalent protolytes if only the parameter s = square root of K1'/4K2' is exchanged for t = s + 1/4s. The same applies to the equations for the mean valence of the two classes of protolytes. As a consequence thereof, the titration and buffer capacity curves of a bivalent protolyte are identical with those of a monovalent protolyte with a pK' value equal to the with those of a monovalent protolyte with a pK' value equal to square root of K1'K2' of the bivalent one (the isoprotic point of an ampholyte). For a hypothetical bivalent acid, base, or ampholyte with s = 1, delta pK' = log 4, this implies that the intrinsic rather than the hybrid dissociation constants are responsible for the titration and buffer capacity curves.

  15. Can liming reduce cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) in slightly acidic soils? A contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity of roots and Cd immobilisation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Chen, Jiangmin; Huang, Qina; Tang, Shaoqing; Wang, Jianlong; Hu, Peisong; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice is strongly controlled by liming, but information on the use of liming to control Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils is inconsistent. Here, pot experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of liming on Cd accumulation in two rice varieties focusing on two aspects: available/exchangeable Cd content in soils that were highly responsive to liming, and Cd uptake and transport capacity in the roots of rice in terms of Cd accumulation-relative gene expression. The results showed that soil availability and exchangeable iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents decreased with increased liming, and that genes related to Cd uptake (OsNramp5 and OsIRT1) were sharply up-regulated in the roots of the two rice varieties. Thus, iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents in rice plants increased under low liming applications but decreased in response to high liming applications. However, yield and rice quantities were only slightly affected. These results indicated that Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils presents a contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity by roots and soil Cd immobilisation in response to liming. The enhanced Cd uptake capacity under low liming dosages increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  17. Low-temperature solid-state FTIR study of glycine, sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine: observation of neutral forms of simple α-amino acids in the solid state

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Fausto, R.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral forms of glycine and their N-methylated derivatives, sarcosine (N-methylglycine) and N,N-dimethylglycine were, for the first time, observed in the solid state pure compounds. The substances were sublimated under high vacuum, quickly deposited onto a cold CsI substrate at 9 K and examined using FTIR spectroscopy within the temperature range 9–300 K. For all the compounds studied, the spectra obtained at 9 K after deposition revealed the presence of both the neutral and zwitterionic ami...

  18. Effect of gyrB-mediated changes in chromosome structure on killing of Escherichia coli by ultraviolet light: experiments with strains differing in deoxyribonucleic acid repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Wright, A.; Bridges, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Mutations at the gyrB locus were found to decrease the degree of supercoiling of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The effect of a gyrB mutation on the repair of ultraviolet-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage was studied by following the killing of strains of E. coli K-12 proficient and deficient in deoxyribonucleic acid repair. The effectiveness of both excision and postreplication types of deoxyribonucleic acid repair was found to be altered by this mutation, the former being apparently enhanced and the latter impaired

  19. Zeolitic adsorbent synthesized from powdered waste porcelain, and its capacity for heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, T.; Ikegami, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A zeolitic adsorbent was synthesized from powdered waste porcelain kept at 80 o C for 24 h. The product contained the zeolite phases Na-P1 and hydroxysodalite. The product with the highest cation exchange capacity (CEC) was synthesized using 4 M NaOH and the sample weight / volume of alkali solution ratio was 1/4. The highest CEC obtained for the product was almost 1900 mmol/kg, which is the same as that of natural zeolite. The product with the highest CEC was tested for its ability to remove heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Al, B,Mo) from an acidic solution (pH 2). The product can neutralize the acidic solution to almost pH 7, and the capacity of the product for the removal of heavy metals is higher than that of the natural zeolite, except for Mo and B. (authors)

  20. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  2. Application of neutral electrolyzed water to disinfection of alginate impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neutral electrolyzed water was developed with new concepts of long-term good durability and minimum corrosiveness to metal in addition to its excellent bactericidal activities similar to acid type of electrolyzed waters. The present study examined the bactericidal effects of the neutral electrolyzed water on disinfection of the alginate impression of a dental arch model contaminated by bacteria. Only 1-min immersion in neutral electrolyzed water could sufficiently disinfect the alginate impression including the metallic tray under ultrasonic with no significant differences from acid electrolyzed waters. No bactericidal effects were found in any electrolyzed water when used as mixing water. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each electrolyzed water in a comprehensive way, it was suggested that neutral electrolyzed water may be the most appropriate for the disinfection of alginate impression.

  3. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  4. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  5. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 11443 and the mutant strain SCT-10-10-60 with enhanced L-lactic acid production capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Lu, Zhilong; Li, Jianxiu; Sun, Feifei; Huang, Ribo

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms for high L-lactic acid production remain unclear in many bacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCT-10-10-60 was previously obtained from L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443 via mutagenesis and showed improved L-lactic acid production. In this study, the genomes of strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443 were sequenced. Both genomes are a circular chromosome, 2.99 Mb in length with a GC content of approximately 46.8%. Eight split genes were identified in strain SCT-10-10-60, including two LytR family transcriptional regulators, two Rex redox-sensing transcriptional repressors, and four ABC transporters. In total, 60 significantly up-regulated genes (log 2 fold-change ≥ 2) and 39 significantly down-regulated genes (log 2 fold-change ≤ - 2) were identified by a transcriptome comparison between strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that "pyruvate metabolism" was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two strains. The split genes and the differentially expressed genes involved in the "pyruvate metabolism" pathway are probably responsible for the increased L-lactic acid production by SCT-10-10-60. The genome and transcriptome sequencing information and comparison of SCT-10-10-60 with ATCC 11443 provide insights into the anabolism of L-lactic acid and a reference for improving L-lactic acid production using genetic engineering.

  6. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA.

  7. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  8. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants.

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  10. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  11. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  12. Phenomenology of neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral-current interactions are discussed within a rather general phenomenological framework without commitment to any particular theoretical model. Three points are kept in mind: what various experiments really measure; the performing of complete experiments to determine the neutral-current couplings; and the testing of models in an objective, emotionally uninvolved manner. The following topics are considered: neutrino-electron scattering, hadronic currents and models, neutrino-induced inclusive hadronic reactions, neutrino-induced exclusive hadronic reactions, and neutral-current phenomena without neutrinos. In conclusion, what has actually been learned about neutral-current interactions is summarized. 9 figures, 2 tables

  13. On becoming neutral: effects of experimental neutralizing reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, M; van Pol, M; Peters, M

    2001-12-01

    Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 found that writing out a negative thought produced anxiety and an urge to neutralize the thought, that instructing participants to neutralize the thought reduced anxiety/neutralization urge in the short run (i.e. within 2 min), but that in the control group 20 min without instruction was attended by the same reduction in anxiety/urge to neutralize ("natural decay"). The observations were made with pariticipants who scored high on "thought action fusion" and the experiment was set up as exerimental model of obsessions. We repeated the study with participants that were not selected on thought action fusion. All the findings reported by Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 were replicated. Correlational analysis indicated that the strength of the effect was not related to scores on scales measuring "thought action fusion". Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 did not assess whether non-neutralizing was followed by immediate reductions in distress. We did assess this and found that the larger part of the immediate reduction of distress after neutralization also occurs when no neutralization instruction is given. The effects of neutralization instructions in the present type of experiment are considerably less powerful than suggested earlier.

  14. The antioxidant capacity of erythrocyte concentrates is increased during the first week of storage and correlated with the uric acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, M; Maye, S; Lesch, A; Delobel, J; Tissot, J-D; Cortés-Salazar, F; Tacchini, P; Lion, N; Girault, H H; Prudent, M

    2017-10-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) suffer from lesions during cold storage, depending in part on their ability to counterbalance oxidative stress by activating their antioxidant defence. The aim of this study was to monitor the antioxidant power (AOP) in erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) during cold storage. Six ECs were prepared in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) additive solution and followed during 43 days. The AOP was quantified electrochemically using disposable electrode strips and compared with results obtained from a colorimetric assay. Haematological data, data on haemolysis and the extracellular concentration of uric acid were also recorded. Additionally, a kinetic model was developed to extract quantitative kinetic data on the AOP behaviour. The AOP of total ECs and their extracellular samples attained a maximum after 1 week of storage prior to decaying and reaching a plateau, as shown by the electrochemical measurements. The observed trend was confirmed with a colorimetric assay. Uric acid had a major contribution to the extracellular AOP. Interestingly, the AOP and uric acid levels were linked to the sex of the donors. The marked increase in AOP during the first week of storage suggests that RBCs are impacted early by the modification of their environment. The AOP behaviour reflects the changes in metabolism activity following the adjustment of the extracellular uric acid level. Knowing the origin, interdonor variability and the effects of the AOP on the RBCs could be beneficial for the storage quality, which will have to be further studied. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  16. Estudo de materiais calcários usados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo. II - Composição química Chemical composition of limestones employed in neutralizing soil acidity in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo van Raij

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas determinações de óxido de cálcio (CaO, óxido de magnésio (MgO, sesquióxidos (R203, perda ao fogo (P.F., resíduo insolúvel (R.I., umidade (H20, poder de neutralização (P.N. de 16 calcários sedimentares, 11 calcários metamórficos, 1 calcário magmático e 2 escórias de siderurgia, materias utilzados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo.The contents of CaO, MgO, R2O3, loss of ignition, insoluble residue and the neutralization value of 29 limestones and 2 siderurgy slags employed in the neutralization of soil acidity in the State of São Paulo were determined. The results showed that most of the limestones studied belonged to the dolomitic type. The neutralization value was higher in the samples containing higher percentage of CaO plus MgO.

  17. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro neutralization of the scorpion, Buthus tamulus venom toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Y; Janakiram, B; Reddy, G R

    1988-01-01

    Scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom was subjected to neutralization by treating the venom with various chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, thiourea, formaldehyde, zinc sulphate, acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. The venom was also subjected to heat treatment. The levels of total protein, free amino acids and protease activity in neutralized venom decreased significantly. The decrease in venom protein and free amino acids was in proportion to the duration of the heat treatment and the concentration of chemicals used except zinc sulphate, sodium hydroxide and thiourea. Protease activity of neutralized venom samples also showed a decrease except with zinc sulphate which enhanced the enzyme activity. Intramuscular injection of formaldehyde, trichlcroacetic acid and heat treated venoms into albino rats produced low mortality while thiourea and zinc sulphate were not effective in reducing the mortality. Hydrochloric acid and acetic acid treated venoms reduced the mortality by 50% with a decrease in the symptoms of envenomation. The changes were attributed to the denaturing of venom protein by chemical and heat treatments.

  19. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  20. Neutral evolution of mutational robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, Erik van; Crutchfield, James P.; Huynen, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a general model of a population evolving over a network of selectively neutral genotypes. We show that the population s limit distribution on the neutral network is solely determined by the network topology and given by the principal eigenvector of the network

  1. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  2. Comparison of Phenolics and Phenolic Acid Profiles in Conjunction with Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity (ORAC) in Berries of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and V. myrtillus L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colak, N.; Torun, H.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Šubrtová, Michaela; Inceer, H.; Ayaz, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-91 ISSN 1230-0322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : blueberry * bilberry * phenolic acids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2016 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pjfns.2016.66.issue-2/pjfns-2015-0053/pjfns-2015-0053.xml

  3. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  4. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zheng, Delun [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −6} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10{sup −7} M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor.

  5. HIV-1 binding and neutralizing antibodies of injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Ouverney

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a stronger seroreactivity against some synthetic peptides responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies in injecting drug users (IDU compared to that of individuals sexually infected with HIV-1 (S, but the effectiveness in terms of the neutralizing ability of these antibodies has not been evaluated. Our objective was to study the humoral immune response of IDU by determining the specificity of their antibodies and the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The neutralization capacity against the HIV-1 isolate MN (genotype B, the primary HIV-1 isolate 95BRRJ021 (genotype F, and the seroreactivity with peptides known to induce neutralizing antibodies, from the V2 and V3 loops of different HIV-1 subtypes, were analyzed. Seroreactivity indicates that IDU plasma are more likely to recognize a broader range of peptides than S plasma, with significantly higher titers, especially of V3 peptides. Similar neutralization frequencies of the MN isolate were observed in plasma of the IDU (16/47 and S (20/60 groups in the 1:10 dilution. The neutralization of the 95BRRJ021 isolate was more frequently observed for plasma from the S group (15/23 than from the IDU group (15/47, P = 0.0108. No correlation between neutralization and seroreactivity with the peptides tested was observed. These results suggest that an important factor responsible for the extensive and broad humoral immune response observed in IDU is their infection route. There was very little difference in neutralizing antibody response between the IDU and S groups despite their differences in seroreactivity and health status.

  6. Investigations of the sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the sorption of pertechnetate on neutral and acid salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Particular, distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts, by the addition of non-electrolytes the distribution coefficients decrease. A saturation capacity of about 0.19 mmol Tc/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was determined from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase can be supposed. (author)

  7. Neutralizing antibodies against two HIV-1 strains in consecutively collected serum samples: cross neutralization and association to HIV-1 related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C M; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    97 sera collected during a 10-year period from 10 HIV-1 infected individuals were tested for neutralizing capacity against a virus isolate FICPH-22 obtained from a Danish AIDS patient, and the laboratory strain HTLV-IIIB. Three patterns of serum neutralizing activity were demonstrated: (a) patients...... developing high neutralizing activity against both HIV strains; (b) patients developing high neutralizing activity against the Danish virus isolate; and (c) patients developing only low titers of neutralizing antibodies (NA) against both HIV strains. The HTLV-IIIB strain was less sensitive to serum...... neutralization than the FICPH-22 isolate and the appearance of NA against HTLV-IIIB was typically lacking several years behind that against FICPH-22 indicating a broadening of the NA response over time. No difference in clinical outcome was observed comparing patients reaching high titers of NA and patients...

  8. A multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) study on the antioxidant capacity of a neuroprotective drug, edaravone as compared with uric acid, glutathione, and trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Erisa; Sueishi, Yoshimi

    2014-03-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one) is a neuroprotective drug that has been used for brain ischemia injury treatment. Because its activity is speculated to be due to free radical scavenging activity, we carried out a quantitative determination of edaravone's free radical scavenging activity against multiple free radical species. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping-based multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method was employed, where target free radicals were hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Edaravone showed relatively high scavenging abilities against hydroxyl radical (scavenging rate constant k=2.98×10(11) M(-1) s(-1)), singlet oxygen (k=2.75×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), and methyl radical (k=3.00×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Overall, edaravone's scavenging activity against multiple free radical species is as robust as other known potent antioxidant such as uric acid, glutathione, and trolox. A radar chart illustration of the MULTIS activity relative to uric acid, glutathione, and trolox indicates that edaravone has a high and balanced antioxidant activity with low specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  10. Molecular clock in neutral protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Claus O

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent observation in molecular evolution is that amino-acid substitution rates show an index of dispersion (that is, ratio of variance to mean substantially larger than one. This observation has been termed the overdispersed molecular clock. On the basis of in silico protein-evolution experiments, Bastolla and coworkers recently proposed an explanation for this observation: Proteins drift in neutral space, and can temporarily get trapped in regions of substantially reduced neutrality. In these regions, substitution rates are suppressed, which results in an overall substitution process that is not Poissonian. However, the simulation method of Bastolla et al. is representative only for cases in which the product of mutation rate μ and population size Ne is small. How the substitution process behaves when μNe is large is not known. Results Here, I study the behavior of the molecular clock in in silico protein evolution as a function of mutation rate and population size. I find that the index of dispersion decays with increasing μNe, and approaches 1 for large μNe . This observation can be explained with the selective pressure for mutational robustness, which is effective when μNe is large. This pressure keeps the population out of low-neutrality traps, and thus steadies the ticking of the molecular clock. Conclusions The molecular clock in neutral protein evolution can fall into two distinct regimes, a strongly overdispersed one for small μNe, and a mostly Poissonian one for large μNe. The former is relevant for the majority of organisms in the plant and animal kingdom, and the latter may be relevant for RNA viruses.

  11. Assessing the capacity of growth, survival, and acid adaptive response of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of various cheeses and subsequent simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Gkerekou, Maria A; Vitzilaiou, Eirini S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-04-04

    Different physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of cheeses may affect Listeria monocytogenes potential to grow, survive, or exhibit an acid adaptive response during storage and digestion. The objectives of the present study were to assess: i) the survival or growth potential of L.monocytogenes on various cheeses during storage, ii) the effect of initial indigenous microbiota on pathogen growth in comparison to expected growth curves retrieved by existing predictive models, and iii) the impact of habituation on/in cheeses surfaces on the subsequent acid resistance during simulated gastric digestion. Portions of cream (Cottage and Mascarpone), soft (Anthotyros, Camembert, Mastelo®, Manouri, Mozzarella, Ricotta), and semi-hard (Edam, Halloumi, Gouda) cheeses were inoculated with ca. 100CFU/g or cm 2 of L.monocytogenes and stored under vacuum or aerobic conditions at 7°C (n=4). The impact of varying (initial) levels of starter culture or indigenous spoilage microbiota on pathogen growth was evaluated by purchasing cheese packages on different dates in relation to production and expiration date (subsequently reflecting to different batches) mimicking a potential situation of cheese contamination with L.monocytogenes during retail display. Values of pH and a w were also monitored and used to simulate growth of L. monocytogenes by existing models and compare it with the observed data of the study. Survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH1.5; HCl; max. 120min) was assessed at three time points during storage. Mascarpone, Ricotta, Mozzarella, Camembert, and Halloumi supported L.monocytogenes growth by 0.5-0.8logCFU/g or cm 2 per day, since low initial levels of total viable counts (TVC) (1.8-3.8logCFU/g or cm 2 ) and high pH/a w values (ca. 6.23-6.64/0.965-0.993) were recorded. On Cottage, Anthotyros, Manouri, Mastelo®, Edam, and Gouda, the pathogen survived at populations similar or lower than the inoculation level due to the high reported competition

  12. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. Characterizing Peptide Neutral Losses Induced by Negative Electron-Transfer Dissociation (NETD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumachik, Neil G.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Russell, Jason D.; Bailey, Derek J.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    We implemented negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer to conduct ion/ion reactions using peptide anions and radical reagent cations. In addition to sequence-informative ladders of a•- and x-type fragment ions, NETD generated intense neutral loss peaks corresponding to the entire or partial side-chain cleavage from amino acids constituting a given peptide. Thus, a critical step towards the characterization of this recently introduced fragmentation technique is a systematic study of synthetic peptides to identify common neutral losses and preferential fragmentation pathways. Examining 46 synthetic peptides with high mass accuracy and high resolution analysis permitted facile determination of the chemical composition of each neutral loss. We identified 19 unique neutral losses from 14 amino acids and three modified amino acids, and assessed the specificity and sensitivity of each neutral loss using a database of 1542 confidently identified peptides generated from NETD shotgun experiments employing high-pH separations and negative electrospray ionization. As residue-specific neutral losses indicate the presence of certain amino acids, we determined that many neutral losses have potential diagnostic utility. We envision this catalogue of neutral losses being incorporated into database search algorithms to improve peptide identification specificity and to further advance characterization of the acidic proteome. PMID:22290482

  14. Neutrality Versus Materiality: A Thermodynamic Theory of Neutral Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Tailleux

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for constructing quasi-neutral density variables γ directly in thermodynamic space is formulated, which is based on minimising the absolute value of a purely thermodynamic quantity J n . Physically, J n has a dual dynamic/thermodynamic interpretation as the quantity controlling the energy cost of adiabatic and isohaline parcel exchanges on material surfaces, as well as the dependence of in-situ density on spiciness, in a description of water masses based on γ, spiciness and pressure. Mathematically, minimising | J n | in thermodynamic space is showed to be equivalent to maximising neutrality in physical space. The physics of epineutral dispersion is also reviewed and discussed. It is argued, in particular, that epineutral dispersion is best understood as the aggregate effect of many individual non-neutral stirring events (being understood here as adiabatic and isohaline events with non-zero buoyancy, so that it is only the net displacement aggregated over many events that is approximately neutral. This new view resolves an apparent paradox between the focus in neutral density theory on zero-buoyancy motions and the overwhelming evidence that lateral dispersion in the ocean is primarily caused by non-zero buoyancy processes such as tides, residual currents and sheared internal waves. The efficiency by which a physical process contributes to lateral dispersion can be characterised by its energy signature, with those processes releasing available potential energy (negative energy cost being more efficient than purely neutral processes with zero energy cost. The latter mechanism occurs in the wedge of instability, and its source of energy is the coupling between baroclinicity, thermobaricity, and density compensated temperature/salinity anomalies. Such a mechanism, which can only exist in a salty ocean, is speculated to be important for dissipating spiciness anomalies and neutral helicity. The paper also discusses potential

  15. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  16. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of acid deposition in Guangzhou, South China: Comparison with precipitation in other major Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Deyin; Xu Yigang; Peng Pingan; Zhang Huihuang; Lan Jiangbo

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this period. The rainwater was characterized by high concentrations of SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , and NH 4 + . SO 4 2- and NO 3 - , the main precursors of acid rain, were related to the combustion of coal and fertilizer use/traffic emissions, respectively. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + act as neutralizers of acid, accounting for the decoupling between high SO 4 2- concentrations and relatively high pH in the Guangzhou precipitation. The acid rain in Guangzhou is most pronounced during spring and summer. A comparison with acid precipitation in other Chinese cities reveals a decreasing neutralization capacity from north to south, probably related to the role and origin of alkaline bases in precipitation. - A north-to-south decreasing trend in the neutralization capacity of precipitation in China

  17. Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple poliovirus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligedda, Rama Devudu; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Kattala, Chandana Devi; Nabi, Usman; Yaqoob, Hamid; Bhagavathula, V Sandeep; Sharma, Rashmi; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dessain, Scott K

    2017-10-04

    Following the eradication of wild poliovirus (PV), achieving and maintaining a polio-free status will require eliminating potentially pathogenic PV strains derived from the oral attenuated vaccine. For this purpose, a combination of non-cross-resistant drugs, such as small molecules and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), may be ideal. We previously isolated chimpanzee and human mAbs capable of neutralizing multiple PV types (cross-neutralization). Here, we describe three additional human mAbs that neutralize types 1 and 2 PV and one mAb that neutralizes all three types. Most bind conformational epitopes and have unusually long heavy chain complementarity determining 3 domains (HC CDR3). We assessed the ability of the mAbs to neutralize A12 escape mutant PV strains, and found that the neutralizing activities of the mAbs were disrupted by different amino acid substitutions. Competitive binding studies further suggested that the specific mAb:PV interactions that enable cross-neutralization differ among mAbs and serotypes. All of the cloned mAbs bind PV in the vicinity of the "canyon", a circular depression around the 5-fold axis of symmetry through which PV recognizes its cellular receptor. We were unable to generate escape mutants to two of the mAbs, suggesting that their epitopes are important for the PV life cycle. These data indicate that PV cross-neutralization involves binding to highly conserved structures within the canyon that binds to the cellular receptor. These may be facilitated by the long HC CDR3 domains, which may adopt alternative binding configurations. We propose that the human and chimpanzee mAbs described here could have potential as anti-PV therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Neutral Red Photolysis with Different Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Rimpapa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutral red is a dye the azine structure which has been used as an acido-base indicator and a dye in histochemistry. In 1960 Goldhaber introduced Neutral red into the medium of resorbing bone cultures to localize the osteoclast in the living cultures. Using time-lapse microcinematography in order to follow the osteoclasts, he reported excellent contrast could be obtained with Neutral red due to the avidity of osteoclasts for this dye. Unfortunately, however, the photodynamic effect resulting from subsequent exposure of these cultures to light precluded this approach, and again in 1963. it was observed that the death of the osteoclasts was probably due to a photodynamic effect related to the dye in the cell, the presence of oxygen and the frequent exposure of light by our time-lapse photography. VIS and UV irradiation induced photolysis of Neutral red, and from Neutral red cation produced with photons a Neutral red radical. This Neutral red radical can be inhibited with action of an antioxidant, such as melatonin, glutathione, ascorbic acid, E vitamin, etc. We developed an assay with Neutral redphotolysis which utilizes a VIS and UV irradiation technique for quantification the inhibition of photolysis with action of an antioxidant. In this method Neutral red acts double, as a free radical generator and as a photosensitizer.

  19. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  20. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  1. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  2. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient ( i.e ., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs . 252 ± 43 m, p ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly ( p ion (551.21 m/z ) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z ) of residues 23-31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater ( p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater ( p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for

  3. The Doublet III neutral beam injector cryosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes neutral beam injection into the Doublet III tokamak for plasma heating experiments. Cryopanels employed in the beamline vacuum pumping system are force flow cooled to 3.8 K by a closed loop refrigeration system. Topics considered include beamline description, cryosystem description, system characteristics, and operational history. Evaluation of the first beamline was carried out using a 25 L/h liquefier and a unique reliquefaction heat exchanger to permit subatmospheric operation and panel flow rates of 140 L/h. The system was upgraded for three beamline operation by substitution of a 100 L/h liquefier and more cryogen storage capacity. It is concluded that the cryosystem gives stable operation of three beamline cryopanel arrays with little operator intervention

  4. Deposition and conversion in soil of acids, acid-forming substances and nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Balancing of material depositions entries is the basis for their evaluation. The acid depositions must be put in relation to the acid neutralization capacity and to the buffer rate of the soil. Every 'excess' in depositons leads to an acid supply into the sub-soil and/or into the groundwater system. On the one hand, the nutrient depositions are interpreted in relation to the nutrient supplies of the soil and their availability to the plants; and on the other hand with a view to the nutrient depletion through the polants. Excesses can also lead to a (non-desirable) pollution of aquatic systems, or else to an enhanced nutrient supply in the soil. Balancing is therefore a necessary aid for the evaluation of material depositions from the atmosphere. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus by polyclonal cat antibody: Simultaneous involvement of hypervariable regions 4 and 5 of the surface glycoprotein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); W. Huisman (Willem); J.A. Karlas (Jos); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); M.L. Bosch (Marnix); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSites involved in antibody-mediated neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus were mapped by reciprocal exchange of envelope fragments or amino acids between molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus with different susceptibilities to neutralization by a polyclonal cat

  6. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  7. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  8. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''

  9. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  10. Modelling of contaminant migration in acidic groundwater plumes at uranium tailings impoundments: ADNEUT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.A.; Morin, K.A.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the creation and application of ADNEUT3, the latest addition to the ADNEUT (Acid-Drainage NEUTralization) family of computer programs for simulating acid-drainage transport and neutralization. The creation of ADNEUT3 involved the expansion of ADNEUT1 to allow variable input conditions such as changing input solution with time, variable initial amounts of minerals through the simulated streamtube, variable velocities through the streamtube, and variable solubilities for relevant minerals dependent on aqueous chemical composition. Concepts for simulating acid-drainage neutralization are reviewed and ADNEUT3 is then applied to a field-study site of acidic contaminant migration from the Nordic Main uranium-tailings impoundment near Elliot Lake, Ontario. A sensitivity study is first implemented to calibrate ADNEUT3 to the results of the 1979 to 1983 field studies. Then ADNEUT3 is used to define probable past conditions at the site which are not reliably known. In particular, ADNEUT3 is used to help identify: 1) the approximate year when acidic seepage began leaving the tailings impoundment (1966-1967), 2) the past chemical composition of the seepage (somewhat more acidic for a short period of time), and 3) the location of the source area within the tailings for the acidic seepage (near the impoundment dam, close to the field site). Finally, ADNEUT3 is used to predict future contaminant migration. Results indicate that hundreds of years are required under present conditions for the most acidic water with associated high levels of contaminants to migrate about 100 m from the tailings impoundment. The cause of this slow movement is the significant neutralization capacity of the aquifer. If acid production within the tailings decreases in the future, migration rates of contaminants will also decrease

  11. The Economics of Zero-Rating and Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies zero-rating, an emerging business practice consisting in a mobile internet service provider (ISP) excluding the data generated by certain content providers (CPs) from its consumers' monthly data cap. Being at odds with the principle of net neutrality, these arrangements have recently attracted regulatory scrutiny all over the word. I analyze zero-rating incentives of a monopolistic ISP facing a capacity constraint in a two-sided market where consumption provides utility for...

  12. Nutritional quality in terms of lipid content and fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids in the adductor muscle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1794 farmed in the Bizert lagoon (Tunisia in relation with sexual cycle and environmental settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Dridi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monthly variations of fatty acid composition of the two fractions polar lipids (PL and neutral lipids (NL in the adductor muscle of cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas, were studied from May 2005 until June 2006 in the Bizert lagoon, related to environmental parameters and reproductive events. C. gigas showed a clear cycle of energy storage and utilization in the site of study. Total PL and NL content varied significantly during the year and showed a negative and significant correlation with the gametogenic condition index which can be explained by transfer of fatty acids from the adductor muscle to gonads to support the gametogenic cycle. Nevertheless, PL and NL have no significant correlations either with temperature or chlorophyll a registered in the site of study. The adductor muscle proved to be less influenced by chlorophyll a richness of the farming environment. The dominance of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs over the saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs in both PL and NL fractions was established throughout the period of study. Oysters analyzed were characterized by high levels of PUFAs n−3 and high n−3/n−6 PUFAs ratio in both PL and NL fractions. PUFAs n−3 and SFAs of PL and PUFAs and SFAs of NL, showed a negative and significant correlation between them. In fact, low temperature values produce generally an increase in the PUFAs percentages in order to maintain the fluidity of cell membranes. We deduce that annual variations of fatty acids content in PL and NL fractions of the adductor muscle of C. gigas seem to be in relation with the reproductive events. According to our results, the adductor muscle tissues were relatively poor in fatty acids (maximum values (% of dry weight of PL and NL respectively were 2.04 ± 0.33 and 1.75 ± 0.9. Lipids fluctuations were not pronounced all over the period of study in the site of sampling due to low effects of the environment richness and phases of

  13. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H - , H 0 and H + projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the produ