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Sample records for acid neutralizing capacity

  1. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  2. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  3. 对硫糖铝制酸力检查方法的改进建议%Improvement of Acid-neutralizing Capacity Test for Sucralfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 申兰慧; 陈国清

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To improve the acid-neutralizing capacity test for sucralfate and sucralfate tablets. Methods: Combined with the pharmacopeia standard of the acid-neutralizing rate of sucrelfate, the effects of the time and speed of vibration, methods of end-point indication on the acid-neutralizing capacity test were discussed. Results: The vibration time was shorten to 20 min at the speed of 150r·min-1. And the potentiometric method was recommended to indicate the end-point. Conclusion: This modified method is accurate, reliable and can control the quality of this product more effectively.%目的:改进硫糖铝的制酸力检查法.方法:结合硫糖铝制酸速度的研究,探讨《中国药典》2010年版硫糖铝制酸力检查的振摇时间、振摇频率和终点指示方式对检测结果的影响.结果:将原标准硫酸铝制酸力检查的振摇时间缩短为20 min,振摇频率改为150次/min,且用电位法指示终点.结论:改进后的方法准确、可靠,可更有效地控制产品质量.

  4. Acid neutralizing processes in an alpine watershed front range, Colorado, U.S.A.-1: Buffering capacity of dissolved organic carbon in soil solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iggy, Litaor M.; Thurman, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil interstitial waters in the Green Lakes Valley, Front Range, Colorado were studied to evaluate the capacity of the soil system to buffer acid deposition. In order to determine the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity of a given soil, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH of the soil solutions were measured. The concentration of the organic anion, Ai-, derived from DOC at sample pH and the concentration of organic anion, Ax- at the equivalence point were calculated using carboxyl contents from isolated and purified humic material from soil solutions. Subtracting Ax- from Ai- yields the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity (Aequiv.-). Using this method, one can evaluate the relative contribution of inorganic and organic constituents to the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the soil solutions. The relative contribution of organic acids to the overall ANC was found to be extremely important in the alpine wetland (52%) and the forest-tundra ecotone (40%), and somewhat less important in the alpine tundra sites (20%). A failure to recognize the importance of organic acids in soil solutions to the ANC will result in erroneous estimates of the buffering capacity in the alpine environment of the Front Range, Colorado. ?? 1988.

  5. Self-neutralizing well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1974-07-30

    A process for acidizing a subterranean region by contacting it with an acidic solution is improved by dissolving in the solution a pH-increasing reactant that subsequently adjusts the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value. Urea is an example of the acid neutralizer. (10 claims)

  6. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration. This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached solution from

  7. Acid neutralization capacity measurements in surface and ground waters in the Upper River Severn, Plynlimon: from hydrograph splitting to water flow pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC data for ephemeral stream and shallow groundwater for the catchments of the upper River Severn show a highly heterogeneous system of within-catchment water flow pathways and chemical weathering on scales of less than 100m. Ephemeral streams draining permeable soils seem to be supplied mainly from shallow groundwater sources. For these streams, large systematic differences in pH and alkalinity occur due to the variability of the groundwater sources and variability in water residence times. However, the variability cannot be gauged on the basis of broad based physical information collected in the field as geology, catchment gradients and forest structure are very similar. In contrast, ephemeral streams draining impermeable soils are of more uniform chemistry as surface runoff is mainly supplied from the soil zone. Groundwater ANC varies considerably over space and time. In general, the groundwaters have higher ANCs than the ephemeral streams. This is due to increased chemical weathering from the inorganic materials in the lower soils and groundwater areas and possibly longer residence times. However, during the winter months the groundwater ANCs tend to be at their lowest due to additional event driven acidic soil water contributions and intermediate groundwater residence times. The results indicate the inappropriateness of a blanket approach to classifying stream vulnerability to acidification simply on the basis of soil sensitivity. However, the results may well indicate good news for the environmental management of acidic and acid sensitive systems. For example, they clearly indicate a large potential supply of weathering components within the groundwater zone to reduce or mitigate the acidifying effects of land use change and acidic deposition without the environmental needs for Aiming. Furthermore, the high variability of ephemeral stream runoff means that certain areas of catchments where there are specific

  8. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  9. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired.

  10. Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sheo Prasad; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) levels show significant seasonal variability and this can influence the neutralization of rainwater acidity. Months were grouped in two periods: monsoon (July to October) and non-monsoon (November to June) for studying the seasonal variability in PM and rainwater composition. To clearly establish the cause effect relationship of acid rain neutralization, a two tier model was proposed involving source apportionment of particulates at two levels: (i) ambient air and (ii) rainwater particulate interaction. For modelling purpose, PM10 (n = 100), soil (n = 4) and rainwater (n = 83) samples were collected at Kanpur, India during 2000-2002. The collected samples were analysed for metals and water soluble ion composition to employ factor analysis for source identification. Knowledge of statistical correlation and chemistry fundamentals were combined to estimate the sources for acid rain neutralization. NH4+ was a dominating ion responsible for neutralizing the acidity of rainwater in monsoon period and Ca2+ was dominating in non-monsoon period. Components of secondary particles (SO42- and NO3-) showed affinity with NH4+, signifying the major role that ammonia can play if present in excess of stoichiometric requirements.

  11. Evaluation of Acid-neutralizing Capacity of Topsoil in Croplands Using Quadratic Curve Fitting%用二次曲线拟合表征土壤酸中和能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟红旗; 徐明岗; 吕家珑; 张会民; 蔡泽江

    2013-01-01

    以我国7个农田长期(15~29年)施肥试验的历史样品为供试土壤,研究了土壤质子化反应的动力学过程、土壤性质(pH值和SOM)和施肥措施对土壤酸中和能力(ANC)的影响.根据土壤酸滴定曲线,采用二次曲线方程拟合,pH=3.5为参考值,图解法求解土壤ANC.结果表明,土壤质子化过程可视作由质子扩散控制的假二级反应动力学过程:在酸添加后的100 h内,土壤ANC与反应时间的对数值近似线性相关;机械振荡和提高温度可加快土壤质子化反应的进程.土壤ANC在指示土壤酸碱程度上较pH灵敏,但对SOM的变化较土壤酸缓冲容量(ABC)不敏感;土壤ANC受长期施肥措施(施无机氮组<不施氮肥组≈有机无机氮配施组)的显著影响,影响的程度因各试验点而异.对土壤酸中和能力的研究加深了对农田土壤酸缓冲机制的认识.%To better understand the mechanism of acid-buffering in croplands we evaluated their acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of topsoil using quadratic curve fitting. The kinetics of soil protonation reaction and impacts of soil properties(pH and SOM, soil organic matter) and fertilizations on soil ANC were studied from seven historical soils under 15~29 years long-term fertilizations in China. According to the acid titration curve fitted by the quadratic equation, soil ANC was generated by a graphic method at the reference of pH=3.5. The process of soil protonation was considered as the pseudo second—order reaction kinetics controlled by the proton diffusion in soil particles. An approximate linear correlation between ANC and the logarithmic value of reaction time was found less than 100 hours after acid addition. Soil protonation reaction was accelerated by mechanical shaking or increase of temperature. Based on the analysis of correlation and comparison in different experimental sites, soil ANC was more sensitive to soil acid—base status rather than pH, but less sensitive to SOM

  12. Broadening the neutralizing capacity of a family of antibody fragments against different toxins from Mexican scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo Remi; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Arredondo-López, Jonathan Noé; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Possani, Lourival D; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo Alfonso; Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-09-01

    New approaches aimed at neutralizing the primary toxic components present in scorpion venoms, represent a promising alternative to the use of antivenoms of equine origin in humans. New potential therapeutics developed by these approaches correspond to neutralizing antibody fragments obtained by selection and maturation processes from libraries of human origin. The high sequence identity shared among scorpion toxins is associated with an important level of cross reactivity exhibited by these antibody fragments. We have exploited the cross reactivity showed by single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) of human origin to re-direct the neutralizing capacity toward various other scorpion toxins. As expected, during these evolving processes several variants derived from a parental scFv exhibited the capacity to simultaneously recognize and neutralize different toxins from Centruroides scorpion venoms. A sequence analyses of the cross reacting scFvs revealed that specific mutations are responsible for broadening their neutralizing capacity. In this work, we generated a set of new scFvs that resulted from the combinatorial insertion of these point mutations. These scFvs are potential candidates to be part of a novel recombinant antivenom of human origin that could confer protection against scorpion stings. A remarkable property of one of these new scFvs (ER-5) is its capacity to neutralize at least three different toxins and its complementary capacity to neutralize the whole venom from Centruroides suffusus in combination with a second scFv (LR), which binds to a different epitope shared by Centruroides scorpion toxins.

  13. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  14. Heat capacity of poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat capacity of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported from T=(5 to 600) K as obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) and adiabatic calorimetry. The heat capacity of solid PLA is linked to its group vibrational spectrum and the skeletal vibrations, the latter being described by a Tarasov equation with Θ1=574 K, Θ2=Θ3=52 K, and nine skeletal vibrations. The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to ±3% between T=(5 and 300) K. The experimental heat capacity of liquid PLA can be expressed by Cp(liquid)=(120.17+0.076T) J · K-1 · mol-1 and has been compared to the ATHAS Data Bank, using contributions of other polymers with the same constituent groups. The glass transition temperature of amorphous PLA occurs at T=332.5 K with a change in heat capacity of 43.8 J · K-1 · mol-1. Depending on thermal history, semi-crystalline PLA has a melting endotherm between T=(418 and 432) K with variable heats of fusion. For 100% crystalline PLA, the heat of fusion is estimated to be (6.55 ± 0.02) kJ · mol-1 at T=480 K. With these results, the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs function of crystalline and amorphous PLA were obtained. For semi-crystalline samples, one can check changes of crystallinity with temperature and judge the presence of rigid-amorphous fractions

  15. STATINS AND URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID: COOPERATION OR NEUTRALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Grigorieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of combined therapy of gallstone disease (GSD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and hypercholesterolemia (HCE with statins and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA are analyzed. In GSD statin therapy was often accompanied with reduction of bile lithogenicity but did not always accelerate stone litholysis under their combination with UDCA. Statin induced liver injuries are often observed in NAFLD and NASH, adjuvant UDCA therapy shown positive effect on inflammatory and histological liver parameters in these diseases. Serum lipid levels in patients with HCE were reduced most effectively with statin combined with UDCA. Combined therapy with statin and UDCA is recommended in patient with HCE and chronic liver diseases.

  16. A comparison of neutralization efficiency of chemicals with respect to acidic Kopili River water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Nibedita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2016-02-01

    Among all the renewable sources of energy, hydropower is the most potential source which is economical, non-polluting and eco-friendly. The efficiency of hydropower plant in the long run depends on many factors like water and sediment quality. Erosive and corrosive wear of machine parts like turbine is a complex phenomenon. The problem becomes more acute if the hydroenvironment is acidic in nature. The wear and tear due to corrosion/erosion caused by acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines reduces the efficiency and the life of the equipments. In this work, neutralization of the acidic water of the Kopili River, Assam, India was investigated using a number of basic chemicals and quantitatively estimating their effectiveness and actual requirement. The acidic water of the river, used as the cooling water, has been found responsible for damaging the equipments of the Kopili Hydro Electric Power Project (KHEP), Assam/Meghalaya, India by reducing the life of all metallic parts through corrosion. In this work, use is made of a number of basic materials like calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia to examine their neutralization efficiency with respect to the acidic water and it was found that quick lime or raw lime (CaO) has the highest neutralization capacity. Suggestions have been made for meeting the problem of acidity of the river water.

  17. Serrumab: a novel human single chain-fragment antibody with multiple scorpion toxin-neutralizing capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Peigneur, Steve; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Tytgat, Jan; Barbosa, José Elpidio

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, scorpion envenomation is an important public health problem. The yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus (Ts), is considered the most dangerous species in the country, being responsible for the most severe clinical cases of envenomation. Currently, the administration of serum produced in horses is recognized and used as a treatment for accidents with scorpions. However, horse herds' maintenance is costly and the antibodies are heterologous, which can cause anaphylaxis and Serum Sickness. In the present work, a human monoclonal fragment antibody, Serrumab, has been analysed. Toxin neutralizing effects of Serrumab were evaluated using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results show that Serrumab presented a high neutralizing effect against Ts β-toxins (Ts1, 43.2% and Ts2, 68.8%) and none or low neutralizing effect against α-toxins (Ts3, 0% and Ts5, 10%). Additional experiments demonstrated that Serrumab was also able to neutralize the action of toxins from other scorpion genus (Css II, 45.96% and Lqh III, 100%/β- and α-toxins, respectively). This work indicated that Serrumab is able to neutralize many toxins in Ts venom, and could being considered as a neutralizing antibody for formulating a human anti-scorpion serum in Brazil. Additionally, this work demonstrated that Serrumab could neutralize different toxins from distinct scorpion genus. All these results reinforce the idea that Serrumab is a scFv antibody with multiple neutralizing capacities and a promising candidate for inclusion in scorpion anti-venoms against different genera. PMID:24001307

  18. Synthesis and characterization of humic acids with distinct redox capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, S.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.

    2002-05-01

    Various humic acids with distinct redox capacities were synthesized, based on the oxidation of hydroquinone in alkaline solution in the presence or absence of amino acids. The synthesized humic acids show Fe(III) redox capacities which are up to 10 times higher than that of natural humic acid from Aldrich. (orig.)

  19. NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDIC GROUND WATER NEAR GLOBE, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Highly acidic contaminated water is moving through a shallow aquifer and interacting with streams near Globe, Arizona. Dissolved concentrations reach 3,000 mg/L iron, 150 mg/L copper, and 16,400 mg/L total dissloved solids; pH is as low as 3. 6. Samples from 16 PVC-cased observation wells include uncontaminated, contaminated, transition, and neutralized waters. Chemical reaction with sediments and mixing with uncontaminated water neutralizes the acidic water. The reactions form a transition zone where gypsum replaces calcite and most metals precipitate. Ferric hydroxide also precipitates if sufficient oxygen is available. Abundant gypsum crystals and ferric hydroxide coatings have been recovered from well cuttings. Large sulfate concentrations produce sulfate complexes with many metals that inhibit removal of metals from solution.

  20. Neutralization of Tumor Acidity Improves Antitumor Responses to Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Kodumudi, Krithika N; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Russell, Shonagh; Weber, Amy M; Luddy, Kimberly; Damaghi, Mehdi; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Mulé, James J; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-03-15

    Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint blockade or adoptive T-cell transfer, can lead to durable responses in the clinic, but response rates remain low due to undefined suppression mechanisms. Solid tumors are characterized by a highly acidic microenvironment that might blunt the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. In this study, we directly investigated the effects of tumor acidity on the efficacy of immunotherapy. An acidic pH environment blocked T-cell activation and limited glycolysis in vitro. IFNγ release blocked by acidic pH did not occur at the level of steady-state mRNA, implying that the effect of acidity was posttranslational. Acidification did not affect cytoplasmic pH, suggesting that signals transduced by external acidity were likely mediated by specific acid-sensing receptors, four of which are expressed by T cells. Notably, neutralizing tumor acidity with bicarbonate monotherapy impaired the growth of some cancer types in mice where it was associated with increased T-cell infiltration. Furthermore, combining bicarbonate therapy with anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1, or adoptive T-cell transfer improved antitumor responses in multiple models, including cures in some subjects. Overall, our findings show how raising intratumoral pH through oral buffers therapy can improve responses to immunotherapy, with the potential for immediate clinical translation. PMID:26719539

  1. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  2. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  3. Neutral amino acid transport across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) possess an amino acid carrier specific for large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The carrier is important for facilitating the delivery of nutrient LNAA's and centrally acting drugs that are LNAA's, to the brain. Bovine BMEC's were isolated and grown up to complete monolayers on regenerated cellulose-membranes in primary culture. To study the transendothelial transport of leucine, the monolayers were placed in a side-by-side diffusion cell, and transport across the monolayers followed with [3H]-leucine. The transendothelial transport of leucine in this in vitro model was determined to be bidirectional, and time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent. The transport of leucine was saturable and the apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/, 0.18 mM and 6.3 nmol/mg/min, respectively. Other LNAA's, including the centrally acting drugs, α-methyldopa, L-DOPA, α-methyl-tyrosine, and baclofen, inhibited leucine transport. The leucine carrier was also found to be stereospecific and not sensitive to inhibitors of active transport. These results are consistent with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Primary cultures of BMEC's appear to be a potentially important tool for investigating at the cellular level, the transport mechanisms of the BBB

  4. Neutral amino acid transport across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audus, K.L.; Borchardt, R.T.

    1986-03-01

    Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) possess an amino acid carrier specific for large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The carrier is important for facilitating the delivery of nutrient LNAA's and centrally acting drugs that are LNAA's, to the brain. Bovine BMEC's were isolated and grown up to complete monolayers on regenerated cellulose-membranes in primary culture. To study the transendothelial transport of leucine, the monolayers were placed in a side-by-side diffusion cell, and transport across the monolayers followed with (/sup 3/H)-leucine. The transendothelial transport of leucine in this in vitro model was determined to be bidirectional, and time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent. The transport of leucine was saturable and the apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/, 0.18 mM and 6.3 nmol/mg/min, respectively. Other LNAA's, including the centrally acting drugs, ..cap alpha..-methyldopa, L-DOPA, ..cap alpha..-methyl-tyrosine, and baclofen, inhibited leucine transport. The leucine carrier was also found to be stereospecific and not sensitive to inhibitors of active transport. These results are consistent with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Primary cultures of BMEC's appear to be a potentially important tool for investigating at the cellular level, the transport mechanisms of the BBB.

  5. In silico classification of proteins from acidic and neutral cytoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Fang

    Full Text Available Protein acidostability is a common problem in biopharmaceutical and other industries. However, it remains a great challenge to engineer proteins for enhanced acidostability because our knowledge of protein acidostabilization is still very limited. In this paper, we present a comparative study of proteins from bacteria with acidic (AP and neutral cytoplasms (NP using an integrated statistical and machine learning approach. We construct a set of 393 non-redundant AP-NP ortholog pairs and calculate a total of 889 sequence based features for these proteins. The pairwise alignments of these ortholog pairs are used to build a residue substitution propensity matrix between APs and NPs. We use Gini importance provided by the Random Forest algorithm to rank the relative importance of these features. A scoring function using the 10 most significant features is developed and optimized using a hill climbing algorithm. The accuracy of the score function is 86.01% in predicting AP-NP ortholog pairs and is 76.65% in predicting non-ortholog AP-NP pairs, suggesting that there are significant differences between APs and NPs which can be used to predict relative acidostability of proteins. The overall trends uncovered in the study can be used as general guidelines for designing acidostable proteins. To best of our knowledge, this work represents the first systematic comparative study of the acidostable proteins and their non-acidostable orthologs.

  6. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  7. Influence of phytic acid on the corrosion behavior of iron under acidic and neutral conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PA can effectively inhibit the corrosion of iron as a mixed type inhibitor in acidic solutions. • Phytate behaves like an environmentally-friendly film former and can form stable metal chelate complexes on the iron surface under neutral conditions. • Adsorption of PA on the iron surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm under acidic conditions. • The binding mode between PA and the iron substrate is strongly dependent on the pH value of the solutions. - Abstract: The influence of phytic acid (PA) on the corrosion of iron under acidic and neutral conditions was investigated by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curve methods. The electrochemical results indicate that, PA can effectively inhibit the corrosion of iron as a mixed type inhibitor in H2SO4 solution; however, PA tends to react with the dissolved Fe (II) ions, forming stable metal chelate complexes with strong anodic inhibition action on the iron surface, in Na2SO4 solution. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis confirms the existence of PA or its salts on the iron substrates. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) characterization demonstrates that PA adsorbs on the iron surface mainly in the form of undissociated molecules under acidic condition, while phytate ions may bind to the iron substrate through connection of C-O-P bond with oxidized iron surface under neutral condition. The great difference in binding mode between PA and the iron substrate makes PA act as either a corrosion inhibitor or a film former under different conditions

  8. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU : from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cog

  9. Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Katrin; Gernold, Marina; Wensing, Annette; Geider, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are used to preserve food and could be a tool for control of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on apple, pear and related rosaceous plants. Neutralized acids were added to buffered growth media at 0.5–75 mM and tested at pHs ranging from 6.8 to 5.5. Particularly at low pH, SCFAs with a chain length exceeding that of acetic acid such as propionic acid were effective growth inhibitors of E. amylovora possibly due to uptake of free acid and its intracellular accumulation. We also observed high inhibition with monochloroacetic acid. An E. billingiae strain was as sensitive to the acids as E. amylovora or E. tasmaniensis. Fire blight symptoms on pear slices were reduced when the slices were pretreated with neutralized propionic acid. Propionic acid is well water soluble and could be applied in orchards as a control agent for fire blight.

  10. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO3, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)2, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO3 neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)2 to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)2 as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO4 are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies

  12. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  13. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  14. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jørgensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol% and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol%. DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%, followed by glucose (22 mol% and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol%. The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  15. Acid neutralisation capacity of accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Hills, C D

    2003-05-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity test is widely used to assess the long-term performance of waste materials prior to disposal. Samples of fixed mass are exposed to increasing additions of nitric add in sealed containers and the resultant pH is plotted as a titration curve. In this work, the add neutralisation capacity test was used in the assessment of an accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag. Difficulties arose in applying the test procedure to this material. This was largely because of the raised pressure from significant volumes of released carbon dioxide trapped in the sealed sample containers, causing an alteration to leachate pH values. Consequently, the add neutralisation capacity test was modified to enable testing of samples in equilibrium with the atmosphere. No adverse effects on the results from testing of a carbonate free material were recorded. PMID:12803247

  16. Neutralizing capacity of a new monovalent anti-Bothrops atrox antivenom: comparison with two commercial antivenoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otero

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia. The following antivenoms were used: a polyvalent (crotaline antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica, b monovalent antibothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS (Bogotá, and c a new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom produced with the venom of B. atrox from Antioquia and Chocó. The three antivenoms neutralized all toxic activities tested albeit with different potencies. The new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom showed the highest neutralizing ability against edema-forming and defibrinating effects of B. atrox venom (41 ± 2 and 100 ± 32 µl antivenom/mg venom, respectively, suggesting that it should be useful in the treatment of B. atrox envenomation in Antioquia and Chocó

  17. Uptake of neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids by human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Røigaard, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    relatively low. Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE cells. Comparison with the results obtained for normal (NHKE) and immortalized (IHKE) embryonic cells suggested an unaltered expression of the types of transport carriers for neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids...

  18. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan Mg; Taudorf, Sarah; Bailey, Damian M;

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along with a ...

  19. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Benner, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological...... production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining...... degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic...

  20. Immunization routes in cattle impact the levels and neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced against S. aureus immune evasion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerhout, Eveline; Vrieling, Manouk; Benedictus, Lindert; Daemen, Ineke; Ravesloot, Lars; Rutten, Victor; Nuijten, Piet; van Strijp, Jos; Koets, Ad; Eisenberg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against S. aureus bovine mastitis are scarce and show limited protection only. All currently available vaccines are applied via the parenteral (usually intramuscular) route. It is unknown, however, whether this route is the most suitable to specifically increase intramammary immunity to combat S. aureus at the site of infection. Hence, in the present study, immunization via mucosal (intranasal; IN), intramuscular (triangle of the neck; IM), intramammary (IMM) and subcutaneous (suspensory ligament; SC) routes were analyzed for their effects on the quantity of the antibody responses in serum and milk as well as the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies within serum. The experimental vaccine comprised the recombinant S. aureus immune evasion proteins extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and the leukotoxin subunit LukM in an oil-in-water adjuvant combined with a hydrogel and alginate. The highest titer increases for both Efb and LukM specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody levels in serum and milk were observed following SC/SC immunizations. Furthermore, the harmful effects of Efb and leukotoxin LukMF' on host-defense were neutralized by serum antibodies in a route-dependent manner. SC/SC immunization resulted in a significant increase in the neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies towards Efb and LukMF', shown by increased phagocytosis of S. aureus and increased viability of bovine leukocytes. Therefore, a SC immunization route should be considered when aiming to optimize humoral immunity against S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:26411347

  1. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  3. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Lönn, G.; Hakala, J.; T. Petäjä; R. L. Mauldin III; M. Kulmala; Worsnop, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Si...

  4. Neutralizing capacity of a new monovalent anti-Bothrops atrox antivenom: comparison with two commercial antivenoms

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, R; V. Núñez; Gutiérrez, J M; Robles, A; R. Estrada; R.G. Osorio; G. Del-Valle; R. Valderrama; Giraldo, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia). The following antivenoms were used: a) polyvalent (crotaline) antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica), b) monovalent antibothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS (Bogotá), and c) a new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom produce...

  5. Classification of illicit heroin by UPLC-Q-TOF analysis of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2015-12-01

    The illicit manufacture of heroin results in the formation of trace levels of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities that provide valuable information about the manufacturing process used. In this work, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF) method; that features high resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity for profiling neutral and acidic heroin manufacturing impurities was developed. After the UPLC-Q-TOF analysis, the retention times and m/z data pairs of acidic and neutral manufacturing impurities were detected, and 19 peaks were found to be evidently different between heroin samples from "Golden Triangle" and "Golden Crescent". Based on the data set of these 19 impurities in 150 authentic heroin samples, classification of heroin geographic origins was successfully achieved utilizing partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By analyzing another data set of 267 authentic heroin samples, the developed discrimiant model was validated and proved to be accurate and reliable.

  6. A Cell Free Assay System Estimating the Neutralizing Capacity of GM-CSF Antibody using Recombinant Soluble GM-CSF Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Urano, Shinya; Tazawa, Ryushi; Nei, Takahito; Motoi, Natsuki; Watanabe, Masato; Igarashi, Takenori; Tomita, Masahiro; Nakata, Koh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Previously, we demonstrated that neutralizing capacity but not the concentration of GM-CSF autoantibody was correlated with the disease severity in patients with autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)1-3. As abrogation of GM-CSF bioactivity in the lung is the likely cause for autoimmune PAP4,5, it is promising to measure the neutralizing capacity of GM-CSF autoantibodies for evaluating the disease severity in each patient with PAP.

  7. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  8. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff B. Langman; Mandy L. Moore; Carol J. Ptacek; Leslie Smith; David Sego; David W. Blowes

    2014-01-01

    A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt %) released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, res...

  9. Efficacy of tannins from Mimosa pudica and tannic acid in neutralizing cobra (Naja kaouthia venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FY Sia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of Mimosa pudica tannins (MPT in neutralizing the lethality of Naja kaouthia venom was compared with commercially derived tannins. Preincubation of MPT with N. kaouthia venom maintained 100% survival of mice after 24 hours. The mouse group in which there was no preincubation, no protection against the effects of the venom was observed. M. pudica tannin was found to be more effective in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom when compared to commercial tannic acid. Two protein spots were missing in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the MPT treated mouse indicating the down-regulation of venom proteins. The results from this study indicated that tannins obtained from M. pudica are better than tannic acid in neutralizing the lethality of N. kaouthia venom in vitro. However, further investigations are required to establish that M. pudica has potential for treating N. kaouthia snakebites.

  10. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along...... with a net cerebral influx of the neurotoxic AAA phenylalanine in a human experimental model of systemic inflammation....

  11. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-01-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentr...

  12. Analysis of fecal bile acids and neutral steroids using gas-liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srikumar, T.S.; Wezendonk, B.; Dokkum, W. van

    1998-01-01

    In the present pilot study, for investigating the physiological effects of different types of nondigestible oligosaccharides, we have validated the application of methodologies for the analysis of bile acids and neutral steroids in feces of human subjects. The accuracy of the extraction and chromato

  13. Neutralization and Acid Dissociation of Hydrogen Carbonate Ion: A Thermochemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Shigedomi, Kana; Kimura, Tomoyasu; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Mishima, Saki

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory inquiry into the thermochemical relationships in the reaction between aqueous solutions of NaHCO[subscript 3] and NaOH is described. The enthalpy change for this reaction, delta[subscript r]H, and that for neutralization of strong acid and NaOH(aq), delta[subscript n]H, are determined calorimetrically; the explanation for the…

  14. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30...

  15. Retention Behaviors of Uronic Acid-containing Polysaccharides and Neutral Polysaccharides in HPGPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chromatographic behaviors of several uronic acid-containing polysaccharides and neutral polysaccharides were investigated in HPGPC for the first time. The effects of sample concentration and ionic strength of mobile phase on retention time were studied. The mechanism for the effects on Mw determination results of polysaccharides by HPGPC was also discussed.

  16. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jokinen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3.6 × 104 molecules cm−3 for 15 min averaging. Signals from sulphuric acid clusters up to tetramer containing ammonia were also obtained but these were found to result from naturally charged clusters formed by ion induced clustering in the atmosphere during nucleation. Opposite to earlier studies with cluster mass spectrometers, we had no indication of neutral clusters. The reason is either less efficient charging of clusters in comparison to molecular sulphuric acid, or the low concentration of neutral clusters at our measurement site during these particular nucleation events. We show that utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry is crucial in separating the weak sulfuric acid cluster signal from other compounds.

  17. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jokinen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Signals from sulphuric acid clusters up to tetramer accompanied by ammonia were also obtained but these were found to result from naturally charged clusters formed by ion induced clustering in the atmosphere during nucleation. Opposite to earlier studies with cluster mass spectrometers, we had no indication of neutral clusters. The reason is either less efficient charging of clusters in comparison to molecular sulphuric acid, or in low concentration of neutral clusters at our measurement site during these particular nucleation events. We show that utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry is crucial in separating the weak sulfuric acid cluster signal from the other compounds.

  18. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-02-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide-spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms.

  20. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Lönn, G.; Hakala, J.; T. Petäjä; Mauldin, R. L.; M. Kulmala; Worsnop, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3.6 × 104 molecules cm−3 for 15 min averaging. Signals f...

  1. Fecal free and conjugated bile acids and neutral sterols in vegetarians, omnivores, and patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, J T; Adlercreutz, H; Turunen, M J

    1988-04-01

    Increased excretion and intestinal bacterial metabolism of bile acids and neutral sterols have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. We determined fecal neutral sterol and bile acid profiles by new capillary column gas-liquid chromatographic methods in 18 patients with colorectal cancer, 10 omnivores, and 10 vegetarians. The methods also determine concentrations of esterified neutral sterols and saponifiable bile acids formed by intestinal bacterial action. Patients with colorectal cancer had the highest concentrations of neutral animal sterols, the lowest degree of esterification of neutral sterols, the lowest relative amount of saponifiable bile acids, and the highest concentrations of unconjugated primary bile acids. These differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) and more profound when the patients were compared with vegetarians than with omnivores. Since epidemiologic studies suggest that vegetarians have a lower risk of colorectal cancer than omnivores, these differences are discussed as possible risk factors for colorectal cancer. PMID:3387891

  2. Ammonium Variational Trends and the Ammonia Neutralization Effect on Acid Rain over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao; WANG Zi-Fa; Enagnon A. GBAGUIDI

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and variations of ammonium and the ammonia neutralization effect on acid rain were examined in East Asia during the period of 2000-05 using observed wet deposition data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Observational trends show a high proportion of NH4+ in the total cations, with a six-year mean proportion of over 20% for continental and inland regions. The concentrations and deposition of NH4+ were higher in western China and Vietnam than in other regions. The annual variations in NH4+ concentration were smooth in most of the regions, except for southern China and Vietnam, where the NH4+ concentrations increased, and western China, where the NH4+ concentrations decreased. The neutralization factors (NFs) of NH4+ indicate that ammonia has a great neutralization capability toward acid rain, including for the regions with low NH4+ concentrations, such as Japan. The NFs were high in summer, with no obvious discrepancies between the northern and southern stations. However, the correlation coefficients between NH4+ concentrations and rain pH values imply that the ammonia neutralization effects on the pH values were distinct only at southern China and southern Japan stations. The neutralization of precipitation by ammonia was estimated by comparing the discrepancies between the observed pH values and the pH values calculated without ammonia consuming the H+ in NH4+. The results demonstrate that ammonia may increase annual mean pH values by 0.4-0.7 in southern China and by 0.15-0.25 in southern Japan.

  3. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kürten, Andreas; Jokinen, Tuija; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable instrumentation. Here we report on experiments from the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Res...

  4. Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Jennifer L.; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2011-01-01

    Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size wer...

  5. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    L. Jørgensen; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by ...

  6. Serum neutral amino acid concentrations in cirrhotic patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutral amino acid levels in cirrhotic patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test patterns were not different from those of subjects without impaired carbohydrate metabolism. However, the characteristic features of serum aminograms in the patients, that is, increased levels of tyrosine, decreased levels of valine and leucine and the diminished ratio of branched chain amino acids to phenylalanine and tyrosine levels, were less pronounced in those treated with insulin. This finding is clinically important for evaluating the serum aminogram of cirrhotic patients under insulin therapy.

  7. Expression cloning of a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter from rat kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, S S; Yan, N; Udenfriend, S

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of long-chain and aromatic neutral amino acids into cells is known to be catalyzed by the Na(+)-independent system L transporter, which is ubiquitous in animal cells and tissues. We have used a Xenopus oocyte expression system to clone the cDNA of a system L transporter from a rat kidney cDNA library. The 2.3-kilobase cDNA codes for a protein of 683 amino acids. The transporter has four putative membrane-spanning domains and bears no sequence or structural homology to any known animal ...

  8. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  9. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Irakoze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p

  10. MALDI mechanism of dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers: desorption of neutral matrix and analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chi Wei; Lee, Chih Hao; Lin, Yu-Jiun; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Ni, Chi Kung

    2013-05-01

    Angular resolved velocity distributions of laser desorbed neutral matrices (dihydroxybenzoic acids, DHB) and analytes (tryptophan) embedded in these matrices were investigated at 322 nm by a modified crossed molecular beam apparatus. Desorbed ions generated from MALDI were measured by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Desorptions of neutral matrix and analyte from 2,3-DHB, 2,4-DHB, 2,5-DHB, 2,6-DHB, and 3,5--DHB at 322 nm have similar properties, but the ion intensities are in the order 2,3DHB ≅ 2,6-DHB > 2,5-DHB ≅ 2,4-DHB > 3,5-DHB. It indicates that the combination of various parameters related to neutral species, including absorption coefficient, sublimation energy, contact of analyte and matrix in crystal, and plume dynamics of desorbed species are not crucial in the determination of MALDI process for DHB isomers. The difference of matrix activity of DHB isomers at this wavelength must result from the other properties, like the excited state lifetime, proton affinity, gas-phase basicity, acidity, ionization energy, or the other properties related to the primary reactions in ion generation.

  11. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  12. Amino Acid Content, Fatty Acid Profile and Radical Scavenging Capacities of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtisam G. Doka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan, the unripe (green fruits of Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae are eaten raw as salads or cooked by either boiling or frying in oil. In this study the amino acid content, fatty acid profile and radical scavenging capacities of the raw and boiled fruits were determined. The total amino acids ranged from 7736 mg/100 g in raw fruits to 7766 mg/100 g in boiled fruits and with the exception of leucine, boiling did not cause significant difference in the essential amino acids content (32.5% of the fruits. Boiling caused significant (p<0.05 change in the amount of the total saturated (from 38.04% in raw fruits to 14.156% in boiled ones and unsaturated fatty acids (from 57.59% in raw fruits to 85.774% in boiled ones. Moreover, boiling caused significant (p<0.05 losses of vitamin C by 73% and polyphenols by 70.6 % contents. The high antioxidant activity of the raw fruits (IC50 22 mg/L, determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, was declined dramatically upon boiling. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that fruits of C. grandis could have health beneficial effect and their consumption in the raw state is preferable.

  13. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-07-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  14. Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jennifer L; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C; Xu, Hockin H K

    2011-07-01

    Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size were synthesized via a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a resin. Flexural strength of nanocomposite with 10 to 30% NACP fillers matched the strength of a commercial hybrid composite (p > 0.1). Nanocomposite with 40% NACP matched the strength of a microfill composite, which was 2-fold that of a resin-modified glass ionomer. Nanocomposite with 40% NACP neutralized a lactic acid solution of pH 4 by rapidly increasing the pH to 5.69 in 10 min. In contrast, the commercial controls had pH staying at near 4. Using Streptoccocus mutans, an agar disk-diffusion test showed no inhibition zone for commercial controls. In contrast, the inhibition zone was (2.5 ± 0.7) mm for nanocomposite with 40% NACP. Crystal violet staining showed that S. mutans coverage on nanocomposite was 1/4 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel calcium-phosphate nanocomposite matched the mechanical properties of commercial composite and rapidly neutralized lactic acid of pH 4. The nanocomposite appeared to moderately reduce the S. mutans growth, and further study is needed to obtain strong antimicrobial properties. The new nanocomposite may have potential to reduce secondary caries and restoration fracture, two main challenges facing tooth cavity restorations. PMID:21504057

  15. Influence of Neutral Salts and pH on Exchangeable Acidity of Red Soil and Latosol Colloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the exchangeable acidity of a red soil colloid and a latosol colloid at different pH during reacting with four neutral salts was measured. The results show that the exchangeable acidity increased with increasing amounts of the neutral salts added, and the relation between them was almost linear. When the amount of the neutral salt added was lower than a certain value, the slope of the line was high, and the slope turned low when the amount exceeded that value, so there was a turning point in each line. The addition amounts of the neutral salts for the turning points were affected by the cation species of the neutral salts, but pH had less effect on them. After the turning points occurred, the exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid still gradually increased with the addition amounts of the neutral salts, but that of the latosol colloid did not increase any more.The exchangeable acidity in NaClO4, KClO4 and NaCl solutions increased at first, and then decreased with increasing pH, that is to say, peak values appeared. The peak positions of the exchangeable acidity in relation to pH changed with neutral salt solutions and were affected by the surface characteristics of the soil colloids, but not affected by the amounts of the neutral salts added. The exchangeable acidity in the Ba(NO3)2 solution increased continuously with increasing pH. The exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid was obviously larger than that of the latosol colloid.``

  16. Spatial Distribution of Acid Neutralizing Processes in Steep Headwater Catchments in Tanakami Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Y.; Uchida, T.; Ohte, N.; Tani, M.

    2001-05-01

    The areas characterized by steep slope, thin soils, and unreactive bedrock types are often considered as acid-sensitive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial distribution of acid neutralizing processes in steep headwater catchment in the humid temperate region, and to discuss the long-term change in acid neutralizing processes associated with the forest growth and soil development. The observations were conducted at two adjacent unchannelled steep catchment, Fudoji (0.10ha) and Rachidani (0.18ha). Two catchments share similar climatic condition and the same bedrock geology (granite). The mean hollow gradient is 37degrees in Fudoji and 34degrees in Rachidani. Fudoji is forested with mean soil depth of 77cm, while Rachidani is non-vegetated with mean soil depth of about 10cm. In both catchments, hydrometric and isotopic measurements illustrated the substantial downward water flux into the bedrock in upslope area and emerging of this water from bedrock to soil layer within 2m from the perennial spring points. The mean pH of soil water and groundwater were dispersed over a wide range of 4.00 to 5.84 in Fudoji and 5.29 to 6.28 in Rachidani, while stream pHs converged very closely to neutral value in two catchments. In both catchments, major H+ sources distributed at the near-surface soil layer and the intensity of internal H+ production was greater in forested Fudoji than non-vegetated Rachidani, attributed to the biological cycles in forest ecosystems. Calculation of budget for base cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) presented that 72 to 84 percent (Fudoji) and 34percent (Rachidani) of the net base cation production in each catchment was derived from the bedrock, indicating that a considerable amount of the H+ was consumed within the bedrock. Moreover, the H+ consumption rate per unit volume of soil in Fudoji was almost one order of magnitude smaller than that of Rachidani. These results suggested that the dominant H+ sink in catchments shifted from

  17. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some neutral and acidic -amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghvendra Shukla; Pradeep K Sharma; Kalyan K Banerji

    2004-03-01

    The oxidation of eleven amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid results in the formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and ammonia. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with some of the amino acids while others exhibit second-order dependence. It failed to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. The effect of solvent composition indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increase in the polarity of the medium. Addition of tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the rate of oxidation. Addition of bromide ion causes decrease in the oxidation rate but only to a limiting value. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of the substituents. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  19. Theoretical models of mercury dissolution from dental amalgams in neutral and acidic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keanini, Russell G.; Ferracane, Jack L.; Okabe, Toru

    2001-06-01

    This article reports an experimental and theoretical investigation of mercury dissolution from dental amalgams immersed in neutral (noncorrosive) and acidic (corrosive) flows. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric measurements of Hg loss indicate that in neutral flow, surface oxide films formed in air prior to immersion persist and effectively suppress significant mercury release. In acidic (pH 1) flows, by contrast, oxide films are unstable and dissolve; depending on the amalgam’s material composition, particularly its copper content, two distinct mercury release mechanisms are initiated. In low copper amalgam, high initial mercury release rates are observed and appear to reflect preferential mercury dissolution from unstable Sn8Hg ( γ 2) grains within the amalgam matrix. In high copper amalgam, mercury release rates are initially low, but increase with time. Microscopic examination suggests that this feature reflects corrosion of copper from grains of Cu6Sn5 ( η') and consequent exposure of Ag2Hg3 ( γ 1) grains; the latter serve as internal mercury release sites and become more numerous as corrosion proceeds. Three theoretical models are proposed in order to explain observed dissolution characteristics. Model I, applicable to high and low copper amalgams in neutral flow, assumes that mercury dissolution is mediated by solid diffusion within the amalgam, and that a thin oxide film persists on the amalgam’s surface and lumps diffusive in-film transport into an effective convective boundary condition. Model II, applicable to low copper amalgam in acidic flow, assumes that the amalgam’s external oxide film dissolves on a short time scale relative to the experimental observation period; it neglects corrosive suppression of mercury transport. Model III, applicable to high copper amalgam in acidic flow, assumes that internal mercury release sites are created by corrosion of copper in η' grains and that corrosion proceeds via an oxidation-reduction reaction

  20. Reactivity of Alanylalanine Diastereoisomers in Neutral and Acid Aqueous Solutions: a Versatile Stereoselectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Raphaël; Tsuji, Maika; Kamata, Masazumi; Asakura, Kouichi

    2011-10-01

    A good comprehension of the reactivity of peptides in aqueous solution is fundamental in prebiotic chemistry, namely for understanding their stability and behavior in primitive oceans. Relying on the stereoselectivity of the involved reactions, there is a huge interest in amino acid derivatives for explaining the spontaneous emergence of homochirality on primitive Earth. The corresponding kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are however still poorly known in the literature. We studied the reactivity of alanylalanine in acidic to neutral conditions as a model system. The hydrolysis into amino acids, the epimerization of the N-terminal residue, and the cyclization into diketopiperazine could be successfully identified and studied. This kinetic investigation highlighted interesting behaviors. Complex mechanisms were observed in very acidic conditions. The relative kinetic stability of the diastereoisomers of the dipeptide is highly dependent of the pH, with the possibility to dynamically destabilize the thermodynamically more stable diastereoisomers. The existence of the cyclization of dipeptides adds complexity to the system. On one hand it brings additional stereoselectivities; on the other hand fast racemization of heterochiral dipeptides is obtained.

  1. Performance analyses of a neutralizing agent combination strategy for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Li-Wen; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-05-01

    A neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed to enhance the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. First, a maximal succinic acid production of 48.2 g/L was obtained at a culture pH of 7.5. Second, NaOH and KOH were screened to identify the optimal neutralizing agent for pH control. However, the production of succinic acid did not increase, and severe cell flocculation was observed due to a high concentration of metal ions when only one neutralizing agent was used to control pH. Finally, a neutralizing agent combination strategy was developed with a supply of neutralizing agents with OH(-) and carbonate. The cell flocculation was eliminated, and a maximum succinic acid production of 59.2 g/L was obtained with 5 M NaOH and 40 g/L of MgCO(3); this production was 27.9% higher than that obtained with NaOH alone. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the large-scale industrial production of succinic acid. PMID:22002101

  2. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Claver Irakoze; Jauricque Ursulla Kongo-Dia-Moukala; Hui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capa...

  3. Simple and Rapid Method for the Determination of Uric Acid-Independent Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Modun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative contribution of uric acid level increases to the total measured antioxidative activity could be very useful for testing antioxidative products and their effect on human health. The aim of this report is to present a simple spectrophotometric method that combines the measurement of total antioxidative capacity of a sample by ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP assay, with the uricase-reaction (specific elimination of uric acid, in order to establish and correct for the contribution of uric acid in FRAP values. We measured FRAP values, with (uric acid-independent antioxidant capacity, TAC-UA and without (total antioxidant capacity, TAC uricase treatment, and expressed it as μmol/L of uric acid equivalents. In such way, it was possible to determine both total and uric acid-independent antioxidant capacity, plasma uric acid (UA, as the difference between TAC and TAC-UA, and the ratio of the uric acid in total antioxidant capacity (UA/TAC.

  4. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff B. Langman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt % released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, resulting in an increase in acid-soluble elements, including Cu and Zn. With the dissolution of Al-bearing minerals, the pH stabilized above 4, and sulfide oxidation continued to decline until the end of the experiment. The variation in activation energy of sulfide oxidation correlates with changes in sulfide availability, where the lowest activation energies occurred during the largest releases of SO4. A decrease in sulfide availability was attributed to consumption of sulfide and weathered rims on sulfide grains that reduced the oxidation rate. Varying element release rates due to changing carbonate and sulfide availability provide identifiable geochemical conditions that can be viewed as neutralization sequences and may be extrapolated to the field site for examining the evolution of mineral weathering of the waste rock.

  5. Production and detection of neutral molecular beams : from single amino acids to biomolecular complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a laser desorption source for neutral organic molecules and clusters as well as the first exploration of a superconducting single photon detector for the detection of massive neutral particles. Whereas the source can produce beams of biomolecules for various gas-phase applications, the detector can be used to overcome the current post- ionization detection mass limit of neutral molecules. The aim of our work is to produce and detect neutral molecular gas-phase beams, ranging from small amino acids overlarge polypeptides to massive complexes. The purpose of creating these beams is to use them for quantum optics experiments, like near field matter wave interference and its applications in metrology. Standard effusive sources usually lack the ability to cool the evaporated organic molecules fast enough to prevent fragmentation. In contrast to that, the presented laser desorption source cools the initially evaporated molecules by embedding them into a supersonic seed gas beam. The mixing of the seed gas and the desorbed molecules is implemented both in free expansion as well as inside a closed mixing channel. The desorbed neutral molecules are detected by photo-ionization using UV (266 nm) and FUV (157 nm) light followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For the amino acid tryptophan (204amu) and for the antibiotic polypeptide gramicidin (1884amu) the ion yields for both photo-ionization wavelengths are examined and the ionization cross sections for the UV wavelength are measured. In case of tryptophan the ionization yield is comparable for both wavelengths, whereas gramicidin is detected fifteen times more efficiently under VUV ionization than for UV ionization at equal intensity. Desorption of heavier molecules than gramicidin never resulted in a detectable ion yield, which confirms the known inefficiency for the post-ionization of isolated large organic molecules [1-3]. The desorption source is also used for the formation of large neutral

  6. Corrosion behaviour of WC-Co based hardmetal in neutral chloride and acid sulphate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, B.; Serra, M.; Fanigliulo, A.; Bogani, F. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione; Gaudenzi, G.P. de [Harditalia s.r.l. (OMCD Group), Genova (Italy)

    2002-05-01

    A comparative study of the corrosion behaviour of WC-Co based hardmetals with Ni and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} additions is carried out. The aggressive environments are neutral and acidic aerated aqueous solutions of NaCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This study is based on electrochemical (linear sweep voltammery), compositional (surface EDX analyses, AAS analyses of attack solutions), structural (XRD) and morphological (SEM) investigations. Electrochemical figures of merit were computed from linear sweep voltammograms in order to rank the corrosion behaviour close to free-immersion conditions in the studied environments and with presence of oxidising agents. EDX and XRD analyses allow to accurately characterise the penetration depth of the attack as well as the preferential dissolution of the constituents. Binders containing Ni show a significantly improved corrosion resistance in the studied systems. The amount of Ni in the binder is the single most important factor affecting corrosion performance. Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} additions to hardmetals with lower-Ni binders cannot balance the effect of Ni, but give an improved resistance in neutral chloride-containing solutions. (orig.)

  7. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happi Emaga, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different hydrolysis procedures of flaxseed polysaccharides (chemical and enzymatic were carried out with H2SO4, HCl and TFA at different acid concentrations (0.2, 1 and 2 M and temperatures (80 and 100°C. Enzymatic and combined chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses of polysaccharide from flaxseed mucilage were also studied. Acid hydrolysis conditions (2 M H2SO4, 4 h, 100°C are required to quantify total monosaccharide content of flaxseed mucilage. The enzymatic pathway (Pectinex™ Ultra SP limits sugar destruction during hydrolysis, but it is also insufficient for complete depolymerization. The combination of the two treatments, i.e. moderate chemical hydrolysis (0.2 M H2SO4, 80°C, 48 h combined with enzymatic hydrolysis is not more effective compared to chemical hydrolysis in drastic conditions (2 M H2SO4 at 100°C. The strong interaction between the neutral and acid fractions of flaxseed mucilage may hinder total release of sugar residues. Physical treatment prior to the hydrolysis could be necessary to achieve complete depolymerisation of flaxseed mucilage.

  8. Identification of one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS in pigs. Currently, there is considerable interest in the immunology of PCV2; in particular, the immunological properties of the capsid protein. This protein is involved in PCV2 immunogenicity and is a potential target for vaccine development. In this study, we identified one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of PCV2. Results One monoclonal antibody (mAb; 8E4, against the capsid protein of PCV2, was generated and characterized in this study. 8E4 reacted with the genotype PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2 strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF strains by an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA and a capture ELISA. Furthermore, the mAb had the capacity to neutralize PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2 strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF strains. One critical amino acid that determined a conformational neutralizing epitope was identified using mAb 8E4 and PCV2 infectious clone technique. Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. Further experiments demonstrated that one amino acid substitution, the alanine for arginine at position 59 (A59R in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2 strains, inhibited completely the immunoreactivity of three PCV2a strains with mAb 8E4. Conclusions It is concluded that the alanine at position 59 in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2 strains is a critical amino acid, which determines one neutralizing epitope of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2 strains. This study provides valuable information for further in-depth mapping of the conformational neutralizing epitope, understanding antigenic difference among PCV2 strains, and development of a useful vaccine for control of PCV2-associated disease.

  9. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interes

  10. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  11. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike; Hansen, Lene; Linnet, Kristian

    2010-09-01

    We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil, but these drugs were not included in the full validation program and are not described in detail here. Limit of quantitation was 1 mg/kg for the compounds with coefficients of variation of < 20%, except for furosemide, which had a coefficient of variation of 32% at limit of quantitation. The measuring interval was wide for most components. Extraction efficiencies were high, reflecting the high-yield capacity of the method. PMID:20822673

  12. Inhibition of Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Suppresses Kynurenic Acid Production Via Inhibition of Kynurenine Uptake in Rodent Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Airi; Kuroki, Yusuke; Urata, Tomomi; Mori, Noriyuki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increases of brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, and regulation of KYNA production has become a new target for treatment of these diseases. Kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is transported into astrocytes via large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). In the present study, the effect of LATs regulation on KYN uptake and KYNA production was investigated in vitro and in vivo using an LATs inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). In the in vitro study, cortical slices of rat brain were incubated with a physiological concentration of KYN and 3 µmol/L-3 mmol/L BCH. BCH inhibited KYNA production and KYN uptake in a dose-dependent manner, and their IC50 values were 90.7 and 97.4 µmol/L, respectively. In the in vivo study, mice were administered KYN (50 mg/kg BW) orally and BCH (200 mg/kg BW) intravenously. Administration of KYN increased brain KYN and KYNA levels compared with the mice treated with vehicle, whereas additional administration of BCH suppressed KYN-induced elevations in KYN and KYNA levels to 50 and 70 % in the brain. These results suggest that inhibition of LATs prevented the increase of KYNA production via blockade of KYN uptake in the brain in vitro and in vivo. LATs can be a target to modulate brain function by regulation of KYNA production in the brain. PMID:27161376

  13. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  14. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  15. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  16. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  17. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  18. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid base neutralization reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Wan, Jiangling; Wang, Yirui; Mou, Dongsheng; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2008-09-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  19. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  20. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, van den, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interesting reactions, since the generated products, aldehydes and alcohols, are potentially applicable in the fine-chemical industry. However, the reduction of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes is a thermodynamicall...

  1. Tricarboxylic-acid-cycle intermediates and cycle endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C; Macrae, Holden S H; Turner, Nathan S

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of a multinutrient supplement containing 3 tricarboxylic-acid-cycle intermediates (TCAIs; pyridoxine-alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, and succinate) and other substances potentially supporting the TCA cycle (such as aspartate and glutamate) would improve cyclists' time to exhaustion during a submaximal endurance-exercise test (approximately 70 % to 75 % VO2peak) and rate of recovery. Seven well-trained male cyclists (VO2max 67.4 2.1 mL x kg(-1) x in(-1), 28.6 +/- 2.4 y) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study for 7 wk. Each took either the treatment or a placebo 30 min before and after their normal training sessions for 3 wk and before submaximal exercise tests. There were no significant differences between the TCAI group (KI) and placebo group (P) in time to exhaustion during cycling (KI = 105 +/- 18, P = 113 +/- 11 min); respiratory-exchange ratio at 20-min intervals; blood lactate and plasma glucose before, after, and at 30-min intervals during exercise; perceived exertion at 20-min intervals during exercise; or time to fatigue after the 30-min recovery (KI = 16.1 +/- 3.2, P = 15 +/- 2 min). Taking a dietary sport supplement containing several TCAIs and supporting substances for 3 wk does not improve cycling performance at 75 % VO2peak or speed recovery from previously fatiguing exercise.

  2. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  3. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  4. No significant differences in peritoneal fluid handling in children using pH-neutral or acidic solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourse, Peter; de Kar, Nicole C. A. J. van; Willems, Hans L.; Schroeder, Cornelis H.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Differences in peritoneal fluid handling in the acute setting can be expected if children are converted to pH-neutral dialysis solutions because conventional acidic solutions exert toxic effects on peritoneal mesothetial cells and microcirculation. Peritoneal fluid kinetics was therefore

  5. Effect of Supplemental Ascorbic Acid on the Aerobic Capacity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin solved in water that acts as a helper of some the enzymes in the reactions of energy metabolism. Thus, the study aims to investigate the use of supplemental ascorbic acid on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the children.Methodology: Participants of this quasi-experimental study were 18 children in Esfahan who were randomly selected and divided into 9 groups in pair (aerobic exercise group and the control group. For 10 days before the start of the main trial, the participants in the control group received placebo and the experimental group received ascorbic acid. The average aerobic capacity was measured before and after 10 days of the use of ascorbic acid. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 18.Results: Before and after 10 days of the use of ascorbic acid, the mean and standard deviation of the aerobic capacity of the experimental group were respectively 3.59± 0.38 and 4.23 ± 0.77 and of the control group were 3.7 ± 0.40 and 3.7± 0.53, respectively. Therefore, there was a significant relationship between the use of ascorbic acid and placebo in terms of aerobic capacity (p ≤ 0.5.

  6. Regulating of current harmonics in the neutral conductor to a suitable value taking into account the specific current carrying capacity; Regelung des Netzstroms im Neutralleiter auf einen geeigneten Sollwert unter Beachtung der speziellen Strombelastbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakra, I.; Ellinger, T.; Raedel, U. [TU Ilmenau (Germany). Leistungselektronik und Steuerungen in der Elektroenergietechnik

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a practical application of DSP-based current controller for 3-Phase 4-Wire shunt active filter with a new Control Strategy of current harmonics in the Neutral conductor in an unbalanced nonlinear load. The current harmonics in Neutral conductor will be compensated to a suitable set point (given value) considering the special capacity. (orig.)

  7. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  8. Increased adhesion between neutral lipid bilayers: interbilayer bridges formed by tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S A; Disalvo, E A; Gawrisch, K; Borovyagin, V; Toone, E; Schiffman, S S; Needham, D; McIntosh, T J

    1994-06-01

    Tannic acid (TA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that aggregates membranes and neutral phosolipid vesicles and precipitates many proteins. This study analyzes TA binding to lipid membranes and the ensuing aggregation. The optical density of dispersions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles increased upon the addition of TA and electron micrographs showed that TA caused the vesicles to aggregate and form stacks of tightly packed disks. Solution calorimetry showed that TA bound to PC bilayers with a molar binding enthalpy of -8.3 kcal/mol and zeta potential measurements revealed that TA imparted a small negative charge to PC vesicles. Monolayer studies showed that TA bound to PC with a dissociation constant of 1.5 microM and reduced the dipole potential by up to 250 mV. Both the increase in optical density and decrease in dipole potential produced by TA could be reversed by the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone, a compound that chelates TA by providing H-bond acceptor groups. NMR, micropipette aspiration, and x-ray diffraction experiments showed that TA incorporated into liquid crystalline PC membranes, increasing the area per lipid molecule and decreasing the bilayer thickness by 2 to 4%. 2H-NMR quadrupole splitting measurements also showed that TA associated with a PC molecule for times much less than 10(-4) s. In gel phase bilayers, TA caused the hydrocarbon chains from apposing monolayers to fully interdigitate. X-ray diffraction measurements of both gel and liquid crystalline dispersions showed that TA, at a critical concentration of about 1 mM, reduced the fluid spacing between adjacent bilayers by 8-10 A. These data place severe constraints on how TA can pack between adjacent bilayers and cause vesicles to adhere. We conclude that TA promotes vesicle aggregation by reducing the fluid spacing between bilayers by the formation of transient interbilayer bridges by inserting its digallic acid residues into the interfacial regions of adjacent bilayers

  9. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD

  10. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD. PMID:16375949

  11. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography as a suitable tool for lipophilicity determination of acidic, neutral, and basic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Xavier; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chaves, Verónica; Marzal, Núria; Rosés, Martí

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, several MEEKC systems are studied to assess their suitability for lipophilicity determination of acidic, neutral, and basic compounds. Thus, several microemulsion compositions over a wide range of pH values (from 2.0 to 12.0), containing heptane, 1-butanol and different types and amounts of surfactant (SDS or sodium cholate: from 1.3 to 3.3%) are characterized using Abraham's solvation model. The addition of acetonitrile (up to 10%) is also studied, since it increases the resolution of the technique for the most lipophilic compounds. The system coefficients obtained are very similar to those of the 1-octanol/water, used as the reference lipophilicity index, allowing simple and linear correlations between the 1-octanol/water partition values (log Po/w ) and MEEKC mass distribution ratios (log kMEEKC ). Variations in the microemulsion composition (aqueous buffer, surfactant, concentration of ACN) did not significantly affect the similarity of the MEEKC systems to log Po/w partition. PMID:27126602

  12. Evaluation of alternative tissues and equipment for the analysis of neutral and acid detergente fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Farias

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare alternative devices and tissues for the determination of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF with the conventional method. Two tissues, nylon (50 μm and TNT (100 g/m², and two devices (fiber digester and autoclave were used for the determination of NDF and ADF content compared to the conventional method. A completely randomized experimental design, which consisted of five treatments and 10 repetitions, was used. The NDF content obtained with TNT in the two devices differed from that obtained with the conventional method (P<0.01. However, the use of nylon in the autoclave and fiber digester provided similar values (P>0.01, indicating this combination as a possible alternative to the conventional method. There was no difference (P>0.01 between the alternative methods for the analysis of NDF. The content of ADF differed between the devices and tissues evaluated (P<0.01. However, the use of nylon tissue in the fiber digester provided values similar to the conventional method (P>0.01 and may be indicated as a practical alternative for the analysis of ADF. The NDF content obtained with nylon tissue, irrespective of the equipment used, and the ADF content obtained with nylon tissue in the fiber digester were similar to the conventional method.

  13. Cross-Linking Poly(lactic acid) Film Surface by Neutral Hyperthermal Hydrogen Molecule Bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wangli; Shao, Hong; He, Zhoukun; Tang, Changyu; Liu, Yu; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Yan; Lau, Woon-ming; Hui, David

    2015-12-16

    Constructing a dense cross-linking layer on a polymer film surface is a good way to improve the water resistance of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). However, conventional plasma treatments have failed to achieve the aim as a result of the unavoidable surface damage arising from the charged species caused by the uncontrolled high energy coming from colliding ions and electrons. In this work, we report a modified plasma method called hyperthermal hydrogen-induced cross-linking (HHIC) technology to construct a dense cross-linking layer on PLA film surfaces. This method produces energy-controlled neutral hyperthermal hydrogen, which selectively cleaves C-H bonds by molecule collision from the PLA film without breaking other bonds (e.g., C-C bonds in the polymer backbone), and results in subsequent cross-linking of the carbon radicals generated from the organic molecules. The formation of a dense cross-linking layer can serve as a barrier layer to significantly improve both the hydrophobicity and water vapor barrier property of the PLA film. Because of the advantage of selective cleavage of C-H bonds by HHIC treatment, the original physical properties (e.g., mechanical strength and light transmittance) of the PLA films are well-preserved.

  14. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  15. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  16. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  17. Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, A; Castillo, M C; Núñez, V; Yarlequé, A; Gonçalves, L R C; Villalta, M; Bonilla, C; Herrera, M; Vargas, M; Fernández, M; Yano, M Y; Araújo, H P; Boller, M A A; León, P; Tintaya, B; Sano-Martins, I S; Gómez, A; Fernández, G P; Geoghegan, P; Higashi, H G; León, G; Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-11-01

    Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, defibrinogenating and myotoxic activities of the venoms of Bothrops neuwiedi (diporus) (Argentina), Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. neuwiedi (mattogrossensis) (Bolivia), Bothrops atrox (Peru and Colombia) and Bothrops asper (Costa Rica) was assessed using standard laboratory tests. Despite differences in the venom mixtures used in the immunization of animals for the production of these antivenoms, a pattern of extensive cross-neutralization was observed between these antivenoms and all the venoms tested, with quantitative differences in the values of effective doses. This study reveals the capacity of these antivenoms to neutralize, in preclinical tests, homologous and heterologous Bothrops venoms in Central and South America, and also highlight quantitative differences in the values of Median Effective Doses (ED50s) between the various antivenoms.

  18. Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, A; Castillo, M C; Núñez, V; Yarlequé, A; Gonçalves, L R C; Villalta, M; Bonilla, C; Herrera, M; Vargas, M; Fernández, M; Yano, M Y; Araújo, H P; Boller, M A A; León, P; Tintaya, B; Sano-Martins, I S; Gómez, A; Fernández, G P; Geoghegan, P; Higashi, H G; León, G; Gutiérrez, J M

    2010-11-01

    Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, defibrinogenating and myotoxic activities of the venoms of Bothrops neuwiedi (diporus) (Argentina), Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. neuwiedi (mattogrossensis) (Bolivia), Bothrops atrox (Peru and Colombia) and Bothrops asper (Costa Rica) was assessed using standard laboratory tests. Despite differences in the venom mixtures used in the immunization of animals for the production of these antivenoms, a pattern of extensive cross-neutralization was observed between these antivenoms and all the venoms tested, with quantitative differences in the values of effective doses. This study reveals the capacity of these antivenoms to neutralize, in preclinical tests, homologous and heterologous Bothrops venoms in Central and South America, and also highlight quantitative differences in the values of Median Effective Doses (ED50s) between the various antivenoms. PMID:20621114

  19. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  20. A broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody reveals ongoing capacity of haemagglutinin-specific memory B cells to evolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Sheehan, Jared; Avnir, Yuval; Ridenour, Callie; Sachnik, Thomas; Sun, Jiusong; Hossain, M. Jaber; Chen, Li-Mei; Zhu, Quan; Donis, Ruben O.; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the natural evolution and structural changes involved in broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) development holds great promise for improving the design of prophylactic influenza vaccines. Here we report an haemagglutinin (HA) stem-directed bnAb, 3I14, isolated from human memory B cells, that utilizes a heavy chain encoded by the IGHV3-30 germline gene. MAb 3I14 binds and neutralizes groups 1 and 2 influenza A viruses and protects mice from lethal challenge. Analysis of VH and VL germline back-mutants reveals binding to H3 and H1 but not H5, which supports the critical role of somatic hypermutation in broadening the bnAb response. Moreover, a single VLD94N mutation improves the affinity of 3I14 to H5 by nearly 10-fold. These data provide evidence that memory B cell evolution can expand the HA subtype specificity. Our results further suggest that establishing an optimized memory B cell pool should be an aim of ‘universal' influenza vaccine strategies. PMID:27619409

  1. A broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody reveals ongoing capacity of haemagglutinin-specific memory B cells to evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Sheehan, Jared; Avnir, Yuval; Ridenour, Callie; Sachnik, Thomas; Sun, Jiusong; Hossain, M Jaber; Chen, Li-Mei; Zhu, Quan; Donis, Ruben O; Marasco, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the natural evolution and structural changes involved in broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) development holds great promise for improving the design of prophylactic influenza vaccines. Here we report an haemagglutinin (HA) stem-directed bnAb, 3I14, isolated from human memory B cells, that utilizes a heavy chain encoded by the IGHV3-30 germline gene. MAb 3I14 binds and neutralizes groups 1 and 2 influenza A viruses and protects mice from lethal challenge. Analysis of VH and VL germline back-mutants reveals binding to H3 and H1 but not H5, which supports the critical role of somatic hypermutation in broadening the bnAb response. Moreover, a single VLD94N mutation improves the affinity of 3I14 to H5 by nearly 10-fold. These data provide evidence that memory B cell evolution can expand the HA subtype specificity. Our results further suggest that establishing an optimized memory B cell pool should be an aim of 'universal' influenza vaccine strategies. PMID:27619409

  2. PNW cetacean muscle biochemistry - Muscle Myoglobin Content and Acid Buffering Capacity of Cetaceans from the Pacific Northwest to Assess Dive Capacity and the Development of Diving Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses the development of two important skeletal muscle adaptations for diving (enhanced myoglobin content and acid buffering capacities) in a range...

  3. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  4. Reactive geothermal transport simulation to study the formation mechanism of impermeable barrier between acidic and neutral fluid zones in the Onikobe Geothermal Field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todaka, Norifumi; Akasaka, Chitosi; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-09

    Two types of fluids are encountered in the Onikobe geothermal reservoir, one is neutral and the other is acidic (pH=3). It is hypothesized that acidic fluid might be upwelling along a fault zone and that an impermeable barrier might be present between the acidic and neutral fluid zones. We carried out reactive geothermal transport simulations using TOUGHREACT (Xu and Pruess, 1998 and 2001) to test such a conceptual model. Mn-rich smectite precipitated near the mixing front and is likely to form an impermeable barrier between regions with acidic and neutral fluids.

  5. Application of HPLC capacity coefficients to characterize the sorption of polycyclic aromatic compounds to humic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Helweg, C.; Siigur, K.;

    1997-01-01

    The sorption coefficients to humic acid of 46 PAC having a wide range in polarity were compared with the capacity coefficients of the PAC to a non-polar HPLC column material (ODS) and a polar one (Diol). It is shown that polar interactions contribute to the sorption of polar PAC in addition...

  6. Exposure or release of ferulic acid from wheat aleurone: impact on its antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natalia N; Dufour, Claire; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Micard, Valérie

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between the aleurone cell integrity and the exposure or release of bioavailable ferulic acid (FA) with the antioxidant capacity of aleurone in in vitro and under simulated gastric conditions was explored. The antioxidant capacity of aleurone was increased by around 2-fold when its median particle size was reduced to under 50 μm. The opening of aleurone cells increased the physical exposure of FA bound to the insoluble polysaccharides, which seemed to be responsible of the increased antioxidant capacity. Synergistic combination of xylanase and feruloyl esterase was found to be the most efficient enzymatic treatment releasing up to 86% of total FA in bioaccessible forms. This enzymatic treatment significantly enhanced the radical scavenging activity of aleurone by up to 4-fold, which overlapped the overall antioxidant potential estimated from the total content of FA in aleurone. The improvement in the antioxidant capacity of aleurone was also observed in the simulated gastric digestion by inhibition of lipid oxidation.

  7. N-terminal amino acids of bovine alpha interferons are relevant for the neutralization of their antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Filho J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure-function relationship of interferons (IFNs has been studied by epitope mapping. Epitopes of bovine IFNs, however, are practically unknown, despite their importance in virus infections and in the maternal recognition of pregnancy. It has been shown that recombinant bovine (rBoIFN-alphaC and rBoIFN-alpha1 differ only in 12 amino acids and that the F12 monoclonal antibody (mAb binds to a linear sequence of residues 10 to 34. We show here that the antiviral activities of these two IFNs were neutralized by the F12 mAb to different extents using two tests. In residual activity tests the antiviral activity dropped by more than 99% with rBoIFN-alphaC and by 84% with rBoIFN-alpha1. In checkerboard antibody titrations, the F12 mAb titer was 12,000 with rBoIFN-alphaC and only 600 with rBoIFN-alpha1. Since these IFNs differ in their amino acid sequence at positions 11, 16 and 19 of the amino terminus, only these amino acids could account for the different neutralization titers, and they should participate in antibody binding. According to the three-dimensional structure described for human and murine IFNs, these amino acids are located in the alpha helix A; amino acids 16 and 19 of the bovine IFNs would be expected to be exposed and could bind to the antibody directly. The amino acid at position 11 forms a hydrogen bond in human IFNs-alpha and it is possible that, in bovine IFNs-alpha, the F12 mAb, binding near position 11, would disturb this hydrogen bond, resulting in the difference in the extent of neutralization observed.

  8. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs

  9. Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W S; Wells, R G; Sabbag, R V; Mohandas, T K; Hediger, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have recently cloned, sequenced, and characterized a rat kidney cDNA (D2) that stimulates cystine as well as dibasic and neutral amino acid transport. In order to evaluate the role of this protein in human inherited diseases such as cystinuria, we have isolated a human D2 clone (D2H) by low stringency screening of a human kidney cDNA library using the radiolabeled D2 insert as a probe. The D2H cDNA is 2284 nucleotides long and encodes a 663 amino acid protein that is 80% identical to the r...

  10. Synthesis and structure of a new 1D infinite neutral chain based on organotin and selenious acid monoethyl ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Shen; Yu Cao; Chang Wen Hu

    2009-01-01

    A new ID infinite neutral chain (Ph3SnO2SeOCH2CH3)n (1) based on organotin and selenious acid monoethyl ester has been synthesized successfully and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. In the compound 1, the Sn atom exists in slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry and the Se center is tri-coordinated with a distorted pyramidal arrangement. It is noted that the synthesis is facile and selenium oxide is directly introduced into synthesis route replacing organoseleninic acid under room temperature.

  11. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD50, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  12. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea SR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simon R Lea,1,* Hannah J Metcalfe,1,* Jonathan Plumb,1 Christian Beerli,2 Chris Poll,3 Dave Singh,1 Katharine H Abbott-Banner3 1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Diseases, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Horsham, West Sussex, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2 and acid SMase (aSMase, which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS, smokers (S, and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20 were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results: nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54% compared with NS (31.7% (P<0.05, and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2% and S (69.5% alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4% (P

  13. Evolutionary anatomies of positions and types of disease-associated and neutral amino acid mutations in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Sankar

    2006-12-01

    selection until compensatory changes occur. Conclusion The consistency and predictability of genome-wide patterns of disease- associated and neutral amino acid variants reported here underscores the importance of the consideration of evolutionary rates of amino acid positions in clinical and population genetic analyses aimed at understanding the nature and fate of disease-associated and neutral population variation. Establishing such general patterns is an early step in efforts to diagnose the pathogenic potentials of novel amino acid mutations.

  14. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO2 by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L-1, iron 348 mg L-1) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s-1 for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO2 and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  15. Quantifying the role of forest soil and bedrock in the acid neutralization of surface water in steep hillslopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of soil and bedrock in acid neutralizing processes has been difficult to quantify because of hydrological and biogeochemical uncertainties. To quantify those roles, hydrochemical observations were conducted at two hydrologically well-defined, steep granitic hillslopes in the Tanakami Mountains of Japan. These paired hillslopes are similar except for their soils; Fudoji is leached of base cations (base saturation 30%), because the erosion rate is 100-1000 times greater. The results showed that (1) soil solution pH at the soil-bedrock interface at Fudoji (4.3) was significantly lower than that of Rachidani (5.5), (2) the hillslope discharge pH in both hillslopes was similar (6.7-6.8), and (3) at Fudoji, 60% of the base cations leaching from the hillslope were derived from bedrock, whereas only 20% were derived from bedrock in Rachidani. Further, previously published results showed that the stream pH could not be predicted from the acid deposition rate and soil base saturation status. These results demonstrate that bedrock plays an especially important role when the overlying soil has been leached of base cations. These results indicate that while the status of soil acidification is a first-order control on vulnerability to surface water acidification, in some cases such as at Fudoji, subsurface interaction with the bedrock determines the sensitivity of surface water to acidic deposition. - Bedrock plays a major role in neutralizing acid when overlying soils have been leached of base cations

  16. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids improve exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuizen, R; Wouters, E.; Creutzberg, E; Weling-Scheepers, C; Schols, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Muscle wasting and decreased muscle oxidative capacity commonly occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to mediate several inflammatory and metabolic pathways which may be involved in the pathogenesis of muscle impairment in COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PUFA modulation on systemic inflammation, reversal of muscle wasting, and functional status in COPD.

  18. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yi Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS of three different types of orthodontic adhesives containing bioactive glasses (BAGs. 45S5, 45S5F and S53P4 BAGs were prepared using the melting technique and ground to fine particles. Orthodontic adhesives containing three types of BAGs were prepared as follows: 52.5% 45S5 BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5_A; 61.25% 45S5 BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5_B; 52.5% 45S5F BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5F_A; 61.25% 45S5F BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5F_B; 52.5% S53P4 BAG + 17.5% glass (S53P4_A; 61.25% S53P4 BAG + 8.75% glass (S53P4_B; and 70.0% glass (BAG_0. To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution, and pH changes were measured. SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. For all of the BAG-containing adhesives, the one with 61.25% of BAG showed a significantly greater increase of pH than the one with 52.5% of BAG (p < 0.05. Groups with 61.25% of BAG showed lower SBS than samples with 52.5% of BAG. 45S5F_A showed no significant difference of SBS compared to BAG_0 (p > 0.05. The adhesive containing 61.25% of 45S5F BAG exhibited clinically acceptable SBS and acid neutralizing properties. Therefore, this composition is a suitable candidate to prevent white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

  19. Development and validation of a cholate binding capacity method for DMP 504, a bile acid sequestrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M A; Moyer, K L; Mueller, B J; Ramos, M A; Green, J S; White, L; Hedgepeth, W; Juliano, K; Scull, J R; Hovsepian, P K

    2001-06-01

    DMP 504, a highly cross-linked insoluble polymer, is a bile acid sequestrant developed by the DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company for serum cholesterol reduction. Since DMP 504 is insoluble, it was necessary to develop unique specific analytical methods to measure and control the quality of different lots of the drug. Since the mechanism of action of DMP 504 is believed to be by sequestration of bile acids, the in-vitro binding capacity of the polymer for cholic acid was chosen as a surrogate of in-vivo performance and used to assess potency of the compound. In this method, individual aliquots of DMP 504 at three different levels were incubated with a cholate solution of known concentration. The residual cholate solution was filtered and analyzed by a reversed-phase HPLC method using refractive index detection. When the bound cholate was plotted versus the mass of DMP 504, the resulting curve was linear. The slope of this curve is the cholate binding capacity of DMP 504. This method has been shown to be precise and robust. Precision of the method was shown to have an RSD of 2.0% with injection precision of 0.4% and stability of cholate solutions up to 73 h. It is also a unique binding capacity method due to its multi-point determination, and it has been shown to be a suitable quality control method for ensuring lot-to-lot consistency of drug substance.

  20. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  1. Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i milk products (n = 6, (ii cereals (n = 10, (iii root and pulp products (n = 5, (iv vegetable proteins (n = 11, (v meat and fish meal (n = 2, (vi medication (n = 3, (vii amino acids (n = 4, (viii minerals (n = 16, (ix acid salts (n = 4, (x acids (n = 10. A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a pH 4.0 (ABC-4 and (b pH 3.0 (ABC-3. Categories of food had significantly different (P

  2. Diffusion of neutral and ionic species in charged membranes: Boric acid, arsenite, and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goli, E.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Rahnemaie, R.; Malakouti, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic ion speciation using DMT (Donnan membrane technique) requires insight into the physicochemical characteristics of diffusion in charged membranes (tortuosity, local diffusion coefficients) as well as ion accumulation. The latter can be precluded by studying the diffusion of neutral species, s

  3. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes.

  4. Three amino acid residues in the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF07_BC regulate viral neutralization susceptibility to the human monoclonal neutralizing antibody IgG1b12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui; Nie; Juan; Zhao; Qingqing; Chen; Weijin; Huang; Youchun; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The CD4 binding site(CD4bs) of envelope glycoprotein(Env) is an important conserved target for anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies IgG1 b12(b12) could recognize conformational epitopes that overlap the CD4 bs of Env. Different virus strains, even derived from the same individual, showed distinct neutralization susceptibility to b12. We examined the key amino acid residues affecting b12 neutralization susceptibility using single genome amplification and pseudovirus neutralization assay. Eleven amino acid residues were identified that affect the sensitivity of Env to b12. Through site-directed mutagenesis, an amino acid substitution at position 182 in the V2 region of Env was confirmed to play a key role in regulating the b12 neutralization susceptibility. The introduction of V182 L to a resistant strain enhanced its sensitivity to b12 more than twofold. Correspondingly, the introduction of L182 V to a sensitive strain reduced its sensitivity to b12 more than tenfold. Amino acid substitution at positions 267 and 346 could both enhance the sensitivity to b12 more than twofold. However, no additive effect was observed when the three site mutageneses were introduced into the same strain, and the sensitivity was equivalent to the single V182 L mutation. CRF07_BC is a major circulating recombinant form of HIV-1 prevalent in China. Our data may provide important information for understanding the molecular mechanism regulating the neutralization susceptibility of CRF07_BC viruses to b12 and may be helpful for a vaccine design targeting the CD4 bs epitopes.

  5. Solid components and acid buffering capacity of soils in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The effects of soil solid components on soil sensitivityto acid deposition were studied in this paper by sequentialextraction method. A multiple regression equation of soilsensitivity was set up on the basis of stepwise regressionanalysis. The results showed that organic matter expressed dualeffects that were decided by soil original pH value andexchangeable cation composition on acid buffering reactions. Thehydrolysis of activated oxides was a very important protonbuffering reaction when in low pH situation. The crystalline oxidesalso played a role in the buffering reactions, but the role wasrestricted by the rate of activation of oxides. Meanwhile, theresults by stepwise analysis showed that factors that hadsignificant effect on soil acid buffering capacity were content ofmontmorillite, soil original pH value, Alo, Mno and CEC indecreasing order. Finally, sixteen soils were classified into fourtypes of sensitive with single index cluster and multiple fuzzy cluster analysis respectively.

  6. Composition, distribution and neutralization of “acid rain” derived from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Noye; Parnell, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain (pH 2.5-5.0) from the volcanic plume of Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, is composed of HCI and H2SO4 in systematically varying proportions. The dominance of HCl in volcanic acid rain makes it distinctly different from anthropogenic acid rain. The pH of volcanic acid rain is largely controlled by its HCl concentration. Volcanic acids are locally damaging, killing vegetation with the conspicuous exception of the shrubs Malanthora and Lantana. These shrubs have the ability to rapidly and co...

  7. Buffer capacity of food components influences the acid tolerance response in Salmonella Typhimurium during simulated gastric passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Sidsel; Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck;

    2014-01-01

    Food composition, buffer capacity, and fat and protein content have been shown to effect the gastric acid survival of pathogens (Waterman & Small 1998). In this study, simple food-model substances with different buffer capacities were investigated for their ability to support survival of stationa...... Heart Infusion Broth having a higher buffer capacity. We suggest this to be associated with a varying ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to mount a stationary phase acid tolerance response (ATR) depending on the buffer capacity of the food vehicle....

  8. Amino acid transport in taxonomically diverse cyanobacteria and identification of two genes encoding elements of a neutral amino acid permease putatively involved in recapture of leaked hydrophobic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, M L; Herrero, A; Flores, E

    1997-02-01

    The activities of uptake of thirteen 14C-labeled amino acids were determined in nine cyanobacteria, including the unicellular strains Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803; the filamentous strain Pseudanabaena sp. strain PCC 6903, and the filamentous, heterocyst-forming strains Anabaena sp. strains PCC 7120 and PCC 7937; Nostoc sp. strains PCC 7413 and PCC 7107; Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601 (which is a mutant unable to develop heterocysts); and Fischerella muscicola UTEX 1829. Amino acid transport mutants, selected as mutants resistant to some amino acid analogs, were isolated from the Anabaena, Nostoc, Calothrix, and Pseudanabaena strains. All of the tested cyanobacteria bear at least a neutral amino acid transport system, and some strains also bear transport systems specific for basic or acidic amino acids. Two genes, natA and natB, encoding elements (conserved component, NatA, and periplasmic binding protein, NatB) of an ABC-type permease for neutral amino acids were identified by insertional mutagenesis of strain PCC 6803 open reading frames from the recently published genomic DNA sequence of this cyanobacterium. DNA sequences homologous to natA and natB from strain PCC 6803 were detected by hybridization in eight cyanobacterial strains tested. Mutants unable to transport neutral amino acids, including natA and natB insertional mutants, accumulated in the extracellular medium a set of amino acids that always included Ala, Val, Phe, Ile, and Leu. A general role for a cyanobacterial neutral amino acid permease in recapture of hydrophobic amino acids leaked from the cells is suggested.

  9. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  10. Increasing reversible capacity of soft carbon anode by phosphoric acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft carbon with a high reversible capacity has been proposed as an anode material for high-power lithium ion batteries. In this work, we investigate the effect of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) addition during preparation on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of soft carbon. H3PO4 facilitates the formation of nanopores by terminating C-C bonding and forming C-Ox-P (0capacity of soft carbon and maintaining excellent cycle performance and rate capability. In addition, the proposed synthetic route is simple and cost-effective, which will be helpful for successfully employing soft carbon on a commercial scale

  11. The charging of neutral dimethylamine and dimethylamine-sulphuric acid clusters using protonated acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusuvuori, K.; P. Hietala; O. Kupiainen-Määttä; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H.; Sipilä, M.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere sulphuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulphuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines – strong organic bases – have become the subject of interest as pos...

  12. The charging of neutral dimethylamine and dimethylamine–sulfuric acid clusters using protonated acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusuvuori, K.; P. Hietala; O. Kupiainen-Määttä; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H.; Sipilä, M.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere, sulfuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulfuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines – strong organic bases – have become the subject of interest as possible cause for such...

  13. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail-fiber gp26 is described. To study possible pH-induced conformational changes in gp26 structure, native trimeric gp26 has been crystallized at acidic pH (4.6) and a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) has been crystallized at neutral and alkaline pH (7-10). Gp26 is one of three phage P22-encoded tail accessory factors essential for stabilization of viral DNA within the mature capsid. In solution, gp26 exists as an extended triple-stranded coiled-coil protein which shares profound structural similarities with class I viral membrane-fusion protein. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of P22 tail extracted from mature virions, gp26 forms an ∼220 Å extended needle structure emanating from the neck of the tail, which is likely to be brought into contact with the cell’s outer membrane when the viral DNA-injection process is initiated. To shed light on the potential role of gp26 in cell-wall penetration and DNA injection, gp26 has been crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH. Crystals of native gp26 grown at pH 4.6 diffract X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P21, with a dimer of trimeric gp26 molecules in the asymmetric unit. To study potential pH-induced conformational changes in the gp26 structure, a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) was generated. Hexagonal crystals of MBP-gp26 were obtained at neutral and alkaline pH using the high-throughput crystallization robot at the Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. These crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Structural analysis of gp26 crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH is in progress

  14. Crop rotation and seasonal effects on fatty acid profiles of neutral and phospholipids extracted from no-till agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Alejandro E.; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John;

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipids (PLFA) and neutral lipids fatty acids (NLFA) was used to characterizeno-till productive agricultural soils associated with different crop rotation levels, replicated across a400 km transect in the Argentinean pampas, during two sampling seasons, summer and winter....... Highrotation (HR) management consisted in maize–wheat–soybean intense rotation including cover crops.Low rotation (LR) management trend to soybean monocultures. Soils from nearby naturalenvironments (NEs) were used as references. Fatty acids concentration in soils (nmol/g) decreased c.a.50% from summer...... of NLFA in winter samples as ifhigh crop rotation improves lipids reserves in soil during winter more than in monocropping soilmanagement. In conclusion, PLFA and particularly NLFA profiles appear to provide useful andcomplementary information to obtain a footprint of different soil use and managements...

  15. Breakfast meal composition influences plasma tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratios of healthy lean young men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a carbohydrate, a 20% protein, or a carbohydrate +0.3% tryptophan TRP breakfast on plasma large neutral amino acid ratio was studied in 6 healthy men. The carbohydrate-rich meal produced shifts in plasma amino acid concentrations such that plasma TRP/LNAA ratios increased from 0.13 to 0.15 (p<0.04) and the protein meal decreased the ratio from 0.14 to 0.11 (p<0.04) after 1 hour. Addition of 0.3% TRP to the carbohydrate-rich meal increased plasma TRP/LNAA ratios more than 2-fold. The TRP containing meal was thus the only one likely to influence brain 5-HT synthesis, although the difference between the plasma TRP/LNAA ratios after carbohydrate and protein breakfasts suggests that the brain may distinguish, by synthesizing more or less 5-HT, the composition of breakfast meals. (Author)

  16. Permeation of membranes by the neutral form of amino acids and peptides: relevance to the origin of peptide translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The flux of amino acids and other nutrient solutes such as phosphate across lipid bilayers (liposomes) is 10(5) slower than facilitated inward transport across biological membranes. This suggest that primitive cells lacking highly evolved transport systems would have difficulty transporting sufficient nutrients for cell growth to occur. There are two possible ways by which early life may have overcome this difficulty: (1) The membranes of the earliest cellular life-forms may have been intrinsically more permeable to solutes; or (2) some transport mechanism may have been available to facilitate transbilayer movement of solutes essential for cell survival and growth prior to the evolution of membrane transport proteins. Translocation of neutral species represents one such mechanism. The neutral forms of amino acids modified by methylation (creating protonated weak bases) permeate membranes up to 10(10) times faster than charged forms. This increased permeability when coupled to a transmembrane pH gradient can result in significantly increased rates of net unidirectional transport. Such pH gradients can be generated in vesicles used to model protocells that preceded and were presumably ancestral to early forms of life. This transport mechanism may still play a role in some protein translocation processes (e.g. for certain signal sequences, toxins and thylakoid proteins) in vivo.

  17. Electrocatalytic and photocatalytic hydrogen production from acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions using iron phosphide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Juan F; McEnaney, Joshua M; Read, Carlos G; Crompton, J Chance; Biacchi, Adam J; Popczun, Eric J; Gordon, Thomas R; Lewis, Nathan S; Schaak, Raymond E

    2014-11-25

    Nanostructured transition-metal phosphides have recently emerged as Earth-abundant alternatives to platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER), which is central to several clean energy technologies because it produces molecular hydrogen through the electrochemical reduction of water. Iron-based catalysts are very attractive targets because iron is the most abundant and least expensive transition metal. We report herein that iron phosphide (FeP), synthesized as nanoparticles having a uniform, hollow morphology, exhibits among the highest HER activities reported to date in both acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions. As an electrocatalyst operating at a current density of -10 mA cm(-2), FeP nanoparticles deposited at a mass loading of ∼1 mg cm(-2) on Ti substrates exhibited overpotentials of -50 mV in 0.50 M H2SO4 and -102 mV in 1.0 M phosphate buffered saline. The FeP nanoparticles supported sustained hydrogen production with essentially quantitative faradaic yields for extended time periods under galvanostatic control. Under UV illumination in both acidic and neutral-pH solutions, FeP nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 produced H2 at rates and amounts that begin to approach those of Pt/TiO2. FeP therefore is a highly Earth-abundant material for efficiently facilitating the HER both electrocatalytically and photocatalytically.

  18. Electrocatalytic and photocatalytic hydrogen production from acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions using iron phosphide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Juan F; McEnaney, Joshua M; Read, Carlos G; Crompton, J Chance; Biacchi, Adam J; Popczun, Eric J; Gordon, Thomas R; Lewis, Nathan S; Schaak, Raymond E

    2014-11-25

    Nanostructured transition-metal phosphides have recently emerged as Earth-abundant alternatives to platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER), which is central to several clean energy technologies because it produces molecular hydrogen through the electrochemical reduction of water. Iron-based catalysts are very attractive targets because iron is the most abundant and least expensive transition metal. We report herein that iron phosphide (FeP), synthesized as nanoparticles having a uniform, hollow morphology, exhibits among the highest HER activities reported to date in both acidic and neutral-pH aqueous solutions. As an electrocatalyst operating at a current density of -10 mA cm(-2), FeP nanoparticles deposited at a mass loading of ∼1 mg cm(-2) on Ti substrates exhibited overpotentials of -50 mV in 0.50 M H2SO4 and -102 mV in 1.0 M phosphate buffered saline. The FeP nanoparticles supported sustained hydrogen production with essentially quantitative faradaic yields for extended time periods under galvanostatic control. Under UV illumination in both acidic and neutral-pH solutions, FeP nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 produced H2 at rates and amounts that begin to approach those of Pt/TiO2. FeP therefore is a highly Earth-abundant material for efficiently facilitating the HER both electrocatalytically and photocatalytically. PMID:25250976

  19. Reduced Capacity for Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats with Inherited Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a l...

  20. Changes in Ascorbic Acid Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Quality of Fresh-cut Mangosteens During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supranee MANURAKCHINAKORN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut mangosteens, stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 5% O2 + 9% CO2, in vacuum packaging (VAC and in air (AIR were examined for ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality during 14 days of storage at 4oC. After 4 days-storage, fresh-cut fruits with MAP resulted in better retention of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity than those stored in AIR throughout the storage. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in ascorbic acid contents between fruits stored in MAP and VAC, as well as antioxidant capacities, during the remaining period of storage. Fresh-cut fruits with MAP treatment obtained the highest sensory scores, compared with other treatments, throughout the entire period of storage. Fresh-cut mangosteens stored in MAP resulted in the best overall retention of ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality.

  1. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xzhang@iavi.org [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Anzala, Omu [Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI)-Institute of Clinical Research, Nairobi (Kenya); Sanders, Eduard J. [Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kilifi, Kenya & Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Headington (United Kingdom); Kamali, Anatoli [MRC/UVRI Uganda Virus Research Unit on AIDS, Masaka and Entebbe (Uganda); Karita, Etienne [Projet San Francisco, Kigali (Rwanda); Allen, Susan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fast, Pat [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Gilmour, Jill [Human Immunology Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, London (United Kingdom); Price, Matt A. [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Parks, Christopher L. [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  2. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance

  3. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprised of ammonium cations and anions of naturally occurring amino acids containing an additional amine group (e.g., lysine, histidine, asparagine, and glutamine) were examined as high-capacity absorbents for CO2. An absorption capacity of 2.1 mol CO2 per mol of IL (3.5 mol...

  4. Microdialysis Procedure to Investigate the Extent of Neutralization of Palliative Calcium Gluconate Following Ophthalmic Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navpreet Pandher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance and validity of the microdialysis system in a time based calibration of the fluoride ion permeation inside the sheep eye following hydrofluoric acid burn was tested. The HF diffusion was measured in microdialysate samples after exposure to 0.15 ml of acid followed by neutralization with calcium gluconate formulations. The in vitro and in situ probe calibration and integrity test were performed. Methods: The stability of 10 BAS microdialysis probes was tested with 0.05 M HF by calculating the in vitro probe recovery. The effect of flow rate variation on recovery of fluoride ions was evaluated by performing an in vitro study for 0.01 M HF, with a constant sample volume of 40 μl at flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μl/min. The in situ probe calibration was performed on the aqueous and vitreous humor samples of the sheep eye, which could provide the baseline fluoride concentrations required for the calcium gluconate therapy. Two different formulations, solution (2.5% and 5.0% w/v calcium gluconate and the 3% HPMC gel containing 2.5% w/v calcium gluconate were subjected to neutralization potential study. Results: The BAS probe was accurate and stable with a CV of 0.44-2.45%. A flow rate of 4.0 μl/min can be used for fluoride permeation study. The results showed that the MD probe is capable of dialyzing the acid without interacting with the probe. The in situ testing showed that the HPMC based calcium gluconate formulation showed longer residence time compared to the solution form. Conclusions: The microdialysis technique can be used to ascertain the fluoride ions penetrating in the HF-burnt eyes. The increase in amount of calcium ions available on eye surface, increases the free acid neutralization; the gel preparation being better than the solution of same concentration.

  5. Effects of USDA beef quality grade and cooking on fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C

    2015-02-01

    The effects of USDA beef quality grade (QG; Prime, Low Choice, and Standard; n=8) and cooking (RC) on fatty acid (FA) concentrations (mg/g dry matter) and percentages of neutral and polar lipid fractions (NL and PL, respectively)from strip steaks were explored. An increase in QG led to an accumulation of most FA, especially in the NL fraction (P < 0.001). Common effects on FA percentages were two-way interactions of either QG or RC with LF (P ≤ 0.019). Fatty acids were affected differently by QG and RC depending on their originating LF. Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentages of the PL were dependent on QG (P ≤ 0.014). Cooking and QG had minimal impact on FA percentages of the NL, however, greatly influenced PL MUFA and PUFA percentages (P b 0.001). There was evidence indicating that dry heat cookery affected not only PUFA, as generally thought, but also the MUFA of PL fraction. PMID:25460133

  6. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia L; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J; Driscoll, Jonathan; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Parks, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25880113

  7. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  8. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  9. Highly conserved asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Gameiro, Armanda; Grewer, Christof

    2008-05-01

    The neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which belongs to the SLC38 family of solute transporters, couples the transport of amino acid to the cotransport of one Na(+) ion into the cell. Several polar amino acids are highly conserved within the SLC38 family. Here, we mutated three of these conserved amino acids, Asn(82) in the predicted transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1), Tyr(337) in TMD7, and Arg(374) in TMD8; and we studied the functional consequences of these modifications. The mutation of N82A virtually eliminated the alanine-induced transport current, as well as amino acid uptake by SNAT2. In contrast, the mutations Y337A and R374Q did not abolish amino acid transport. The K(m) of SNAT2 for its interaction with Na(+), K(Na(+)), was dramatically reduced by the N82A mutation, whereas the more conservative mutation N82S resulted in a K(Na(+)) that was in between SNAT2(N82A) and SNAT2(WT). These results were interpreted as a reduction of Na(+) affinity caused by the Asn(82) mutations, suggesting that these mutations interfere with the interaction of SNAT2 with the sodium ion. As a consequence of this dramatic reduction in Na(+) affinity, the apparent K(m) of SNAT2(N82A) for alanine was increased 27-fold compared with that of SNAT2(WT). Our results demonstrate a direct or indirect involvement of Asn(82) in Na(+) coordination by SNAT2. Therefore, we predict that TMD1 is crucial for the function of SLC38 transporters and that of related families.

  10. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  11. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonic acid and neutral sugars chains from flaxseed mucilage

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, T.; Rabetafika, N.; Blecker, CS.; Paquot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Different hydrolysis procedures of flaxseed polysaccharides (chemical and enzymatic) were carried out with H2SO4, HCl and TFA at different acid concentrations (0.2, 1 and 2 M) and temperatures (80 and 100°C). Enzymatic and combined chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses of polysaccharide from flaxseed mucilage were also studied. Acid hydrolysis conditions (2 M H2SO4, 4 h, 100°C) are required to quantify total monosaccharide content of flaxseed mucilage. The enzymatic pathway (Pectinex™ Ultra SP) l...

  12. CHANGES IN THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF POTATOES DEPENDING ON THE CULTIVAR, CONTENTS OF POLYPHENOLS, CHLOROGENIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Musilova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of cultivar is known as the most important factor determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of potatoes. In the study the influence of this factor on the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA, ascorbic acid (AA, total polyphenols (TPC and antioxidant capacity (TAC in six potato cultivars (Viola, Malvina, Evelin, Arlet, Megan, Timea was investigated. Potatoes were grown in vitro on peat substrate in a greenhouse and were harvested in the stage of physiological ripeness. The content of CGA, AA and the TAC were determined in fresh matter of potato tubers. CGA content was determined using standard HPLC gradient method. The lowest CGA amount was determined in cv. Viola (18.49 mg/kg FM and the highest one in cv. Megan (46.73 mg/kg FM. The determined AA content was in interval 5.40 mg/100 g FM (cv. Evelin – 20.10 mg/100 g FM (cv. Viola. Total antioxidant capacity expressed as mg eqv. Trolox/kg FM was the lowest in cv. Megan (41.06 mg TE/kg FM and the highest in cv. Arlet (56.16 mg TE/kg FM. For TP content determination lyophilised potato samples were used. The determined values ranged from 256.44 until 425.37 mg.kg-1 DM in followed order: Evelin < Arlet < Megan < Timea < Viola < Malvina. The obtained results were evaluated using one-factorial analysis ANOVA (LSD-test, statistical software Statgraphic. Mutual correlations between the contents of CGA, AA, TP and TAC were evaluated using regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel. Statistically significant dependence (P-value < 0.05 between observed factors was confirmed.

  13. Kinetics of Antibody Aggregation at Neutral pH and Ambient Temperatures Triggered by Temporal Exposure to Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Honda, Shinya

    2016-09-15

    The purification process of an antibody in manufacturing involves temporal exposure of the molecules to low pH followed by neutralization-pH-shift stress-which causes aggregation. It remains unclear how aggregation triggered by pH-shift stress grows at neutral pH and how it depends on the temperature in an ambient range. We used static and dynamic light scattering to monitor the time-dependent evolution of the aggregate size of the pH-shift stressed antibody between 4.0 and 40.0 °C. A power-law relationship between the effective molecular weight and the effective hydrodynamic radius was found, indicating that the aggregates were fractal with a dimension of 1.98. We found that the aggregation kinetics in the lower-temperature range, 4.0-25.0 °C, were well described by the Smoluchowski aggregation equation. The temperature dependence of the effective aggregation rate constant gave 13 ± 1 kcal/mol of endothermic activation energy. Temporal acid exposure creates an enriched population of unfolded protein molecules that are competent of aggregating. Therefore, the energetically unfavorable unfolding step is not required and the aggregation proceeds faster. These findings provide a basis for predicting the growth of aggregates during storage under practical, ambient conditions. PMID:27537343

  14. Calix[4]arene Polyaza Derivatives: Novel Effective Neutral Receptors for Cations and (a)-Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Calixarenes are one of the most important supramolecular building blocks, which can be modified by introducing different functional and/or structrual groups to create a specific interaction between the host and the target molecules, such as metal cations and small organic molecules[1,2]. In particular, the recognition of amino acids is an interesting theme in biomimetic chemistry[3].

  15. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  16. Determination of the acidity constants of neutral red and bromocresol green by solution scanometric method and comparison with spectrophotometric results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2016-03-01

    The method is based on scanning cells containing the indicator solution with a scanner, and analyzing the color of each cell with a software written in visual basic (VB 6 media to red, green and blue values. The cells were made by making holes in the Plexiglas® sheet. Also, the acidity constants of the neutral red and bromocresol green indicators were studied with spectrophotometrically. HypSpec program has been applied for the estimation of pKa values based on spectrophotometric data. The agreement between obtained pKa values by solution scanometric, spectrophotometric method and values reported in the literature demonstrates the utility of the method here used. Also the HySS 2009 program was applied for drawing of the corresponding distribution diagrams.

  17. Identification of a Disulfide Bridge in Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 2(SNAT2) by Chemical Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jiahong; Cai, Ruiping; Yuan, Yanmeng; Guo, Zhanyun; Grewer, Christof; Zhang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) belongs to solute carrier 38 (SLC38) family of transporters, which is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and mediates transport of small, neutral amino acids, exemplified by alanine(Ala, A). Yet structural data on SNAT2, including the relevance of intrinsic cysteine residues on structure and function, is scarce, in spite of its essential roles in many tissues. To better define the potential of intrinsic cysteines to form disulfide bonds in SNAT2, mutagenesis experiments and thiol-specific chemical modifications by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal, MW 5000) were performed, with or without the reducing regent dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Seven single mutant transporters with various cysteine (Cys, C) to alanine (Ala, A) substitutions, and a C245,279A double mutant were introduced to SNAT2 with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag at the C-terminus. The results showed that the cells expressing C245A or C279A were labeled by one equivalent of mPEG-Mal in the presence of DTT, while wild-type or all the other single Cys to Ala mutants were modified by two equivalents of mPEG-Mal. Furthermore, the molecular weight of C245,279A was not changed in the presence or absence of DTT treatment. The results suggest a disulfide bond between Cys245 and Cys279 in SNAT2 which has no effect on cell surface trafficking, as well as transporter function. The proposed disulfide bond may be important to delineate proximity in the extracellular domain of SNAT2 and related proteins. PMID:27355203

  18. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity ofMespilus germanica L. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Seilmi Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Ot

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first culturedMespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees.Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs), and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20)%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70)% and(8.53 ± 0.25)%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2) mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  19. Separation and characterization of the acid lipase and neutral esterases from human liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, T G; Dambach, L M; Shin, J H; O'Brien, J S

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoresis of human liver homogenates followed by reaction with 4-methylumbelliferyl palmitate reveals the presence of two major electrophoretic forms with esterase (lipase) activity toward this substrate. The two enzymes were isolated and partially purified based on their solubility differences and their relative affinities for the lectin column concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. Lipase A was particulate with an acidic pH optimum (5.2) and could be solubilized with the non-ionic surfactant Tr...

  20. Structural changes of polyacids initiated by their neutralization with various alkali metal hydroxides. Diffusion studies in poly(acrylic acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiak, Michal; Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew; Ciszkowska, Malgorzata

    2007-09-27

    The changes in the three-dimensional structure of the poly(acrylic acid), PAA, induced by incorporation of various alkali-metal counterions have been evaluated by studying diffusion of an uncharged probe (1,1'-ferrocenedimethanol) in the polymeric media. The studies are supported by the measurements of conductivity and viscosity of the polymeric media. Solutions of linear PAA of four different sizes (molecular weights: 450,000, 750,000, 1,250,000, 4,000,000) were neutralized with hydroxides of alkali metals of group 1 of the periodic table (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) to the desired neutralization degree. The transport properties of the obtained polyacrylates were monitored by measuring the changes in the probe diffusion coefficient during the titration of the polyacids. The probe diffusivity was determined from the steady-state current of the probe voltammetric oxidation at disk microelectrodes. Diffusivity of the probe increases with the increase in the degree of neutralization and with the increase in viscosity. It reaches the maximum value at about 60-80% of the polyacid neutralization. The way the probe diffusion coefficients change is similar in all polyacid solutions and gels. The increase in the size of a metal cation causes, in general, an enhancement in the transport of probe molecules. The biggest differences in the probe diffusivities are between lithium and cesium polyacrylates. The differences between the results obtained for cesium and rubidium are not statistically significant due to lack of good precision of the voltammetric measurements. The measurements of the electric conductivity of polyacrylates and the theoretical predictions supplemented the picture of electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic chains and the metal cations of increasing size. In all instances of the PAAs, the viscosity of the solutions rapidly increases in the 0-60% range of neutralization and then becomes constant in the 60-100% region. With the exception of the shortest

  1. Aflatoxin B1 binding capacity of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Mohammad R; Hajimohammadali, M; Moshkani, Azamossadat; Samadi, Nasrin; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad R; Vaghari, Elham; Pouragahi, Samieh

    2009-01-01

    Some foods are prone to contamination with aflatoxins, with detrimental effect on human health. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to bind aflatoxins and remove them from foods and feeds. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from the liquid media by the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus fermentum) isolated from traditional Iranian sourdough and dairy products is reported in the current study. The effect of incubation time on the binding capacity of the strains to AFB1 was also investigated. Duplicates of individual bacteria with population equivalent to 2 X 10(10) CFU/ml were incubated in the presence of AFB1 at 37 degrees C for a period of 72 h, and the amounts of unbound AFB1 were quantitated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. All the strains were capable of removal of AFB1, and the reduction of AFB1 ranged from 25 to 61% throughout the incubation period. Removal of AFB1 was a rapid process, with approximately 61 and 56% of the toxin taken instantly by L. fermentum and L. plantarum, respectively. Binding was of a reversible nature, and some of the bound AFB1 was released into the media by the repeated centrifugation and resuspension of the cell pellets. The stability of the bacteria-toxin complex was strain dependent, and L. casei was a stronger binder of AFB1 compared with the other bacteria. No toxin release was observed after 24 h. These findings tend to suggest that certain novel probiotic bacteria with high aflatoxin binding capacity could be selected for detoxification of foods. PMID:19205485

  2. Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xue-Fei, E-mail: xfsun06@gmail.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang, E-mail: wsg@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Wen [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan, Maohong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Tian, Bing-Hui [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {Delta}G{sup 0}, {Delta}H{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0}, were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process.

  3. High-capacity magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers for specific extraction of protocatechuic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-24

    Magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers (HPMIPs) with high binding capacity, fast mass transfer, and easy magnetic separation have been fabricated for the first time. In this method, HPMIPs was firstly synthesized using protocatechuic acid (PCA) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as co-monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. After that, epoxide ring of GMA was opened for chemisorbing Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare magnetic HPMIPs. The results of characterization indicated that magnetic HPMIPs exhibited large surface area (548m(2)/g) with hollow porous structure and magnetic sensitivity (magnetic saturation at 2.9emu/g). The following adsorption characteristics investigation exhibited surprisingly higher adsorption capacity (37.7mg/g), and faster kinetic binding (25min) than any previously reported PCA imprinted MIPs by traditional or surface imprinting technology. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. The selective recognition experiments also demonstrated the high selectivity of magnetic HPMIPs towards PCA over analogues. The results of the real sample analysis confirmed the superiority of the proposed magnetic HPMIPs for selective and efficient enrichment of trace PCA from complex matrices. PMID:26044378

  4. Polysialic acid sustains cancer cell survival and migratory capacity in a hypoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Sara M; Allison, Simon J; Sadiq, Maria; Basheer, Haneen A; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Loadman, Paul M; Pors, Klaus; Falconer, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer expressed on the surface of NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) in a number of cancers where it modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis and is strongly associated with poor clinical prognosis. We have carried out the first investigation into the effect of polySia expression on the behaviour of cancer cells in hypoxia, a key source of chemoresistance in tumours. The role of polysialylation and associated tumour cell migration and cell adhesion were studied in hypoxia, along with effects on cell survival and the potential role of HIF-1. Our findings provide the first evidence that polySia expression sustains migratory capacity and is associated with tumour cell survival in hypoxia. Initial mechanistic studies indicate a potential role for HIF-1 in sustaining polySia-mediated migratory capacity, but not cell survival. These data add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a crucial role for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs) in neuroendocrine tumour progression and provide the first evidence to suggest that polySia is associated with an aggressive phenotype in tumour hypoxia. These results have significant potential implications for polyST inhibition as an anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy and for targeting hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:27611649

  5. Polysialic acid sustains cancer cell survival and migratory capacity in a hypoxic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Sara M.; Allison, Simon J.; Sadiq, Maria; Basheer, Haneen A.; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Loadman, Paul M.; Pors, Klaus; Falconer, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer expressed on the surface of NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) in a number of cancers where it modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis and is strongly associated with poor clinical prognosis. We have carried out the first investigation into the effect of polySia expression on the behaviour of cancer cells in hypoxia, a key source of chemoresistance in tumours. The role of polysialylation and associated tumour cell migration and cell adhesion were studied in hypoxia, along with effects on cell survival and the potential role of HIF-1. Our findings provide the first evidence that polySia expression sustains migratory capacity and is associated with tumour cell survival in hypoxia. Initial mechanistic studies indicate a potential role for HIF-1 in sustaining polySia-mediated migratory capacity, but not cell survival. These data add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a crucial role for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs) in neuroendocrine tumour progression and provide the first evidence to suggest that polySia is associated with an aggressive phenotype in tumour hypoxia. These results have significant potential implications for polyST inhibition as an anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy and for targeting hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:27611649

  6. Regulation of amino acid transporters in pluripotent cell populations in the embryo and in culture; novel roles for sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Rathjen, Peter D; Harvey, Alexandra J; Gardner, David K; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-08-01

    The developmental outcomes of preimplantation mammalian embryos are regulated directly by the surrounding microenvironment, and inappropriate concentrations of amino acids, or the loss of amino acid-sensing mechanisms, can be detrimental and impact further development. A specific role for l-proline in the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, a cell population derived from the blastocyst, has been shown in culture. l-proline acts as a signalling molecule, exerting its effects through cell uptake and subsequent metabolism. Uptake in ES cells occurs predominantly through the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2, Slc38a2 (SNAT2). Dynamic expression of amino acid transporters has been shown in the early mammalian embryo, reflecting functional roles for amino acids in embryogenesis. The expression of SNAT2 and family member Slc38a1 (SNAT1) was determined in mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage through to the early post-implantation pre-gastrulation embryo. Key changes in expression were validated in cell culture models of development. Both transporters showed temporal dynamic expression patterns and changes in intracellular localisation as differentiation progressed. Changes in transporter expression likely reflect different amino acid requirements during development. Findings include the differential expression of SNAT1 in the inner and outer cells of the compacted morula and nuclear localisation of SNAT2 in the trophectoderm and placental lineages. Furthermore, SNAT2 expression was up-regulated in the epiblast prior to primitive ectoderm formation, an expression pattern consistent with a role for the transporter in later developmental decisions within the pluripotent lineage. We propose that the differential expression of SNAT2 in the epiblast provides evidence for an l-proline-mediated mechanism contributing to the regulation of embryonic development. PMID:27373508

  7. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  8. Bile acids are "homeotrophic" sensors of the functional hepatic capacity and regulate adaptive growth during liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Andreas; Trautwein, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Liver mass depends on one or more unidentified humoral signals that drive regeneration when liver functional capacity is diminished. Bile acids are important liver products, and their levels are tightly regulated. Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. Elevated bile acid levels accelerate regeneration, and decreased levels inhibit liver regrowth, as does the absence of the primary nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. We propose that FXR activation by increased bile acid flux is a signal of decreased functional capacity of the liver. FXR, and possibly other nuclear receptors, may promote homeostasis not only by regulating expression of appropriate metabolic target genes but also by driving homeotrophic liver growth.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by photochemical reaction of ferrioxalate at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min; Lee, Yunho; Chung, Hyenmi; Yoon, Jeyong

    2004-02-01

    Fenton chemistry, which is known to play an effective role in degrading toxic chemicals, is difficult to apply to disinfection in water treatment, since its reaction is effective only at the acidic pH of 3. The presence of oxalate ions and UV-visible light, which is known as a photoferrioxalate system, allows the Fe(III) to be dissolved at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs and maintains the catalytic reaction of iron. This study indicates that the main oxidizing species in the photoferrioxalate system responsible for microorganism inactivation is OH radical. Escherichia coli was used as an indicator microorganism. The CT value (OH radical concentration x contact time; used to indicate the effect of the combination of the concentration of the disinfectant and the contact time on inactivation) for a 2-log inactivation of E. coli was approximately 1.5 x 10(-5) mg/liter/min, which is approximately 2,700 times lower than that of ozone as estimated by the delayed Chick-Watson model. Since the light emitted by the black light blue lamp is similar to sunlight in the specific wavelength range of 300 to 420 nm, the photoferrioxalate system, which can have a dual function, treating water for both organic pollutants and microorganisms simultaneously, shows promise for the treatment of water or wastewater in remote or rural sites. However, the photoferrioxalate disinfection system is slower in inactivating microorganisms than conventional disinfectants are.

  11. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid-base neutralization reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huabing; Wan Jiangling; Wang Yirui; Mou Dongsheng; Liu Hongbin; Xu Huibi; Yang Xiangliang [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-09-17

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  12. Long-term effect of wholemeal bread on stool weight, transit time, fecal bile acids, fats, and neutral sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, M A; Elton, R A; Smith, J H

    1986-03-01

    Stool weight, fecal constituents, bile acids, fat, neutral sterols, and intestinal transit time were recorded in 28 subjects over 18 mo. During the first 12 mo the subjects ate white bread. They were studied for an initial period of 7 days, and after 6 mo (study period 1). For the first 6 mo they ate their usual intake of bread, they then increased their white bread intake by 62 g/day for 6 mo (study period 2). The subjects ate a self-selected diet throughout the 18 mo study. During the last 6 mo (study period 3) the subjects replaced white bread by the same amount of wholemeal bread as in study period 2. No increase in stool weight occurred until study period 3 when there was an increase of 20%. There developed a linear relationship between stool weight and intestinal transit time which was not found during the initial first and second study periods. A seasonal influence on serum cholesterol was not observed during the wholemeal bread period. Fecal bile acid excretion was unchanged throughout the experiment.

  13. Neutralizing Carbonic Acid in Deep Carbonate Strata below the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Charles Harvey; Bruce Watson

    2008-01-14

    Carbon dioxide injection into deep sea sediments below 2700 m water depth and a few hundred meters to fifteen hundred meters deep in the sediment column may provide permanent geologic storage by gravitational trapping. At high pressures and low temperatures common in deep sea sediments a few hundred meters below sea floor, CO{sub 2} will be in its liquid phase and will be denser than the overlying pore fluid. The lower density of the pore fluid provides a cap to the denser CO{sub 2} and ensures gravitational trapping in the short term. The overall storage capacity for CO{sub 2} in such deep sea formations below the ocean floor is primarily determined by the permeability, and will vary with seafloor depth, geothermal gradient, porosity, and pore water salinity. Furthermore, the dissemination of the injected CO{sub 2} in the sediments and potential chemical reactions between CO{sub 2}, pore fluid and sediments will define its fate in the storage reservoir. The main objectives of our research was to evaluate the potential for sub-seabed CO{sub 2} storage in deep sea sediments using a range of approaches including experiments, permeability analysis, and modeling. Over the course of the three-year award, our results support an important role for sub-seabed storage in a diverse portfolio of carbons sequestration options. Our analysis has shown the feasibility of this type of storage, and also emphasizes that escape or leakage from such sites would be negligible. The most difficult challenge is to overcome the low permeability of typical deep-sea sediments, and a variety of approaches are suggested for future research.

  14. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions. PMID:26945637

  15. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions.

  16. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  17. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstić, Jugoslav [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation conditions influence to self-assembly of nanocrystallites of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. • Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by filtration is microporous, Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by evaporation is non-porous. • Thermal properties of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and its soluble salts are similar. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite′s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  18. Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

    2012-09-01

    Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

  19. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike;

    2010-01-01

    . The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil......We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...

  20. Identification of a disulfide bridge important for transport function of SNAT4 neutral amino acid transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer

    Full Text Available SNAT4 is a member of system N/A amino acid transport family that primarily expresses in liver and muscles and mediates the transport of L-alanine. However, little is known about the structure and function of the SNAT family of transporters. In this study, we showed a dose-dependent inhibition in transporter activity of SNAT4 with the treatment of reducing agents, dithiothreitol (DTT and Tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP, indicating the possible involvement of disulfide bridge(s. Mutation of residue Cys-232, and the two highly conserved residues Cys-249 and Cys-321, compromised the transport function of SNAT4. However, this reduction was not caused by the decrease of SNAT4 on the cell surface since the cysteine-null mutant generated by replacing all five cysteines with alanine was equally capable of being expressed on the cell surface as wild-type SNAT4. Interestingly, by retaining two cysteine residues, 249 and 321, a significant level of L-alanine uptake was restored, indicating the possible formation of disulfide bond between these two conserved residues. Biotinylation crosslinking of free thiol groups with MTSEA-biotin provided direct evidence for the existence of a disulfide bridge between Cys-249 and Cys-321. Moreover, in the presence of DTT or TCEP, transport activity of the mutant retaining Cys-249 and Cys-321 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and this reduction is gradually recovered with increased concentration of H2O2. Disruption of the disulfide bridge also decreased the transport of L-arginine, but to a lesser degree than that of L-alanine. Together, these results suggest that cysteine residues 249 and 321 form a disulfide bridge, which plays an important role in substrate transport but has no effect on trafficking of SNAT4 to the cell surface.

  1. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  2. X-ray absorption and resonance raman spectroscopy of human myeloperoxidase at neutral and acid pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, K T; Taylor, K L; Kinkade, J M; Sinclair, R B; Powers, L S

    1997-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an important enzyme in the oxygen-dependent host defense system of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, utilizes hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the production of hypochlorous acid, an oxidizing bactericidal agent. While MPO shows significant sequence homology with other peroxidases and this homology is particularly striking among the active-site residues, MPO exhibits unusual spectral features and the unique ability to catalyze the oxidation of chloride ions. We have investigated the MPO active-site with X-ray absorption (XAS) and resonance Raman (RRS) spectroscopies at neutral pH and also at the physiological acidic pH (pH approximately 3) and have compared these results with those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). At pH 7.5, XAS results show that the iron heme active site is 6-coordinate where the distal ligand is likely nitrogen or oxygen, but not sulfur. The heme is distorted compared to HRP, other peroxidases, and heme compounds, but at pH approximately 3, the distal ligand is lost and the heme is less distorted. RRS results under identical pH conditions show that the skeletal core-size sensitive modes and v3 are shifted to higher frequency at pH approximately 3 indicating a 6- to 5-coordination change of high spin ferric heme. In addition, a new band at 270 cm(-1) is observed at pH approximately 3 which is consistent with the loss of the sixth ligand. The higher symmetry of the heme at pH approximately 3 is reflected by a single v4 mode in the (RRS) spectrum. HRP also loses its loosely associated distal water at this pH, but little change in heme distortion is observed. This change suggests that loss of the distal ligand in MPO releases stress on the heme which may facilitate binding of chloride ion.

  3. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M E; Scheele, R D; Tingey, J M

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytoserols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Zuloeta, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A

  5. Techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders. PMID:26593571

  6. Neutralization of acidic pit lakes with biological methods complement the flooding with neutral surface water: strategies and sustainability; Neutralisation saurer Tagebauseen durch biologische Methoden als Ergaenzung zur Fremdflutung: Strategien und Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, B.; Deneke, R. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Institut fuer Boden, Wasser, Luft; Buettcher, H.; Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the mechanisms of biogenic alkalinity production in highly acidic surface waters in the post-mining landscape and to develop alternative or additional strategies to overcome acidity by the use of basic biological processes. Current approaches such as flooding with neutral surface water, extensive liming and technical treatments are not suitable for many lakes because of limited water supply and special water chemistry in mining lakes. Therefore, basic research is needed in order to develop ecotechnological measures for the multitude of small and medium sized highly acidic mining lakes. Future treatments are designed to combine water supply and biological measures with the management of water quality by use of in-lake microbial processes (bacteria, phytoplankton). Research focuses on alkalinity response of aquatic ecosystems on nutrient enrichment, their catchment areas and the use of 'Constructed Wetlands' and will be generalized by application of hydrogeochemical models for alkalinity production. (orig.)

  7. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): A seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos, R.; Zuoleta, G; Pedreschi, R.; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high a linolenic (a-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (x3, 12.8–16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (x6, 12.4–14.1 g/100 g seed). The ratio x6/x3 was within the ...

  8. Prediction of Protection against Asian Enterovirus 71 Outbreak Strains by Cross-neutralizing Capacity of Serum from Dutch Donors, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Koen, Gerrit; van Eijk, Hetty; Koekkoek, Sylvie M; de Jong, Menno D; Wolthers, Katja C

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in Asia are related to high illness and death rates among children. To gain insight into the potential threat for the population of Europe, we determined the neutralizing activity in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) batches and individual serum samples from donors in the Netherlands against EV-71 strains isolated in Europe and in Asia. All IVIg batches and 41%, 79%, and 65% of serum samples from children ≤5 years of age, women of childbearing age, and HIV-positive men, respectively, showed high neutralizing activity against a Dutch C1 strain, confirming widespread circulation of EV-71 in the Netherlands. Asian B3-4 and C4 strains were efficiently cross-neutralized, predicting possible protection against extensive circulation and associated outbreaks of those types in Europe. However, C2 and C5 strains that had few mutations in the capsid region consistently escaped neutralization, emphasizing the importance of monitoring antigenic diversity among circulating EV-71 strains. PMID:27533024

  9. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. PMID:24206696

  10. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants.

  11. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  12. Correlation study between sperm concentration, hyaluronic acid-binding capacity and sperm aneuploidy in Hungarian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokánszki, Attila; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Ujfalusi, Anikó; Balogh, Erzsébet; Bazsáné, Zsuzsa Kassai; Varga, Attila; Jakab, Attila; Oláh, Éva

    2012-12-01

    Infertile men with low sperm concentration and/or less motile spermatozoa have an increased risk of producing aneuploid spermatozoa. Selecting spermatozoa by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding may reduce genetic risks such as chromosomal rearrangements and numerical aberrations. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to evaluate the presence of aneuploidies. This study examined spermatozoa of 10 oligozoospermic, 9 asthenozoospermic, 9 oligoasthenozoospermic and 17 normozoospermic men by HA binding and FISH. Mean percentage of HA-bound spermatozoa in the normozoospermic group was 81%, which was significantly higher than in the oligozoospermic (Psex chromosomes (P=0.014) and chromosome 17 (P=0.0019), diploidy (P=0.03) and estimated numerical chromosome aberrations (P=0.004) were significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermic group compared with the other groups. There were statistically significant relationships (Pchromosome aberrations (r=-0.668) and between HA binding and estimated numerical chromosome aberrations (r=-0.682). HA binding and aneuploidy studies of spermatozoa in individual cases allow prediction of reproductive prognosis and provision of appropriate genetic counselling. Infertile men with normal karyotypes and low sperm concentrations and/or less motile spermatozoa have significantly increased risks of producing aneuploid (diminished mature) spermatozoa. Selecting spermatozoa by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding, based on a binding between sperm receptors for zona pellucida and HA, may reduce the potential genetic risks such as chromosomal rearrangements and numerical aberrations. In the present study we examined sperm samples of 45 men with different sperm parameters by HA-binding assay and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Mean percentage of HA-bound spermatozoa in the normozoospermic group was significantly higher than the oligozoospermic, the asthenozoospermic and the oligoasthenozoospermic groups. Using FISH, disomy of sex

  13. The energy balance of the biomass generation of Chlamydomonas acidophila under acidic and neutral conditions and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; Die Energiebilanz der Biomasseneubildung von Chlamydomonas acidophila unter sauren und neutralen Bedingungen und von Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Uwe

    2009-01-16

    In this study the influence of pH < 3 as an extreme environment has been investigated for the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) acidophila. The limited number of trophic levels, consisting of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and macrophytes, is a special characteristic of extreme acidic water bodies. C. acidophila was isolated from an extreme acidic mining lake (RL 111) (Bissinger et al. 2000). A special feature of the examined algal species is its wide tolerance range of external pH values from 2 to 7 (Cassin 1874, Gerloff-Elias et al. 2005a). C. acidophila is a dominant species in the acidic mining lakes, it can grow up to chlorophyll maxima of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} during the summer time (Nixdorf et al. 1998, 2003). The alga can be found elsewhere in extreme acidic water bodies around the world. The hydrochemistry of the acidic mining lakes in the central regions of Germany and Lusatia show clear differences compared to neutral water bodies. Some of the characteristics of acidic mining lakes are high metal and heavy metal (aluminum) concentrations, high ion concentrations, which lead to high conductivity, as well as low phosphate concentrations, ammonium as the only nitrogen source and CO{sub 2} as the only inorganic carbon source. Many eukaryotic microalgae in acidic water bodies including C. acidophila show a neutral cytosolic pH. This is provided by special adaptations of the organisms. Thus, organisms in extreme acidic environments have a positive cell surface charge, a very efficient H{sup +}-ATPase and high internal buffer capacities. These mechanisms work contrary to the proton influx and the acidification of the cytosol and are therefore proof for the physiological impact of osmoregulation by microalgae in extreme acidic environments (Sekler et al.1991, Weiss et al. 1999). Hence, these mechanisms also complicate the access to nutrients for the algal cell. The passive influx of positively charged ions such as potassium or ammonium is reduced by

  14. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:23870885

  15. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  16. Chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of aerosols and mechanisms of the neutralization of atmospheric acidity in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Karageorgos

    2007-06-01

    + and Cl, while SO42−, Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. In the fine particles, a low molar ratio of NH4+/SO42− indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, and together with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3 and SO42−, indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

  17. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  18. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, A.A., E-mail: agnieszka.leopold@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Coll, M.T.; Fortuny, A.; Rathore, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Sastre, A.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)} species and the formation of H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)}L{sub q} complexes in the organic phase, where n = 0, 1, 2 and q = 1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  19. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found. PMID:25466051

  20. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found.

  1. Formation and Crystal Structures of Lewis Acid Adducts of Ph3PCHP(O)Ph2; New Neutral and Cationic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Petz, Wolfgang; Neumüller, Bernhard; Aicher, Kathrin; Öxler, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The carbodiphosphorane C(PPh3)2 (1) is easily hydrolyzed from wet air to give the ylide Ph3PCHP(O)Ph2 (2), which forms addition compounds with various Lewis acids to give neutral or cationic compounds. According to pairs of electrons at the central carbon atom and the oxygen atom, respectively, addition compounds with coordination modes A (via oxygen), B (via carbon), and C (via carbon and oxygen) were isolated either as by-products from reactions of Lewis acids with 1 (co...

  2. Effectiveness of Alkali-Acid Treatment in Enhancement the Adsorption Capacity for Rice Straw: The Removal of Methylene Blue Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Nady A. Fathy; El-Shafey, Ola I.; Khalil, Laila B.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of alkali-acid modification in enhancement the adsorption capacity of rice straw (RS) for removing a basic dye was studied. The obtained adsorbents were characterized by slurry pH, pHPZC, iodine number, methylene blue number, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) was described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Effects of contact time, initial concentration of MB dye, pH of solution, adsorbent dose, salt concentrat...

  3. The orphan transporter v7-3 (slc6a15) is a Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B0AT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Angelika; Tietze, Nadine; Kowalczuk, Sonja;

    2006-01-01

    Transporters of the SLC6 (solute carrier 6) family play an important role in the removal of neurotransmitters in brain tissue and in amino acid transport in epithelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that mouse v7-3 (slc6a15) encodes a transporter for neutral amino acids...... low-affinity substrates of the transporter, with K(0.5) values in the millimolar range. Transport of neutral amino acids via B(0)AT2 was Na+-dependent, Cl--independent and electrogenic. Superfusion of mouse B(0)AT2-expressing oocytes with amino acid substrates generated robust inward currents. Na......+-activation kinetics of proline transport and uptake under voltage clamp suggested a 1:1 Na+/amino acid co-transport stoichiometry. Susbtrate and co-substrate influenced each other's K(0.5) values, suggesting that they share the same binding site. A mouse B(0)AT2-like transport activity was detected in synaptosomes...

  4. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  5. Impacts of birth weight on plasma, liver and skeletal muscle neutral amino acid profiles and intestinal amino acid transporters in suckling Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huansheng Yang

    Full Text Available Genetic selection strategies towards increased prolificacy have resulted in more and more increased littler size and incidences of impaired fetal development. Low birth weight (LBW piglets, with long-term alterations in structure, physiology and metabolism, have lower survival rates and poor growth performance. The aim of the study was to compare the plasma, liver and skeletal muscle contents of neutral amino acids (NAA and the intestinal expression of NAA transporters between LBW and high birth weight (HBW suckling Huanjiang mini-piglets. Forty piglets with either LBW or HBW (20 piglets per group were sampled on day 0, 7, 14 and 21 of age to give 5 observations per day per group. The contents of NAA in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle were measured, and jejunal expression of transporters for NAA, including Slc6a19 (B(0AT1 and Slc1a5 (ASCT2, were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Results showed that the suckling piglets with LBW had higher contents of Thr, Ser, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe and Pro in liver, and Gly in skeletal muscle, whereas lower contents of Met, Ser and Ala in plasma when compared with the HBW littermates. Consistent with the content differences in plasma NAA, the jejunal expression profiles of both Slc6a19 (B(0AT1 and Slc1a5 (ASCT2 in the LBW piglets were lower in compared with the HBW littermates during the early suckling period. These findings suggested that intestinal dysfunction in the LBW piglets may be one of the reasons in altered physiology and metabolism states of other organs, which result in lower survival and growth rate.

  6. Influence of fatty acid on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl esters and their free radical scavenging capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Marija; Carević, Milica; Mihailović, Mladen; Veličković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters are recently emerging food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical additives, which can be prepared in an eco-friendly way by using lipases as catalysts. Because they are amphiphilic molecules, which possess high free radical scavenging capacity, they can be applied as liposoluble antioxidants as well as emulsifiers and biosurfactants. In this study, the influence of a wide range of acyl donors on ester yield in lipase-catalyzed synthesis and ester antioxidant activity was examined. Among saturated acyl donors, higher yields and antioxidant activities of esters were achieved when short-chain FAs were used. Oleic acid gave the highest yield overall and its ester exhibited a high antioxidant activity. Optimization of experimental factors showed that the highest conversion (60.5%) in acetone was achieved with 5 g L(-1) of lipase, 50 mM of vitamin C, 10-fold molar excess of oleic acid, and 0.7 mL L(-1) of initial water. Obtained results showed that even short- and medium-chain ascorbyl esters could be synthesized with high yields and retained (or even exceeded) free radical scavenging capacity of l-ascorbic acid, indicating prospects of broadening their application in emulsions and liposomes. PMID:25224149

  7. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as...... hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  8. Synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid in the presence of neutral oxo-donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, R.; Reddy, M.L.P. [Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Unit, Regional Research Lab. (CSIR), Trivandrum (India)

    2002-07-01

    The extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solutions has been investigated using mixtures of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (HBTMPP) and trialkylphosphine oxide (Cyanex 923 = TRPO), triphenylphosphine oxide (TPhPO) or tributylphosphate (TBP). The results demonstrate that uranium(VI) is extracted into xylene as UO{sub 2}(BTMPP){sub 2} with HBTMPP alone and as UO{sub 2}(BTMPP){sub 2}.S (where S = TRPO, TPhPO or TBP) in the presence of neutral oxo-donors. The extraction equilibrium constants of the above extracted complexes have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis with the aid of suitable chemically based model developed taking into account aqueous phase complexation of metal ion with inorganic ligands and all plausible complexes extracted into the organic phase. The addition of a neutral oxo-donor to the metal chelate system significantly enhances the extraction efficiency of uranium(VI). Complexation strength of uranium(VI) with neutral oxo-donors follows the order: TRPO > TPhPO > TBP, which is also the basicity sequence of these ligands. The IR spectral studies of the extracted complexes were used to further clarify the nature of the extracted complexes. (orig.)

  9. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Adem

  10. Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telving, Rasmus; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2016-01-01

    -HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method......A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral...... was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng...

  11. Modeling of lead-acid battery capacity loss in a photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.; URBINA,ANGEL; PAEZ,THOMAS L.

    2000-04-12

    The authors have developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system components. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. One focus of this research is to model battery state of charge and battery capacity as a function of time. The capacity damage effect that occurs during deep discharge is introduced via a non-positive function of duration and depth of deep discharge events. Because the form of this function is unknown and varies with battery type, the authors model it with an artificial neural network (ANN) whose parameters are to be trained with experimental data. The battery capacity loss model will be described and a numerical example will be presented showing the predicted battery life under different PV system use scenarios.

  12. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:ΣCAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:ΣCAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat.

  13. Use of zirconium oxychloride to neutralize HF in the microwave-assisted acid dissolution of ceramic glazes for their chemical analysis by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, M; Fabbri, B; Mingazzini, C

    1998-04-01

    The use of a zirconium compound (ZrOCl(2)) to neutralize HF in the microwave-assisted acid dissolution of ceramic glazes for their chemical analysis was tested. Zr is a strong complexing agent for the fluorine ion and permits the determination of those elements which would form insoluble fluorides. The use of Zr implies strong spectral interferences and a high salt content; however, we found that at least 27 elements can be measured with low detection limits, and satisfactory precision and accuracy. In addition, the use of ZrOCl(2) would permit the complete analysis of a ceramic glaze with a single attack when acid-resistant mineral phases are not present. For potassium determinations in acid matrix, the addition of an ionization buffer was studied in order to increase sensitivity, avoiding ionization interferences and non-linear calibration curves. PMID:18967112

  14. Enhancement of developmental capacity of meiotically inhibited bovine oocytes by retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Paloma; Díez, C; Royo, L.J. (Luis); Lorenzo, P.L. (Pedro); Carneiro, G.; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Facal, Nieves; Gómez, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although high vitamin A may be teratogenic to the embryo, retinol has been shown to support oocyte developmental potential in vivo. Similarly, addition of retinol metabolite 9-cis-retinoic acid to in-vitro cultured oocytes could promote cytoplasmic maturation and subsequent early embryonic development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5 nmol/l retinoic acid during in-vitro pre-maturation and maturation of bovine oocyte-cumulus complexes. METHODS AND...

  15. Acid and Alkali Buffer Capacity of Typical Fluvor-Aquic Soil in Huang-HuaiHai Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping; ZHANG Jia-bao; ZHU An-ning; ZHANG Cong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Soil acid and alkali buffer capacity, as a major indicator for evaluating its vulnerability and resistibility to acidification and alkalization, is an important factor affecting the sustainable agriculture, through knowledge on which soil acidification process can be predicted and modified. In this study, titration curve method was adopted to investigate the pH buffer capacity (pHBC) of fluvor-aquic soil, and separate titration curves were established by adding incremental amounts of either standardized hydrochloric acid (HCl) (0.12 mol L-1) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.10 mol L-1) to soil suspended in deionized water (soil:solution=1:5). Soil pH was measured after 7 d resuspension and isothermal equilibrium (T= 25℃). Linear regressions were fitted to the linear portion of each titration curve and the slopes of these lines were derived as the soil pHBC. The results showed that significant correlations between the amounts of adding acid or alkali and each pH change were presented, and titration curve method was feasible for measurement of pHBC on typical fluvor-aquic soil in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, and the coefficients of determination were higher than the similar researches on acid soil (R2= 0.96). The slope-derived pHBC of acid and alkali were 158.71 and 25.02 mmol kg-1, respectively. According to the classification of soil buffer systems, the soil tested belongs to the calcium carbonate buffer system, carbonates contribute the most to pHBC, and the contribution of soil organic matter relatively less than it.

  16. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  17. Coordinated Regulation of the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 and the Protein Phosphatase Subunit GADD34 Promotes Adaptation to Increased Extracellular Osmolarity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokowski, Dawid; Jobava, Raul; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Farabaugh, Kenneth; Wu, Jing; Majumder, Mithu; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Snider, Martin D.; Bussolati, Ovidio; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to shrinkage induced by increased extracellular osmolarity via programmed changes in gene transcription and mRNA translation. The immediate response to this stress includes the induction of expression of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2. Increased SNAT2-mediated uptake of neutral amino acids is an essential adaptive mechanism for restoring cell volume. In contrast, stress-induced phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α) can promote apoptosis. Here we show that the response to mild hyperosmotic stress involves regulation of the phosphorylation of eIF2α by increased levels of GADD34, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was dependent on transcriptional control by the c-Jun-binding cAMP response element in the GADD34 gene promoter and posttranscriptional stabilization of its mRNA. This mechanism differs from the regulation of GADD34 expression by other stresses that involve activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 was not translated during hyperosmotic stress despite an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation. The SNAT2-mediated increase in amino acid uptake was enhanced by increased GADD34 levels in a manner involving decreased eIF2α phosphorylation. It is proposed that the induction of the SNAT2/GADD34 axis enhances cell survival by promoting the immediate adaptive response to stress. PMID:26041779

  18. Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E.; Bardak, F.; Atac, A.; Karabacak, M.; Cipiloglu, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion-1 and anion-2 forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program.

  19. A systematic study on the effect of acidic, basic and neutral additives on dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a dimethylformamide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presence of acidic, basic and neutral additives on dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in dimethylforamide (DMF) solution has been investigated. The surface charge measurement showed that MWCNTs in the presence of acidic additives in DMF exhibit a higher surface charge (−85 C g−1) than that with the basic additives (−22 C g−1). The stability of the MWCNTs dispersion was visually monitored and it was found that in the presence of acidic and no additives it would be stable and dispersed for more than five days, whereas MWCNTs suspension immediately settle down in the presence of basic and neutral additives. The degree of defects on MWCNTs was determined by analysis of detailed Raman spectra of as-received MWNCTs and MWNCTs dispersed in DMF with different additives. By exploring the correlation between the ID/IG (Raman analysis) ratio and the degree of defects, it was found that the carbon–carbon double bond (C=C) of MWCNTs was slightly damaged by adding additives to the solvent. (paper)

  20. Uranium permeation across supported liquid membrane using dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and its mixture with neutral donors as carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA), a close analog of D2EHPA is widely used for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by solvent extraction technique. The literature suggested that no reports are available on uranium transport from acidic medium using DNPPA as carrier solvent. Permeation of U(VI) from nitric acid medium across supported liquid membrane (SLM) has been studied under varying experimental conditions, viz. feed, carrier and receiver phase compositions

  1. Very-long-chain fatty acids restrict regeneration capacity by confining pericycle competence for callus formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Baoshuan; Xu, Chongyi; Zhang, Xixi; Cao, Huifen; Xin, Wei; Hu, Yuxin

    2016-05-01

    The already differentiated organs in plants have a remarkable capacity to regenerate new individuals under culture conditions. Plant in vitro regeneration practically starts with the induction of a pluripotent cell mass, the callus, from detached organs on auxin-rich callus-inducing medium (CIM), which is generally required for subsequent regeneration of new bodies. Recent studies show that CIM-induced callus formation occurs from the pericycle or pericycle-like cells through a root developmental pathway, whereas the signals involved in governing callus-forming capacity of pericycle cells remain unknown. Here we report that very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play a critical role in confining the pericycle competence for callus formation and thus the regeneration capacity of Arabidopsis By genetic screening, we identified the callus formation-related 1 (cfr1) mutant, which bypasses the inhibition of callus-forming capacity in roots by solitary-root (slr/iaa14). We show that CFR1 encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 1 (KCS1), which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of VLCFA biosynthesis. Our biochemical and genetic analyses demonstrate that VLCFAs restrict the pericycle competence for callus formation, at least in part, by regulating the transcription of Aberrant Lateral Root Formation 4 (ALF4). Moreover, we provide evidence that VLCFAs act as cell layer signals to mediate the pericycle competence for callus formation. Taken together, our results identify VLCFAs or their derivatives as the confining signals for mediating the pericycle competence for callus formation and thus the regeneration capacity of plant organs. PMID:27092001

  2. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  3. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  4. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  5. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVneutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  6. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Feng Chi; Fa-Yuan Hu; Bin Wang; Zhong-Rui Li; Hong-Yu Luo

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration...

  7. Gamma radiation effects at color, antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is efficient at extinction fungi contamination in peanuts. Peanuts have high biologic value protein, minerals, vitamin E, complex B, and high concentration of lipids. The objective of this research is to evaluate the gamma irradiation effect on color, total phenolic, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid profile in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Cultivars IAC-Tatu ST and IAC-Runner 886 were submitted to gamma radiation with doses of 5.0; 7.5; 10.0, and 15.0 kGy and storage at room temperature. There was no significant difference in the color of IAC-Tatu ST. However, significant difference was found in the luminosity and Chroma in IAC-Runner 886. Total fenolics differed from the control with 33.27 mg.g-1 and treatment dose of 10.0 kGy with 58.60 mg.g-1 in IAC-Tatu ST. This parameter not had significant difference in IAC-Runner 886 and the control with 51.59 mg.g-1. The antioxidant activity did not present significant difference with a dose of 10.0 kGy, recommended for the elimination of fungi in peanuts. The dose of 10.0 kGy showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids, increase in unsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in linolleic acid. The oleic/linoleic relation decreased justifying further research correlating storage and oxidative stability. (author)

  8. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  9. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

  10. Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fang Niu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation.

  11. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact...

  12. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  13. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Oğüt

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the resul...

  14. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  16. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Kristina W; Golub, Stacey R; Meysing, Daniel M; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    To increase conversion and product concentration, mixed-acid fermentation can use a countercurrent strategy where solids and liquids pass in opposite directions through a series of fermentors. To limit the requirement for moving solids, this study employed a propagated fixed-bed fermentation, where solids were stationary and only liquid was transferred. To evaluate the role of agitation, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. The periodically mixed fermentation had similar conversion, but lower yield and selectivity. Increasing volatile solid loading rate from 1.5 to 5.1g non-acid volatile solids/(L(liq)·d) and increasing liquid retention time decreased yield, conversion, selectivity, but increased product concentrations. Compared to a previous study at high pH (~9), this study achieved higher performance at near neutral pH (~6.5) and optimal C-N ratios. Compared to countercurrent fermentation, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivities and produce similar proportions of acetic acid, but have lower yields, conversion, productivities, and acid concentrations. PMID:22995159

  17. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Kristina W; Golub, Stacey R; Meysing, Daniel M; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    To increase conversion and product concentration, mixed-acid fermentation can use a countercurrent strategy where solids and liquids pass in opposite directions through a series of fermentors. To limit the requirement for moving solids, this study employed a propagated fixed-bed fermentation, where solids were stationary and only liquid was transferred. To evaluate the role of agitation, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. The periodically mixed fermentation had similar conversion, but lower yield and selectivity. Increasing volatile solid loading rate from 1.5 to 5.1g non-acid volatile solids/(L(liq)·d) and increasing liquid retention time decreased yield, conversion, selectivity, but increased product concentrations. Compared to a previous study at high pH (~9), this study achieved higher performance at near neutral pH (~6.5) and optimal C-N ratios. Compared to countercurrent fermentation, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivities and produce similar proportions of acetic acid, but have lower yields, conversion, productivities, and acid concentrations.

  18. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    suggested that in NH4+ rich samples, NO3- and non-sea salt SO42- were almost entirely neutralized by NH4+. In NH4+ poor samples, in addition to NH4+ non-sea salt K+ played a role in acidity neutralization. These observations are unlike those reported for PM10 and total suspended particles (TSP) over other locations in India, where mineral aerosol species (specifically Ca2+) played an important role in neutralizing acidic species. Additionally, both during 2012 and 2013, the aerosol acidity showed a pronounced seasonality - the aerosol was alkaline or near-neutral during the winter and post-monsoon seasons, while during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons it was acidic.

  19. Involvement of the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter SLC6A15 and Leucine in Obesity-Related Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Drgonova; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Han, Joan C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Robert Fredriksson; Claude Marcus; Schiöth, Helgi B; Uhl, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain pathways, including those in hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract, influence food intake, nutrient preferences, metabolism and development of obesity in ways that often differ between males and females. Branched chain amino acids, including leucine, can suppress food intake, alter metabolism and change vulnerability to obesity. The SLC6A15 (v7-3) gene encodes a sodium-dependent transporter of leucine and other branched chain amino acids that is expressed by neurons in hypothal...

  20. SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF INTERPENETRATING SULFONIC ACID RESINS WITH HIGH CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hede; LI Guoming

    1989-01-01

    Two series of interpenetrating sulfonic acid resins (ISAR), 10 × n and n × 10 ,were prepared by means of the wet method, and the physicochemical, thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the ISAR were measured . The results show: 10 × n resins exhibit better properties than n × 10 ones ,mainly in higher apparent degree of crosslinking and larger conformational entropy effect, among which , 10 × 1 resin exhibits the best thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In the DTA graphs of n × 10 resins, there are two Tg and two Tox, but in those of 10 × n, only one Tg and one Tox . This result well supports the conclusion that 10 × n resins have much better interpenetrating structural aspects.

  1. Antioxidant capacity of phytic acid purified from rice bran - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.16358

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Canan; Fernanda Delaroza; Rúbia Casagrande; Marcela Maria Baracat; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran is a by-product of rice processing industry, with high levels of phytic acid or phytate. Considering phytic acid antioxidant activity, its various applications and its high concentration in rice bran, this study had the objective of evaluating the antioxidant capacity of purified phytic acid from rice bran using three different methods. Using of 2,4,6-tripyridil-s-triazine or method of FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), reducing Fe2+ activity was not detected for standard or...

  2. LT-IIb(T13I, a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Greene

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d. and intranasal (i.n. routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I. While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®, LT-IIb(T13I was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense.

  3. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process. PMID:26652215

  4. Influence of the acid buffering capacity of different types of Technosols on the chemistry of their leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F X; Macías, F; Santesteban, A; Virgel, S; Blanco, F; Jiang, X; Camps Arbestain, M

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of tailor-made Technosols from wastes may be a novel and prospective option for the re-use of wastes and restoration of degraded areas. A two-month study with pilot columns was conducted to evaluate the influence of the acid buffering capacity of different Technosols on the chemistry of their leachates. The Technosols were made from mixtures of organic and inorganic wastes at a ratio of 56:44 (w/w). The organic components used were an anaerobic (AN) and an aerobic (AE) sewage sludge. The inorganic wastes used--referred to as "conditioners"--were Linz-Donowitz slag (LD) and foundry sand (FS). A mixture of the two conditioners at a ratio of 50:50 (w/w) was made to provide a third type of conditioner (LD+FS). Controls consisted of columns filled with organic waste only (either AN or AE sludges). Changes in pH, electrical conductivity, concentrations of major ions and dissolved organic carbon in the leachates were evaluated periodically. The main processes determining the pH of the systems were nitrification and leaching, but organic matter decomposition and carbonation may also have had an influence. Nitrification was strongly retarded in the AN sludge (attributed to the probable absence of nitrifiers in this waste after the AN wastewater treatment) and was impeded in those mixtures in which LD was used as a component (due to the liming effect). Final pH values ranged from 5.0 and 5.4 (in AE and AE+FS, respectively) to 11.1 (in AN+LD). The pH of the other mixtures finally ranged between 7 and 8. In formulating mixtures of wastes, their acid buffering capacity should be taken into account in addition to the nutrient contents and the limits of contaminants established by local regulations. PMID:19026435

  5. The effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on Helicobacter pylori eradication, some serum inflammatory factors and total antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Agah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: As regard to high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and complications of it's persistence, as well as anti-bacterial activity against of Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, some serum inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity.  Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 66 H. pylori positive patients (33 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group, along with tetra-drugs H. pylori eradication regimen, randomly received daily two grams morDHA supplement or Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT oil as placebo for 12 weeks. Dietary intake data was collected by 24 hour food recall and analyzed by Nutritionist IV software. Sampling from fasting blood and measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI and level of physical activity were done at the first and the end of the study. As well as, eradication test of the infection was performed for all patients at the end of the intervention.  Results: Eradication rate of the infection, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC didn't have significant difference between two groups at the end of the study (P>0.05, while the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8 was different between two groups (P=0.008. Difference of the concentration between the beginning and the end of the study was not significant in any factors between two groups (P>0.05.   Conclusion: Intake of morDHA supplement didn't have significant effect on the eradication of H. pylori, serum levels of IL-6, hs-CRP and TAC, while it was effective on the level of IL-8.

  6. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits. PMID:21506518

  7. A Combination of Amino Acids and Caffeine Enhances Sprint Running Capacity in a Hot, Hypoxic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Tom R; Potter, Aaron; Billaut, François; Panchuk, Derek; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Chen, Ting-Ting; McQuade, Leon; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Heat and hypoxia exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. We therefore investigated whether essential amino acid (EAA) and caffeine ingestion attenuates CNS fatigue in a simulated team sport-specific running protocol in a hot, hypoxic environment. Subelite male team sport athletes (n = 8) performed a repeat sprint running protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in an extreme environment on 4 separate occasions. Participants ingested one of four supplements: a double placebo, 3 mg.kg-1 body mass of caffeine + placebo, 2 x 7 g EAA (Musashi Create)+placebo, or caffeine + EAA before each exercise session using a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Electromyography (EMG) activity and quadriceps evoked responses to magnetic stimulation were assessed from the dominant leg at preexercise, halftime, and postexercise. Central activation ratio (CAR) was used to quantify completeness of quadriceps activation. Oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean sprint work was higher (M = 174 J, 95% CI [23, 324], p effect size, likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition versus EAAs alone. The decline in EMG activity was less (M = 13%, 95% CI [0, 26]; p < .01, d = 0.58, likely beneficial) in caffeine + EAA versus EAA alone. Similarly, the pre- to postexercise decrement in CAR was significantly less (M = -2.7%, 95% CI [0.4, 5.4]; p < .05, d = 0.50, likely beneficial) when caffeine + EAA were ingested compared with placebo. Cerebral oxygenation was lower (M = -5.6%, 95% CI [1.0, 10.1]; p < .01, d = 0.60, very likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition compared with LNAA alone. Co-ingestion of caffeine and EAA appears to maintain muscle activation and central drive, with a small improvement in running performance. PMID:26248498

  8. 机制砂混凝土的酸雨中性化%Neutralization of artificial sand concrete caused by acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏卿

    2013-01-01

    With the effect of carbonation and combining action of acid rain and carbonation,the carbonation depth of concrete with river sand and artificial sand was studied,respectively.The results show that with the effect of carbonation and combined action of acid rain and carbonation,the carbonation depth of concrete lowered with the increase of strength level,and the carbonation depth of artificial sand concrete is less than that of concrete with fiver sand of the same strength level.Compared with single carbonation,the neutralization of concrete was accelerated under the combined action of H+ and SO42-in acid rain.%对碳化及酸雨与碳化复合作用下,机制砂混凝土、河砂混凝土的碳化深度进行对比.结果表明,碳化或酸雨与碳化复合作用下,混凝土的碳化深度随强度等级提高而降低,且机制砂混凝土的碳化深度均小于同强度等级的河砂混凝土;与单一碳化相比,酸雨与碳化复合作用时,由于酸雨中H·和SO42-的共同影响,加速了混凝土中性化进程.

  9. Biochemical distributions (amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin phenols) among size-classes of modern marine sediments from the Washington coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard G.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Giddings, J. Calvin; Hedges, John I.

    1998-04-01

    In order to examine relationships of organic matter source, composition, and diagenesis with particle size and mineralogy in modern marine depositional regimes, sediments from the continental shelf and slope along the Northwest Pacific rim (Washington coast, USA) were sorted into hydrodynamic size fractions (sand: >250, 63-250 μm; silt: 35-63, 17-35, 8-17, 3-8 μm; and clay-sized: 1-3, 0.5-1, fucose and rhamnose. Organic matter in the silt fractions, though degraded, is not as diagenetically altered as in the clay fractions. Enrichment of pollen grains in the silt-size material is reflected by high cinnamic acid to ferulic acid lignin phenol ratios. The highest pollen biochemical signal is observed in the silt fractions of the deepest station (1835 m), where pollen abundances are also highest. Organic matter tightly bound in the silt and sand-sized fractions are enriched in aldoses and show indications of enhanced microbial biomass as reflected by high weight percentages of ribose. Distinct organic debris was composed of relatively unaltered vascular plant remains as reflected by high lignin phenol yields and low acid/aldehyde ratios. Clay-size fractions are enriched in nitrogenous components, as reflected by elevated yields of total and basic amino acids (especially lysine). Silt- and sand-size fractions rich in quartz and albite show slightly higher yields of neutral amino acids. Consistent trends across all size classes and among the different depositional settings illustrates that only a small portion of the organic matter is present as distinct organic debris (e.g. pollen, vascular plant tissues, etc.), but that this debris can be isolated in specific size classes. The data for surface-associated organic matter are consistent with, but not conclusive of, selective partitioning of some organic matter to specific mineral surfaces. The dominant size class-specific trends in organic matter composition are due to changes in both source and diagenetic alteration.

  10. Hydrophobic End-Modulated Amino-Acid-Based Neutral Hydrogelators: Structure-Specific Inclusion of Carbon Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pritam; Mandal, Deep; Brahmachari, Sayanti; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic end-modulated l-phenylalanine-containing triethylene glycol monomethyl ether tagged neutral hydrogelators (1-4) are developed. Investigations determine the gelators' structure-dependent inclusion of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) in the self-assembled fibrillar network (SAFIN). The gelators (1, 3, and 4) can immobilize water and aqueous buffer (pH 3-7) with a minimum gelator concentration of 10-15 mg mL(-1). The hydrophobic parts of the gelators are varied from a long chain (C-16) to an extended aromatic pyrenyl moiety, and their abilities to integrate 1 D and 2 D allotropes of carbon (i.e., single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene oxide (GO), respectively) within the gel are investigated. Gelator 1, containing a long alkyl chain (C-16), can include SWNTs, whereas the pyrene-containing 4 can include both SWNTs and GO. Gelator 3 fails to incorporate SWNTs or GO owing to its slow rate of gelation and possibly a mismatch between the aggregated structure and CNMs. The involvement of various forces in self-aggregated gelation and physicochemical changes occurring through CNM inclusion are examined by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The distinctive pattern of self-assembly of gelators 1 and 4 through J- and H-type aggregation might facilitate the structure-specific CNM inclusion. Inclusion of SWNTs/GO within the hydrogel matrix results in a reinforcement in mechanical stiffness of the composites compared with that of the native hydrogels.

  11. Substitution at aspartic acid 1128 in the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein mediates escape from a S2 domain-targeting neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi-Wing Ng

    Full Text Available The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV is the etiological agent for the infectious disease, SARS, which first emerged 10 years ago. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barriers to infect humans. Bats, which harbour a diverse pool of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs, are believed to be the natural reservoir. The SARS-CoV surface Spike (S protein is a major antigenic determinant in eliciting neutralizing antibody production during SARS-CoV infection. In our previous work, we showed that a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that target the S2 subunit of the S protein are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV infection in vitro (Lip KM et al, J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2: 941-50. In this study, we report our findings on the characterization of one of these mAbs, known as 1A9, which binds to the S protein at a novel epitope within the S2 subunit at amino acids 1111-1130. MAb 1A9 is a broadly neutralizing mAb that prevents viral entry mediated by the S proteins of human and civet SARS-CoVs as well as bat SL-CoVs. By generating mutant SARS-CoV that escapes the neutralization by mAb 1A9, the residue D1128 in S was found to be crucial for its interaction with mAb 1A9. S protein containing the substitution of D1128 with alanine (D1128A exhibited a significant decrease in binding capability to mAb 1A9 compared to wild-type S protein. By using a pseudotyped viral entry assay, it was shown that the D1128A substitution in the escape virus allows it to overcome the viral entry blockage by mAb 1A9. In addition, the D1128A mutation was found to exert no effects on the S protein cell surface expression and incorporation into virion particles, suggesting that the escape virus retains the same viral entry property as the wild-type virus.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of phytic acid purified from rice bran - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.16358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Canan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a by-product of rice processing industry, with high levels of phytic acid or phytate. Considering phytic acid antioxidant activity, its various applications and its high concentration in rice bran, this study had the objective of evaluating the antioxidant capacity of purified phytic acid from rice bran using three different methods. Using of 2,4,6-tripyridil-s-triazine or method of FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, reducing Fe2+ activity was not detected for standard or purified phytic acid. With BPS (bathophenanthroline method, the Fe2+ chelator activity of standard phytic acid and rice bran phytic acid were dependent on the concentration and contact time and were observed IC50 values of 4.39 mg mL-1 and IC50 of 7.54 mg mL-1, respectively. By the deoxyribose method, the standard phytic acid inhibited the hydroxyl radical with an IC50 of 0.70 mg mL-1 while the rice bran phytic acid showed a maximum inhibitory activity of 40% associated to its chelating capacity and confirm this important antioxidant capacity.

  13. Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-Cu-P Ternary Alloy Coatings in Acidic and Neutral Corrosive Mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbouillé Cissé

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroless Ni-Cu-P alloy coatings were deposited on the ordinary steel substrate in an acidic hypophosphite-type plating bath. These coatings were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and an X-ray diffraction. The micrograph shows that coating presents a nodular aspect and is relatively homogeneous and very smooth. The EDX analysis shows that the coating contains 12 wt.% of phosphorus element with a predominance of nickel element. In addition, the anticorrosion properties of the Ni-Cu-P coatings in 1 M HCl, 1 M H2SO4, and 3% NaCl solutions were investigated using Tafel polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and SEM/EDX analysis. The result showed a marginal improvement in corrosion resistance in 3% NaCl solution compared to acidic medium. It also showed that the corrosion mechanism depends on the nature of the solution.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Antibiotics Alone and in Combination against Brucella melitensis at Neutral and Acidic pHs

    OpenAIRE

    Akova, Murat; Gür, Deniz; Livermore, David M; Kocagöz, Tanil; Akalin, H. Erdal

    1999-01-01

    Brucellae survive acidic pHs in phagolysosomes. Azithromycin, streptomycin, and quinolones were active against Brucella melitensis at pH 7.0 but not at pH 5.0; rifampin and doxycycline retained activity at pH 5.0. Regardless of pH, azithromycin-rifampin and ofloxacin-rifampin showed less synergy than established streptomycin-doxycycline and rifampin-doxycycline combinations.

  15. Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-Cu-P Ternary Alloy Coatings in Acidic and Neutral Corrosive Mediums

    OpenAIRE

    Mbouillé Cissé; Mohamed Abouchane; Tayeb Anik; Karima Himm; Rida Allah Belakhmima; Mohamed Ebn Touhami; Rachid Touir; Abderrahmane Amiar

    2010-01-01

    Electroless Ni-Cu-P alloy coatings were deposited on the ordinary steel substrate in an acidic hypophosphite-type plating bath. These coatings were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an X-ray diffraction. The micrograph shows that coating presents a nodular aspect and is relatively homogeneous and very smooth. The EDX analysis shows that the coating contains 12 wt.% of phosphorus element with a predominance of nickel element. In addition, the anticorrosion properties of...

  16. Involvement of the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A15 and leucine in obesity-related phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Drgonova

    Full Text Available Brain pathways, including those in hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract, influence food intake, nutrient preferences, metabolism and development of obesity in ways that often differ between males and females. Branched chain amino acids, including leucine, can suppress food intake, alter metabolism and change vulnerability to obesity. The SLC6A15 (v7-3 gene encodes a sodium-dependent transporter of leucine and other branched chain amino acids that is expressed by neurons in hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract. We now report that SLC6A15 knockout attenuates leucine's abilities to reduce both: a intake of normal chow and b weight gain produced by access to a high fat diet in gender-selective fashions. We identify SNPs in the human SLC6A15 that are associated with body mass index and insulin resistance in males. These observations in mice and humans support a novel, gender-selective role for brain amino acid compartmentalization mediated by SLC6A15 in diet and obesity-associated phenotypes.

  17. Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telving, Rasmus; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2016-09-01

    A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search. The screening method covered 467 substances. Validation was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng/g to 500ng/g. Sample preparation was performed using simple protein precipitation of 300μL of whole blood with acetonitrile and methanol. Ten microliters of the reconstituted extract were injected and separated within a 13.5min UPLC gradient reverse-phase run. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to generate the ions in the m/z range of 50-1000. Fragment ions were generated by bbCID. Identification was based on retention time, accurate mass, fragment ion(s) and isotopic pattern. A very sensitive broad toxicological screening method using positive electrospray ionization UPLC-HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method was shown to combine high sensitivity with a very broad scope that has not previously been reported in toxicological whole blood screening when using only one injection

  18. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Shariatmadar Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1 and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2 or CPF alone (control. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD, clinical attachment level (CAL, probing depth (PD and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG. SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups. Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained.

  19. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  20. Size-controlled dissolution of silver nanoparticles at neutral and acidic pH conditions: kinetics and size changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, Tanya S; Zhang, Qingbo; Colvin, Vicki L

    2014-10-21

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag(NP)) are widely utilized in increasing number of medical and consumer products due to their antibacterial properties. Once released to aquatic system, Ag(NP) undergoes oxidative dissolution leading to production of toxic Ag(+). Dissolved Ag(+) can have a severe impact on various organisms, including indigenous microbial communities, fungi, alga, plants, vertebrates, invertebrates, and human cells. Therefore, it is important to investigate fate of Ag(NP) and determine physico-chemicals parameters that control Ag(NP) behavior in the natural environment. Nanoparticle size might have a dominant effect on Ag(NP) dissolution in natural waters. In this work, we investigated size-dependent dissolution of AgNP exposed to ultrapure deionized water (pH ≈ 7) and acetic acid (pH 3) and determined changes in nanoparticle size after dissolution. Silver nanoparticles stabilized by thiol functionalized methoxyl polyethylene glycol (PEGSH) of 6 nm (Ag(NP_)6), 9 nm (Ag(NP_)9), 13 nm (Ag(NP_)13), and 70 nm (Ag(NP_)70) were prepared. The results of dissolution experiments showed that the extent of AgNP dissolution in acetic acid was larger than in water. Solubility of Ag(NP) increased with the size decrease and followed the order Ag(NP_)6 > Ag(NP_)9 > Ag(NP_)13 > Ag(NP_)70 in both water and acetic acid. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to characterize changes in size and morphology of the AgNP after dissolution in water. Analysis of Ag(NP) by TEM revealed that the particle morphology did not change during dissolution. The particles remained approximately spherical in shape, and no visible aggregation was observed in the samples. TEM analysis also demonstrated that Ag(NP_)6, Ag(NP_)9, and Ag(NP_)13 increased in size after dissolution likely due to Ostwald ripening. PMID:25265014

  1. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  2. Self-assembled microstructures from 1,2-ethanediol suspensions of pure and binary mixtures of neutral and acidic biological galactosylceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D D; Mann, S

    1994-01-01

    Optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterize microstructures formed by thermal mechanical treatment of glycol suspensions of various pure and binary mixtures of the brain-derived galactosphingolipids hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (HFA-Cer), non-hydroxy fatty acid cerebroside (NFA-Cer) and sulfatide (S-Cer). Negative staining indicated some new features of the neutral cerebroside suspensions in glycol. HFA-Cer formed a small fraction of both unilamellar cylinders (ULCs) (lumina ca. 27 nm) and giant multilamellar cochleates in addition to the typical nonhelical multilamellar cylinders (MLCs) (lumina ca. 10-30 nm). NFA-Cer formed a gel composed of a significant fraction of very long ULCs (lumina ca. 17 nm) without helical substructure, in addition to multilamellar helical structures such as ribbons and cylinders (lumina ca. 70 nm). Anisotropic lamellar micelle-shards of NFA-Cer were also detected by negative staining. S-Cer formed short ULCs (lumina ca. 44 nm) with no obvious helical substructure. Complex mixture data are thought to result from thermodynamic and kinetic factors. HFA-Cer is highly insoluble and promotes a network of rigid intralamellar hydrogen bonding that tends to exclude other lipids. NFA-Cer stabilizes helical defects in the lamellae, and S-Cer enhances disorder or micellization. The processes of microstructure nucleation and lipid phase separation were affected by mixtures such that metastable microstructures were trapped or the length of lamellar cylinders was altered. PMID:8200057

  3. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. PMID:25442634

  4. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  5. 校正滴定法测定中性氨基酸%Determination of Neutral Amino Acid Calibrated Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 房淑宁; 刘婷婷; 丁元元

    2011-01-01

    校正滴定法属于计算滴定法的范畴,可用于极弱酸或极弱碱的测定,其原理是滴定曲线上一定电位对应的滴定剂体积与待测物质的含量有确定的比例关系.通过对丝氨酸的测定.讨论了滴定剂的选择、滴定控制电位的选择及电极系统的影响等问题.该实验涉及校正滴定法的原理、氨基酸的性质、最小二乘法的应用、全自动电位滴定仪的原理和操作及计算程序的编制等多重知识和技能的综合应用,属于综合性、设计性及探索性实验.%The calibrated titration is within the category of calculated titration and could be used in the determination of very weak acid or base. Its main principle is that at some special potentials on the titration curve the volumes of titrant have the definite proportion of the content of the tested materials. By the determination of serine many aspects in the analysis are discussed such as the choice of titrant, the choice of controlled operational potentials,and the influence of electrode system. The mentioned experiment involves the integrated application of the multiple knowledge and skills such as the principle of calibrated titration, the nature of amino acid, the application of least square method, the operation of automatic potential titrimeter,and the computer programming. This practice is of the characteristic of synthesis, novelty and openness.

  6. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine – H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine – HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  7. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine-H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine-HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  8. High surface-area amidoxime-based polymer fibers co-grafted with various acid monomers yielding increased adsorption capacity for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is dissolved in the ocean at a uniform concentration of 3.34 ppb, which translates to approximately 4-5 billion tons of uranium. The development of adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater has been a long term goal, but the extremely dilute uranium concentration along with the competition of other metal salts (which are at higher concentrations) has hindered the development of an economical adsorption process. Several acid monomers were co-grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) to help increase the hydrophilicity of the adsorbent to improve access to the metal adsorption sites. Grafting various acid monomers on PE fibers was found to significantly affect the uranium adsorption in simulated seawater in the following order: acrylic acid (AA) uranium adsorption capacity significantly increased when Mohr's salt was added with acrylic acid, most likely due to the reduction of co-polymerization of the monomers. When testing under more realistic conditions, the acid-grafted PE fiber adsorbents were exposed to natural seawater (more dilute uranium), the uranium adsorption capacity increased in the following order: MAA uranium adsorption capacity with each acid monomer was related to higher grafting of AN and therefore a higher conversion to amidoxime (AO). PMID:27145863

  9. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  10. Conductance testing compared to traditional methods of evaluating the capacity of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries and predicting state-of-health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, D.O. (Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems, Inc., Madison, NJ (United States)); Croda, T.G. (Sprint, Long Distance Div., Burlingame, CA (United States)); McShane, S.J.; Hlavac, M.J. (Midtronics, Inc., Willowbrook, IL (United States)); Champlin, K.S.

    1992-09-15

    Recently, timed discharge capacity tests were performed on 336 individual valve-regulated lead/acid cells in a telecommunications power system. The results were compared with traditional methods of determining cell health (i.e., float voltage, open-circuit voltage, and calculated specific gravity). At the same time, conductance measurements were taken, and these results were also compared to the results of the timed discharge capacity tests. Data will be presented which show that traditional methods indicate almost no correlation to timed discharge capacity testing. Conductance test data will be presented which show a very nearly linear correlation. Based on this correlation, these results indicate that conductance testing can provide users of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with a valuable predictive tool for determining the state-of-health of individual cells. (orig.).

  11. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E;

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of consecutive human sera to neutralize sequentially obtained autologous virus isolates was studied. HIV-1 was isolated three times over a 48-164-week period from three individuals immediately after seroconversion and from two individuals in later stages of infection. Development...... of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay....... Titers of neutralizing antibodies against late virus isolates were generally low compared to initial neutralizing titers against primary virus isolates. The delay in appearance of neutralizing antibodies to the dominant viral strain at any time in the patient and the emergence of neutralization resistant...

  12. Diel behavior of rare earth elements in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Wood, Scott A.; Nimick, David A.

    2005-08-01

    Diel (24-h) changes in concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were investigated in Fisher Creek, a mountain stream in Montana that receives acid mine drainage in its headwaters. Three simultaneous 24-h samplings were conducted at an upstream station (pH = 3.3), an intermediate station (pH = 5.5), and a downstream station (pH = 6.8). The REE were found to behave conservatively at the two upstream stations. At the downstream station, REE partitioned into suspended particles to a degree that varied with the time of day, and concentrations of dissolved REE were 2.9- to 9.4-fold (190% to 830%) higher in the early morning vs. the late afternoon. The decrease in dissolved REE concentrations during the day coincided with a corresponding increase in the concentration of REE in suspended particles, such that diel changes in the total REE concentrations were relatively minor (27% to 55% increase at night). Across the lanthanide series, the heavy REE partitioned into the suspended solid phase to a greater extent than the light REE. Filtered samples from the downstream station showed a decrease in shale-normalized REE concentration across the lanthanide series, with positive anomalies at La and Gd, and a negative Eu anomaly. As the temperature of the creek increased in the afternoon, the slope of the REE profile steepened and the magnitude of the anomalies increased. The above observations are explained by cyclic adsorption of REE onto suspended particles of hydrous ferric and aluminum oxides (HFO, HAO). Conditional partition coefficients for each REE between the suspended solids and the aqueous phase reached a maximum at 1700 hours and a minimum at 0700 hours. This pattern is attributed to diel variations in stream temperature, possibly reinforced by kinetic factors (i.e., slower rates of reaction at night than during the day). Estimates of the enthalpy of adsorption of each REE onto suspended particles based on the field results averaged +82 kJ/mol and are similar in

  13. Monetary Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Serletis; Zisimos Koustas

    2015-01-01

    We test the long-run neutrality of money proposition for the United States using the King and Watson (1997) methodology paying attention to the integration and cointegration properties of the variables. We use quarterly data (over the period from 1967:1 to 2014:1) and the new Center for Financial Stability Divisia monetary aggregates, documented in detail in Barnett et al. (2013). We make a comparison among the narrower monetary aggregates, M1 M2M, M2M, M2, and ALL, and the broad monetary agg...

  14. Molecular structure investigation of neutral, dimer and anion forms of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Bilgili, Sibel; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the structural and vibrational analysis of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (3,4-PDCA) are presented using experimental techniques as FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV and quantum chemical calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid in the solid phase are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible monomer, dimer, anion-1 and anion-2 conformers of 3,4-PDCA are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. There are sixteen conformers (C1sbnd C16) for this molecule (neutral form). The most stable conformer of 3,4-PDCA is the C1 conformer. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. 1H and 13C NMR spectra are recorded and the chemical shifts are calculated by using DFT/B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The UV absorption spectrum of the studied compound is recorded in the range of 200-400 nm by dissolved in ethanol. The optimized geometric parameters were compared with experimental data via the X-ray results derived from complexes of this molecule. In addition these, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic and electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and Mulliken atomic charges, are performed.

  15. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  16. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  17. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  18. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  19. Effect of aspartame and protein, administered in phenylalanine-equivalent doses, on plasma neutral amino acids, aspartate, insulin and glucose in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S E

    1991-05-01

    Six human males each received 0.56 g phenylalanine (Phe) in the form of 1.0 g aspartame or 12.2 g bovine albumin in 200 ml water or water alone. Venous blood samples collected before consumption and during the following 4 hr were assayed for plasma levels of large, neutral amino acids (LNAA), aspartate, insulin and glucose. The area under the curve for plasma Phe was 40% greater, although not significant, after aspartame compared with albumin intake. The indicated increased clearance rate of plasma Phe after albumin may be caused by the significant increase of insulin, on which aspartame had no effect. There was a significant main effect of aspartame for plasma tyrosine but not for tryptophan, valine, isoleucine or leucine. Plasma aspartate was significantly increased at 0.25 hr after the aspartame intake. The percentage Phe/LNAA decreased slightly in response to albumin but increased 55% after aspartame and remained significantly increased for 2 hr. Tyrosine/LNAA increased and tryptophan/LNAA decreased modestly after aspartame intake. The study showed that the intake of aspartame in a not unrealistically high dose produced a marked and persistent increase of the availability of Phe to the brain, which was not observed after protein intake. The study indicated, furthermore, that Phe was cleared faster from the plasma after consumption of protein compared with aspartame. PMID:1946186

  20. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. and ascorbic acid on antioxidant capacity and oxidative status in rabbit burgers after cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric powder and ascorbic acid on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in cooked rabbit burgers. The burgers were derived from 3 different formulations (C, control, with no additives; Tu with 3.5% of turmeric powder and AA with 0.1% of ascorbic acid and were stored at 4°C for 0 and 7 d and cooked. The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] and antioxidant capacity (2,2-azinobis-[3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] {ABTS}, 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric reducing ability [FRAP] were evaluated. A significant interaction between storage time and formulation (P<0.001 was observed for DPPH, FRAP and TBARS in cooked burgers. At day 0 and day 7, the DPPH value was higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. At day 0, C showed a lower level of FRAP than the Tu and AA burgers. At day 7, the FRAP values tended to decrease but remained significantly higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. Lipid oxidation at day 0 in Tu and AA showed lower TBARS values compared to C burgers. The addition of 3.5% turmeric powder in rabbit burgers exerts an antioxidant effect during storage and it seems more effective in controlling lipid oxidation than ascorbic acid after cooking.

  1. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  2. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey of the new experimental data on weak neutral currents is given, followed by a comparison with modern theoretical models. Cross sections of the anti νsub(e)e → anti νsub(e)e, anti νsub(μ)e→ νsub(μ)e, νp → νp and anti νp → anti νp elastic scattering as well as inclusive cross sections of the ν+N → ν+X and anti ν+N → anti ν+X deep inelastic scattering are presented. On the basis of the comparison the Weinberg-Salam model is concluded to be in a good agreement with the shape of the cross sections. Six-quark vector models appear to be ruled out. The five-quark model due to Achiman, Koller and Walsh and two versions of the Gursey-Sikivie model satisfactorily account for the observed data in shape and in magnitude

  3. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  4. Theoretical Determination of the pK a Values of Betalamic Acid Related to the Free Radical Scavenger Capacity: Comparison Between Empirical and Quantum Chemical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutone, Marco; Lauria, Antonino; Almerico, Anna Maria

    2016-06-01

    Health benefits of dietary phytochemicals have been suggested in recent years. Among 1000s of different compounds, Betalains, which occur in vegetables of the Cariophyllalae order (cactus pear fruits and red beet), have been considered because of reducing power and potential to affect redox-modulated cellular processes. The antioxidant power of Betalains is strictly due to the dissociation rate of the acid moieties present in all the molecules of this family of phytochemicals. Experimentally, only the pK a values of betanin were determined. Recently, it was evidenced it was evidenced as the acid dissociation, at different environmental pHs, affects on its electron-donating capacity, and further on its free radical scavenging power. The identical correlation was studied on another Betalains family compound, Betalamic Acid. Experimental evidences showed that the free radical scavenging capacity of this compound drastically decreases at pH > 5, but pK a values were experimentally not measured. With the aim to justify the Betalamic Acid behavior as free radical scavenger, in this paper we tried to predict in silico the pK a values by means different approaches. Starting from the known experimental pK as of acid compounds, both phytochemicals and small organic, two empirical approaches and quantum-mechanical calculation were compared to give reliable prediction of the pK as of Betalamic Acid. Results by means these computational approaches are consistent with the experimental evidences. As shown herein, in silico, the totally dissociated species, at the experimental pH > 5 in solution, is predominant, exploiting the higher electron-donating capability (HOMO energy). Therefore, the computational estimated pK a values of Betalamic Acid resulted very reliable. PMID:26253717

  5. Polyphenols: well beyond the antioxidant capacity: gallic acid and related compounds as neuroprotective agents: you are what you eat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglia, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed F; Talas, Zeliha S; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a phenolic acid widely distributed in many different families of higher plants, both in free state, and as a part of more complex molecules, such as ester derivatives or polymers. In nature, gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root and seed. They are present in different concentrations in common foodstuffs such as blueberry, blackberry, strawberry, plums, grapes, mango, cashew nut, hazelnut, walnut, tea, wine and so on. After consumption, about 70% of gallic acid is adsorbed and then excreted in the urine as 4-O-methylgallic acid. Differently, the ester derivatives of gallic acid, such as catechin gallate ester or gallotannins, are hydrolyzed to gallic acid before being metabolized to methylated derivatives. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action. PMID:24938889

  6. Radioisotope binding capacity of serum for folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in hematologic and rheumatologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from hemic and rheumatic diseases, resp. Compared to the controls the folic acid levels were lower in some cases, the deficiency of folic acid absorption and distribution possibly being caused by the disease. Vitamin B12 was only slightly decreased. In ankylosing spondylitis the transferrin level was similar to that of the controls, but in rheumatoid arthritis and in patients suffering from various diseases it was increased

  7. Contribution to the study of the electrochemical behaviour of titanium and of its industrial shores in sulphuric environment. Characteristics of their resistance to pitting corrosion in neutral and acid halogenous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the general metallurgical, physical, and corrosion resistance characteristics of titanium and of its alloys, this research thesis presents the experimental means, discusses the influence of experimental conditions on the assessment of the electrochemical behaviour of titanium and of its alloys. It reports an investigation of the cathodic behaviour of non-alloyed titanium and notably the hydrogen release kinetics in a concentrated acid environment. It discusses the influence of alloy composition on their cathodic behaviour, addresses the anodic behaviour of titanium and of its alloys in sulphuric environment, and the pitting corrosion of titanium and of its alloys in an acid and neutral halogenous environment

  8. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029

  9. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis Dark Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%, hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%, and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03% and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively, small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides, low molecular weights (524.78 kDa, and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11. This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes.

  10. Long-term trends in water chemistry of acid-sensitive Swedish lakes show slow recovery from historic acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn N. Futter; Valinia, Salar; Löfgren, Stefan; Köhler, Stephan J.; Fölster, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Long-term (1987–2012) water quality monitoring in 36 acid-sensitive Swedish lakes shows slow recovery from historic acidification. Overall, strong acid anion concentrations declined, primarily as a result of declines in sulfate. Chloride is now the dominant anion in many acid-sensitive lakes. Base cation concentrations have declined less rapidly than strong acid anion concentrations, leading to an increase in charge balance acid neutralizing capacity. In many lakes, modeled organic acidity is...

  11. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80Mgha-1) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were...

  12. Neutralization of calcite in mineral aerosols by acidic sullur species collected in China and Japan studied by ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Miyoshi, Takuro; Higashi, Masayuki; Kamioka, Hikari; Kanai, Yutaka

    2009-09-01

    Calcium species in mineral aerosols collected simultaneously in Aksu (near the Taklimakan Desert), Qingdao (eastern China), and Tsukuba (Japan) during dust and nondust periods were determined using Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). From the fitting of XANES spectra, it was found that (i) calcite and gypsum were the main Ca species in the aerosol samples, and (ii) the gypsum fraction versus total Ca minerals [Gyp]/[Ca2+]t increased progressively in the order Aksu aerosols for all the samples except for that taken in Aksu during the dust period. The decrease of the [Gyp]/[Ca2+]t ratio with an increase in particle size showed that the neutralization effect proceeds from the particle surface. For the Aksu sample in the dust period, however, (i) the [Gyp]/[Ca2+]t ratios obtained by XANES measured in the fluorescence (FL; regarded as bulk analysis) and CEY modes were similar and (ii) size dependence was not found, showing that neutralization is not important for the sample because of the large supply of mineral aerosol with little neutralization effect in Aksu. It was also found that the pH of the aerosol and the ratio of (NH4)2SO4 to gypsum were positively and negatively correlated with the Ca (or calcite) content, respectively. The speciation of Ca by XANES revealed the neutralization processes of acidic sulfur species by calcite during the long-range transport of mineral aerosols. PMID:19764213

  13. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. PMID:27287105

  14. Separation and concentration effect of f-MWCNTs on electrocatalytic responses of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid at f-MWCNTs incorporated with poly (neutral red) composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogeswaran, Umasankar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shen-Ming [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2007-05-25

    A novel conductive composite film containing functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) with poly (neutral red) (PNR) was synthesized on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) by potentiostatic method. The composite film exhibited promising electrocatalytic oxidation of mixture of biochemical compounds such as ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in pH 4.0 aqueous solutions. It was also produced on gold electrodes by using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique, which revealed that the functional properties of composite film were enhanced because of the presence of both f-MWCNTs and PNR. The surface morphology of the polymer and composite film deposited on transparent semiconductor tin oxide electrodes were studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These two techniques showed that the PNR was fibrous and incorporated on f-MWCNTs. The electrocatalytic responses of neurotransmitters at composite films were measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). These experiments revealed that the difference in f-MWCNTs loading present in the composite film affected the electrocatalysis in such a way, that higher the loading showed an enhanced electrocatalytic activity. From further electrocatalysis studies, well separated voltammetric peaks were obtained at the composite film modified GC for AA, DA and UA with the peak separation of 0.17 V between AA-DA and 0.15 V between DA-UA. The sensitivity of the composite film towards AA, DA and UA in DPV technique was found to be 0.028, 0.146 and 0.084 {mu}A {mu}M{sup -1}, respectively.

  15. Calagem em latossolo sob influência de coberturas vegetais: neutralização da acidez Liming in a latosol under influence of cover crops: acidity neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Raphael Pereira de Pádua

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A movimentação dos produtos da dissolução do calcário e a correção da acidez podem ser influenciadas pelo manejo da calagem e pela quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica presente no solo. Avaliou-se a correção da acidez de acordo com a aplicação de calcário superficial ou incorporado nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20 cm, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf sob diferentes coberturas vegetais anteriores (mata, eucalipto, pinus e pastagem. O estudo foi realizado de novembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003 no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, sendo avaliados, depois de 30 dias de reação do calcário, e antes do cultivo do algodão, os teores trocáveis de Ca2+ e Al3+, o pH e os níveis de saturação por bases (V em amostras de solo coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. A calagem superficial causou, na camada de 0-5 cm, uma elevação do pH e V para níveis acima dos considerados adequados para o cultivo do algodoeiro, caracterizando uma calagem excessiva. Foram verificados acréscimos, em relação à área sem calagem, do pH, Ca2+ e saturação por bases em camadas de solo além das camadas de incorporação do corretivo, principalmente nas amostras de solo com maior teor de matéria orgânica, mas esses efeitos não se estenderam à camada de subsolo (20-40 cm.Lime mobility and soil acidity correction can be influenced by liming management and the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. Acidity neutralization in function of the lime incoporation and surface liming was evaluated in a red Latosol (Oxisol under different antecedent vegetation covers (eucalyptus, forest, pasture and pine. The study was carried out from November 2002 to January 2003 at the Soil Science Department of the Lavras Federal University. After 30 days of incubation of soils with lime, the contents of Ca2+ e Al3+, pH and base saturation levels were quantified at the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm sample depths. At the

  16. Net neutrality and investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil; Kim, Byung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of net neutrality regulation on investment incentives for Internet service providers (ISPs) and content providers (CPs), and their implications for social welfare. We show that the ISP's decision on the introduction of discrimination across content depends on a potential trade-off between network access fee and the revenue from the trade of the first-priority. Concerning the ISP's investment incentives, we find that capacity expansion affects the sale price of ...

  17. On the structure of the C2H4O2 neutrals (acetic acid versus 1,1-dihydroxyethene) generated from ionized n-hexanoic acid and n-butyl acetate in the gas phase. Implications for the mechanism of the McLafferty rearrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Terlouw, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of CIDI and NRMS experiments which show that the C2H4O2 neutral co-generated with C4H+√8 from the metastable n-hexanoic acid ion and the n-butyl acetate molecular ion is acetic acid and not its stable enol, CH2C(OH)2. This is in marked contrast to the structure of the C2H4O+√2 i

  18. 大型防爆特殊型铅酸蓄电池的研制%Development of a large capacity explosion-proof special lead acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丰章; 夏美学; 宋鑫

    2001-01-01

    The technical specification,designing of keyparts,preparing,tests and technical level of the large capacity explosion-proof special lead acid battery were presented.%简要介绍了D-1200-KT大型煤矿防爆特殊型电源装置用铅酸蓄电池的技术要求,关键件的设计思路、试制过程、试验结果及已达到的技术水平。

  19. Reductive Capacity Measurement of Waste Forms for Secondary Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jungseok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-09-28

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  20. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  1. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  2. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  3. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into sm

  4. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  5. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. PMID:23561148

  6. Determination of the extractive capacity of para-tert butyl calix[8]arene octa-phosphinoylated towards uranyl ions from an aqueous-acidic-salty medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction properties of octa-phosphinoylated para-tert butyl calix[8]arene (prepared in the laboratory) in chloroform towards uranyl ions from an aqueous-acidic-salty medium (HNO3-3.5 NaNO3) containing uranyl nitrate salt, was investigated. Two spectroscopic techniques UV/Vis and Luminescence were used for this study. The latter permitted analyze the fluorescence from the uranyl ions influenced by the surrounding medium. Both permitted to learn about the power of this calixarene as extractant towards the mentioned ions. Its extraction ability or capability using this calixarene at 5.91 x 10-4 M towards the uranyl ions was 400% as determined by UV/Vis while fluorescence revealed 100% of uranyl ion extraction. A closed analysis of the results obtained by using these techniques revealed that the stoichiometry of the main extracted species was 1calixarene:2 uranyl ions. The loading capacity of the calixarene ligand towards the uranyl ions was also investigated using both techniques. UV/Vis resulted to be inadequate for quantifying exactly the loading capacity of the calixarene whereas luminescence was excellent indeed, using a 5.91 x 10-4 M calixarene concentration, its loading capacity was 0.157 M of free uranyl ions from 0.161 M of uranyl ions present in the aqueous-acidic-salty medium. The extracts from the ability and capacity studies were concentrated to dryness, purified and the dried extracts were analyzed by infrared and neutron activation analysis. By these techniques it was demonstrated that during the extraction of the uranyl ions by the calixarene ligand they form thermodynamically and kinetically stable complexes, since in the solid state, the 1:2, calixarene; uranyl ions stoichiometry was kept with the minimum formula: (UO2)2B8bL8(NO3)4(H2O)4CHCl3(CH3OH)3 the methanol molecules come from its purification. It is proposed that B8bL8 calixarene in chloroform medium is a good extractant for the treatment of nuclear wastes or radioactive wastes containing

  7. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  8. Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan

    2014-08-01

    Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.

  9. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  10. 精制抗江浙蝮蛇毒血清与韩国三种蝮蛇毒的交叉中和作用%Neutralizing Capacity of Purified Jiangzhe Agkistrodon Halys Antivenom toKorean Snake Venoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱威; 刘卫清; 马颖杰

    2000-01-01

    目的 考察本所精制抗江浙蝮蛇毒血清能否中和三种韩国蝮蛇毒及其中和能力。方法 用免疫双扩散法鉴定抗江浙蝮蛇毒血清与三种韩国蝮蛇毒交叉反应。并根据动物实验结果计算出每毫升抗血清中和三种韩国蝮蛇毒的致死毒及出血毒的量。结果 中国精制抗江浙蝮蛇毒血清1.0ml可分别中和韩国黑眉蝮蛇毒、短尾蛇毒和乌苏里蝮蛇毒液态原毒的致死毒1、3.9和2.5mg;同时可分别中和上述3种蛇毒蛋白O.8、3.15和2.0mg中和出血毒。结论 中国精制抗江浙蝮蛇毒血清具有中和上述三种韩国蝮科蛇毒的作用。%Objective To explore if the purified Jiangzhe agkistrodon halys antivenom prepared by theauthom could neutralize Korean snake venoms. Methods The cross-immunological reaction of agkistrodonhalys antivenom and Korean snake venoms were detected by double immuno-diffusion test,and the neutralizingcapacity of each milliliter of antivenom to both the lethal and hemorrhagic toxicity of 3 kinds of Korean snakevenoms were calculated by statistical method according to the results of animal test. Results Each milliliter ofantivenom could neutralize 1.0 3.9 and 2.5mg of A. saxntitis, A. brevicauclus and A. usserience lethal venomrespectively;it can also neutralize 0.8,3.15 and 2.0mg of haemorrhagic venom of the 3 kinds of snakes re-spectively. Conclusion Jiangzhe agkistrodon halys antivenom can neutralize Korean snake venoms.

  11. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta‐oxidation...... relative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Also, they had higher C6‐DC, C10‐OH/C8‐DC, and total hydroxyl‐/dicarboxyl‐acylcarnitine levels, which may suggest an increased fatty acid omega‐oxidation in the liver. Furthermore, LBW and NBW men decreased several acylcarnitine levels in response...

  12. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe2O3/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe2O3–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe2O3–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe2O3–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10−6 M to 1.0 × 10−4 M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10−7 M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe2O3, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor

  13. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  14. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  15. 铅酸蓄电池容量及寿命的研究分析%Study and Analysis on the Capacity and Life of Lead Acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬俏

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了铅酸电池容量及充电状态SOC分析;对铅酸电池使用寿命情况进行阐述,并分析了影响其实用寿命的主要因素;提出了无损均衡控制技术及均衡控制的设计方案,设计结果表明均衡充电具有效率高,能量损耗小、安全可靠等特点,能延长铅酸蓄电池的循环使用寿命。%The capacity of lead-acid battery and charging the SOC state of; of lead-acid battery using life carries on the elaboration, and analyzes the main factors affect its service life; nondestructive Equilibria Control and balance control design scheme is proposed. The calculation results show that equilibrium charging with high efifciency, small energy consumption, safe and reliable, and other characteristics, extend the service life of the lead-acid battery recycling.

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, Free Radical Scavenging Capacity, and Tyrosinase Inhibitory of Flavonoid Compounds and Ferulic Acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers. Ames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Pin Liang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W, water extraction using UAE (W+U, 75% ethanol extraction (E, 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis.

  17. Money neutrality: Rethinking the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaoui Fakhri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2, income (GDP, and prices (CPI. The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only meet motives of transaction, precaution, and speculation but also of fictional or quasi-fictional future demands due to the fact that they are created without real counterparts. The capacity of production systems in developed countries to respond to increases in money supply by creating more wealth, involves the assumption of money neutrality in the long-run. However, in developing countries, the excess of money supply may lead to inflation trends. The present study has confirmed the long-term non-neutrality of money supply in the USA, and its neutrality in Gabon and Morocco.

  18. Neutral penta- and hexacoordinate silicon(IV) complexes containing two bidentate ligands derived from the alpha-amino acids (S)-alanine, (S)-phenylalanine, and (S)-tert-leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Smaranda; Beyer, Matthias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Burschka, Christian; Götz, Kathrin; Kaupp, Martin; Tacke, Reinhold

    2010-06-11

    The neutral hexacoordinate silicon(IV) complex 6 (SiO(2)N(4) skeleton) and the neutral pentacoordinate silicon(IV) complexes 7-11 (SiO(2)N(2)C skeletons) were synthesized from Si(NCO)(4) and RSi(NCO)(3) (R = Me, Ph), respectively. The compounds were structurally characterized by solid-state NMR spectroscopy (6-11), solution NMR spectroscopy (6 and 10), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (8 and 11 were studied as the solvates 8 x CH(3)CN and 11 x C(5)H(12) x 0.5 CH(3)CN, respectively). The silicon(IV) complexes 6 (octahedral Si-coordination polyhedron) and 7-11 (trigonal-bipyramidal Si-coordination polyhedra) each contain two bidentate ligands derived from an alpha-amino acid: (S)-alanine, (S)-phenylalanine, or (S)-tert-leucine. The deprotonated amino acids act as monoanionic (6) or as mono- and dianionic ligands (7-11). The experimental investigations were complemented by computational studies of the stereoisomers of 6 and 7.

  19. Decreased concentrating capacity in children with febrile urinary tract infection and normal 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan:does medullonephritis exist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor García-Nieto; Silvia González-Cerrato; María Isabel Luis-Yanes; Margarita Monge-Zamorano; Beatriz Reyes-Millán

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (AP), sometimes it produces false results in children with clinical features of AP. There are no studies on the comparison of the sensitivity of DMSA and concentrating capacity test. Methods: Eighty-fi ve infants with AP of less than one year old were studied to evaluate whether they had real AP or not. Data were compared between infants with an abnormal (group A, n=64) and those with a normal DMSA scan (group B, n=21) respectively. A DDAVP test was performed for each infant. Results: All the infants in both groups presented a high level of C-reactive protein and fever (≥38ºC). There were no differences in clinical and analytical variables except C-reactive protein level in the two groups. Both groups exhibited a low urinary osmolality (87.5% in the group A vs. 85.7% in the group B). The patients with normal DMSA and decreased concentrating capacity have some renal parenchymal damage and not only a lower urinary infection. Of the infants with an abnormal DMSA scan, 33.9% showed renal scars after 6-12 months. No infant with a normal DMSA scan showed scars. The biochemical variables in both groups of infants were not related to vesicoureteral refl ux. Conclusion: Infants with AP, normal DMSA scan and low concentrating capacity may be characterized by a localized infection in the medulla (medullonephritis) or by a false negative DMSA scan.

  20. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  1. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H-43, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H-43, campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    The well H-43 was drilled in Los Humeros Geothermal Field, Pue., in 2007 and 2008. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H-43 fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. This is a basic substance used to neutralize mainly the acid groups H+, and the goal was to raise the pH of the fluids to minimize its corrosive features. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of 244.4 mm (9 5/8 in) against corrosion and then all the surface installations. It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5.2 up to 6.8 without altering the steam production, thus demonstrating the neutralization procedure is feasible. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer (NaOH), and drilling the well are about 71.4 million pesos (around 5.5 million USD). We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 and a return on investment in five years, considering the income from energy sales at present value. [Spanish] El pozo H-43 fue perforado en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., en 2007-2008, y al evaluar su produccion se encontro que producia fluidos acidos de alto potencial corrosivo. Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esta es una sustancia basica que neutraliza principalmente los grupos acidos H+, con lo que se buscaba aumentar el pH del fluido lo necesario para reducir al maximo su caracter corrosivo. La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de 244.4 mm (9 5/8 pulgadas), y posteriormente a todos los equipos superficiales. Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5.2 a un maximo de 6

  2. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  3. Electroactive behavior assessment of poly(acrylic acid)-graphene oxide composite hydrogel in the detection of cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bejarano-Jimenez, A.; Escobar-Barrios, V.A.; Kleijn, J.M.; Oritz-Ledon, C.A.; Chazaro-Ruiz, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers of acrylic acid-graphene oxide (PAA-GO) were synthesized with different percentage of chemical neutralization (0, 10, and 20%) of the acrylic acid monomer before its polymerization. The influence of their swelling and adsorption/desorption capacity of cadmium ions in aqueous

  4. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  5. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  6. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  7. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  8. The role of cyclodextrins in ORAC-fluorescence assays. antioxidant capacity of tyrosol and caffeic acid with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Padial, Marcos; Martínez-Ohárriz, María Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Zornoza, Arantza

    2013-12-18

    Tyrosol and caffeic acid are biophenols that contribute to the beneficial properties of virgin olive oil. The influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) on their respective antioxidant capacities was analyzed. The ORAC antioxidant activity of tyrosol (expressed as μM Trolox equivalents/μM Tyrosol) was 0.83 ± 0.03 and it increased up to 1.20 ± 0.11 in the presence of 0.8 mM HPβ-CD. However, the ORAC antioxidant activity of caffeic acid experienced no change. The different effect of HPβ-CD on each compound was discussed. In addition, the effect of increasing concentrations of different cyclodextrins in the development of ORAC-fluorescence (ORAC-FL) assays was studied. The ORAC signal was higher for HPβ-CD, followed by Mβ-CD, β-CD, γ-CD and finally α-CD. These results could be explained by the formation of inclusion complexes with fluorescein.

  9. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described

  10. Affinity-Based Screening of Tetravalent Peptides Identifies Subtype-Selective Neutralizers of Shiga Toxin 2d, a Highly Virulent Subtype, by Targeting a Unique Amino Acid Involved in Its Receptor Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takaaki; Watanabe-Takahashi, Miho; Shimizu, Eiko; Zhang, Baihao; Funamoto, Satoru; Yamasaki, Shinji; Nishikawa, Kiyotaka

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), a major virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), can be classified into two subgroups, Stx1 and Stx2, each consisting of various closely related subtypes. Stx2 subtypes Stx2a and Stx2d are highly virulent and linked with serious human disorders, such as acute encephalopathy and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Through affinity-based screening of a tetravalent peptide library, we previously developed peptide neutralizers of Stx2a in which the structure was optimized to bind to the B-subunit pentamer. In this study, we identified Stx2d-selective neutralizers by targeting Asn16 of the B subunit, an amino acid unique to Stx2d that plays an essential role in receptor binding. We synthesized a series of tetravalent peptides on a cellulose membrane in which the core structure was exactly the same as that of peptides in the tetravalent library. A total of nine candidate motifs were selected to synthesize tetravalent forms of the peptides by screening two series of the tetravalent peptides. Five of the tetravalent peptides effectively inhibited the cytotoxicity of Stx2a and Stx2d, and notably, two of the peptides selectively inhibited Stx2d. These two tetravalent peptides bound to the Stx2d B subunit with high affinity dependent on Asn16. The mechanism of binding to the Stx2d B subunit differed from that of binding to Stx2a in that the peptides covered a relatively wide region of the receptor-binding surface. Thus, this highly optimized screening technique enables the development of subtype-selective neutralizers, which may lead to more sophisticated treatments of infections by Stx-producing EHEC. PMID:27382021

  11. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines

  12. Effect of β-hydroxybutyric acid, parity, and body condition score on phenotype and proliferative capacity of colostral mononuclear leukocytes of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, V; Goddeeris, B M; De Campeneere, S; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Piepers, S; Cox, E; Opsomer, G

    2015-10-01

    In neonatal calves, the ingestion of colostrum is imperative for preventing infectious diseases. Investigations into the transfer of passive immunity of cattle have primarily focused on the importance of colostral immunoglobulins, with a recent increase in focus on understanding the role of colostral leukocytes. The main objective of the present study was to measure the influence of parity, body condition score, serum nonesterified fatty acids, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of periparturient cows on phenotype and mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferative capacity of bovine colostral leukocytes. Holstein-Friesian cows (n=141) were intramuscularly vaccinated at 60 and 30 d before the expected parturition date with a tetanus toxoid vaccine. Of these 141 animals, 28 primiparous and 72 multiparous cows were sampled immediately after parturition. Colostrum mononuclear cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using bovine cluster of differentiation markers, and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. Under-conditioned cows had a significantly higher percentage of colostral macrophages than normal-conditioned animals, whereas over-conditioned cows had significantly more colostral B-lymphocytes. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate was significantly associated with higher numbers of colostral T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Heifers had significantly higher mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of their colostral leukocytes than third parity or older cows. In conclusion, body condition score, parity, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of periparturient high-yielding dairy cows were shown to influence the number of colostral macrophages or the mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of colostral leukocytes, possibly influencing the cellular immunity of the newborn calf. PMID:26233460

  13. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  14. Antibody-mediated neutralization of virus is abrogated by mycoplasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, C; Elkington, J; Hales, A.; Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of a mouse mammary tumor cell line to abrogate antibody neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus was shown to be due to the presence of mycoplasma. The mycoplasma was isolated from the cell line and typed as Mycoplasma orale. Colonies of this mycoplasma were used to deliberately infect cell cultures which then gained the capacity to reactivate antibody-neutralized virus. The extent of the reactivation depended on the source of neutralizing antiserum. Other species of mycoplasm...

  15. Acid deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to lake chemistry in northeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, G.; Allert, J.D.; Liukkonen, B.W.; Loucks, O.L.; Glass, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between lake sensitivity to atmospheric acidic inputs and the neutralization capacity of watersheds is examined for 267 lakes in northeastern Minnesota. Three water chemistry/sensitivity measures (color, sulfate, and alkalinity) are correlated with variables representative of precipitation and sulfate inputs, hydrology, and the acid-neutralization capacity of various watershed components. An ordinal scale for ranking bedrock and surficial deposit neutralization capacity is presented. The watershed variables found to account for the largest percentages of the variability in measured color, sulfate, and alkalinity levels are determined. The results illustrate important averaging properties of watersheds from small headwater systems to large drainages and the difficulty in obtaining correlations for some water-quality measures (e.g., alkalinity) when some variables, such as soils and land cover, are available only as large-area averages.

  16. Neutralization Sediment Treatment of Minim Harmful Heavy Metal Elements in Acid Mine Drainage%矿山酸性废水中微量有害重金属元素的中和沉淀去除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笛; 张发根; 曾振祥

    2012-01-01

    Although treating the acid mine drainage by the neutralization method of limestone and lime is the most common practice, few researches have done to analyze the removal effects on those minimal a-mounts of toxic heavy metal elements in it. In our series of experiments the acid mine drainage of some py-rite excavating plant has been treated by neutralization of lime and limestone. And the sedimentation performance and removal effects on those minim harmful heavy metal ions are studied carefully. The experiments show that in terms of most heavy metal ions, the greater the pH values are, the better sedimentation removal effects will be. But if the metal ion will produce amphoteric compound deposits, there will be a better pH value which will result the best removal effect. The neutralization method of limestone has better removal effects to those metallic ions produced in acid conditions and has better sedimentation performance. But the highest pH value required by this method is 6, and its removal effects to other kinds of metal ions are not so satisfactory. In contrast, the neutralization of lime can have more flexible pH value ranges and its removal effects are better than limestone. The experiments further discover that the two stage neutralization of limestone and lime can reduce about a third lime dozing quantity and sediment, causing better sedimentation performance and lower water ratio in produced sediment compared with lime treatment method. Since the sedimentation performance and removal effects of those minim harmful heavy metal elements are closely related to the pH value, the accurate operation of equipment, the feeding pattern and feeding quantity of neutralizer are critical besides the careful design of processing. These study results provide valid basis for establishing optimum technology and process controlling conditions in treating the acid mine drainage by the neutralization sediment treatment of limestone and lime.%石灰中和及其衍生方法

  17. 中性大蒜果聚糖体外发酵产短链脂肪酸%Effect of neutral garlic fructans on short-chain fatty acids by human fecal bacteria in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 曾艳华; 吴希阳; 彭喜春; 黄雪松

    2013-01-01

    Fructans are major components of carbohydrates in garlic (Allium sativum) , which are not inulin-type. Their effect on short-chain fatty acids as prebiotics was evaluated in this study. Some neutral garlic fructans (GF) were prepared by ethanol fractionation precipitation. Those GFs were respectively added as a sole carbon source into in vitro fermentation cultures inoculated with human fecal bacteria. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production at Oh, 4h, 12h and 24h were investigated. Results indicated that some members of fecal bacteria utilized garlic fructans to grow and produce fatty acids in vitro. At 12h, the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids in all samples had increased to their highest level, and then decreased. Among them, the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids in sample A (average DP 11) was highest (86. 38 μmol/mL) o The samples with production of total short-chain fatty acids from high to low were ranked as follows; sample a( DP 11), sample b( DP16) , sample c( DP 21). At 24h,molar ratio of butyric acid or lactic acid was higher than that of acetic acid or propionic acid. Garlic fructans could be utilized by human feacal bacteria to produce short chain fatty acids. Comparing short-chain fatty acids production of each garlic fructan, sample with lower DP produced more fatty acids.%大蒜果聚糖是大蒜深加工后废弃蒜渣中的主要成分,不能被人体消化利用,可选择性增殖肠道益生菌,具有开发成新型益生元的潜力.体外发酵产短链脂肪酸的分析对进一步评价大蒜果聚糖对肠道微生态的影响有重要意义.方法:本研究通过体外模拟人体肠道系统的pH、温度和营养条件,接种人体新鲜粪便悬浮液进行间歇式静态厌氧培养,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析不同聚合度(平均DP为11、16、21)的中性大蒜果聚糖为唯一碳源,培养0、4、8、12、24 h产短链脂肪酸的情况.结果:发酵12 h时短链脂肪酸浓度达到最

  18. Maturation in Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora Stock Plants: Effects of Pruning Height on Shoot Production, Adventitious Rooting Capacity, Stem Anatomy, and Auxin and Abscisic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated pruning of stock plants is a common approach to delaying maturation and maintaining the propagation ability of cuttings, but little is known about the hormonal or anatomical basis for this phenomenon. We tested the effect of two different stock-plant pruning heights (15 cm and 30 cm on shoot production, rooting capacity and rooted cutting vigour of six clones of the eucalypt Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora. We determined whether differences in rooting potential were related to indole-3-acetic (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA concentrations, or the degree of lignification or sclerification, of the cuttings. Maintaining stock plants at 15 cm height sometimes reduced the production of stem cuttings. However, it often increased the ensuing percentage of cuttings that formed roots, with mean rooting across all clones increasing from 30%–53%. Therefore, the number of rooted cuttings produced by short stock plants was similar to, or higher than, the number produced by tall stock plants. Cuttings from shorter stock plants had faster root elongation and occasionally greater root dry mass, shoot dry mass or shoot height than cuttings from tall stock plants. These differences in rooting potential were generally not related to differences in IAA or ABA concentrations of the cuttings or to differences in their stem anatomy. Pruning at the lower height was more effective in maintaining clonal juvenility, supporting previous findings that stock plant maturation is a limiting factor in clonal propagation of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora.

  19. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration.

  20. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. PMID:27032508

  1. Neutralization of English Consonants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞彬彬

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of English consonant cluster's structure and phonetic features from the perspective of the definition and cause of neutralization of English consonants as well as their distinctive features and oppositions.It comes up with the final conclusion that neutralization exists in only thirteen English consonant clusters,among a large number of consonant clusters.

  2. Wittig reaction (with ethylidene triphenylphosphorane) of oxo-hydroxy derivatives of 5β-cholanic acid: Hydrophobicity, haemolytic potential and capacity of derived ethylidene derivatives for solubilisation of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Bjedov, Srđan; Sebenji, Ana; Sakač, Marija

    2014-08-01

    Bile acid salts are biosurfactants which form mixed micelles with phospholipids in vertebrates. These mixed micelles are suitable for solubilisation of cholesterol. For therapeutic purposes some bile acid salts as sodium ursocholate are used. However, bile acid anions possess low capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol. Thus, synthesis of more hydrophobic and less membranotoxic bile acid derivatives is of the great interest. In this paper Wittig reaction between ethylidene triphenylphosphorane and different bile acids oxo derivatives is examined. Wittig reaction of bile acids has not been studied much. C12 oxo group is inert in this reaction. If Wittig reaction happens on C7 oxo group stereospecifically E ethylidene stereoisomer is obtained, while the same reaction on C3 oxo group leads to more reactive not sterospecific product. In this paper stereochemical course of investigated Wittig reactions is thoroughly analysed. Hydrophobicity of derived products is determined over the temperature (T) dependence on retention coefficients (k) in reversed phase high resolution chromatography. Using method of principle components on k=f(T) matrix it is found that values of first principle components best describe hydrophobicity of analysed bile acids, while the second principal component is responsible for their hydrophilicity. By in silico molecular descriptors: valence connectivity index of order 3 (X3v) and packing density index (PDI), linear regression equations are obtained that can be used to predict hydrophobicity (over retention coefficient) of bile acids that belong to set of more congeneric groups. Membranotoxicity is determined by haemolytic potential. Monoethylidene derivatives of bile acids (in the form of anions) have lower membranotoxicity than deoxycholic acids anion. Sodium salt of deoxycholic acid 7-ethylidene derivative has 11% greater capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol monohydrate than sodium salt of deoxycholic acid. PMID:24819990

  3. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vagner

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C. The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C. At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20 exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  4. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  5. Evaluation of passive samplers with neutral or ion-exchange polymer coatings to determine freely dissolved concentrations of the basic surfactant lauryl diethanolamine: Measurements of acid dissociation constant and organic carbon-water sorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Yi; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2013-11-01

    A passive sampler tool (solid-phase microextraction, SPME) was optimized to measure freely dissolved concentrations (Cw,free) of lauryl diethanolamine (C12-DEA). C12-DEA can be protonated and act as a cationic surfactant. From the pH-dependent sorption to neutral SPME coatings (polyacrylate and PDMS), a pKa of 8.7 was calculated, which differs more than two units from the value of 6.4 reported elsewhere. Polyacrylate coated SPME could not adequately sample largely protonated C12-DEA in humic acid solutions of pH 6. A new hydrophobic SPME coating with cation-exchange properties (C18/SCX) sorbed C12-DEA 100 fold stronger than polyacrylate, because it specifically sorbs protonated C12-DEA species. The C18/SCX-SPME fiber showed linear calibration isotherms in a concentration range of <1 nM-1 μM (well below the CMC). Using the C18/SCX-SPME fibers, linear sorption isotherms to Aldrich humic acid at pH 6 (ionic strength 0.015 M) were measured over a broad concentration range with a sorption coefficient of 10(5.3).

  6. Effects of neutralizing agents on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by dilute acid-mediated steam explosion%中和剂对稀酸蒸爆玉米秸秆酶解效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红漫; 赵晶; 林增祥; 黄和

    2011-01-01

    Com stovers pretreated by dilute sulphuric acid-mediated steam explosion were neutralized to pH 5 with Ca(OH) 2, NaOH and NH40H, or alternatively washed with water to the same pH. The cellulose conversion rates by enzymatic hydrolysis under the conditions of solide liquid ratio of 1: 10 and cellulases loading of 14 U/g cellulose were investigated. The results showed that after enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h, the cellulose conversion rates of the cooresponding samples were up to 91.7%, 80. 7%, 83. 1%and 81.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, the effects of various factors on the efficency of cellulase hysrolysis were also discussed. Considering the cost and following fermentation process, the neutralizing agent NH4OH was the choice for the industrialization production.%以稀酸蒸爆的玉米秸秆为研究对象,考察直接水洗、Ca(OH)2 、NaOH、氨水中和物料至pH 5,在固液比1:10、酶添加量为每克纤维素14 U(滤纸酶活)的酶解条件下对纤维素转化率的影响.结果表明:水洗、Ca(OH)2、NaOH、氨水中和物料酶解72 h后,纤维素转化率分别为91.7%、80.7%、83.1%及81.7%.同时对影响纤维素酶解效率的各种因素进行了探讨.从综合成本及后续发酵过程考虑,用氨水中和稀酸蒸爆物料更适合于工业化生产.

  7. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulezwan A. Malik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001 in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897 and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5. Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05 more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH was 1

  8. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  9. Acidification and buffering mechanisms in acid sulfate soil wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Fiona; Whitworth, Kerry L; Kappen, Peter; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Webb, John A; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    The acid generation mechanisms and neutralizing capacities of sulfidic sediments from two inland wetlands have been studied in order to understand the response of these types of systems to drying events. The two systems show vastly different responses to oxidation, with one (Bottle Bend (BB) lagoon) having virtually no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and the other (Psyche Bend (PB) lagoon) an ANC that is an order of magnitude greater than the acid generation potential. While BB strongly acidifies during oxidation the free acid generation is less than that expected from the measured proton production and consumption processes, with additional proton consumption attributed to the formation of an acid-anion (chloride) FeIII (oxyhydr)oxide product, similar to akaganéite (Fe(OH)2.7Cl0.3). While such products can partially attenuate the acidification of these systems, resilience to acidification is primarily imparted by sediment ANC. PMID:21375259

  10. Eletrochemical reduction of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in both neutral and acid non-aqueous media. Their electroanalytical determination in apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damián Chanique, Gerardo; Heraldo Arévalo, Alejandro; Alicia Zon, María; Fernández, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.1±0.1)×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.0×10(-7) to 2.2×10(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices.

  11. A niche for neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Hillerislambers, Janneke; Levine, Jonathan M

    2007-02-01

    Ecologists now recognize that controversy over the relative importance of niches and neutrality cannot be resolved by analyzing species abundance patterns. Here, we use classical coexistence theory to reframe the debate in terms of stabilizing mechanisms (niches) and fitness equivalence (neutrality). The neutral model is a special case where stabilizing mechanisms are absent and species have equivalent fitness. Instead of asking whether niches or neutral processes structure communities, we advocate determining the degree to which observed diversity reflects strong stabilizing mechanisms overcoming large fitness differences or weak stabilization operating on species of similar fitness. To answer this question, we propose combining data on per capita growth rates with models to: (i) quantify the strength of stabilizing processes; (ii) quantify fitness inequality and compare it with stabilization; and (iii) manipulate frequency dependence in growth to test the consequences of stabilization and fitness equivalence for coexistence. PMID:17257097

  12. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  13. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by alginate coated multicomponent polyvalent antivenom administered by the oral route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Bhattacharya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals.To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom.Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra venom. Further research in this direction can

  14. 采用钠盐调酸发酵生产D乳酸的工艺研究%Production of D-lactic Acid Using Sodium Hydroxide as Neutralizing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 徐书景; 张庆; 王丽敏; 于波; 鞠建松; 赵宝华

    2014-01-01

    Efficient D-lactate production by S porolactobacillus sp .strain CASD using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent was demonstrated .High D-lactate production (118 .2 g/L) was achieved using peanut meal as the sole nitrogen source in fed-batch fermentation , with the conversion rate from glucose at 89 .1% and the optical purity at 99 .3 % w hich meets the requirements for polymerization of lactic acid . T he NaO H-based fermentation strategy employed here is suitable for separation of lactic acid by electrodi-alysis .Thus ,the production of high concentration of optically pure D-lactate from cheap substrates ,with the NaO H-based fermentation strategy ,has laid a technical foundation for developing a new cost-effective and integrated method for continuous fermentation of D-lactate coupled with separation .%对芽孢乳杆菌CASD采用钠盐调酸发酵生产 D 乳酸的工艺进行了探索.以廉价花生粕为唯一氮源,采用氢氧化钠为中和剂,D 乳酸的发酵质量浓度达到118.2 g/L ,糖酸转化率为89.1%,光学纯度达到99.3%,满足乳酸聚合要求.钠盐调酸适用于电渗析分离纯化乳酸工艺,该研究为开发新型的连续发酵分离耦合生产 D 乳酸工艺提供了技术基础.

  15. Assessment of volatile compounds, neutral and polar lipid fatty acids of four beef muscles from USDA Choice and Select graded carcasses and their relationships with consumer palatability scores and intramuscular fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M R; Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Garmyn, A J; O'Quinn, T G; Corbin, C H; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FA) in neutral and polar lipids (NL and PL) and volatile compounds were determined in Gluteus medius (GM), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Serratus ventralis (SV), and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles from upper 2/3 USDA Choice and Select quality grades (QG). Concentrations of NL FA (mg/g) were influenced by intramuscular fat (IMF) content being greater in upper 2/3 Choice compared with Select. The SV contained greater concentrations of NL FA; meanwhile, the SM contained the lowest quantities of NL FA. Percentages (g/100g of total FA) of NL SFA and MUFA were increased in beef with greater IMF content. Concentrations and percentages of PL FA had muscle specific differences between QG. Volatile compounds were primarily affected by muscle. Increases in SFA and MUFA were related with consumer liking, regardless of lipid fraction. Overall the influence of QG on SFA and MUFA was muscle specific. Therefore, each muscle may require specific considerations when considering FA, volatile compounds, and ultimately consumer liking. PMID:26874592

  16. IN VIVO NEUTRALIZATION OF NAJA NIGRICOLLIS VENOM BY UVARIA CHAMAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omale James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvaria chamae is a well known medicinal plant in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of many diseases, but investigations concerning its pharmacological characteristics are rare. In this study, we evaluate its venom neutralizing properties against Naja nigricollis venom in rats. Freshly collected Uvaria chamae leaves were air dried, powdered and extracted in methanol. To study the antivenom properties, albino rats were orally administered with a dose of 400 mg kg-1 body weight and one hour later, the venom was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.08 mg kg-1 body weight of rats. Albino rats (male weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into five (5 groups of three (3. Groups 1-5 received water, normal saline, venom, Uvaria chamae and venom, Uvaria chamae respectively. Blood clothing time, bleeding time, antipyretic activity, haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, creatine kinase, AST, ALP and ALT activities total protein antioxidant activity and some blood electrolytes, plasma urea and uric acid were measured. Our results showed that Uvaria chamae methanol extract neutralized some biological effects of Naja nigricollis venom. The venom increased the rectal temperature, enzyme activities, bleeding time and other blood parameters. The plant extract was able to reduce these parameters in the extract treated groups. Details of the results are discussed. From this study, it is clear that U. chamae leaf extract had antivenom activity in animal models. The above results indicate that the plant extract possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could potentially be used for therapeutic purpose in case of snake bite envenomation.

  17. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  18. 电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量快速检测技术研究%Investigation on quick measurement technique about capacity of lead-acid battery for electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍辉; 陈锋强; 臧宁; 王振波

    2014-01-01

    Some detection technologies of capacity of lead-acid battery for E-bike are introduced in this article. A rapid detection technology of lead-acid battery capacity is put forward by theoretical deduction. The accuracy and feasibility of this rapid capacity detection technology is veriifed by the test on 12 Ah lead-acid batteries for E-bikes.%本文简要介绍了电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量检测技术;通过理论推导,提出一种新型电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量快速检测技术,并以12A h电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池进行试验,结果表明这种快速容量检测技术具有很好的准确性和可行性。

  19. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  20. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  1. Mod en neutral seksualitet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    Towards a Neutral Sexuality! or Roland Barthes as a Queer Thinker? This article argues that the work of Roland Barthes has interesting perspectives in common with the queer theory. This argument will be put forward by using his concept of ‘the neutral’ that Barthes defines as “that which outplays...

  2. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  3. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  4. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  5. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  6. Forest-soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 2. Aluminum and base cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns were used to examine the effects of 52 weeks of additions of various simulated throughfall solutions on base cation, Al, acid neutralizing capacity, and pH levels in soil leachates. The work illustrates the importance of soil cation exchange (especially in the forest floor), anion concentrations, and pCO2 levels in controlling the leachate chemistry in response to acidic and 'seasalt' deposition events

  7. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Neutralizing antibodies against two HIV-1 strains in consecutively collected serum samples: cross neutralization and association to HIV-1 related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C M; Hansen, J E;

    1992-01-01

    developing high neutralizing activity against both HIV strains; (b) patients developing high neutralizing activity against the Danish virus isolate; and (c) patients developing only low titers of neutralizing antibodies (NA) against both HIV strains. The HTLV-IIIB strain was less sensitive to serum......97 sera collected during a 10-year period from 10 HIV-1 infected individuals were tested for neutralizing capacity against a virus isolate FICPH-22 obtained from a Danish AIDS patient, and the laboratory strain HTLV-IIIB. Three patterns of serum neutralizing activity were demonstrated: (a) patients...

  9. 银耳多糖与透明质酸的保湿性能比较%Comparison of the Moisture Retention Capacity of Tremella Polysaccharides and Hyaluronic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卉; 何蕾

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the moisture retention capacity of tremella polysaccharides, so as to provide theoretical basis for its application in cosmetics. [ Method ] Different proportions of tremella polysaccharide were added into the same cosmetics formulation, and the moisture retention capacity of the cosmetics was determined and then compared with that of hyaluronic acid cosmetics according to the determination methods formulated by Beijing Technology and Business Technology, as well as the CM825 skin moisture tester developed by Germany CK company. [Result] The cosmetics added with 0.05% tremella polysaccharides already had better moisture retention capacity than that added with 0.02% hyaluronic acid. The cosmetics product in this study had the best moisture retention capacity when added with 0.10% tremella polysaccharide. [ Conclusion ] The water retention capacity of tremella polysaccharide is equivalent to that of hyaluronic acid, it can replace hyaluronic acid to be used in cosmetics and receive good economic benefits.%[目的]研究银耳多糖的保温性能,为银耳多糖在化妆品中的应用提供理论依据.[方法]通过在相同的化妆品配方体系中添加不同比例的银耳多糖,按照由北京工商大学等单位起草的化妆品保湿功效的测定方法,采用德国CK公司的CM825型皮肤水分测试仪,将所得产品的保湿性与添加透明质酸产品的保湿性进行对比,研究了银耳多糖的保湿效果.[结果]在该研究所述的配方体系中,添加0.05%银耳多糖的产品的保温效果已经优于添加0.02%透明质酸的产品.添加0.10%的银耳多糖在该研究所述配方体系中可以达到最佳的保湿效果.[结论]银耳多糖的保湿效果与透明质酸相当,其替代透明质酸作为保湿剂可以取得较好的经济效益.

  10. Succinic acid adsorption from fermentation broth and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Brian H; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Richardson, Gerald L

    2004-01-01

    More than 25 sorbents were tested for uptake of succinic acid from aqueous solutions. The best resins were then tested for successive loading and regeneration using hot water. The key desired properties for an ideal sorbent are high capacity, complete stable regenerability, and specificity for the product. The best resins have a stable capacity of about 0.06 g of succinic acid/g of resin at moderate concentrations (1-5 g/L) of succinic acid. Several sorbents were tested more exhaustively for uptake of succinic acid and for successive loading and regeneration using hot water. One resin, XUS 40285, has a good stable isotherm capacity, prefers succinate over glucose, and has good capacities at both acidic and neutral pH. Succinic acid was removed from simulated media containing salts, succinic acid, acetic acid, and sugar using a packed column of sorbent resin, XUS 40285. The fermentation byproduct, acetate, was completely separated from succinate. A simple hot water regeneration successfully concentrated succinate from 10 g/L (inlet) to 40-110 g/L in the effluent. If successful, this would lower separation costs by reducing the need for chemicals for the initial purification step. Despite promising initial results of good capacity (0.06 g of succinic/g of sorbent), 70% recovery using hot water, and a recovered concentration of >100 g/L, this regeneration was not stable over 10 cycles in the column. Alternative regeneration schemes using acid and base were examined. Two (XUS 40285 and XFS-40422) showed both good stable capacities for succinic acid over 10 cycles and >95% recovery in a batch operation using a modified extraction procedure combining acid and hot water washes. These resins showed comparable results with actual broth. PMID:15054284

  11. Tissue quantification of neutral and acid mucins in the mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream in rats Quantificação tecidual de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa do cólon com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Nonose; Ana Paula Pimentel Spadari; Denise Gonçalves Priolli; Felipe Rodrigues Máximo; José Aires Pereira; Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the intensity of the expression of neutral and acids mucins in mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream and to correlate this with the duration of fecal transit diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to fecal transit deviation in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, according to whether sacrificing would be performed six, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The e...

  12. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  13. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey: perspective on the reduced capacity of dogs to excrete this organic acid relative to the rat, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchalk, C; Nolan, R J

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) were measured in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey and compared with the kinetics observed in rats and humans. In addition, studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs to better understand the mechanism by which [14C]triclopyr is eliminated in this species. Triclopyr was dissolved in distilled water, and administered as a single oral dose of 0.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg to three male dogs. A single male rhesus monkey was given an intravenous dose of 30 mg [14C]triclopyr/kg body wt on two occasions separated by 10 days. Anesthetized male dogs, were implanted with venous, arterial, and urethral catheters and given increasing amounts of triclopyr to produce plasma triclopyr levels ranging from 0.3 to 27 microg eq/mL. In the monkey, triclopyr was rapidly eliminated from the plasma (t1/2 = 6.3 hr) with >95% of the urinary 14C activity excreted within 24 hr postdosing. In the dog, orally administered triclopyr was rapidly and effectively absorbed at every dose level with virtually all of it excreted in the urine by 72 hr postdosing. However, the kinetics were slightly nonlinear, and the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. Several nonlinear processes may collectively contribute to the modest nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog. Plasma protein binding of triclopyr in the dog ranged from 94 to 99%, was nonlinear, and was an important determinant in the renal clearance of triclopyr. The nonlinear plasma protein binding indicates that glomerular filtration became disproportionately more important as plasma triclopyr concentration increased. There was good evidence for a high-affinity low-capacity active-secretory process that was saturated by low plasma triclopyr concentrations. As plasma triclopyr concentrations increased, tubular reabsorption begins to exceed secretion, resulting in decreased renal clearance. The volume of distribution, normalized for body weight

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guerrero C; Luigi Ciampi P; Andrea Castilla C; Fernando Medel S; Heidi Schalchli S; Emilio Hormazabal U; Emma Bensch T; Miren Alberdi L

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC),...

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, Free Radical Scavenging Capacity, and Tyrosinase Inhibitory of Flavonoid Compounds and Ferulic Acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Pin Liang; Chia Hao Chang; Chien Cheng Liang; Kuei Yu Hung; Chang Wei Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The h...

  17. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R Hunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies. Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs. Six E2 epitopes (E2(c,d,e,f,g,h bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody and mapped to amino acids (aa 182-207. Nothing is known about the human antibody repertoire to VEEV or epitopes that engage human virus-neutralizing antibodies. There is no specific treatment for VEE; however virus-neutralizing mMAbs are potent protective and therapeutic agents for mice challenged with VEEV by either peripheral or aerosol routes. Therefore, fully human MAbs (hMAbs with virus-neutralizing activity should be useful for prevention or clinical treatment of human VEE. METHODS: We used phage-display to isolate VEEV-specific hFabs from human bone marrow donors. These hFabs were characterized by sequencing, specificity testing, VEEV subtype cross-reactivity using indirect ELISA, and in vitro virus neutralization capacity. One E2-specific neutralizing hFAb, F5n, was converted into IgG, and its binding site was identified using competitive ELISA with mMAbs and by preparing and sequencing antibody neutralization-escape variants. FINDINGS: Using 11 VEEV-reactive hFabs we constructed the first human epitope map for the alphaviral surface proteins E1 and E2. We identified an important neutralization-associated epitope unique to the human immune response, E2 aa115-119. Using a 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of the Sindbis virus E2 protein, we showed the probable surface location of this human VEEV epitope. CONCLUSIONS: The VEEV-neutralizing capacity of the hMAb F5 nIgG is similar to that exhibited by the humanized mMAb Hy4 IgG. The Hy4 IgG has been shown to limit VEEV infection in mice both

  18. Neonatal Maternal Separation Alters the Capacity of Adult Neural Precursor Cells to Differentiate into Neurons Via Methylation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Gene Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Boku, Shuken; Toda, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shin; Kato, Akiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Hiroi, Noboru; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is thought to contribute to psychiatric disorders, but the precise mechanisms underlying this link are poorly understood. As neonatal stress decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which, in turn, functionally contributes to many behavioral phenotypes relevant to psychiatric disorders, we examined how in vivo neonatal maternal separation (NMS) impacts the capacity of adult hippocampal neural precursor cells via epigenetic alterations in vitro. METHODS: Rat pups...

  19. Separation and purification of carnosic acid from rosemary and determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity%迷迭香中鼠尾草酸分离纯化及抗氧化能力指数测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜纪权; 徐鸿; 陈雪香; 肖苏尧; 曹庸

    2011-01-01

    Carnosic acid was separated and purified from the pretrea-ted rosemary extract by RP-Cis Silica gel. Its antioxidant capacity was determined by ORAC, and compared with Ve? BHA and BHT. When methanol-0. 1% phosphoric acid solution (80 ' 20) was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 4 mL/min and 1. 5 g pretreated rosemary extract was loaded, the purity of carnosic acid can be more than 94% and percent recovery can be more than 93%. And its antioxidant capacity was three times greater than Ve and BHT, but less than BHA.%迷迭香提取物经初步预处理后,通过RP-C18填料对其进行分离纯化得到鼠尾草酸.采用ORAC(oxygen radical absorbance capacity)分析方法测定鼠尾草酸的抗氧化能力指数,并与常用的合成抗氧剂BHA、BHT及天然抗氧化剂VE进行对比.结果表明,当洗脱剂为甲醇:0.1%磷酸=80∶20(V/V),负载量为1.5g,洗脱速度为4mL/min时,对鼠尾草酸的分离效果较好,其纯度≥94%,回收率≥93%.同时,ORAC测定结果表明,鼠尾草酸的抗氧化能力指数是BHT、VE的3倍,而低于BHA.

  20. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants. PMID:24934168

  1. Nonexotic Neutral Gauge Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Thomas; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Hopper, Adam R.

    2002-01-01

    We study theoretical and experimental constraints on electroweak theories including a new color-singlet and electrically-neutral gauge boson. We first note that the electric charges of the observed fermions imply that any such Z' boson may be described by a gauge theory in which the Abelian gauge groups are the usual hypercharge along with another U(1) component in a kinetic-diagonal basis. Assuming that the observed quarks and leptons have generation-independent U(1) charges, and that no new...

  2. Capacity-controllable nanocarriers for metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on capacity-controllable nanocarrier system for metal ions based on a novel kind of polymeric microemulsion. These microemulsions are formed in mixed systems of negatively charged metal-bisligand coordination polymers (cp), positively charged homopolyelectrolyte (hp), and positive-neutral

  3. Proteolytische activiteit bij neutrale pH in rundermilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, Jan

    1969-01-01

    Intracellular enzymes, hydrolysing proteins optimally at acid pH values (acid proteases), have been studied in detail by several investigators. The existence of proteolytic activity at neutral pH in animal tissue extracts, on the other hand, has often been mentioned, but with few reports on the isol

  4. ABOUT TAX NEUTRALITY AND NON-DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dan Morar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxpayers are required to pay taxes to the state budget by virtue of their position subject to the state, the latter in its capacity as sovereign person of public law. This quality gives them the right to impose against taxpayers by administrative means known, or sometimes with justice, respecting a certain extent the principles and traditions specific to tax. Principles of neutrality and non-discrimination are relevant in terms of describing the relations between public authorities and taxpayers. Although taxpayers are divided into official and legal persons, in fact individuals are those who support the ultimate tax burden.

  5. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  6. Neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic diblock copolymers featuring poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) hydrophobic segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers incorporating hydrophobic poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and hydrophilic neutral poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG), anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), cationic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA...

  7. Study on the Inlfuence of Humic Acid to the Water and Fertilizer Retention Capacity of the Mixed Sandy Soil%腐植酸对混合沙土保水保肥能力影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯林; 张伟华

    2015-01-01

    By indoor soil column simulated analysis method, the effects of different doses of humic acid on the reten-tion capacity of a certain proportion of mixed sandy soil with water and fertilizer was studied. The experimental results showed that adding 0, 4, 8, 12g humic acid, soil column leaching solution inifltration duration is respectively 1.6, 9.4, 16.0, 35.0h; Total effective phosphorus in leachate is respectively 182.0, 148.5, 122.5, 92.5μg; Ammonium nitrogen amount in leachate is respectively 266, 244, 178, 142μg. Compared with controls, diammonium phosphate solution after adding humic acid in the soil column inifltrated more slowly and the inifltration rate decreased with the increase of adding amount of humic acid, leaching solution of ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus signiifcantly decreased with the increase of adding amount of humic acid. The results showed that humic acid could signiifcantly improve the water and fertilizer retention capacity of the mixed sandy soil.%采用室内土柱模拟分析方法,研究了不同剂量的腐植酸对一定比例的混合沙土保水保肥能力的改良效果。试验结果显示:添加0、4、8、12 g的腐植酸,土柱淋溶液总渗透时间分别为1.6、9.4、16.0、35.0 h;淋溶液中有效磷总量分别为182.0、148.5、122.5、92.5μg;铵态氮总量分别为266、244、178、142μg。与对照相比,磷酸二铵溶液在添加腐植酸的土柱中渗透更慢,且渗透速率随腐植酸添加量的增加而减慢;淋溶液中的铵态氮与磷总量随腐植酸添加量的增加而显著减少。结果表明,腐植酸能显著提高混合沙土的保水与保肥能力。

  8. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs. PMID:26898932

  9. 硝铵中和器的pH值与酸/氨比值串级调节方案设计%The scheme design of cascade regulation of the pH and acid/ammonia ratio in ammonium nitrate neutralizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范岭

    2012-01-01

    根据硝铵中和反应中pH值控制的特点及工艺条件,确定了pH值与酸/氨比值串级调节方案,并通过可编程序调节器CD600来实现,从而使硝铵中和器pH值的稳定控制取得了满意的效果。%According to the characteristic and process condition of the pH control in ammonium nitrate neutralization reaction, the cascade regulation scheme of the pH and acid/ammonia ratio is formed using the programmable logic controller CD600. The stability control of the pH is achieved in ammonium nitrate neutralizer as well as the satisfactory results.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Neutral Sugar, Uronic Acid, Amino Sugar and Sialic Acid of Polysaccharides by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法同时测定多糖中的中性糖、糖醛酸、氨基糖和唾液酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 芦菲; 田素玉

    2011-01-01

    Neutral sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar and sialic acid were effectively determined simultaneously by gas chromatography after methanolysis and trimethylsilylation. Three standard monosaccharide mixtures (including Ara, Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Gal, Gle, GlcA, GalA, GalNAc, GlcNAc, Neu5Ac) and two polysaccharide samples (okara polysaccharide DFP, Coprinus comatus polysaccharide F32) were methanolysis by 1 mol/L HC1/methanol at 85 ℃ for 18 -24 h, neutralized with Ag2CO3 and re-N-acetylated by adding acetic anhydride for 24 h in the dark. After removing the silver salts, the dried residue was trimethylsilylated by adding silylation reagent (pyridine/hexamethyldisilazane/chlorotrimethylsilane = 5: 1:1 ) for 30 min at room temperature. Then the final products were analyzed by gas chromatography. This method needs fewer amount of sample, and has higher sensitivity and resolution. It can simultaneous detect kinds of monosaccharides. It will have a great potential for application.%采用甲醇解和硅烷衍生化,用气相色谱法同时测定样品中的中性糖、糖醛酸、N-乙酰氨基糖和唾液酸,取得了很好的效果。3种标准单糖混合物(包含阿拉伯糖、鼠李糖、岩藻糖、木糖、甘露糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖、葡萄糖醛酸、半乳糖醛酸、N-乙酰半乳糖、N-乙酰葡萄糖、5-乙酰唾液酸)和2种多糖样品(豆腐渣多糖DFP、鸡腿菇多糖F32)用1mol/L盐酸甲醇在85℃反应18~24h,碳酸银中和,加入乙酸酐室温暗处反应24h,使氨基糖重新引入N-乙酰基,除银盐,干燥,加入硅烷化试剂[y(吡啶):y(六甲基二硅氨烷):V(三甲基氯硅烷)=5:1:1),室温放置30min,最后用气相色谱进行分析。

  11. A superconducting NbN detector for neutral nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marksteiner, Markus; Sclafani, Michele; Haslinger, Philipp; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Divochiy, Alexander; Korneev, Alexander; Semenov, Alexander; Gol' tsman, Gregory, E-mail: markus.arndt@univie.ac.a [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, M Pirogovskaya Street 1, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-11

    We present a proof-of-principle study of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) for the detection of individual neutral molecules/nanoparticles at low energies. The new detector is applied to characterize a laser desorption source for biomolecules and allows retrieval of the arrival time distribution of a pulsed molecular beam containing the amino acid tryptophan, the polypeptide gramicidin as well as insulin, myoglobin and hemoglobin. We discuss the experimental evidence that the detector is actually sensitive to isolated neutral particles.

  12. A superconducting NbN detector for neutral nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Markus; Divochiy, Alexander; Sclafani, Michele; Haslinger, Philipp; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Korneev, Alexander; Semenov, Alexander; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Arndt, Markus

    2009-11-01

    We present a proof-of-principle study of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) for the detection of individual neutral molecules/nanoparticles at low energies. The new detector is applied to characterize a laser desorption source for biomolecules and allows retrieval of the arrival time distribution of a pulsed molecular beam containing the amino acid tryptophan, the polypeptide gramicidin as well as insulin, myoglobin and hemoglobin. We discuss the experimental evidence that the detector is actually sensitive to isolated neutral particles.

  13. A superconducting NbN detector for neutral nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Marksteiner, M; Sclafani, M; Haslinger, P; Ulbricht, H; Korneev, A; Semenov, A; Goltsman, G; Arndt, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a proof-of-principle study of superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) for the detection of individual neutral molecules/nanoparticles at low energies. The new detector is applied to characterize a laser desorption source for biomolecules and it allows to retrieve the arrival time distribution of a pulsed molecular beam containing the amino acid tryptophan, the polypeptide gramicidin as well as insulin, myoglobin and hemoglobin. We discuss the experimental evidence that the detector is actually sensitive to isolated neutral particles.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses.

  15. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zheng, Delun [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −6} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10{sup −7} M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor.

  16. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design. Final vesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  17. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  18. Blocked muscle fat oxidation during exercise in neutral lipid storage disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laforêt, Pascal; Ørngreen, Mette; Preisler, Nicolai;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role.......To determine whether impaired exercise capacity in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is solely caused by muscle weakness or whether a defect in energy metabolism (blocked fat oxidation) may also play a role....

  19. Determination of binding capacity and adsorption enthalpy between Human Glutamate Receptor (GluR1) peptide fragments and kynurenic acid by surface plasmon resonance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, E; Majláth, Z; Juhász, Á; Roósz, B; Hetényi, A; Tóth, G K; Tajti, J; Vécsei, L; Dékány, I

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between kynurenic acid (KYNA) and two peptide fragments (ca. 30 residues) of Human Glutamate Receptor 201-300 (GluR1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy was investigated. Because of the medical interest in the neuroscience, GluR1 is one of the important subunits of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR). AMPARs are ionotoropic glutamate receptors, which are mediating fast synaptic transmission and are crucial for plasticity in the brain. On the other hand, KYNA has been suggested to have neuroprotective activity and it has been considered for apply in therapy in certain neurobiological disorders. In this article the adsorption of the GluR1201-230 and GluR1231-259 peptides were studied on gold biosensor chip. The peptides were chemically bonded onto the gold surface via thiol group of L-cysteine resulted in the formation of peptide monolayer on the SPR chip surface. Because the GluR1231-259 peptide does not contain L-cysteine the Val256 was replaced by Cys256. The cross sectional area and the surface orientation of the studied peptides were determined by SPR and theoretical calculations (LOMETS) as well. The binding capability of KYNA on the peptide monolayer was studied in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0 mM using 150 mM NaCl ionic strength at pH 7.4 (±0.02) in phosphate buffer solutions. In order to determine the binding enthalpy the experiments were carried out between +10°C and +40°C. The heat of adsorption was calculated by using adsorption isotherms at different surface loading of KYNA on the SPR chip.

  20. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  1. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Etienne, Rampal S.; McKane, Alan J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality al

  2. Changes in composition, antioxidant content, and antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp during the ensiling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodulo Salinas Rios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritive value, the presence of antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp ensiled or non-ensiled. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and lignin, as well as the antioxidant compounds present in coffee pulp and their antioxidant capacity, were determined. A completely randomized design was used. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Ensiling of coffee pulp increased the CP content from 98.6 to 111.6 g kg−1 DM, NDF from 414.6 to 519.5 g kg−1 DM, ADF from 383.9 to 439.3 g kg−1 DM, and lignin from 122.9 to 133.6 g kg−1 DM. Caffeine decreased from 5.72 to 5.02 mg g−1 DM. Three antioxidant compounds were detected. Caffeic acid decreased due to ensiling (16.49 vs 14.69 mg g−1 DM. Gallic acid (2.88 vs 2.58 mg g−1 DM and chlorogenic acid (62.12 vs 56.00 mg g−1 DM did not differ, and there was similar antioxidant capacity of non-ensiled (215.66 µmol trolox g−1 DM and ensiled coffee pulp (206.59 µmol trolox g−1 DM. Despite the decrease in the caffeic acid content due to the ensiling process, it is possible to use either ensiled or non-ensiled coffee pulp for animal feeding because of its high antioxidant capacity.

  3. Estudo de materiais calcários usados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo. II - Composição química Chemical composition of limestones employed in neutralizing soil acidity in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo van Raij

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas determinações de óxido de cálcio (CaO, óxido de magnésio (MgO, sesquióxidos (R203, perda ao fogo (P.F., resíduo insolúvel (R.I., umidade (H20, poder de neutralização (P.N. de 16 calcários sedimentares, 11 calcários metamórficos, 1 calcário magmático e 2 escórias de siderurgia, materias utilzados como corretivos do solo no Estado de São Paulo.The contents of CaO, MgO, R2O3, loss of ignition, insoluble residue and the neutralization value of 29 limestones and 2 siderurgy slags employed in the neutralization of soil acidity in the State of São Paulo were determined. The results showed that most of the limestones studied belonged to the dolomitic type. The neutralization value was higher in the samples containing higher percentage of CaO plus MgO.

  4. HIV-1 binding and neutralizing antibodies of injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Ouverney

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a stronger seroreactivity against some synthetic peptides responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies in injecting drug users (IDU compared to that of individuals sexually infected with HIV-1 (S, but the effectiveness in terms of the neutralizing ability of these antibodies has not been evaluated. Our objective was to study the humoral immune response of IDU by determining the specificity of their antibodies and the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The neutralization capacity against the HIV-1 isolate MN (genotype B, the primary HIV-1 isolate 95BRRJ021 (genotype F, and the seroreactivity with peptides known to induce neutralizing antibodies, from the V2 and V3 loops of different HIV-1 subtypes, were analyzed. Seroreactivity indicates that IDU plasma are more likely to recognize a broader range of peptides than S plasma, with significantly higher titers, especially of V3 peptides. Similar neutralization frequencies of the MN isolate were observed in plasma of the IDU (16/47 and S (20/60 groups in the 1:10 dilution. The neutralization of the 95BRRJ021 isolate was more frequently observed for plasma from the S group (15/23 than from the IDU group (15/47, P = 0.0108. No correlation between neutralization and seroreactivity with the peptides tested was observed. These results suggest that an important factor responsible for the extensive and broad humoral immune response observed in IDU is their infection route. There was very little difference in neutralizing antibody response between the IDU and S groups despite their differences in seroreactivity and health status.

  5. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  6. 啤酒花α-酸包合物的制备及抗氧化能力研究%Preparation and the Antioxidant Capacity Research ofα-acids in Hops Inclusion Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薪; 高瑞苑; 张海容

    2016-01-01

    啤酒花α-酸性质极不稳定,容易变质,产生异味。从啤酒花浸膏中提取α-酸,用β-CD与α-酸进行分子包合,利用它的空腔对光、热和氧气有强的屏蔽效应,制成α-酸/β-CD 包合物。通过紫外,红外光谱手段及差热分析以及不同浓度氧化剂( H2 O2)对α-酸/β-环糊精包合物性质的分析。结果表明包合物改变了α-酸的理化性质,提高其稳定性,对改进啤酒工业产品质量有重要的参考价值。%Theα-acids in hops are unstable , easy go bad , and produce unhappy smell .The inclusion compound was prepared withα-acids extracted from hops and β-CD, andβ-CD cavity for light , heat and oxygen have strong shielding effect.Inclusion compound of α-acids/β-CD and its property are characterized by UV , IR spectra, differential thermal analysis, the antioxidant capacity are determined with a different concentration of oxidizer (H2O2).The results shown that the inclusion compound changed physical and chemical properties of α-acids, improved its stability, had important reference value to raise product quality of the beer industry .

  7. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at 21 days ( P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days ( P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) ( P activities at 21 days of age ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  8. Non-random escape pathways from a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody map to a highly conserved region on the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein encompassing amino acids 412-423.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-yong Keck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412-423 is conserved and antibodies to 412-423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs against 412-423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412-423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape

  9. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p ion (551.21 m/z) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z) of residues 23-31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater (p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater (p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for earlier

  10. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p ion (551.21 m/z) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z) of residues 23-31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater (p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater (p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for earlier

  11. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  12. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid intake increases placental labyrinthine antioxidant capacity but does not protect against fetal growth restriction induced by placental ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J

    2013-12-01

    Placental oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several placenta-related disorders. Oxidative stress occurs when excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cellular components, an outcome limited by antioxidant enzymes; mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) also limits ROS production. We recently reported that maternal dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation reduced placental oxidative damage and enhanced fetal and placental growth in the rats. Here, we examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs on placental antioxidant defences and whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could prevent growth restriction induced by placental ischaemia-reperfusion (IR), a known inducer of oxidative stress. Rats were fed either standard or high-n-3 PUFA diets from day 1 of pregnancy. Placentas were collected on days 17 and 22 in untreated pregnancies (term=day 23) and at day 22 following IR treatment on day 17. Expression of several antioxidant enzyme genes (Sod1, Sod2, Sod3, Cat, Txn1 and Gpx3) and Ucp2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in the placental labyrinth zone (LZ) and junctional zone (JZ). Cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), mitochondrial SOD and catalase (CAT) activities were also analyzed. Maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation increased LZ mRNA expression of Cat at both gestational days (2- and 1.5-fold respectively; Pdiet. Despite increased LZ antioxidant defences, maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation did not protect against placental IR-induced growth restriction of the fetus and placental LZ.

  13. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  14. 补充支链氨基酸对运动能力影响的研究进展%Research Development on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplement And Exercise Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳; 张蕴琨

    2012-01-01

    As necessary amino acids,Branched-chain amino acid(BCAA)is closely related to our exercise abilities.on the one hand,BCAA supplement can reduce protein catabolism,and promote gluconeogenesis,Therefore,the strength and anaerobic exercise capacity were improved.On the one hand,The ability of BCAA oxidation and decomposition in vivo to produce ATP is more efficiently than other amino acids.Branched-chain amino acid supplement can reduce the / ratio,and decrease the formation of 5-HT to provide energy reserving endurance exercise.However,some academics also suggested that the BCAA has no effect on exercise capacity and even have a negative impact,mainly because a large number of BCAA supplement may lead to blood ammonia elevated,thereby affecting exercise capacity,Therefore,scholars focus on the dose of BCAA during BCAA supplement.However,because of the complexity of the exercise test,the dose of BCAA supplement,the concentration of BCAA and the ratio of leucine,isoleucine and valine(Val) have no determine,how to supply BCAA reasonablly need further research Meanwhile,the mechanism of BCAA involved in glucose metabolism is not clear.In addition,during a long time,the effects of BCAA supplement on exercise capacity is still no conclusive.Following with application of micro-dialysis and other new technology,these problems will be solved.%支链氨基酸(BCAA)作为人体必需氨基酸,与人体的运动能力密切相关。一方面,补充BCAA能减少蛋白质的分解代谢,并促进糖异生,可以提高力量和无氧运动能力。另一方面,支链氨基酸在体内氧化分解产生ATP的效率高于其他氨基酸,补充BCAA可以降低[游离色氨酸(f-Trp)]/[BCAA]的比值,减少5-羟色胺(5-HT)形成,为机体长时间耐力运动提供能量。但是学术界也有人认为支链氨基酸对运动能力没有影响甚至会产生负面影响,主要原因是大量补充支链氨基酸会引起血氨升高,进而影响运动能力,故

  15. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  16. Molecular clock in neutral protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Claus O

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent observation in molecular evolution is that amino-acid substitution rates show an index of dispersion (that is, ratio of variance to mean substantially larger than one. This observation has been termed the overdispersed molecular clock. On the basis of in silico protein-evolution experiments, Bastolla and coworkers recently proposed an explanation for this observation: Proteins drift in neutral space, and can temporarily get trapped in regions of substantially reduced neutrality. In these regions, substitution rates are suppressed, which results in an overall substitution process that is not Poissonian. However, the simulation method of Bastolla et al. is representative only for cases in which the product of mutation rate μ and population size Ne is small. How the substitution process behaves when μNe is large is not known. Results Here, I study the behavior of the molecular clock in in silico protein evolution as a function of mutation rate and population size. I find that the index of dispersion decays with increasing μNe, and approaches 1 for large μNe . This observation can be explained with the selective pressure for mutational robustness, which is effective when μNe is large. This pressure keeps the population out of low-neutrality traps, and thus steadies the ticking of the molecular clock. Conclusions The molecular clock in neutral protein evolution can fall into two distinct regimes, a strongly overdispersed one for small μNe, and a mostly Poissonian one for large μNe. The former is relevant for the majority of organisms in the plant and animal kingdom, and the latter may be relevant for RNA viruses.

  17. Feasibility of labeled α-acetamido-aminoisobutyric acid as new tracer compound for kinetic labeling of neutral amino acid transport: Preparation of α-(N-[1-11C]acetyl)- and α-(N-[1-14C]acetyl)-aminoisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonphysiological, nonracemic, branched-chain α-acetamido-aminoisobutyric acid was labeled with the carbon isotope 11C with the intention to use it in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) to measure the kinetics of amino acid transport in vivo. It was produced by the reaction of the novel 11C-precursor N-[1-11C]acetylpyridinium chloride with α-aminoisobutyric acid. Typically, 2 GBq of α-(N-[1-11C]acetyl)-aminoisobutyric acid were isolated with a specific activity of 12 to 20 GBq · μmol-1 at the time of application, and with a radiochemical purity of >98%. The chemical identity of α-(N-[1-11C]acetyl)-aminoisobutyric acid was confirmed by comparison with α-(N-[1-14C]acetyl)-aminoisobutyric acid that was independently prepared by a standard acetylation procedure of α-aminoisobutyric acid using [1-14C]acetic anhydride. In vivo, both labeled substrates were not metabolized. In cell-culture experiments, 84% of the substrate entered the cells by the sodium-dependent amino acid transport system A, whereas 16% was taken up by the sodium-independent system. The uptake of the radiotracer was measured 20 min and 40 min postinjection in tumor-bearing male Copenhagen rats for assessment of its in vivo biodistribution

  18. 米根霉发酵产富马酸的最适替代中和剂及pH调控策略研究%Search for Optimum Substitutive Neutralizing Agent and pH Control Strategy in Fumaric Acid Fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 邰超; 李霜

    2013-01-01

    Four different neutralizing agents ( CaCO3, Na2CO3, NH3 · H2O, NaOH) were chosen to examine the effects of neutralizing agents on fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae ME-F12 which is the mutant of R. oryzae ATCC 20344. It was found that fumaric acid yield and productivity in the fermentation using Na2CO3 as neutralizing agent were the closest to which in the traditional CaCO3 case. Then the effects of different pH values (3.5, 4.5, 5. 5, and 6. 5) on fumaric acid fermentation using Na2CO3 as neutralizing agent were investigated. Based on the analysis of three kinetic parameters, a two-stage pH control strategy, aimed at achieving high concentration, high yield and high productivity of fumaric acid simultaneously, was proposed. pH was controlled at 5.5 at the first 24 h, and then switched to 4. 5 till the end of the fermentation. Finally, the maximum concentration of fumaric acid reached 40. 5 g/L with the yield of 0. 55 g/g and the productivity of 0. 61 g/L/h, which were 8.3% , 10.0% and 17. 3% higher than the best result of constant pH control process. Its productivity was even 3.4% higher than which in CaCO3 case. With the internal advantages of reducing power consumption and simplifying downstream processing, using Na2CO3 as neutralizing agent under two-stage pH control strategy successfully take place of CaCO3.%针对米根霉发酵产富马酸使用的不同中和剂(CaCO3,Na2CO3,NH3·H2O,NaOH)进行了研究,结果表明发酵过程中使用Na2CO3作为中和剂时富马酸产率和生产强度最接近传统中和剂CaCO3.此后考察了不同pH值(3.5,4.5,5.5和6.5)对Na2CO3作为中和剂的富马酸发酵过程的影响.基于对3个动力学参数的分析,提出了一个旨在同时获得富马酸高产物浓度、高产率和高生产强度的双阶段pH调控策略,在初始的24 h内pH控制在5.5,然后将pH调到4.5直至发酵结束.最终富马酸的终浓度达到40.5 g/L,产率为0.55 g/g,生产强度为0.61 g/L/h,比恒定pH时

  19. Neutral theory in community ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    One of the central goals of community ecology is to understand the forces that maintain species diversity within communities. The traditional niche-assembly theory asserts that species live together in a community only when they differ from one another in resource uses. But this theory has some difficulties in explaining the diversity often observed in specie-rich communities such as tropical forests. As an alternative to the niche theory, Hubbell and other ecologists introduced a neutral model. Hubbell argues that the number of species in a community is controlled by species extinction and immigration or speciation of new species. Assuming that all individuals of all species in a trophically similar com-munity are ecologically equivalent, Hubbell's neutral theory predicts two important statistical distributions. One is the asymptotic log-series distribution for the metacommunities under point mutation speciation, and the other is the zero-sum multinomial distribution for both local communities under dispersal limitation and metacommunities under random fission speciation. Unlike the niche-assembly theory, the neutral theory takes similarity in species and individuals as a starting point for investigating species diversity. Based on the fundamental processes of birth, death, dispersal and spe-ciation, the neutral theory provided the first mechanistic explanation of species abundance distribution commonly observed in natural communities. Since the publication of the neutral theory, there has been much discussion about it, pro and con. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in the assumption, prediction and speciation mode of the neutral theory, including progress in the theory itself, tests about the assumption of the theory, prediction and speciation mode at the metacommunity level. We also suggest that the most important task in the future is to bridge the niche-assembly theory and the neutral theory, and to add species differences to the neutral theory and

  20. The Myth of Neutral Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murray N. Rothbard

    1981-01-01

    Economists have long believed that government’s tax and expendi- ture policy either is, or can readily be made to be, neutral to the market. Free-market economists have advocated such neutrality of government, and even economists favoring redistributive actions by government have believed that the service activities and the re- distributive activities of government can easily be distinguished, at least in concept. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and implications of fiscal...

  1. Cold ion-neutral reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Felix Henry Joynson

    2013-01-01

    Cold ion-neutral reactive processes were studied in an hybrid trap down to average collision energies /k_B > 20 mK. The atomic ion-neutral systems Ca^+ + Rb and Ba^+ + Rb were studied, and the results interpreted with high-level quantum chemical and quantum scattering calculations. Three reactive processes were found to be in competition, namely non-radiative charge transfer induced by non-adiabatic couplings between potential energy surfaces, radiative charge transfer, and radiative associat...

  2. Improvement in affinity and HIV-1 neutralization by somatic mutation in the heavy chain first complementarity-determining region of antibodies triggered by HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torán, J L; Sánchez-Pulido, L; Kremer, L; del Real, G; Valencia, A; Martínez-A, C

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the impact of somatic hypermutation in the framework region 1 (FR1) and complementarity-determining region 1 (CDR1) of three clonally-related heavy chains from the human monovalent antigen-binding fragments Fab S19, S8 and S20 on gp120 binding and HIV-1 neutralization capacity. Nucleotide changes were introduced in the heavy chains to revert single and multiple amino acid residues, and two Fab libraries were constructed with the same light chain to express equivalent amounts of parental and reverted phage Fab. We studied the contribution of each amino acid replacement to antigen binding by calculating the frequency of phage Fab retrieval after competitive library selection on gp120. Whereas mutations in FR1 had no effect on antigen binding, somatic replacements in the CDR1 of the heavy chain (HCDR1) appeared to produce significant changes. In S19 HCDR1, somatic mutation of residue 32 reduced gp120 binding. In Fab S20, the Arg(30) and Asp(31) somatically replaced residues in HCDR1 improved antigen binding. Both of these residues are necessary to increase Fab binding to gp120; reversion of either residue alone results in a decrease in binding. The impact of these two replacements was confirmed by the greater neutralization capacity of S20 compared to the other Fab. Molecular modeling of S20 HCDR1 suggests that Arg(30) and Asp(31) are the main interaction sites for gp120, increasing antibody affinity and promoting the enhanced neutralization ability of S20. These findings are consistent with a gp120-driven process, supporting a role for affinity maturation and intraclonal evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies.

  3. Simultaneous determination of neutral sugars and uronic acid constituents in a novel bacterial polysaccharide using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱-质谱联用同时分析新型细菌多糖中的单糖和糖醛酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤芹; 杨航仙; 汪以真

    2013-01-01

    对纯化的新型细菌多糖进行酸水解,用乙硫醇-三氟乙酸和醋酐-吡啶体系先后对酸水解物进行衍生,与之前报道不同的是糖醛酸得到有效衍生化.以木糖为内标,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)定量分析该多糖酸水解物中单糖和糖醛酸衍生物发现,该多糖的糖链由岩藻糖、葡萄糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖组成,其相对物质的量比为1.50∶1.0∶0.79∶2.06;中性糖比例与糖醇乙酸酯化分析岩藻糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖的相对物质的量比(1.76∶1.0∶1.98)接近;糖醛酸咔唑法与该方法分析葡萄糖醛酸的含量分别为16.19%和14.85%.以上结果表明所建立的衍生化方法及GC-MS同时定量分析多糖酸水解物中单糖和糖醛酸的方法可行.此外还对葡萄糖醛酸的质谱裂解机理进行了阐述.%The purified novel bacterial polysaccharide was acid-hydrolyzed, followed by the subsequent derivatization using ethanethiol-trifluoroacetic acid and acetic anhydride-pyridine systems sequentially. Our findings differ from the previous reports in that the glucuronic acid was obtained through effective derivatization. The neutral sugars and glucuronic acid were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with xylose as an internal standard. The polysaccharide was found to be composed of fucose, glucose, glucuronic acid and galactose, with the relative molar ratio of 1. 50: 1. 0: 0. 79= 2. 06. The neutral sugars ratio was similar to the relative molar ratio for fucose, glucose and galactose of 1. 76: l. 0: 1. 98 through alditol acetates determined by GC. The percentages of glucuronic acid analyzed using either the carbazole and sulfuric acid method or the above method were 16. 19% and 14. 85%, respectively. These results indicate that it is practicable to use the derivatization method and GC-MS to quantitatively analyze neutral sugars and glucuronic acid simultaneously in polysaccharide. For GC-MS analysis, the

  4. Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.

  5. Amino acid adsorption on mesoporous materials: influence of types of amino acids, modification of mesoporous materials, and solution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Wujun; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Deng, Feng; Shen, Wanling

    2008-02-21

    In order to disclose the dominant interfacial interaction between amino acids and ordered mesoporous materials, the adsorption behaviors of five amino acids on four mesoporous materials were investigated in aqueous solutions with adjustable amino acid concentration, ion strength, and pH. The selected amino acids were acidic amino acid glutamic acid (Glu), basic amino acid arginine (Arg), and neutral amino acids phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu), and alanine (Ala), and the selected mesoporous materials were SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CH3(10%)-SBA-15, and CH3(20%)-SBA-15. The adsorption capacities of Glu and Arg were strongly dependent on pH and surface charge of the mesoporous adsorbent. The adsorption of Phe showed pH insensitivity but depended on the surface organic functionalization of mesoporous adsorbent. On the basis of the theoretical analysis about the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent, such a remarkable difference was attributed to the different nature of the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent. Arg could be readily adsorbed on the surface of SBA-15, especially Al-SBA-15, under appropriate pH in which the electrostatic interaction was predominant. The driving force of Phe adsorption on mesoporous adsorbent mainly came from the hydrophobic interaction. Therefore, the adsorption capability of Arg decreased with increasing ion strength of solution, while the adsorption capability of Phe increased with the increasing degree of CH3 functionalization on SBA-15. For neutral amino acid Phe, Ala, and Leu, the adsorption capability increased with the increase of the length of their side chains, which was another evidence of hydrophobic effect. Thus, all the adsorption of amino acids on mesoporous silica materials can be decided by the combined influence of two fundamental interactions: electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic effect.

  6. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  7. Emotional working memory capacity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Participants with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma-exposed controls with no PTSD history completed an emotional working memory capacity (eWMC) task. The task required them to remember lists of neutral words over short intervals while simultaneously processing sentences describing dysfunctional trauma-related thoughts (relative to neutral control sentences). The task was designed to operationalise an everyday cognitive challenge for those with mental health...

  8. Synthesis and hydrolysis resisting capacity of ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters%蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物的合成与耐酸耐碱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; Martino Di Serio; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters (ECAME - 10)obtained directly from castor oil acid methyl esters by the use of a special homogeneous catalyst. The average ethylene oxide (EO)adduct number of ECAME - 10 was determined by saponification value,gas chromatography (GC)and 1 HNMR. The hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 was investigated under different pH value conditions. The appearance changes of ECAME - 10 solution under different storing time periods was tracked and photographed and surface tension of different stages of the solution at different stages was measured. Results showed that the hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 is rather strong. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME - 10 is below 40% in pH value range of 4 - 9 after eight weeks. Surface tension of solutions can be kept stable after the hydrolysis reaction.%在一定的温度和压力条件下,以及特制的均相催化剂作用下,直接由蓖麻油酸甲酯得到了产物蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME -10)。通过皂化值、气相色谱(GC)和1 HNMR 测定了ECAME -10的平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数,在不同pH条件下测定了ECAME -10的耐酸耐碱性,并跟踪拍摄了不同pH溶液不同阶段的外观照片,同时测定了不同阶段溶液的表面张力。结果显示:ECAME -10有较强的抗水解能力,当pH =4~9时,ECAME -10的水解较慢,8周后其水解率在40%以下;水解后的表面张力数据表明,水解后溶液的表面张力可保持稳定。

  9. Acid Buffering Capacity of Forest Litter from Some Important Plantation and Natural Forests in South China%华南重要人工林及地带性森林凋落物酸碱缓冲能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志安; 曹裕松; 邹碧; 丁永祯; 任海

    2003-01-01

    solutions or ti-trated with acid or base solutions. Litter was found to be a strong acid-base buffering system. Two legumespecies, Acacia mangium Willd and 4. auriculaiformis A. Cunn, had very high litter pH values of around 6,which was 2 pH units higher than that of the soil where they grew. Litter of all other plantation species hadlitter pH of around 4, similar to that of the soil. Both legume species have high potential to neutralize soilacidity and the litter layer could act to shield soil against acid rain. The current stand of two legumespecies was estimated to be able to raise rain acidity by 0.1 to 0.4 pH units. Inorganic ions did not fullyexplain the pH pattern of different litter extracts, but high sodium and low nitrate partly accounted for thehigh pH of the two legume species. Some natural forest species had extremely low pH. As a whole, thelitter of the natural climax forest was the driving force of soil acidification. Although plant residues arestrong acid-base buffering system and able to adjust acidity of environment, only a few species can beexpected to make soil more acid or alkaline through this mechanism since most species have litter pHvalues similar to those of soil where they grow.

  10. Summarization of Reformation and Optimization of Double Pressurized Dilute Nitric Acid Plant with a Capacity of 100 kt/a%10万 t/a双加压稀硝装置的改造及优化总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志敏

    2015-01-01

    Author has introduced the problems and deficiency of tube leakage existed in low pressure reaction water cooler, tube rupture existed in waste heat boiler and the production on the low side in the summer and so on since putting into operation in the dilute nitric acid plant with a capacity of 100 kt/a by double pressurization method in the Hangzhou Longshan Chemical Engineering Company Ltd ., in allusion to this situation the technical refor-mation was made for low pressure reaction water cooler, waste heat boiler and the refrigeration dehumidification device, technical reformation result indi-cates that annual benefit is 1 112 000 Yuan RMB since having put into operation of the comprehensive project, and has a good effect.%介绍了杭州龙山化工的100 kt/a双加压法稀硝装置自投产以来,存在低压反应水冷器列管泄漏、废热锅炉爆管和夏季产量偏低等问题和不足,针对该情况对低压反应水冷器、废热锅炉和冷冻脱湿装置进行技术改造,技改结果表明:综合项目投运后年效益为111.2万元,取得了良好的效果。

  11. Influence of the Forcing Process on Some Qualitative Aspects in Radicchio “Rosso di Treviso Tardivo” (Cichorium Intybus L., Group Rubifolium. 2. Antioxidant Capacity, Phenols and Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nicoletto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a great deal of interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food, especially antioxidant compounds that could benefit human health. Radicchio “Rosso di Treviso tardivo” (Cichorium intybus L., group rubifolium is a vegetable with high antioxidant properties, but nothing is known about antioxidant compounds changes during the forcing process. The experiment was conducted in Veneto (north-eastern Italy, 45°36’N; 12°10’E with plants grown in a loamy soil and analyzed at harvest and during the forcing process (0-10 and 20 forcing days- FD. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity (AOC, phenols and ascorbic acid contents of this chicory decreased with different intensity during the forcing process. The outer inedible leaves displayed high AOC, which could provide phenolic extracts that could be used as natural antioxidants or to functionalize foods. The properties verified so far mean that this chicory can be considered an interesting and healthy vegetable for the consumer, also after the forcing process.

  12. Neutral beams for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in forming energetic beams of neutral hydrogen and deuterium atoms have led to a breakthrough in magnetic fusion: neutral beams are now heating plasmas to thermonuclear temperatures, here at LLL and at other laboratories. For example, in our 2XIIB experiment we have injected a 500-A-equivalent current of neutral deuterium atoms at an average energy of 18 keV, producing a dense plasma (1014 particles/cm3) at thermonuclear energy (14 keV or 160 million kelvins). Currently, LLL and LBL are developing beam energies in the 80- to 120-keV range for our upcoming MFTF experiment, for the TFTR tokamak experiment at Princeton, and for the Doublet III tokamak experiment at General Atomic. These results increase our long-range prospects of producing high-intensity beams of energies in the hundreds or even thousands of kilo-electron-volts, providing us with optimistic extrapolations for realizing power-producing fusion reactors

  13. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R J

    2001-01-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector. (8 refs).

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions Containing Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-04

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel based alloy containing alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. It is highly corrosion resistant both under reducing and under oxidizing conditions. Electrochemical studies such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. Tests were also carried out in NaCl solutions containing oxalic acid or acetic acid. It is shown that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was higher in a solution containing oxalic acid than in a solution of the same pH acidified with HCl. Acetic acid was not corrosive to Alloy 22. The corrosivity of oxalic acid was attributed to its capacity to form stable complex species with metallic cations from Alloy 22.

  15. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  16. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  17. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  18. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  19. Effect of pH buffering capacity and sources of dietary sulfur on rumen fermentation, sulfide production, methane production, sulfate reducing bacteria, and total Archaea in in vitro rumen cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three types of dietary sulfur on in vitro fermentation characteristics, sulfide production, methane production, and microbial populations at two different buffer capacities were examined using in vitro rumen cultures. Addition of dry distilled grain with soluble (DDGS) generally decreased total gas production, degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of total volatile fatty acids, while increasing ammonia concentration. High buffering capacity alleviated these adverse effects on fermentation. Increased sulfur content resulted in decreased methane emission, but total Archaea population was not changed significantly. The population of sulfate reducing bacteria was increased in a sulfur type-dependent manner. These results suggest that types of dietary sulfur and buffering capacity can affect rumen fermentation and sulfide production. Diet buffering capacity, and probably alkalinity, may be increased to alleviate some of the adverse effects associated with feeding DDGS at high levels.

  20. Acid deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to lake chemistry in northeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, G. Jr.; Allert, J.D.; Liukkonen, B.W.; Ilse, J.A.; Loucks, O.L.; Glass, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between lake sensitivity to atmospheric acidic inputs and the neutralization capacity of watersheds is examined for 267 lakes in northeastern Minnesota. Three water chemistry/sensitivity measures (color, sulfate, and alkalinity) are correlated with variables representative of precipitation and sulfate inputs, hydrology, and the acid neutralization capacity of various watershed components. An ordinal scale for ranking bedrock and surficial deposit neutralization capacity is presented. The watershed variables found to account for the largest percentages of the variability in measured color, sulfate, and alkalinity levels are determined. Color is strongly related to the presence of peat or marsh and hydrologic renewal time, whereas sulfate is primarily related to atmospheric deposition, evaporative concentration, bedrock type, and the presence of coniferous forest. Variation in alkalinity is the most difficult of the water chemistry measures to explain; for headwater lakes, atmospheric sulfate input, water renewal time, the presence of deciduous forest, and the weatherability of underlying bedrock determine much of its variability. The results illustrate important averaging properties of watersheds from small headwater systems to large drainages and the difficulty in obtaining correlations for some water quality measures (e.g., alkalinity) when some variables, such as soils and land cover, are available only as large-area averages. 52 references, 7 tables.

  1. Genetic Code Evolution Reveals the Neutral Emergence of Mutational Robustness, and Information as an Evolutionary Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E. Massey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard genetic code (SGC is central to molecular biology and its origin and evolution is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, the elucidation of which promises to reveal much about the origins of life. In addition, we propose that study of its origin can also reveal some fundamental and generalizable insights into mechanisms of molecular evolution, utilizing concepts from complexity theory. The first is that beneficial traits may arise by non-adaptive processes, via a process of “neutral emergence”. The structure of the SGC is optimized for the property of error minimization, which reduces the deleterious impact of point mutations. Via simulation, it can be shown that genetic codes with error minimization superior to the SGC can emerge in a neutral fashion simply by a process of genetic code expansion via tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase duplication, whereby similar amino acids are added to codons related to that of the parent amino acid. This process of neutral emergence has implications beyond that of the genetic code, as it suggests that not all beneficial traits have arisen by the direct action of natural selection; we term these “pseudaptations”, and discuss a range of potential examples. Secondly, consideration of genetic code deviations (codon reassignments reveals that these are mostly associated with a reduction in proteome size. This code malleability implies the existence of a proteomic constraint on the genetic code, proportional to the size of the proteome (P, and that its reduction in size leads to an “unfreezing” of the codon – amino acid mapping that defines the genetic code, consistent with Crick’s Frozen Accident theory. The concept of a proteomic constraint may be extended to propose a general informational constraint on genetic fidelity, which may be used to explain variously, differences in mutation rates in genomes with differing proteome sizes, differences in DNA repair capacity and genome

  2. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  3. Neutral Models with Generalised Speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory claims that ecological patterns such as species abundance distributions can be explained by a stochastic model based on simple assumptions. One of these assumptions, the point mutation assumption, states that every individual has the same probability to speciate. Etienne et

  4. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L; Williams, M W; Campbell, D H; Tonnessen, K A; Blett, T; Clow, D W

    2009-06-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world. PMID:19544737

  5. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  6. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which ∼ 3.3 x 106 L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP)

  7. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  8. Broadly Neutralizing Activity of Zika Virus-Immune Sera Identifies a Single Viral Serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kimberly A; DeMaso, Christina R; Pelc, Rebecca S; Speer, Scott D; Smith, Alexander R Y; Goo, Leslie; Platt, Derek J; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Mulligan, Mark J; Diamond, Michael S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Pierson, Theodore C

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV) have been associated with congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are two ZIKV lineages (African and Asian) that share >95% amino acid identity. Little is known regarding the ability of neutralizing antibodies elicited against one lineage to protect against the other. We investigated the breadth of the neutralizing antibody response following ZIKV infection by measuring the sensitivity of six ZIKV strains to neutralization by ZIKV-confirmed convalescent human serum or plasma samples. Contemporary Asian and early African ZIKV strains were similarly sensitive to neutralization regardless of the cellular source of virus. Furthermore, mouse immune serum generated after infection with African or Asian ZIKV strains was capable of neutralizing homologous and heterologous ZIKV strains equivalently. Because our study only defines a single ZIKV serotype, vaccine candidates eliciting robust neutralizing antibody responses should inhibit infection of both ZIKV lineages, including strains circulating in the Americas. PMID:27481466

  9. Broadly Neutralizing Activity of Zika Virus-Immune Sera Identifies a Single Viral Serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Dowd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV have been associated with congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. There are two ZIKV lineages (African and Asian that share >95% amino acid identity. Little is known regarding the ability of neutralizing antibodies elicited against one lineage to protect against the other. We investigated the breadth of the neutralizing antibody response following ZIKV infection by measuring the sensitivity of six ZIKV strains to neutralization by ZIKV-confirmed convalescent human serum or plasma samples. Contemporary Asian and early African ZIKV strains were similarly sensitive to neutralization regardless of the cellular source of virus. Furthermore, mouse immune serum generated after infection with African or Asian ZIKV strains was capable of neutralizing homologous and heterologous ZIKV strains equivalently. Because our study only defines a single ZIKV serotype, vaccine candidates eliciting robust neutralizing antibody responses should inhibit infection of both ZIKV lineages, including strains circulating in the Americas.

  10. Synthesis of Neutral Medium Inhibitor and Study of its Inhibition Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With fatty acid and amino acid as raw materials, the neutral medium inhibitor was synthesized. The inhibitory performance of corrosion inhibitor for corrosion of Q235 steel in neutral water medium was investigated by weight loss method. Results showed that the inhibitor has excellent inhibition efficiency for corrosion of Q235 steel in neutral water medium; the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration, and then tend to be stable due to the inhibitors come to adsorption equilibrium in the metal surface. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM to observe the micro corrosion morphology, and the corrosion mechanism is discussed in this article.

  11. EFFECT OF pH ON THE ADSORPTION Of p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID ON POLYSTYRENE-BASED ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ling Wang; Zheng-hao Fei; Jin-long Chen; Quan-xing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the adsorptive properties of p-aminobenzoic acid with hypercrosslinked and multi-functional polymeric adsorbents at different solution pHs were systematically investigated in accordance with the particular physicochemical characteristics of the aromatic amphoteric compound involving both Lewis acid and Lewis base functional groups. It was found that the equilibrium adsorption data of the three polymeric adsorbents fitted well in the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. Studies at various pH levels indicate that the capacity of the adsorbents for adsorption of the ionic forms of adsorbate is less than that for the corresponding neutral species. At pH 3.78, the adsorption capacities of the three adsorbents are the highest. Whereas the adsorption property of multi-functional polymeric adsorbent NJ-99 is the largest, which may be attributed to the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between the amino groups on the resin and the carboxyl group of p-aminobenzoic acid. The trend of the adsorption capacities of the three adsorbents towards p-aminobenzoic acid with the solution pH is in accord with the dissociation curve of the neutral molecular p-aminobenzoic acid. The adsorption forces include π-π interaction, hydrogen-bonding interaction and electrostatic attraction or repulsion when there exist the molecular and ionic adsorbing species at different pHs in aqueous solution.

  12. Instructed neutralization, spontaneous neutralization and prevented neutralization after an obsession-like thought.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Hout; M. Kindt; T. Weiland; M. Peters

    2002-01-01

    Building on 2 earlier experiments (S. Rachman et al [1996] and M. A. van den Hout [2001]) the present study investigated the effects of neutralizing the consequences of an obsession-like thought in healthy participants. Just like in the earlier studies, writing out and thinking of such a thought gen

  13. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC, carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  14. Biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    The present work reports biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industrial effluent by an alkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from the Gujarat coast, which was identified as Enterococcus faecium strain R-5 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate was capable of bringing down the pH of waste water from 12.0 to 7.0 within 3 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources, with simultaneous reduction in total dissolved solutes (TDS) up to 19-22%. This bacterium produced carboxylic acid, as revealed by FT-IR analysis, which facilitated neutralization of alkaline effluent. The presence of unconventional raw materials viz. Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse as carbon and nitrogen sources could effectively neutralize alkaline effluent and thus making the bioremediation process economically viable. The time required for neutralization varied with size of inoculum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on biological neutralization of a chlor-alkali industrial effluent. PMID:21944194

  15. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....

  16. Nuclear Capacity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose nuclear capacity auctions as a means to improve the incentives for investing in nuclear power. A properly designed auction would (i) allocate the license to the most efficient bidder; (ii) sell the license if and only if new nuclear power was socially optimal. In particular, capacity auctions open the market for large-scale entry by outside firms. Requiring licensees to sell a share of capacity as virtual power plant contracts increases auction efficiency by softening incumbent pro...

  17. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  18. Rocket Experiment For Neutral Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, D. R.; Lessard, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the CHAMP satellite from 2004 show relatively small scale heating in the thermosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The RENU 2 rocket mission includes a suite of 14 instruments which will acquire data to help understand processes involved in neutral upwelling in the cusp. Neutral, ion, and electron measurements will be made to provide an assessment of the upwelling process. SUPERDarn measurements of large- scale Joule heating in the cusp during overflight will also be acquired. Small-scale data which could possibly be associated with Alfvén waves, will be acquired using onboard electric field measurements. In-situ measurement of precipitating electrons and all other measurements will be used in thermodynamic and electrodynamic models for comparison to the observed upwelling.

  19. The risk-averse newsvendor problem with random capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Meng; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of capacity uncertainty on the inventory decisions of a risk-averse newsvendor. We consider two well-known risk criteria, namely Value-at-Risk (VaR) included as a constraint and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR). For the risk-neutral newsvendor, we find that the optimal order quan

  20. Money neutrality: Rethinking the myth

    OpenAIRE

    Issaoui Fakhri; Boufateh Talel; Guesmi Mourad

    2015-01-01

    Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2), income (GDP), and prices (CPI). The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only...

  1. The Economics of Network Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Economides; Benjamin Hermalin

    2010-01-01

    Pricing of Internet access has been characterized by two properties. Parties are directly billed only by the Internet Service Provider (ISP) through which they connect to the Internet and the ISP charges them on the basis of the amount of information transmitted rather than its content. These properties define a regime known as “network neutrality.” In 2005, some large ISPs proposed that application and content providers directly pay them additional fees for accessing the ISPs’ residential cl...

  2. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  3. Steady state neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

  4. Neutral Naturalness with Bifundamental Gluinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Thomas, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    We study constraints on one-loop neutral naturalness at the LHC by considering gluon partners which are required to ameliorate the tuning in the Higgs mass-squared arising at two loops. This is done with a simple orbifold model of folded supersymmetry which not only contains color-neutral stops but also bifundamental gluinos that are charged under the Standard Model color group $SU(3)_C$ and a separate $SU(3)_C'$ group. The bifundamental gluinos reduce the Higgs mass tuning at two loops and maintain naturalness provided the gluinos are lighter than approximately 1.9 TeV for a 5 TeV cutoff scale. Limits from the LHC already forbid bifundamental gluinos below 1.4 TeV, and other non-colored states such as electroweakinos, $Z'$ bosons and dark sector bound states may be probed at future colliders. The search for bifundamental gluinos therefore provides a direct probe of one-loop neutral naturalness that can be fully explored at the LHC.

  5. Ionic composition of acid lakes in relation to airborne inputs and watershed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, G.E.; Sorensen, J.A.; Liukkonen, B.W.; Rapp, G.R. Jr.; Loucks, O.L.

    1986-11-01

    Acid forming emissions to the atmosphere have the potential to alter the chemistry of rain, snow, and surface water of weakly buffered lakes in the Upper Midwest. Average precipitation pH from field measurements during 1979-1983 declined from west to east from 4.8, 4.6, and 4.3 along a cross-section of sites in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan respectively where 990 lake and stream sampling sites were studied. Measurements of weakly buffered lakes show a parallel decline in lake water pH with the lowest values measured, 5.1, 4.6 and 4.4, respectively in the same regions. Correspondingly, the percentage of lakes sampled with little or no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) was found to increase from 0 to 4 and 13%, respectively. The geographic patterns in ionic composition of airborne acids and bases, and the resultant surface water concentrations are compared. The acid forming capacity (AFC) from airborne inputs is calculated using mass balance and in-lake processes. Stoichiometric acid-base reactions are used to balance the observed chemical differences between airborne inputs and surface water composition considering nitrification, denitrification, other oxidation-reduction reactions, and the evaporation concentration process. Microbial activity in surface water can result in a net decrease in ionic strength from the conversion of most of the ammonium and nitrate to neutral compounds and biomass. 29 refs.

  6. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  7. Neutral-current x-distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  8. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  9. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  10. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  11. Electroweak Chiral Lagrangian for Neutral Higgs Boson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-Zhi; WANG Qing

    2008-01-01

    A neutral Higgs boson is added into the traditional electroweak chiral Lagrangian by writing down all possible high dimension operators. The matter part of the Lagrangian is investigated in detail. We find that if Higgs field dependence of Yukawa couplings can be factorized out, there will be no flavour changing neutral couplings; neutral Higgs can induce coupling between light and heavy neutrinos.

  12. Neutrality in mediation: an ambiguous ethical value

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mediator neutrality would appear, by definition, to be a necessary and required ethical principle for all mediators to practice. But what is meant by neutrality in mediation? Is it practically possible to be completely neutral between parties in mediation while at the same time being fair to both of them? This paper attempts to answer these two questions.

  13. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate. PMID:22559064

  14. D-Serine Is a Substrate for Neutral Amino Acid Transporters ASCT1/SLC1A4 and ASCT2/SLC1A5, and Is Transported by Both Subtypes in Rat Hippocampal Astrocyte Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Foster

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors play critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Activation of NMDA receptors by synaptically released L-glutamate also requires occupancy of co-agonist binding sites in the tetrameric receptor by either glycine or D-serine. Although D-serine appears to be the predominant co-agonist at synaptic NMDA receptors, the transport mechanisms involved in D-serine homeostasis in brain are poorly understood. In this work we show that the SLC1 amino acid transporter family members SLC1A4 (ASCT1 and SLC1A5 (ASCT2 mediate homo- and hetero-exchange of D-serine with physiologically relevant kinetic parameters. In addition, the selectivity profile of D-serine uptake in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes is consistent with uptake mediated by both ASCT1 and ASCT2. Together these data suggest that SLC1A4 (ASCT1 may represent an important route of Na-dependent D-serine flux in the brain that has the ability to regulate extracellular D-serine and thereby NMDA receptor activity.

  15. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P AOC) at 21 days ( P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days ( P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) ( P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count ( P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) ( P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days ( P = 0.012) and 28 days ( P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 ( P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  16. Effects of High Pressure Processing on Organic Acids and Vc in Blackberry Juice and Their Synergistic Antioxidant Capacities%超高压处理对黑莓汁有机酸、Vc及其协同抗氧化性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 马永昆; 张龙; 严蕊; 马善丽; 魏本喜

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP) at 300 - 600 MPa for 15 min on organic acids and Vc in blackberry(Rubus Hull. ) juice were detected by using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatograp method and 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetry method respectively. Their synergistic antioxidant capacities were also evaluated. In blackberry juice, the dominant acid was L-malic acid, which constituted 87.98% of total acids. While α-ketoglutaric acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and butanedioic acid were detected in low amounts. After application of pressure, L-malic acid and butanedioic acid were significantly changed(P 〈 0.05). However, no significant changes in other organic acids(P 〉 0.05). L-malic acid in juice decreased by 12.2% after 300 MPa processing for 15 min, while increased by 8.53% , 6.08% and 22.35% respectively at 400 - 600 MPa processing for 15rain. Compared with the control juice, the contents of Vc were well retained and ranged from 90. 10% to 97.92% at 300 - 600 MPa. L-malic acid enhanced the scavenging activity of Vc on DPPH · with its concentration increasing, which indicated that L-malic acid synergistically enhanced the antioxidant capacity of Vc.%采用反相高效液相色谱法、2,4-二硝基苯肼法对300—600MPa处理15min的黑莓汁中有机酸、Vc进行检测分析,并采用DPPH·法对其协同抗氧化性进行评价。结果表明:黑莓汁有机酸主要是L-苹果酸,占总酸的87.98%,并含有少量的α-酮戊二酸、醋酸、柠檬酸和琥珀酸等;超高压处理对黑莓汁中琥珀酸和L-苹果酸的影响显著(P〈0.05),对其他酸作用不显著(P〉0.05)。经300MPa、15min处理,黑莓汁中L-苹果酸含量减少12.2%,400、500和600MPa处理15min后,其L-苹果酸含量分别

  17. Gas Flow Measurements of a Novel Geometry for Neutral Beam Neutralizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, David Ross

    The gas flow characteristics of a novel geometry (pumped neutralizer) for decreasing the flow of gas from neutral beam neutralizers were measured and compared with a conventional (passive) neutralizer. A passive neutralizer is typically a duct attached to the ion source. For the pumped neutralizer the top and bottom surfaces of the duct are replaced by a Venetian blind geometry which opens into ballast vacuum pumping volumes. With guidance from a Monte Carlo program which models gas flow at low pressure, a one-half scale model with pumped neutralizer geometry was built and compared to a passive neutralizer with comparable dimensions. With the vanes on the pumped neutralizer opened to 55 degrees, the line density of the pumped neutralizer was 1.6 times less than the passive neutralizer. The amount of gas flowing from the exit of the pumped neutralizer was from 2 to 5 times less than the amount flowing from the pumped neutralizer. Hence, the pumped neutralizer geometry appears to be a promising method of limiting the flow of gas from neutral beam gas cell neutralizers.

  18. ORNL positive ion neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral beam group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has constructed neutral beam generators for the ORMAK and PLT devices, is presently constructing neutral beam devices for the ISX and PDX devices, and is contemplating the construction of neutral beam systems for the advanced TNS device. These neutral beam devices stem from the pioneering work on ion sources of G. G. Kelley and O. B. Morgan. We describe the ion sources under development at this Laboratory, the beam optics exhibited by these sources, as well as some theoretical considerations, and finally the remainder of the beamline design

  19. Pitfalls in efficacy testing – how important is the validation of neutralization of chlorhexidine digluconate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisig Peter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective neutralization of active agents is essential to obtain valid efficacy results, especially when non-volatile active agents like chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG are tested. The aim of this study was to determine an effective and non-toxic neutralizing mixture for a propan-1-ol solution containing 2% CHG. Methods Experiments were carried out according to ASTM E 1054-02. The neutralization capacity was tested separately with five challenge microorganisms in suspension, and with a rayon swab carrier. Either 0.5 mL of the antiseptic solution (suspension test or a saturated swab with the antiseptic solution (carrier test was added to tryptic soy broth containing neutralizing agents. After the samples were mixed, aliquots were spread immediately and after 3 h of storage at 2 – 8°C onto tryptic soy agar containing a neutralizing mixture. Results The neutralizer was, however, not consistently effective in the suspension test. Immediate spread yielded a valid neutralization with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium jeikeium but not with Micrococcus luteus (p Candida albicans (p Staphylococcus epidermidis (p Corynebacterium jeikeium (p = 0.044. In the carrier test, the neutralizing mixture was found to be effective and non toxic to all challenge microorganisms when spread immediately. However, after 3 h storage of the neutralized active agents significant carry-over activity of CHG against Micrococcus luteus (p = 0.004; Tukey HSD was observed. Conclusion Without effective neutralization in the sampling fluid, non-volatile active ingredients will continue to reduce the number of surviving microorganisms after antiseptic treatment even if the sampling fluid is kept cold straight after testing. This can result in false-positive antiseptic efficacy data. Attention should be paid during the neutralization validation process to the amount of antiseptic solution, the storage time and to the choice of

  20. 胍基乙酸对樱桃谷肉鸭生产性能和抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of guanidinoacetic acid on performance and antioxidant capacity in Cherry Valley ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚琼; 刘强; 姜发彬; 袁庆启; 颜瑞; 庄苏

    2016-01-01

    [目的]本文旨在研究胍基乙酸(GAA)对樱桃谷肉鸭生长性能、屠宰性能、抗氧化能力的影响.[方法]选用720只健康且体质量相近的10日龄樱桃谷肉鸭,随机分为4组,每组6个重复,每个重复30只.分别饲喂添加质量分数为0%(对照组)、0.025%(试验组Ⅰ)、0.05%(试验组Ⅱ)、0.10%(试验组Ⅲ)GAA的试验日粮.试验结束时(42日龄),每重复随机抽取1只肉鸭进行屠宰,测定各项指标.[结果]与对照组相比,试验组的平均日增体质量有增高趋势,料重比有降低趋势,但差异均不显著(P>0.05);试验组Ⅱ的半净膛率、全净膛率、腿肌率均显著高于对照组(P<0.05);试验组Ⅱ胸肌中的肌酸含量与试验组Ⅲ血浆中的肌酸含量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05).血清中,试验组总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性均有增加的趋势(P>0.05);丙二醛(MDA)含量均有所降低,其中试验组Ⅱ显著低于对照组(P<0.05);谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性分别比对照组提高了9.96%、32.46%、12.34%,且试验组Ⅱ显著高于其他3组(P<0.05);试验组Ⅱ的还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).肝脏中,胍基乙酸具有增加T-AOC、CAT、SOD、GSH-Px活性与GSH含量的趋势,其中试验组Ⅱ的SOD活性和GSH含量显著高于其他3组(P<0.05),GSH-Px活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).[结论]日粮中添加GAA对提高肉鸭的生长性能无显著影响,但在本试验条件下,添加0.05%的GAA可在一定程度上改善樱桃谷肉鸭的屠宰性能和抗氧化能力.%[Objectives] The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA)on growth performance,slaughtering performance,and antioxidant capacity in Cherry Valley ducks.[Methods] A total of 720 healthy 10 day-old Cherry Valley ducks with roughly equal weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 30 ducks in each