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Sample records for acid mmaiii leads

  1. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  2. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  3. Lead-acid battery construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  4. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMAIII induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMAIII increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMAIII induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  5. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  6. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero-Lourdes, C., E-mail: cescuder@uaslp.mx [Centro de Investigación y Estudios de Posgrado (CIEP), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Wu, T.; Camarillo, J.M.; Gandolfi, A.J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. -- Highlights: ► IL-8 is over-expressed in human MMA(III)-exposed urothelial

  7. Fast charging of lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calasanzio, D. (FIAMM SpA, Montecchio Maggiore (Italy)); Maja, M. (Polytechnical Univ., Turin (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering); Spinelli, P. (Polytechnical Univ., Turin (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    A key point in the development of storage batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) is the possibility for fast recharging. It is widely recognized that the lead/acid system represents an excellent candidate for EVs because of the low cost, durability, and expectance of improvements in the near future. The viability of the lead/acid battery for EV applications would be greatly enhanced if fast recharging could be applied to the system without shortening its life. The present paper reports the results obtained by simulating the charging behaviour with a mathematical model that is capable of predicting the behaviour of nonconventional lead/acid cells both on discharge and recharge. The effects of important parameters such as plate dimensions, acid distribution, and porosity of the active mass are taken into account. The data obtained with the simulation are compared with results got from fast-recharge testing of commercial batteries. (orig.)

  8. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  9. Developments in lead/acid stationary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Don

    1993-05-01

    Valve-regulated designs of the lead/acid system are securing significant shares of the markets for stationary batteries. This paper discusses the major problems that have been encountered with the introduction of valve-generated technology. Areas that have provided particular difficulties include: (1) acid leakage (container-cover, post-seal and vent leaks); (2) adverse effects of ripple current; (3) variations in float voltage, and (4) initial value of recharge current.

  10. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  11. Arsenic speciation and identification of monomethylarsonous acid and monomethylthioarsonic acid in a complex matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathavakilla, Santha Ketavarapu V; Fricke, Michael; Creed, Patricia A; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Shockey, Nohora V; Schwegel, Carol; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2008-02-01

    Anion-exchange chromatography was utilized for speciation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), and the new As species monomethylthioarsonic acid (MMTA), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detection. MMA(III) and MMTA were identified for the first time in freeze-dried carrot samples that were collected over 25 years ago as part of a joint U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA, and USDA study on trace elements in agricultural crops. The discovery of MMA(III) and MMTA in terrestrial foods necessitated the analytical characterization of synthetic standards of both species, which were used for standard addition in carrot extracts. The negative ion mode, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) data produced molecular ions of m/z 122.9418 and 154.9152 for MMA(III) and MMTA, respectively. However, ESI-MS was not sensitive enough to directly identify MMA(III) and MMTA in the carrot extracts. Therefore, to further substantiate the identification of MMA(III) and MMTA, two additional separations using an Ion-120 column were developed using the more sensitive ICPMS detection. The first separation used 20 mM tetramethylammonium hydroxide at pH 12.2 with MMA(III) eluting in less than 7 min. In the second separation, MMTA eluted at 11.2 min by utilizing 40 mM ammonium carbonate at pH 9.0. Oxidation of MMA(III) and MMTA to MMA(V) with hydrogen peroxide was observed for standards and carrot extracts alike. Several samples of carrots collected from local markets in 2006 were also analyzed and found to contain low levels of inorganic arsenic species. PMID:18181583

  12. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  13. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.;

    2005-01-01

    been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries...... as this technology is the most commonly used. Through thiswork the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems....

  14. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Holden, L. S.; May, G. J.; Newnham, R. H.; Peters, K.

    Given the growing importance of valve-regulated lead/acid technology in many existing and emerging market areas, an expert panel was assembled at the Sixth Asian Battery Conference to answer questions from delegates on various technical and operational aspects of such batteries. Key issues included: advantantages; performance and reliability; thermal runaway; and failure modes. The interaction between the audience and the panel was both vigorous and informative. Overwhelmingly, it was agreed that valve-regulated technology has come of age and offers a dynamic solution to many of the world's energy-storage requirements and opportunities.

  15. Relativity and the lead-acid battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Blomqvist, Andreas; Larsson, Peter; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    The energies of the solid reactants in the lead-acid battery are calculated ab initio using two different basis sets at nonrelativistic, scalar-relativistic, and fully relativistic levels, and using several exchange-correlation potentials. The average calculated standard voltage is 2.13 V, compared with the experimental value of 2.11 V. All calculations agree in that 1.7-1.8 V of this standard voltage arise from relativistic effects, mainly from PbO2 but also from PbSO4.

  16. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  17. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  18. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  19. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  20. Lead-acid battery technologies fundamentals, materials, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Joey; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Lead-Acid Battery Technologies: Fundamentals, Materials, and Applications offers a systematic and state-of-the-art overview of the materials, system design, and related issues for the development of lead-acid rechargeable battery technologies. Featuring contributions from leading scientists and engineers in industry and academia, this book:Describes the underlying science involved in the operation of lead-acid batteriesHighlights advances in materials science and engineering for materials fabricationDelivers a detailed discussion of the mathematical modeling of lead-acid batteriesAnalyzes the

  1. Lightweight lead acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This report presents architectures, designs and chemistries for novel static soluble lead acid batteries, with the objective of producing a lightweight lead acid battery for improved specific energy. The demands for lightweight lead-acid batteries come from an expanding hybrid electric vehicle market demanding improved battery specific energy. There are several avenues for improving battery specific energy; the main two are improved active material utilisation efficiency and grid weight reduc...

  2. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    OpenAIRE

    Pecenová Z.; Kouřil M.

    2016-01-01

    Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal) can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous co...

  3. Global gene expression changes in human urothelial cells exposed to low-level monomethylarsonous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid in UROtsa was investigated. ► At 3 months of exposure substantial changes were observed in gene expression. ► Notable changes occurred in mitogenic signaling, stress, immune and inflammatory responses. ► Gene expression changes correlate with phenotypic changes from previous studies. -- Abstract: Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa) at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III) was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A microarray analysis was performed to assess the transcriptional changes in UROtsa during the critical window of chronic 50 nM MMA(III) exposure that leads to transformation at 3 months of exposure. The analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of exposure, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. The gene expression changes at 3 months were analyzed showing distinct alterations in biological processes and pathways such as a response to oxidative stress, enhanced cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, MAPK signaling, as well as inflammation. Twelve genes selected as markers of these particular biological processes were used to validate the microarray and these genes showed a time-dependent changes at 1 and 2 months of exposure, with the most substantial changes occurring at 3 months of exposure. These results indicate that there is a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occur with chronic MMA(III) exposure and the observed gene expression patterns that are indicative of a malignant transformation. Although the substantial changes that occur at 3 months of exposure may be a consequence of transformation, there are common occurrences of altered

  4. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS. PMID:27327130

  5. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS.

  6. High-Performance Positive Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wen-Hong

    1992-01-01

    Newly formulated paste for application to positive plates of lead/acid batteries imparts higher discharge currents and higher specific energy. Other disadvantages of paste, designated F2: contains no acid or free lead, no extra curing process required, and paste has high porosity, high surface area, and good strength.

  7. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories.

  8. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  9. Lead acetate trihydrate precursor route to synthesize novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Yu, Wenhao; Dong, Jinxin; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha

    2014-12-01

    A novel green recycling process is investigated to prepare lead acetate trihydrate precursors and novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes. The route contains the following four processes. (1) The spent lead pastes are desulphurized by (NH4)2CO3. (2) The desulphurized pastes are converted into lead acetate solution by leaching with acetic acid solution and H2O2; (3) The Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O precursor is crystallized and purified from the lead acetate solution with the addition of glacial acetic acid; (4) The novel ultrafine lead oxide is prepared by the calcination of lead acetate trihydrate precursor in N2 or air at 320-400 °C. Both the lead acetate trihydrate and lead oxide products are characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM techniques. The calcination products are mainly α-PbO, β-PbO, and a small amount of metallic Pb. The particle size of the calcination products in air is significantly larger than that in N2. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of the novel ultrafine lead oxide products show good reversibility and cycle stability. The assembled batteries using the lead oxide products as cathode active materials show a good cyclic stability in 80 charge/discharge cycles with the depth of discharge (DOD) of 100%.

  10. Development of new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Alan I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  11. Lightweight, High-Energy Lead/Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1991-01-01

    Concept for lead/acid battery calls for woven-grid bipolar electrodes. Stack of bipolar cells form lead/acid battery. Each cell contains pair of folded electrodes, negative on one side of fold, positive on other. In high-voltage configuration, battery has higher specific energy and power. Rugged, longlived, and maintenance-free. Made from readily available, low-cost materials by standard lead/acid production methods, well suited for use in electronic equipment, aircraft, and electric vehicles for industrial and passenger service.

  12. Anodic corrosion of lead, tin and lead-tin alloys in sulphuric acid solutions. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of lead and tin and the effect of tin on the anodic behavior of lead in sulfuric acid solutions has been studied in relation to the corrosion of the positive grid of the lead acid battery. The release of soluble Pb(IV) species into sulfuric acid during the anodic polarization of lead has been mapped using the ring-disk electrode technique and their role in the electrochemistry of lead is discussed. Part of the tetravalent products formed on lead are reduced only at high negative potentials. The usefulness of the rotating ring-disk electrode for the determination of different soluble corrosion products has been demonstrated. Mechanisms for tin dissolution in different regions (open circuit, active dissolution and passive region) have been proposed. Ex situ surface analysis of the anodic layer formed on the tin electrode showed this to be mainly SnO.

  13. Nanocrosses of lead sulphate as the negative active material of lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Pengran; Bu, Xianfu; Kuang, Guizhi; Liu, Wei; Lei, Lixu

    2014-10-01

    Lead sulphate transforms into PbO2 and Pb in the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, when a lead acid battery is charged, thus, it is an active material. It is also generally acknowledged that sulphation results in the failure of lead acid batteries; therefore, it is very interesting to find out how to make lead sulphate more electrochemically active. Here, we demonstrate that nanocrystalline lead sulphate can be used as excellent negative active material in lead acid batteries. The lead sulphate nanocrystals, which are prepared by a facile chemical precipitation of aqueous lead acetate and sodium sulphate in a few minutes, look like crosses with diameter of each arm being 100 nm to 3 μm. The electrode is effectively formed in much shorter time than traditional technique, yet it discharges a capacity of 103 mA h g-1 at the current density of 120 mA g-1, which is 24% higher than that discharged by the electrode made from leady oxide under the same condition. During 100% DOD cycles, more than 80% of that capacity remains in 550 cycles. These results show that lead sulphate can be a nice negative active material in lead acid batteries.

  14. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  15. Recovery of lead from lead paste in spent lead acid battery by hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunjian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Lead sulfate, lead oxides and lead metal are the main component of lead paste in spent lead acid battery. When lead sulfate was desulfurized and transformed into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate, lead metal and lead oxides remained unchanged. Lead carbonate is easily decomposed to lead oxide and carbon dioxide under high temperature. Namely, vacuum thermal process is the reduction reaction of lead oxides. A compatible environmental process consisted of hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction to recycle lead was investigated in this research. Lead paste was firstly desulfurized with sodium carbonate, by which, the content of sulfur declined from 7.87% to 0.26%. Then, the desulfurized lead paste was reduced by charcoal under vacuum. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., vacuum thermal reduction at temperature 850°C under 20 Pa for 45 min, a 22.11×10(-2) g cm(-2) min(-1) reduction rate, and a 98.13% direct recovery ratio of fine lead (99.77%) had been achieved, respectively.

  16. Using lead-acid accumulators in hybrid electric vehicle regime

    OpenAIRE

    Hejdiš, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis discuss characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and lead-acid accumulators applied in car industry. It compares classic and alternative drive in cars, descibes classification of hybrid drives and its characteristics. Further work disscus lead-acid accumulators which focuses on VRLA accumulators applied in hybrid electric cars. Practical part contains a construction description of negative electrode and experiment, which studied influence of various amount addition of c...

  17. Research on Activators for Lead-Acid Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Michio; Kozawa, Akiya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract : The ITE Battery Research group has developed a new organic battery activator for new and used lead-acid batteries. Ten years of investigation have established the validity of the ITE activator that prolongs the useful life of lead-acid batteries. It has been shown that the specific gravity of spent batteries can be restored to the original level in automotive, motive power; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and stationary energy storage batteries. Our results show that the disca...

  18. Durable Bipolar Plates For Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Thomas J.; Pinsky, Naum

    1990-01-01

    New structure for positive faces of bipolar plates increases longevity of lead/acid batteries. Divides positive-electrode layer into many isolated segments so defects cannot spread across layer. Surfaces treated before assembly to promote adhesion. Ridges on body divide possible electrode into isolated squares, each typically 1 in. on side. Materials supporting electrochemically active components lightweight and resistant to acid.

  19. Effect of lead foam grid on performance of lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-song; WANG Dian-long; HU Xin-guo; JIANG Zhao-hua; YAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase the specific energy and specific power of a lead-acid battery, lead foam grid was prepared by electrodepositing Pb-Sn alloy on a copper foam substrate and used as negative current collector for a lead acid battery whose capacity was limited by the negative plate. Comparing the effect of the cast grid, under the same conditions, the mass of lead foam grid decreases by 35% , and the area of lead foam contacted with active material increases by about 20 times. Under 2 h rate discharge condition, with a high current (3.0 I2 ) e and low-temperature ( - 10 ℃, I2 ) discharge system, the lead foam grid markedly boosts the discharge performance of lead acid battery. It increases not only the negative electrode mass specific capacity by 27% ,37%and 29% ,but also the utilization efficiency of the negative active material by 5%. Compared with the negative electrode of cast grid, XRD and SEM results show that after 20 cycles at the state of charge, the sponge lead in the negative lead foam electrode has smaller crystals and less PbSO4 on its surface. Meanwhile, at the state of full discharge, the PbSO4 crystals are smaller and occur less on the surface of lead foam electrode. This indicates its active material reacts more uniformly.

  20. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  1. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  2. Characterization of nano-lead-doped active carbon and its application in lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Xue, Haitao; Liu, Fangyang; Jia, Ming; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, nano-lead-doped active carbon (nano-Pb/AC) composite with low hydrogen evolution current for lead-acid battery was prepared by ultrasonic-absorption and chemical-precipitate method. The nano-Pb/AC composite was characterized by SEM, EDS and TEM. The electrochemical characterizations are performed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a three-electrode system. Since intermediate adsorption is the rate-determining step, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is markedly inhibited as the intermediate adsorption impedance of nano-Pb/AC increased. Meanwhile, the working potential of nano-Pb/AC is widened to the whole potential region of Pb negative plate (from -1.36 V to -0.86 V vs. Hg/HgSO4) in lead-acid battery. In addition, nano-Pb can improve the interfacial compatibility between AC and Pb paste, accordingly relieve the symptoms of carbon floatation. Finally, 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with 1.0 wt.% nano-Pb/AC or 1.0 wt.% AC addition in negative active materials are assembled. The cell performances test results show that the 3 h rate capacity, quick charging performance, high current discharging performance and cycling performance of nano-Pb/AC modified battery are all improved compared with regular lead-acid battery and AC modified lead-acid battery.

  3. Preparation and characterization of nano-structured lead oxide from spent lead acid battery paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Yang, Danni; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Kumar, R Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2012-02-15

    As part of contribution for developing a green recycling process of spent lead acid battery, a nanostructural lead oxide was prepared under the present investigation in low temperature calcination of lead citrate powder. The lead citrate, the precursor for preparation of this lead oxide, was synthesized through leaching of spent lead acid battery paste in citric acid solution. Both lead citrate and oxide products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the lead citrate was sheet-shape crystal of Pb(C(6)H(6)O(7)) · H(2)O. When the citrate was calcined in N(2) gas, β-PbO in the orthorhombic phase was the main product containing small amount of Pb and C and it formed as spherical particles of 50-60 nm in diameter. On combusting the citrate in air at 370°C (for 20 min), a mixture of orthorhombic β-PbO, tetragonal α-PbO and Pb with the particle size of 100-200 nm was obtained, with β-PbO as the major product. The property of the nanostructural lead oxide was investigated by electrochemical technique, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV measurements presented the electrochemical redox potentials, with reversibility and cycle stability over 15 cycles.

  4. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  5. Performance characteristics of lead oxides in pasted lead/acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Saba, A.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Shenouda, A.Y. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The performance characteristics of lead oxides used for the pasted type of lead/acid battery plate have been investigated. The [alpha]- and [beta]-PbO polymorphs have been prepared carefully and used for pasting model electrodes. The factors that may affect the electrical capacity of such electrodes have been studied. These are: the type of oxide; percentage of free lead; additives such as carboxymethyl cellulose, zeolite and graphite. Lead hydroxide has also been studied with special attention. Photomicrographs have been taken to examine the crystal forms that develop on the electrode surface. Finally, some industrial samples have been investigated. (orig.)

  6. Research on thin grid materials of lead-acid batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Erdong; SHI Pengfei; GAO Jun

    2006-01-01

    A detailed investigation on Pb-Ca-Sn alloys was made in order to choose suitable grid alloys materials for thin plate lead-acid batteries. The electrochemical performances of alloys were investigated by electrochemical corrosion experiment, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) test. The results indicate that Pb-Ca-Sn-Bi-Cu alloys can be used to make the grids used for thin grid lead-acid batteries, the content of bismuth has primaryeffects on the corrosion resistance of grid alloys, the composition of alloys plays an important role on batteries performance, and appropriate scale of elements can be choosed to obtain optimal electrochemical performance. The lead-acid batteries using this kind of grid show good performance by cycle life test.

  7. Simulation of lead-acid battery using model order reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Vahid; Ansari, Amir Babak; Torabi, Farschad

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has been applied to the coupled one-dimensional electrochemical transport equations in order to efficiently simulate lead-acid batteries, numerically. The governing equations, including conservation of charge in solid and liquid phases and conservation of species are solved simultaneously. The POD-based method for a lead-acid cell is used to simulate a discharge process to show the capability of the present method. The obtained results show that not only the POD-based ROM of lead-acid battery significantly decreases the computational time but also there is an excellent agreement with the results of previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models.

  8. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  9. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  10. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and the

  11. Ocular trauma from lead-acid vehicle battery explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, S

    1982-02-01

    Ocular trauma caused by lead-acid car battery explosions has been seen in a number of cases presenting to the major teaching hospitals in Adelaide. Injuries range from superficial acid burns to penetrating eye injury and retinal haemorrhage. The cause of the explosions has been ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture generated by lead-acid batteries. The risk of explosion is known to battery manufacturing and distributing bodies and methods of avoiding explosions are well known to the industry. It is suggested that efforts should be made to design safe car batteries, and that there is an urgent need to educate the public to the risks involved with the present batteries.

  12. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  13. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  14. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  15. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  16. Epidemiological-environmental study of lead acid battery workers. I. Environmental study of five lead acid battery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W; Gamble, J

    1984-10-01

    Industrial hygiene measurements were taken at five lead acid battery plants. The average of all personal samples for H2SO4 was 0.18 mg/m3 with a range of "nondetectable" to 1.7 mg/m3. Highest levels of acid were found in the charging and forming areas of the plants. Stibine and arsine were also detected in the charging and forming areas (means = 0.44 and 0.042 mg/m3, respectively). Arsenic in particulate form was also detected, but levels were low (means = 0.00083 mg/m3). The average mass median aerodynamic diameter of the acid mist as measured by cascade impactors was approximately 5 micron. Air lead results were variable with an overall average of 0.072 mg/m3 and a standard deviation of 0.11 mg/m3.

  17. Fuzzy Control of a Lead Acid Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DAOUD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an alternative battery charging control technique based on fuzzy logic for photovoltaic (PV applications is presented. A PV module is connected to a buck type DC/DC power converter and a microcontroller based unit is used to control the lead acid battery charging voltage. The fuzzy control is used due to the simplicity of implementation, robustness and independence from the complex mathematical representation of the battery. The usefulness of this control method is confirmed by experiments.

  18. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  19. Elecrokinetic separation of sulphate and lead from sludge of spent lead acid battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, S; Dhanibabu, T; Veluchamy, A; Palanichamy, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrokinetic (EK) technique is applied to separate lead and sulphate from the sludge of used/spent lead acid battery. XRD reveals that the sludge is a mixture of (PbO)(4) [Pb(SO(4))], Pb(2)O(3), PbSO(4), Pb(S(2)O(3)) and Pb(2)(SO(4)) which upon DC voltage application in a EK cell employing either titanium electrodes or titanium substrate insoluble anode as electrodes caused migration of sulphates and lead ions respectively into anode and cathode compartments, and accumulation of insoluble lead oxides at the central compartment. The insoluble lead oxides accumulated at the central compartment in the ratio 1:3, respectively for the high oxygen over-voltage Ti-anode (Ti-EK cell) and low oxygen over-voltage TSIA-anode (TSIA-EK cell) shows the superiority of Ti anode over TSIA anode. Also thermal investigation reveals Pb deposited at Ti-cathode is superior to that from TSIA cathode. This process does not release air/soil pollutants which are usually associated with high temperature pyrotechnic process.

  20. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  1. Electrochemical and Mechanical Behavior of Lead-Silver and Lead-Bismuth Casting Alloys for Lead-Acid Battery Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri

    2015-09-01

    The present study focuses on the interrelation of microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of Pb-Ag and Pb-Bi casting alloys, which can be used in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components, as potential alternatives to alloys currently used. A water-cooled solidification system is used, in which vertical upward directional solidification is promoted permitting a wide range of microstructures to be investigated. Correlations between microstructural arrays, tensile strengths, and corrosion resistances of Pb-1 wt pct Ag, Pb-2.5 wt pct Ag, Pb-1 wt pct Bi, and Pb-2.5 wt pct Bi alloys are envisaged. It is shown that a compromise between corrosion resistance (represented by the corrosion current density) and mechanical properties (represented by the ultimate tensile strength) can be obtained. Comparisons between specific strengths and mechanical/corrosion ratios are also made. It is also shown that, for microstructures solidified under cooling rates higher than 10 K/s, the Pb-Ag alloys exhibit higher specific strength and mechanical/corrosion ratio. In contrast, for casting processes in which the cooling rates are lower than 5 K/s, the dilute Pb-Bi alloy ( i.e., 1 wt pct Bi) is shown to have more appropriate requirements for lead-acid battery components. Comparisons between specific strengths, mechanical/corrosion ratio, and relative weight and cost with Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloys are also made.

  2. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, D. A. J.; Boden, D. P.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Nelson, R. F.; Prengaman, R. D.

    An expert panel replies to questions on lead-acid technology and performance asked by delegates to the Ninth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Grid alloys: effects of calcium and tin levels on microstructure, corrosion, mechanical and electrochemical properties; effect of alloy-fabrication process on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance; low dross-make during casting of lead-calcium-tin alloys; future of book-mould casting; effect of increasing levels of silver; stability of continuously processed grids at high temperature. Negative-plate expanders: function of lignosulfonates and barium sulfate; benefits of pre-blended expanders; optimum expander formulations. Valve-regulated batteries: effect of oxygen cycle; optimum methods for float charging; charging and deep-cycle lifetimes; reliability testing.

  3. An Exploratory Study Of Lead Recovery In Lead-Acid Battery Lifecycle In US Market: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling ra...

  4. Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials for possible applications as positive electrode grid in lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolshina, L. A.; Yolshina, V. A.; Yolshin, A. N.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Novel lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composites which melt at temperature of the melting point of lead were investigated as possible positive current collectors for lead acid batteries in sulfuric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, difference scanning calorimetry, cyclic voltammetry and prolonged corrosion tests were employed to characterize the effect of the newly proposed lead-carbon metallic composites on the structure and electrochemical properties of positive grid material. Both lead-graphene and lead-graphite metallic composite materials show the similar electrochemical characteristics to metallic lead in the voltage range where the positive electrodes of lead acid batteries operate. It has been shown that carbon both as graphene and graphite does not participate in the electrochemical process but improve corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of both metallic composite materials. No products of interaction of lead with sulfuric acid were formed on the surface of graphene and graphite so as it was not found additional peaks of carbon discharge on voltammograms which could be attributed to the carbon. Graphene inclusions in lead prevent formation of leady oxide nanocrystals which deteriorate discharge characteristics of positive electrode of LAB. Both lead-graphene alloy and lead-graphite metallic composite proved excellent electrochemical and corrosion behavior and can be used as positive grids in lead acid batteries of new generation.

  5. Oxide for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O. V.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.; Rice, D. M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide has been manufactured (Barton-pot method) from this soft lead and is characterized in terms of phase composition, particle size distribution, BET surface area, and reactivity. An investigation is also made of the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from the Bi-bearing oxide. For comparison, the characteristics and performance of a Bi-free (Barton-pot) oxide, which is manufactured in the USA, are also examined. Increasing the level of bismuth and lowering those of the other impurities in soft lead produces no unusual changes in either the physical or the chemical properties of the resulting Bi-bearing oxide compared with Bi-free oxide. This is very important because there is no need for battery manufacturers to change their paste formulae and paste-mixing procedures on switching to the new Bi-bearing oxide. There is little difference in the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from Bi-bearing or Bi-free oxides. On the other hand, these rates increase on the former electrodes when the levels of all the other impurities are made to exceed (by deliberately adding the impurities as oxide powders) the corresponding, specified values for the Bi-bearing oxide. The latter behaviour is particularly noticeable for hydrogen evolution, which is enhanced even further when a negative electrode prepared from Bi-bearing oxide is contaminated through the deposition of impurities added to the sulfuric acid solution. The effects of impurities in the positive

  6. Improved lead recovery and sulphate removal from used lead acid battery through electrokinetic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundarrajan, C; Sivasankar, A; Maruthamuthu, S; Veluchamy, A

    2012-05-30

    This paper presents improvement in lead (Pb) recovery and sulphate removal from used Pb acid battery (ULAB) through Electrokinetic technique, a process aimed to eliminate environmental pollution that arises due to emission of gases and metal particles from the existing high temperature pyrometallurgical process. Two different cell configurations, (1) one with Nafion membrane placed between anode and middle compartments and Agar membrane between cathode and middle compartments and (2) another with only Agar membrane placed between both sides of the middle compartments were designed for the Pb and sulphate separation from ULAB. This paper concludes that the cell with only Agar membranes performed better than the cell with Nafion and Agar membranes in combinations and also explains the mechanism underlying the chemical and electrochemical processes in the cell.

  7. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  8. Computer formation of sealed lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, John A.

    The desire of many companies to enter the growing market of valve-regulated batteries (also known as sealed lead/acid) requires a higher level of control in virtually all the stages of manufacture. Formation charging and charge conditioning is a particular case in point. Whether the valve-regulated battery is of the starved-electrolyte or gelled-electrolyte type, the final stages of formation and charge conditioning require careful attention to control the cell voltage. Charge rates that exceed the oxygen-recombination rate will cause excess gassing and thus reduce the available electrolyte. This, in turn, reduces battery life and, in the case of gelled-electrolyte batteries, causes improper cracking of the gell and concomitant reduction in capacity, performance and life. Valve-regulated batteries require charging equipment that can automatically regulate charge/discharge current and voltage. Given the requirement for multiple steps of battery conditioning, computer control provides a totally effective way to control the voltage, current, time, ampere hours and charge/discharge functions without operator assistance.

  9. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U. [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, E.; Surewaard, E. [Ford Research Center Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-05-25

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking. (author)

  10. A study on lead toxicity among the workers in an unorganized sector of lead-acid battery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathy Naidana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: (1-To study various manifestations of lead toxicity at different levels of exposure among the Lead-Acid battery workers and (2-To study various factors contributing to the toxicity of lead among the workers. Results: High amounts of lead were detected in the blood samples of the workers. The commonest lead related symptoms observed among the workers were malaise (32.1%, fatigue (25.9%, arthralgia (20.9%, abdominal colic (16% and headache (13.6%. Smoking found to be an important contributory factor in the lead related manifestations. An inverse association of practice of hygiene with mean blood lead value was observed among heavily exposed workers. A statistically significant difference was observed between heavily exposed and moderately exposed to lead regarding presence of pallor, malaise symptom, presence of one or more lead related symptoms, blood lead levels, haemoglobin values, etc. Conclusion: A majority of Lead-Acid battery workers (64.19% were highly exposed to lead by their nature of work. The prevalence of toxicity was more among the heavily exposed than the moderately exposed. Minimizing the exposure during the work is very important factor to protect the health of the workers.

  11. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  12. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; D C Trivedi; A K Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight grids for lead-acid battery grids have been prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer followed by coating with lead. Subsequently, the grids have been electrochemically coated with a conductive and corrosion-resistant layer of polyaniline. These grids are about 75% lighter than those employed in conventional lead-acid batteries. Commercial-grade 6V/3.5Ah (C20-rate) lead-acid batteries have been assembled and characterized employing positive and negative plates constituting these grids. The specific energy of such a lead-acid battery is about 50 Wh/kg. The batteries can withstand fast charge-discharge duty cycles.

  13. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  14. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects. PMID:26921546

  15. An evaluation of the significance of mouth and hand contamination for lead absorption in lead-acid battery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far, H S; Pin, N T; Kong, C Y; Fong, K S; Kian, C W; Yan, C K

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of ingestion through hand and mouth contamination in the absorption of lead in 25 lead-acid battery workers. Levels of personal exposure to airborne lead ranged from 0.004 to 2.58 mg/m3 [geometric mean 0.098, with 25% of samples exceeding threshold limit values (ACGIH) of 0.15 mg/m3]; the mean (SD) blood lead level was 48.9 (10.8) micrograms/dl. Mean hand lead contents increased 33-fold from preshift levels on Monday mornings (33.5 micrograms/500 ml) to midshift levels on Thursday afternoons (1121 micrograms/500 ml). Mouth lead contents increased 16-fold from 0.021 micrograms/50 ml on Mondays to 0.345 micrograms/50 ml on Thursdays. The typical Malay racial habit of feeding with bare hands and fingers without utensils (closely associated with mouth and hand lead levels on Mondays) explained the bulk of the variance in blood lead levels (40%), with mouth lead on Thursdays (closely associated with poor personal hygiene) explaining a further 10%. Air lead was not a significant explanatory variable. The implementation of a programme of reinforcing hand-washing and mouth-rinsing practices resulted in a reduction of the blood lead level by 11.5% 6 months later. These results indicate that parenteral intake from hand and mouth contamination is an important cause of lead absorption in lead-exposed workers.

  16. Lead poisoning among household members exposed to lead-acid battery repair shops in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Ostrowski, S; Burr, G; Jackson-Hunt, L; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-12-01

    To investigate the risk of lead poisoning among household members exposed to 'backyard' battery repair shops (BBRS) in Kingston, Jamaica, environmental and blood lead (PbB) were measured at 24 households (112 individuals) with a BBRS worker or located at a BBRS premises and at 18 neighbourhood control households (74 individuals). Elevated PbB (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per decilitre [micrograms/dl]) was common among subjects of all ages living at BBRS premises, especially among children less than age 12, 43% of whom had PbB greater than 70 micrograms/dl. Potentially hazardous soil and house dust lead levels were also common at BBRS premises, where 84% of yards had soil lead levels above 500 parts per million (geometric mean 3388 parts per million [ppm] at BBRS premises households with a BBRS worker). Geometric mean blood and environmental lead levels were significantly lower at control households, where less than 10% of subjects in all age groups had elevated PbB (maximum 33 micrograms/dl). Sharing a premises with a BBRS was a stronger determinant of household blood lead and environmental contamination than was the presence of a BBRS worker in a household. Blood lead levels were associated with soil and house dust lead levels in all age groups. We conclude that small battery repair shops, which have also been described in other developing countries, create a high lead poisoning risk for nearby residents.

  17. Reinforced Positive Filler Paste For Lead/Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Rippel, Wally E.

    1991-01-01

    Lead-coated glass fibers extend battery life. Mixture of lead-coated glass fibers and positive paste form pellets of active material between grid wires of positive battery electrode. Fibers contribute to charge capacity, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stability of electrode.

  18. A Comparative Study of Lithium Ion to Lead Acid Batteries for use in UPS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan;

    2014-01-01

    Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems have incorporated in their structure an electrochemical battery which allows for smooth power supply when a power failure occurs. In general, UPS systems are based on lead acid batteries; mainly a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. Recently, lithi......, lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium titanate oxide (LTO) were compared with lead acid batteries, in terms of their basics characteristics (e.g. capacity, internal resistance) and their dependence on the operating conditions....

  19. Citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of lead: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Eriberto Vagner; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams; Souza, Adailson; Silva, Fernando Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a serious environmental problem that requires affordable strategies of remediation. This study was carried out to assess the performance of maize and vetiver in the phytoextraction of Pb from a soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. The species were planted with different spacings between rows (0.80, 0.65 and 0.50m). Citric acid (40mmolkg(-1)) was applied on each experimental plot on the 61st d of cultivation in order to solubilize the Pb and assist the phytoextraction. The results showed that the chelating agent promoted a 14-fold increase in the Pb concentration in maize shoots as compared to the control, which accumulated only 111mgkg(-1) of the metal. The citric acid induced a Pb concentration in vetiver shoots that was 7.2-6.7-fold higher than the control at both the 0.65 and 0.50m plant spacing, respectively. The use of citric acid increased substantially the uptake and translocation of Pb to the shoots, regardless of plant spacing. Citric acid was efficient in solubilizing Pb from the soil and inducing its uptake by both species. Environmentally-friendly and cost effective, commercial citric acid is recommended for assisting Pb-phytoextraction in the studied area. Due to the low natural solubility of Pb and a time frame needed of longer than 150yr to accomplish the clean-up, phytoextraction with no chelate assistance is not recommended for the area.

  20. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment.

  1. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  2. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied.Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT.Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age.Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  3. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  4. Experimental analysis of lead-in-air sources in lead-acid battery manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, K J; Knutson, G W

    1979-07-01

    Plant-scale experimental sampling programs were carried out to determine the contribution to the lead-in-air exposure from (a) fork-truck transport of pasted plates in racks and (b) manual loading and unloading of plates from racks. Fork-truck transport was found not significant under "clean" conditions. Manual loading and unloading was found significant.

  5. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  6. Application of diffraction techniques in studies of lead/acid battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a resume of the most significant contributions to lead/acid battery research made by X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. In addition, those areas of research are defined which show the most promise in achieving improvements in the performance of the lead/acid battery. (Auth.)

  7. Oxygen evolution on alpha-lead dioxide electrodes in methanesulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Oxygen evolution on α-PbO2 in methanesulfonic acid medium. ► The reaction kinetics is slower in MSA than in sulphuric acid. ► The hydrated lead dioxide layer affects the reaction kinetics. ► A high MSA concentration leads to lower O2 evolution. - Abstract: This work examines the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) taking place on α-PbO2 electrode in methanesulfonic acid (MSA) medium and in sulphuric acid as a comparison, by means of cyclic voltammetry (CVA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), for soluble lead acid flow battery applications. The influence of MSA concentration on OER is studied. EIS measurements highlighted the impact of the hydrated lead dioxide layer upon decreasing MSA or sulphuric acid concentration. The evolution of the Tafel curves plotted from EIS measurements and quasi-stationary currents while varying acid concentration was interpreted in the light of this hydrated layer which could enhance the electrocatalytic activity when it is thin, and on the contrary act as an electronic barrier when growing for low acid concentration. Both EIS and CVA revealed that OER on lead dioxide is less favoured in MSA than in sulphuric acid. It is finally concluded that a high-concentrated MSA electrolyte is better for lead acid flow battery application in terms of oxygen evolution.

  8. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants.

  9. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Research results from the advanced lead-acid battery consortium point the way to longer life and higher specific energy for lead/acid electric-vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, P.T. [The International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1998-05-18

    Amidst the welter of publicity devoted to the newer battery chemistries, the remarkable progress made by lead/acid battery technologists in response to the needs of the emerging electric-vehicle market has tended to be overlooked. The flooded design of battery, launched by Gaston Plante around 1860, has given way to a valve-regulated variant which has a history dating only from the 1970s. The key parameters of this `maintenance free` battery have been improved markedly during the course of the development programme of the advanced lead-acid battery consortium (ALABC), and it is likely that lead/acid will continue to feature strongly in motive-power applications as a result of its cost advantage and of its enhanced effectiveness. (orig.)

  11. Research results from the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium point the way to longer life and higher specific energy for lead/acid electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P. T.

    Amidst the welter of publicity devoted to the newer battery chemistries, the remarkable progress made by lead/acid battery technologists in response to the needs of the emerging electric-vehicle market has tended to be overlooked. The flooded design of battery, launched by Gaston Planté around 1860, has given way to a valve-regulated variant which has a history dating only from the 1970s. The key parameters of this `maintenance free' battery have been improved markedly during the course of the development programme of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), and it is likely that lead/acid will continue to feature strongly in motive-power applications as a result of its cost advantage and of its enhanced effectiveness.

  12. Expression of selected pathway-marker genes in human urothelial cells exposed chronically to a non-cytotoxic concentration of monomethylarsonous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A previous microarray analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of chronic exposure to MMA(III, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. To address the lack of information between 2 and 3 months of exposure (the critical period of transformation, the expression of select pathway marker genes was measured by PCR array analysis on a weekly basis. Cell proliferation rate, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in SCID mice were also assessed to determine the early, persistent phenotypic changes and their association with the changes in expression of these selected marker genes. A very similar pattern of alterations in these genes was observed when compared to the microarray results, and suggested that early perturbations in cell signaling cascades, immunological pathways, cytokine expression, and MAPK pathway are particularly important in driving malignant transformation. These results showed a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occurred as early as 1–2 months of chronic MMA(III exposure, and the observed gene expression pattern that is indicative of the earliest stages in carcinogenesis.

  13. Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Nibedita; Bhar, R B; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, Amal Roy

    2005-04-01

    Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P lead and semen lead was significantly (P lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories.

  14. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  15. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  16. A novel ultrafine leady oxide prepared from spent lead pastes for application as cathode of lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Danni; Liu, Jianwen; Wang, Qin; Yuan, Xiqing; Zhu, Xinfeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yuchen; Sun, Xiaojuan; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2014-07-01

    A novel ultrafine leady oxide has been prepared from a combustion-calcination process of lead citrate precursor (Pb3(C6H5O7)2·3H2O), by hydrometallurgical leaching of spent lead pastes firstly. The leady oxides are used to assemble lead acid battery which are subjected to cyclic voltammetry (CV) and battery testing. Various key properties of the new oxides, such as morphology, crystalline phases, degree of oxidation, apparent density and water and acid absorption value have been characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that leady oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures mainly comprise β-PbO, α-PbO and Pb. Unlike traditional leady oxide, the new oxide product prepared at 375 °C has a rod-like morphology with greater porous structure, and appears smaller density, lower value of acid absorption and larger propensity for water absorption. In battery testing, the 20 h rate and 1C rate discharge time have exceeded 26 h and 40 min, respectively. Results reveal that the leady oxide prepared at 375 °C exhibits excellent electrochemical performance and initial capacity as positive active material. While leady oxide obtained at 450 °C presents a relatively improved cycle life. Further work is to optimize the battery manufacturing process for better cycle performance.

  17. The development of a new sealed bipolar lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Rowlette, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    New light weight composite bipolar plates which can withstand the corrosive environment of the lead acid battery have made possible the construction of a sealed bipolar lead acid battery that promises to achieve very high specific power levels and substantially higher energy densities than conventional lead acid batteries. Performance projections based on preliminary experimental results show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  18. Impairment of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from lead acid battery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governa, M; Valentino, M; Visona, I; Scielso, R

    1988-06-01

    Since lead impairs in vitro the functions of macrophagic cells, we have studied the chemotactic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) obtained from lead acid battery workers who were removed from exposure one month before, because they had an abnormal lead absorption. Controls were 18 age matched subjects without any history of occupational lead exposure. Both lead acid battery workers and controls had no alterations of the blood haematological and metabolic parameters. Chemotaxis was carried on in Boyden chambers using zymosan activated serum as chemotactic stimulus. The chemotactic indexes are 56.4 +/- 8.7 in acid battery workers and 75.6 +/- in controls. The difference, which is statistically significant, shows that lead workers have an impairment of PMNs chemotactic activity.

  19. Investigation of lead dendrite growth in the formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yanzhen; Hu, Jingcheng; Ye, Wenmei; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Gang; Guo, Yonglang

    2015-07-01

    The battery temperature, H2SO4 distribution, Pb2+ ion concentration and composition of the plates during the plate soaking of the 12 V 12 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery are studied. A simulated cell composed by two pure Pb plates and the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator is used to investigate the growth of the lead dendrite in the separator, which is verified by analyzing the faulty batteries after the formation and the failure batteries after the usage. It is found that the H2SO4 is exhausted very quickly after filling and the separator near the plates can become neutral during soaking. Low acidity, high temperature and small PbSO4 particle size will increase the Pb2+ ion concentration. Higher Pb2+ ion concentration makes more PbSO4 tend to deposit on the coarse glass fibers, develop along them and even enwrap the entire fiber. And the fine PbSO4 crystals are continually transformed into large PbSO4 crystals via dissolution-deposition. In the subsequent charge, these PbSO4 crystals will be reduced to the club-shaped lead dendrites and may lead to short circuit of the battery.

  20. Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogel, L W

    1986-02-01

    Effective protection factors for lead-acid storage battery manufacturing workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-mask, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered, air-purifying respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.

  1. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-09-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility.

  2. Recovery of lead from smelting fly ash of waste lead-acid battery by leaching and electrowinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuh-Shun; Shih, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash that was enriched with lead (Pb), formed as an intermediate in waste lead-acid battery (WLAB) smelting, was recycled by the hydro-electrometallurgy. Characterization of fly ash thereof indicated that the Pb was in the forms of PbSO4 (anglesite) and Pb2OSO4 (lanarkite). Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were firstly used to study the leaching of the fly ash sample, which was affected by leachant dosage and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L). At an S/L of 60gL(-1), the leachability of Pb was 43% and 67% in 2M acidic and basic solutions, respectively, based on an average 70wt% of Pb in the original fly ash. Anglesite was completely soluble in NaOH and lanarkite was mildly soluble in HNO3. Pb was recovered from the pregnant leach solution within an electrolytic cell constructed with graphite or RuO2/IrO2-coated titanium (Ti-DSA) anodes and a stainless steel cathode. Properties of anodes deposited with lead dioxides were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The optimized parameters of electrowinning were 2M NaOH leachant, a current density of 0.75Adm(-2) and an electrolytic process duration of 120min, which yielded a Pb removal of higher than 99% and a specific energy consumption of 0.57Whg(-1). This process constitutes an eco-friendly and economic alternative to the presently utilized secondary pyrometallurgy for treating lead-containing fly ash.

  3. Manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    This paper introduces the manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. The contents cover the following topics: (i) background development; (ii) materials; (iii) manufacturing technology and equipment; (iv) application and market prospects.

  4. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse-impedance spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hariprakash; S K Martha; A K Shukla

    2003-10-01

    A reliable diagnostics of lead-acid batteries would become mandatory with the induction of an improved power net and the increase of electrically assisted features in future automobiles. Sparse-impedance spectroscopic technique described in this paper estimates the internal resistance of sealed automotive lead-acid batteries in the frequency range 10 Hz-10 kHz, usually produced by the alternators fitted in the automobiles. The state-of-health of the battery could be monitored from its internal resistance.

  5. Cost and design study for electric vehicle lead--acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A design and cost study for electric-vehicle lead--acid batteries is presented; a research and development program leading to demonstration and testing of 20- to 30-kWh batteries is proposed. Both flat pasted and tubular positive electrodes are included. Detailed testing programs are set forth. 110 figures, 8 tables (RWR)

  6. Environmental and biological monitoring in a lead acid battery manufacturing unit in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, B; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2005-07-01

    An environmental and biological monitoring of a lead acid battery manufacturing unit was carried out to measure the respirable particulate matter, lead content in working atmosphere and blood lead levels of workers employed in different sections. The results showed high mean air lead concentration in buffing (1444.45 microg/m(3)), plate cutting (430.14 microg/m(3)) and pasting (277.48 microg/m(3)) sections. The mean blood lead levels of employees in these sections were also higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH.

  7. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  8. Metabolism of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in lead-poisoned children and normal adults.

    OpenAIRE

    P. ASIEDU; Moulton, T; Blum, C B; Roldan, E.; Lolacono, N J; Graziano, J H

    1995-01-01

    Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, or succimer) is an oral chelating agent for heavy-metal poisoning. While studying the urinary elimination of unaltered DMSA, altered DMSA (i.e., its mixed disulfides), and lead in children with lead poisoning, we observed a pattern of urinary drug elimination after meals suggestive of enterohepatic circulation. The excretion of lead in urine patterned the elimination of altered DMSA rather than the parent molecule. In addition, the half-life of eliminat...

  9. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  10. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R2, 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  11. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  12. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  13. Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baoxiang; Wang, Hua; He, Xie

    2014-12-01

    As we know, Lead-acid battery is difficult to balance many factors such as the accuracy and the on-line testing requirement. The detecting system, as stated in this article, is based on the vibration test procedure, dynamically following the electrochemical process of the Lead-acid Battery, and collects the real-time state parameters for calculation, analysis and judgment. It also quantizes precisely the degradation and chargeability of the battery and therefore self-adapts to the ideal target values. During the test, it has not charged and discharged large current to the lead-acid battery, it only plus a smaller and shorter time of impulse voltage signal on both ends of lead-acid battery, so the battery measured is damage free, and the system energy consumption is small; Using the load compensation technology, it has solved the influence of load on the test results. What's more, the load characteristics are improved at the same time, it realized the online detection. The vibration detection is based on the adaptive fuzzy inference model which has taken various factors into account, concerning the choices of input aspects which may influence the output value. It realized a number of Lead-acid Battery voltage self-adaption and accomplished a variety of high-precise tests.

  14. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  15. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  16. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhong Wan; Die Meng; Tao Long; Rongrong Ying; Mao Ye; Shengtian Zhang; Qun Li; Yan Zhou; Yusuo Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximu...

  17. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  18. The advanced lead-acid battery consortium—a worldwide cooperation brings rapid progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The development of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries has, in recent years, been carried forward rapidly through the collaborative efforts of a worldwide consortium of battery manufacturers and related elements of industry; the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). This group has set aside its competitive instincts in order to achieve acceptable goals in respect of those parameters that are key factors controlling the marketability of electric vehicles (EVs): cost, cycle life, specific energy, specific power and rate of recharge. This paper provides an overview of the principal themes of the ALABC research and development programme.

  19. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  20. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types. (author)

  1. Review of cast-on-strap joints and strap alloys for lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, C. S.

    This review examines the influence of the various parameters involved in the cast-on-strap (COS) process on the quality of the resulting lug-strap joints. In addition, it provides the findings of an investigation on the macroscopic and microscopic features of COS joints in commercial lead-acid batteries. Some examples of the most common defects that can affect the performance and life of batteries are presented. The nature of the fusion at the lug-strap interface for the various lugs and strap alloy compositions used in conventional, hybrid and valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are also discussed.

  2. Study on the structure and property of lead tellurium alloy as the positive grid of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W.X. [School of Chemistry and Environment, Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Shu, D. [School of Chemistry and Environment, Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)], E-mail: dshu@scnu.edu.cn; Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J. [School of Chemistry and Environment, Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wang, H.; Xiao, G.M.; Dou, C.L.; Peng, S.G.; Wei, W.W.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, H.W.; Chen, S. [Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co., Ltd., Zhuzhou Hunan 412004 (China)

    2009-05-05

    A series of novel Pb-Te binary alloys with different contents of tellurium (0.01-1.0 wt.%) were investigated as the positive grid of a lead acid battery. The microstructure of Pb-Te alloys was observed using a polarizing microscope. The morphology of the corrosion layers and corroded surfaces of Pb and Pb-Te alloy electrodes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following the corrosion test. The electrochemical properties of Pb-Te alloys and Pb-Te-Sn alloy in sulfuric acid solution were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), alternating current voltammetry (ACV), and linear sweeping voltammetry (LSV). The results indicate that the introduction of tellurium results in grain refinement, increased corrosion resistance, and an accelerated oxygen evolution reaction for the Pb-Te binary alloys. The passive films formed on Pb-Te-Sn alloy shows improved performances in comparison to those on Pb-Ca-Sn alloy.

  3. The Fault tree analysis of the lead acid battery’s degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BRIK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present an approach of reliability to analyze lead-acid battery’s degradation. The construction of causal tree analysis offers a framework privileged to the deductive analysis which consists in seeking the various possible combinations of events leading to the loss of batteries capacity. The description of the causality chain is completed by a fault tree analysis (FTA established from the equivalent electric circuit of battery.

  4. Semen quality and fertility of men employed in a South African lead acid battery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, T G; Bornman, M S; Ehrlich, R I; Cantrell, A C; Pienaar, E; Vallabh, J; Miller, S

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven lead-exposed workers from a South African lead acid battery facility provided semen samples that were analyzed for sperm density, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and presence of antisperm antibodies. Questionnaire data were collected for reported histories of sub- or infertility. Current blood leads ranged from 28 to 93 micrograms/dl. Semen lead ranged from 1 to 87 micrograms/dl. Reasonably consistent and significant associations were found between an increased percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology and higher measures of current blood lead, cumulative blood lead, and duration of exposure. An increased percent of immotile sperm was associated only with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among the lead exposure measures. There were no associations of sperm density or sperm count with any of the lead exposure measures. A weak association of increased percent of sperm with antisperm antibodies with increased semen lead was present. There were no consistent associations of measures of lead exposure with measures of fertility or procreativity. This study, while supporting the association of lead exposure with increased risk of abnormal sperm morphology seen in some previous studies, does not lend support to previously reported associations of sperm density or count or infertility with measures of lead exposure. However, the relatively high range of current blood leads, high prevalence of abnormalities in semen quality, and the lack of a control population, suggest that these negative findings should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Program to analyze the failure mode of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckerbrod, D.

    1986-03-01

    The electrical characteristics of large lead-acid cells from nuclear power plants were studied. The overall goal was to develop nondestructive tests to predict cell failure using this easily obtained information. Cell capacitance, internal resistance, reaction resistance for hydrogen evolution and cell capacity were measured on a lead-calcium cell in good condition. A high float voltage and low internal resistance were found to correlate with good cell capacity in cells selected from a set of six lead-antimony cells in poor condition.

  6. History and current status of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroto; Fuchida, Kyo

    The valve-regulated design of the sealed lead/acid battery (VRB), developed in the first half of the 1960s in Japan for use in portable television sets, has achieved successful market growth. This paper reviews the history of development of VRBs during the past thirty years, present production models, production quality, major applications, and technical problems.

  7. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  8. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  9. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  10. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  11. THE INSPECTION METHOD OF INTERCELL CONNECTIONS AND POLE TERMINALS OF LEAD-ACID STORAGE BATTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dzenzersjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The inspection method of intercell connections and pole terminals of lead-acid storage batteries is upgraded. The method allows reducing losses from rejects, increasing reliability of check of intercell connections and pole terminals, improving the quality of storage batteries.

  12. Estimation of State of Charge of Lead Acid Battery using Radial Basis Function

    OpenAIRE

    Sauradip, M; Sinha, SK; K Muthukumar

    2001-01-01

    A Radial Basis Function based learning system method has been proposed for estimation of State of Charge (SOC) of Lead Acid Battery. Coulomb metric method is used for SOC estimation with correction factor computed by Radial Basis Function Method. Radial basis function based technique is used for learning battery performance variation with time and other parameters. Experimental results are included.

  13. Performance characteristics of a gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; A K Shukla

    2003-08-01

    12 V/25 AH gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid batteries have been assembled in-house and their performance studied in relation to the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte counterparts at various discharge rates and temperatures between –40°C and 40°C. Although the performance of the gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated battery is similar to both the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte lead-acid batteries at temperatures above 0°C, it is superior to both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated lead-acid batteries at temperatures between 0°C and -40°C. The latter characteristic is attractive for expanding the application regime of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. The corrosion rate for the positive grids in the gelled-electrolyte is also lower than both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre configurations.

  14. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  15. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  16. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid

  17. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  18. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  19. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure

  20. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Meng, Die; Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils.

  1. INFLUENCES OF THIAMINE AND/OR ASCORBIC ACID ON LEAD INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghazi-Khansari

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thiamine, ascorbic acid ami their combination an workers who are continuously exposal to lead has been investigated. In this study 60 persons in a Battery industry was selected and divided into four equal groups. Group I received placebo, group II thiamine (300 mg, group III ascorbic acid (250 mg anil group IV thiamine (300 mg plus ascorbic acid (250 mg three times a day (Orally. At beginning of the study and after one month of above drug regimen; blood, urine and a questionnaire about their clinical signs were examined. 'there were no significant differences between blood anil urine lead level in all groups after treatment. Zinc protoporphyrin (zpp level showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid treated group (group III as compared to pretreatment. Clinical manifestation improved in the group that received both vitamins (group IV. However, from a clinical stand point, it appears the usage of these vitamins may have a beneficial effects in lead occupational exposure.

  2. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Wan

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils.

  3. Recycling of spent lead/acid batteries. The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the application of modern recycling technologies in accordance with the European and Greek legislation, aiming at the recovery of lead, polypropylene and sulfuric acid from spent lead (Pb)/acid batteries, is presented. The present state of their disposal and exploitation is also depicted. The international situation is reviewed, the general trends are marked and the main technologies related to lead/acid battery treatment are reported. General recommendations are given regarding the collection of spent batteries and the installation of a recycling plant in Greece. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to define the most significant parameters affecting the viability of a recycling scheme. The present study proves that a possible installation of a Pb/acid batteries recycling process unit, treating 17 000 t/year (estimated total quantity) and situated in the industrial area of the greater Athens region, seems to be economically profitable. The already existing operation of small-scale battery recycling plants, common in small countries, should be discouraged as they demonstrate a rather not environmentally acceptable recycling operation

  4. Organic Acid Characteristics and Tolerance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L Nielsen to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Setyaningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the lead tolerance of sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria seedling based on growth performance, tolerance index, and secretion and accumulation of organic acids content. Seedlings were exposed to lead (Pb with the concentration of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 5, and 10 mM in liquid nutrient culture for 4 days in order to investigate secretion and accumulation  of  oxalic, malic, and citric content, and for 15 days to examine growth performance and tolerance index. The result showed that tolerance index and growth performance of sengon seedling were insignificant (p > 0.05 to the rising of Pb concentration up to 1.5 mM with tolerance index at least 95%, and even caused an increase of fresh weight.  However, the tolerance index and growth of sengon  decreased significantly due to Pb exposure of 5 and 10 mM.  Among the three organic acids, citrate was most dominant as compared to malate and oxalate.  Secretion of citrate increased significantly (p < 0.05 with the rising concentration of Pb 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM,  reaching to 0.464, 0.540, and 0.587 µg mℓ-1, respectively, or rising according linear line (r = 0.9, p < 0.5.  Citrate accumulation showed inconsistent pattern with the rising Pb exposure.  The result suggested that sengon seedling have a slightly tolerance to lead by secretion of organic acid especially citric acid.Keywords: lead, sengon, tolerance, organic acid, liquid nutrient culture

  5. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  6. Recycling of used lead-acid batteries and recovery of the polypropylene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G. [BSB Recycling GmbH, Braubach (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    BSB Recycling GmbH in Braubach, a daughter of the Berzelius Metall GmbH, processes more than 75,000 t/a used lead-acid batteries. BSB is a site for battery recycling. At BSB the lead and the polypropylene content of the batteries are recovered. More than 95% of that battery-feed are recovered in products and intermediates. At BSB 39,000 t/a lead-alloys and 35,000 t/a of high quality Seculene {sup registered} PP granules are produced for the battery and automotive industry in the smelting plant and in the compounding plant. This is a substantial contribution to resource protection. With the BSB-technologies primary lead ores and petroleum are substituted. (orig.)

  7. Recovery of Lead from Sulfide Concentrate after Mechanochemical Activation Using Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; G.L.Pashkov; L.V.Shashina; V.P.Plekhanov; A.A.Sabetskiy

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of lead sulfide concentrates in nitric acidic solutions after ferric (Ⅲ) nitrate addition and mechanical preparation has been investigated. It was found out that the decomposition can be achieved in HNO3 solution (>1.5 mol·L-1) at the temperature above 85℃. The leaching rate of lead can be increased by means of mechanochemical activation. The use of [Fe(NO3)3-HNO3-H2O] aqueous salt system allows the decomposition of lead sulfide concentrate at room temperature and in this case the concentration of HNO3 does not exceed 0.05-0.1 mol.L-1, The degree of lead recovery into solution from PbS concentrate reaches 99.3%-99.6c70 with the mechanochemical activation of this concentrate. The insoluble residues after the leaching contain SiO2, S0, FeCO3 and PbSO4.

  8. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  9. Development of Lead Acid Battery in Submarine%潜艇用铅酸蓄电池综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the states of lead-acid battery. It points out the problems of lead-acid batteries in submarine. The development of lead-acid batteries in submarine is reviewed from the progress of lead-acid battery.%本文简要介绍了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池现状。指出了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池存在的问题,针对铅酸蓄电池的发展状况,展望了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池的发展方向。

  10. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  11. Lead-acid traction batteries for electric road vehicle propulsion Directions for research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, D. A. J.

    1980-09-01

    Little information exists on the behavior of lead-acid batteries operating under the duty cycles normal to electric road vehicle service. Important battery requirements for the propulsion of traffic-compatible electric vehicles include a deep-discharge capability at high efficiencies of active material utilization, and a long cycle life. In order to optimize power-source characteristics to meet these criteria, especially for passenger cars, it is necessary to gain full knowledge of the influence of actual vehicle service on the performance of traction batteries. This article defines areas in which both fundamental and applied work are required to achieve this aim based on the current performance of the lead-acid system.

  12. State of Health Estimation System for Lead-Acid Car Batteries Through Cranking Voltage Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis is focused on the development and validation of an automotive battery monitoring system that estimates the health of a lead-acid battery during engine cranking and provides a low state of health (SOH) warning of potential battery failure. A reliable SOH estimation should assist users in preventing a sudden battery failure and planning for battery replacement in a timely manner. Most commercial battery health estimation systems use the impedance of a battery to est...

  13. Enhancing the performance of lead-acid batteries with carbon - In pursuit of an understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.; Rand, David A. J.; Peters, Ken

    2015-11-01

    The inherently poor dynamic charge-acceptance of the lead-acid battery can be greatly improved by the incorporation of additional carbon to the negative plate. An analysis is undertaken of the various ways by which the carbon may be introduced, and of the proposed mechanisms whereby its presence proves to be beneficial. It is intended that such an investigation should provide a guide to the selection of the optimum carbon inventory.

  14. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  15. Investigations of the factors causing performance losses of lead/acid traction batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberger, H.; Fabjan, Ch.; Gofas, N.

    A failure analysis is carried out with a lead/acid traction battery after a two-years' test run in an electric passenger car. A survey of the operational data, in combination with laboratory tests and chemical and physical analyses, reveals the main causes of battery damage and performance loss: insufficiencies of the charging procedure, inadequate maintainance (water-refilling system), antimony-contamination and loss of the active material due to grid corrosion and shedding of PbO 2.

  16. Modelling and evaluation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tenno, Ander

    2004-01-01

    The thesis deals with modelling of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries to answer the two biggest questions of 'will they work' and 'when will they need to be replaced' without resorting to full discharge. Despite the strong efforts undertaken by numerous researchers in search of simple and reliable indicators of the state-of-health (SOH) of a battery they were never found. Originally, it was expected that resistance, conductance and impedance measurements could be such indicators, but ...

  17. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L

    2010-07-01

    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is measurement using the new turbidimetric method, and the other half was analyzed using microwave extraction and measurement by ICP-AES. The average relative percent difference between the turbidimetric method and the ICP-AES method for the 24 sets measured as milligrams of lead per cm(2) is -0.63 +/- 32.5%; the mean difference is -2.1 +/- 7.0 mg lead per cm(2). Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests on these data showed no difference in the results for the two procedures. At the federal regulated level of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) paint, this turbidimetric method meets the performance requirements for EPA's National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP

  18. Lead exposure study among workers in lead acid battery repair units of transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engidawork Ephrem

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead exposure is common in automobile battery manufacture and repair, radiator repair, secondary smelters and welding units. Urinary Aminolevulinic acid has validity as a surrogate measure of blood lead level among workers occupationally exposed to lead. This study had therefore assessed the magnitude of lead exposure in battery repair workers of three transport service enterprises. Methods To this effect, a cross-sectional study was carried out on lead exposure among storage battery repair workers between November 2004 and May 2005 from Anbasa, Comet and Walia transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjective information from the workers was obtained by making use of structured questionnaire. Other information was obtained from walkthrough evaluation of the repair units. Aminolevulinic acid levels in urine were used as an index of the exposure. This was coupled to measurements of other relevant parameters in blood and urine collected from adult subjects working in the repair units as well as age matched control subjects that were not occupationally exposed to lead. Aminolevulinic acid was determined by spectrophotometry, while creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were determined using AMS Autolab analyzer. Results Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in exposed group (16 μg/ml ± 2.0 compared to the non-exposed ones (7 μg/ml ± 1.0 (p Conclusion Taken together, these findings indicated that workers in lead acid battery repair units of the transport service enterprises are not protected from possibly high lead exposure. Thus, strict enforcement of appropriate and cost effective preventive and control measures is required by all the enterprises.

  19. An Influence Study of Hydrogen Evolution Characteristics on the Negative Strap Corrosion of Lead Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative strap corrosion is an important reason for the failure of valve regulated lead acid battery. This paper selected the Pb-Sb alloy material and Pb-Sn alloy material, made an investigation on the negative corrosion resistance and hydrogen evolution of these two alloy materials by scanning electron microscope analysis, metallographic analysis, chemical study and linear sweep voltammetry, and discussed the influence of lead alloy hydrogen evolution on the negative strap corrosion. The results showed that the hydrogen evolution reaction rates of the alloys had an impact on the corrosion areas with the maximum thickness of the alloys and the depth of corrosion layers. Greater hydrogen evolution reaction rate can lead to shorter distance between the corrosion area with the maximum thickness and the liquid level; whereas the greater corrosion layer thickness can bring aggravated risk of negative strap corrosion failure.

  20. Effects of pH, organic acids, and inorganic ions on lead desorption from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desorption characteristics of lead in two variable charge soils (one developed from Arenaceous rock (RAR) and the other derived from Quaternary red earths (REQ)) were studied, and the effects of pH value, organic acid, and competitive ions were examined. Desorption of Pb2+ decreased from nearly 100.0 to 20.0% within pH 1.0-4.0 in both soils, and then the decrease diminished at pH > 4.0. Organic ligands at relatively low concentrations (≤10-3 mol L-1) slightly inhibited Pb2+ desorption, but enhanced Pb2+ desorption at higher concentrations. In this study, citric acid or acetic acid at higher concentrations (>10-3 mol L-1) had the greatest improvement of Pb2+ desorption, followed by malic acid; and the smallest was oxalic acid. Desorption of the adsorbed Pb2+ increased greatly with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+ or Zn2+. Applied Cu2+ increased Pb2+ desorption more than Zn2+ at the same loading. - The adsorption-desorption process is a basic and important reaction in soils controlling Pb2+ mobility and bioavailability

  1. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The...

  2. Eliminación del plomo por curado casero Lead elimination by traditional acidic curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Torres-Sánchez

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el curado ácido como medida preventiva para reducir el contenido de plomo en vasijas de barro vidriadas. Material y métodos. En 27 vasijas de barro procedentes de cuatro estados de México se determinó, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, el nivel de plomo residual, después de cuatro lavados con ácido acético al 3%. Resultados. El contenido de plomo en el ácido acético utilizado para lavar las vasijas disminuyó proporcionalmente con el número de lavados, aunque se conservó por arriba de los niveles permisibles (2.5-7.0 p.p.m.. Conclusiones. El curado ácido de piezas de barro no es una medida preventiva útil para reducir la exposición a plomo.Objective. To evaluate traditional acidic curing as a preventive method for reducing lead content of glazed ceramic ware. Material and methods. In 27 ceramic ware pieces from four states in Mexico, the level of residual lead was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry after four washings with acetic acid 3%. Results. The lead content of the vinegar washing diminished proportionally with the number of washings, although it remained highly above the permissible levels of this metal (2.5-7.0 p.p.m.. Conclusions. Traditional acidic curing of glazed ceramic ware is not a useful preventive measure for reducing lead exposure.

  3. Differential binding of monomethylarsonous acid compared to arsenite and arsenic trioxide with zinc finger peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xixi; Sun, Xi; Mobarak, Charlotte; Gandolfi, A Jay; Burchiel, Scott W; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-04-21

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV-vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  4. The possibility of using 5-aminolevulinic acid in lead phytoextraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Jarosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the greenhouse involving a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown in medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 which were designed to evaluate the impact of foliar nutrition with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA on the chemical composition of sunflower in reference to possible use of this plant in the process of induced phytoextraction. The study revealed from 4.8% to 34.1% increase in aboveground matter of sunflower which was sprayed by 5-ALA solution at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ppm in comparison with plants grown in a medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 with no 5-ALA spraying. The sunflower leaves sprayed by 5-ALA solution contained from 3.78% to 27.1% more lead in comparison to plants not sprayed by this agent. As well as remarkable decrease in lead content from 17.4 to 33.4% was recorded in the roots of sunflower sprayed by 5-ALA solution. The lead content in plant shoots was independent from foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

  5. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water, and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOc. Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOc levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOc oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  6. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  7. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  8. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for SLI use in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoi, T.; Furukawa, H.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automotive applications have been on the market in Japan for more than ten years. Initially, the batteries were used only for a small-size motorcycle. Today, however, they are widely employed in all sizes of motorcycles. In the meantime, VRLA batteries have also been used for agricultural machines, and even for some types of passenger cars. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development and application of VRLA batteries for SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) use in Japan and discusses future expected trends.

  9. Development of 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, T.; Hayashi, T.; Inoue, N.

    A 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery used in a 42-V power system has been developed for the Toyota Hybrid System-Mild (THS-M) vehicle to meet the large electrical power requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the increasing power demands on modern automobile electrical systems. The battery has a longer cycle-life in HEV use through the application of ultra high-density active-material and an anti-corrosive grid alloy for the positive plates, special additives for the negative plates, and absorbent glass mat with less contraction for the separators.

  10. Results of chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.; Sidik, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A group of 108 state of the art nominally 6 volt lead acid batteries were tested in a program of one charge/discharge cycle per day for over two years or to ultimate battery failure. The primary objective was to determine battery cycle life as a function of depth of discharge (25 to 75 percent), chopper frequency (100 to 1000 Hz), duty cycle (25 to 87.5 percent), and average discharge current (20 to 260 A). The secondary objective was to determine the types of battery failure modes, if any, were due to the above parameters. The four parameters above were incorporated in a statistically designed test program.

  11. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  12. Chopper-controlled discharge life cycling studies on lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraml, J. J.; Ames, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    State-of-the-art 6 volt lead-acid golf car batteries were tested. A daily charge/discharge cycling to failure points under various chopper controlled pulsed dc and continuous current load conditions was undertaken. The cycle life and failure modes were investigated for depth of discharge, average current chopper frequency, and chopper duty cycle. It is shown that battery life is primarily and inversely related to depth of discharge and discharge current. Failure mode is characterized by a gradual capacity loss with consistent evidence of cell element aging.

  13. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  14. Optimization of Charging Current and SOH Estimation for Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rezaei Pish Robat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model-based approach is used to optimize the charging current of lead acid batteries for use in hybrid electric. The used model is a dynamical nonlinear model and so steepest descent, as a nonlinear optimization technique, is used to design the desired current profile. To verify the results, Unscented Kalman Filter is used to estimate battery capacity as a criterion of the state of health of the battery. Simulation results show that in comparison with multi level charging current, the proposed approach improves the state of health of the battery, up to 2.5% in the first 100 charge/discharge cycle

  15. Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Zheng; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2014-12-01

    This short paper presents a recently reported dynamic data-driven method, Symbolic Dynamic Filtering (SDF), for real-time estimation of the state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) in lead-acid batteries, as an alternative to model-based analysis techniques. In particular, SOC estimation relies on a k-NN regression algorithm while SOH estimation is obtained from the divergence between extracted features. The results show that the proposed data-driven method successfully distinguishes battery voltage responses under different SOC and SOH situations.

  16. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  17. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. Failure mechanisms of lead/acid automotive batteries in service in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John H.; Boden, David P.

    Discarded lead/acid batteries were selected at random without regard to brand or condition and these were inspected and tested to determine the causes of failure. Samples were limited to 12-V automotive passenger-car batteries. Their age was determined from the manufacturing code and shipping date. In addition to the cause of failure, information on battery components and construction was also noted. Data are presented showing the principal modes of failure, the effect of geographical location, and the influence of grid alloy on life. In particular, the differences observed between those batteries utilizing calcium alloy for the positive grids and those using antimony alloy are discussed.

  19. Reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stationary applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics Inc., Washington, DC); Butler, Paul Charles; Miller, Jennifer L (Energetics Inc., Washington, DC); Moseley, Patrick T. (International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC)

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

  20. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  1. A cerium-lead redox flow battery system employing supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Xu, Shengnan; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-11-01

    A novel cerium-lead redox flow battery (RFB) employing Ce(IV)/Ce(III) and Pb(II)/Pb redox couples in the supporting electrolyte of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is developed and preliminarily investigated. The RFB requires no additional catalyst and uses kinetically favorable reactions between low-cost reactants, and provides a desirable discharge voltage of approximately 1.7 V, with high average coulombic efficiency (CE) of 92% and energy efficiency (EE) of 86% over 800 cycles at 298 K. Stable cycling with an acceptable performance is achieved for a board operating temperature range of 253 K-313 K. The excellent performance obtained from the preliminary study suggests that the cerium-lead RFB promises to be applicable to large-scale energy storage for electricity grids.

  2. Influence of Electroconductive Additives in the Positive Electrode Material on Morphology, Structure and Characteristics of the Lead-acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kuzmenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon black, red lead and polyaniline additives on the structure and functional characteristics of automotive lead-acid batteries has been studied. The mechanisms contributing to the formation both of lead dioxide by the introduction of these additives and of additional conductive nanostructured cross-linking channels in the case of polyaniline are described.

  3. Rapid dissolution of ZnO nanocrystals in acidic cancer microenvironment leading to preferential apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Abhilash; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Raman, Sreerekha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-09-01

    The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in acidic (pH ~5-6) cancer microenvironment causing elevated ROS stress, mitochondrial superoxide formation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and cell cycle arrest at S/G2 phase leading to apoptosis. In effect, by elucidating the unique toxicity mechanism of ZnO NCs, we show that ZnO NCs can destabilize cancer cells by utilizing its own hostile acidic microenvironment, which is otherwise critical for its survival.The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in

  4. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  5. Silymarin and dimercaptosuccinic acid ameliorate lead-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Contreras, Y; Mendoza-Lozano, R P; Martínez-Alcaraz, E R; Martínez-Alfaro, M; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Ramírez-Morales, M A; Vázquez-Guevara, M A

    2016-04-01

    We studied the effect of silymarin and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a chelating agent that was administered individually or in combination against lead (Pb) toxicity in rats. Wistar rats (200 ± 20) were randomly divided into five groups. Group A served as a control. Groups B-E were exposed to 2000 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for 8 weeks. Group B served as a positive control. Group C received silymarin (100 mg kg(-1) orally) for 8 weeks. Group D received DMSA (75 mg kg(-1) orally) once daily for the last 5 days of treatment. Group E received DMSA and silymarin as groups C and D, respectively. The effect of Pb was evaluated and accordingly the treatments on blood lead levels (BLLs), renal system, and genotoxic effects were calculated using comet assay. The BLLs were significantly increased following the exposition of lead acetate. The administration of silymarin and DMSA provided reduction in BLLs. Silymarin and DMSA provided significant protection on the genotoxic effect of Pb. The toxic effect of Pb on kidneys was also studied. Our data suggest that silymarin and DMSA improve the renal histopathological lesions.

  6. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  7. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R. [Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany). EXIDE German Group Research and Development Centre; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T. [EUS Gesellschaft fuer Innovative Energieumwandlung und -Speicherung mbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Handschin, E. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application. (orig.)

  8. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  9. Integrated li-ion ultracapacitor with lead acid battery for vehicular start-stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manla, Emad

    Advancements in automobile manufacturing aim at improving the driving experience at every level possible. One improvement aspect is increasing gas efficiency via hybridization, which can be achieved by introducing a feature called start-stop. This feature automatically switches the internal combustion engine off when it idles and switches it back on when it is time to resume driving. This application has been proven to reduce the amount of gas consumption and emission of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. However, the repeated cranking of the engine puts a large amount of stress on the lead acid battery required to perform the cranking, which effectively reduces its life span. This dissertation presents a hybrid energy storage system assembled from a lead acid battery and an ultracapacitor module connected in parallel. The Li-ion ultracapacitor was tested and modeled to predict its behavior when connected in a system requiring pulsed power such as the one proposed. Both test and simulation results show that the proposed hybrid design significantly reduces the cranking loading and stress on the battery. The ultracapacitor module can take the majority of the cranking current, effectively reducing the stress on the battery. The amount of cranking current provided by the ultracapacitor can be easily controlled via controlling the resistance of the cable connected directly between the ultracapacitor module and the car circuitry.

  10. High-performance of PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, A.; Mistretta, M. C.; Randazzo, S.; Piazza, S.; Sunseri, C.; Inguanta, R.

    2014-06-01

    PbO2 nanowires were obtained by template electrodeposition in polycarbonate membranes and tested as positive electrode for lead-acid battery. Nanowires were grown on the same material acting as current collector that was electrodeposited too. The nanostructured electrodes were assembled in a zero-gap configuration using commercial negative plate and separator. Cell performance was tested by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles in a 5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. PbO2 nanostructured electrodes were able to deliver at 1C rate an almost constant capacity of about 190 mAh g-1 (85% of active material utilization), close to the theoretical value (224 mAh g-1). The nanowire array provides a very large surface area (about 70 times higher than the geometrical one) that enhances the specific capacity of the battery. SEM images of the as-prepared and cycled electrodes showed that nanowires morphology changes significantly after the initial cycles. Change of morphology led to the formation of very spongy structure, characterized by the presence of macro-voids, which ensured penetration of the electrolyte in the inner areas of the electrode. Besides, PbO2 nanowires showed a very good cycling stability, maintained for more than 1000 cycles. These findings indicate that this new type of electrode might be a promising substitute of positive plates in lead-acid battery.

  11. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  12. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs

  13. Effect of Lead on Microorganisms with Respect to Antibiogram, Glucose and Amino Acid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Pradeep Rao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is a prevalent health hazard in today's world of industrialization and is gaining the concern of medical professionals globally. The first organisms in the biosphere to be affected by this are the microorganisms. Many studies have established that metal tolerance is accompanied by antibiotic resistance as both the genes are present on plasmids. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted to identify the concentrations of lead at which the microbial growth and antibiotic sensitivity was affected and also to identify whether any of the key metabolic activities were influenced. Microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were chosen due to their increasing importance as a potent hospital acquired pathogen. Material and Methods: American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains were chosen and exposed to varying concentrations of lead acetate ranging from 1 to 1000 ppm. The growth was quantitatively analyzed spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. The antibiogram was done using disk diffusion method. The sugar fermenting property and the amino acid utilization was studied as they are the basic requirements for growth of any microorganism. Results: On exposure to lead, a decrease in the growth was seen with the three organisms but the growth pattern was different with Pseudomonas as it showed a sudden increase at 100 ppm accompanied by the production of H S at certain concentrations. The 2 antibiotic sensitivity tests which were carried out after exposure to lead, showed a resistance pattern to the β lactam group of antibiotics, hence implying that tolerance to the heavy metal affected the sensitivity of these organisms to the antibiotics. The biochemical tests showed no change in the presence of lead. Lead may exist in the soil in various concentrations but may exert a selective pressure only at certain concentrations. It has been established that a pattern exists

  14. Spatially-resolved impedance of nonlinear inhomogeneous devices. Using the example of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, Julia

    2010-07-01

    This thesis introduces a new parameterisation approach for spatially-resolved impedance-based models of nonlinear and inhomogeneous devices, such as batteries. Spatially-resolved models are necessary to correctly represent the behaviour of batteries in many applications such as conventional, electric or hybrid electric vehicles as well as systems with regenerative energy generation. Such models are needed e.g. for the investigation of fuel savings due to regenerative braking, which is limited by the charge acceptance of the battery. Especially lead-acid batteries, used in most micro-hybrid vehicles, show a strongly varying charge acceptance that depends on several factors, amongst others current distribution and acid stratification. Correct prediction of the charge acceptance is only possible with a spatially-resolved model. Another example is the lifetime prediction of batteries in large packs: Lifetime is closely related to temperature and temperature distribution can only be modelled with a sufficient accuracy by using a spatially-resolved model taking into account as well that also the local impedance depends on temperature. Very often, only the overall impedance of a cell or electrode can be measured and local measurements of the impedance are impossible. Therefore, a method was developed to calculate the local impedance from a cell or electrode impedance measurement taking into account current distribution, current or voltage dependencies and local differences in the equilibrium voltage. Another focus of this thesis is the physical and chemical interpretation of impedance spectra of positive and negative electrode of lead-acid batteries, especially the occurrence of inductive semicircles.

  15. Experimental lead poisoning and intestinal transport of glucose, amino acids, and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Exeni, R A; McVicar, M; Lipshitz, F

    1977-03-01

    Juvenile rats fed a diet containing 1% lead acetate for 7 weeks, in addition to an impaired growth rate and renal function derangements, suffered malabsorption of glucose and certain amino acids, as assessed by an in vivo perfusion technique. The reduction in glucose absorption ranged between 10% and 31% when the carbohydrate was pumped in concentrations of 2-80 mM. This alteration was compatible with a noncompetitive type of transport inhibition. The intestinal absorption of glycine, lysine, and phenylalanine were, respectively, decreased 22, 18, and 15% when these amino acids were present at 1 mM levels. Sodium transport was severely reduced (57.6 +/- 17.9 (SEM) vs. 124.2 +/- 17.4 muEq/min-cm) and intestinal mucosa (Na+-K+)-ATPase was concomitantly lower in the lead-intoxicated rats (186.4 +/- 19.0 vs 268.4 +/- 29.8 nmol P/min-mg protein). However, this enzyme was not altered in liver and kidney. Furthermore, intestinal mucosa fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and tryptophan hydroxylase were not different in experimental and control animals. These studies substantiate the presence of functional and biochemical abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of young rats when fed substantial amounts of a soluble lead salt. It is, therefore, reasonable to accept the possibility that physiologic damage occurs in tissues directly subjected to high and persistent levels of a toxic agents, as it occurs in other organs, underscoring the parallelism between transport mechanisms at the renal and intestinal levels.

  16. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  17. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  18. Tannic acid alleviates lead acetate-induced neurochemical perturbations in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafaq, Mohammad; Tabassum, Heena; Vishnoi, Shruti; Salman, Mohd; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Parvez, Suhel

    2016-03-23

    Oxidative stress has been projected as a promising mechanism involved in lead exposure. The lead predisposition catalyzes oxidative reactions and generates reactive oxygen species. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of tannic acid (TA) on behavioral deficit, antioxidative deterioration induced by lead acetate (LA) exposure on experimental rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with 50mg/kg body weight of LA and TA for three times a week for two weeks. Our data showed LA-induced profound elevation of ROS production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl observed in LA treated rats, whereas significant depletion in the activity of non-enzymatic antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, neurotoxicity biomarker and histological changes were observed in LA treated rat brain. However, TA administration restored antioxidant status of brain significantly when compared to control. Our results demonstrate that TA exhibits potent antioxidant properties and suppresses oxidative damages in rat brain induced by LA treatment. These findings were further supported by the neurotoxicity biomarker and histopathological findings in the brain tissue showed that TA protected tissue from deleterious effects of LA exposure. It is concluded, these data suggest that LA induces oxidative stress and supplementation of TA has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it protected rat brain from poisonous effect of LA exposure in experimental rat.

  19. Nanoparticles formed by complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid with lead ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation describes the preparation and characterization of novel biodegradable nanoparticles based on complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with bivalent lead ion. The prepared nano-systems were stable in aqueous media at low pH, neutral and mild alkaline conditions. The particle size and the size of the complexes were identified by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the size of the complexes depended on the pH and concentrations of γ-PGA and lead ions. Particle sizes measured by TEM revealed that at low concentrations, nanosized particles were formed, however, at high concentrations of γ-PGA and lead ions, the formation of large aggregates with a broad size distribution was promoted. The size of individual particles was in the range of 40-100 nm measured by TEM. The results from the DLS measurements showed that the low and high pH values in mixtures with high concentrations of γ-PGA and Pb2+ ions favored the growth of large complexes. The γ-PGA nanoparticles, composed of a biodegradable biomaterial with high flocculating and heavy metal binding activity, may be useful for various water treatment applications

  20. Nanoparticles formed by complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid with lead ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, Magdolna [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Kjoniksen, Anna-Lena [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Molnar, Reka M. [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Hartmann, John F. [ElizaNor Polymer LLC, Princeton Junction, NJ 08550 (United States); Daroczi, Lajos [Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Nystroem, Bo [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Borbely, Janos [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); BBS Nanotechnology Ltd., P.O. Box 12, H-4225 Debrecen 16 (Hungary)], E-mail: jborbely@delfin.unideb.hu

    2008-05-30

    The present investigation describes the preparation and characterization of novel biodegradable nanoparticles based on complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid ({gamma}-PGA) with bivalent lead ion. The prepared nano-systems were stable in aqueous media at low pH, neutral and mild alkaline conditions. The particle size and the size of the complexes were identified by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the size of the complexes depended on the pH and concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and lead ions. Particle sizes measured by TEM revealed that at low concentrations, nanosized particles were formed, however, at high concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and lead ions, the formation of large aggregates with a broad size distribution was promoted. The size of individual particles was in the range of 40-100 nm measured by TEM. The results from the DLS measurements showed that the low and high pH values in mixtures with high concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and Pb{sup 2+} ions favored the growth of large complexes. The {gamma}-PGA nanoparticles, composed of a biodegradable biomaterial with high flocculating and heavy metal binding activity, may be useful for various water treatment applications.

  1. Estimator for Charge Acceptance of Lead Acid Batteries Estimateur d’acceptance de charge des batteries Pb-acide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen U.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological model of lead acid batteries is developed that is then used to construct an estimator for short term charge acceptance. Conceptually, the model is based on a partial differential equation that is discretized for tractability. With observers for the battery current and state of charge, the prediction of the internal states is improved. Since the model is essentially linear, the short term prediction can be implemented in closed form, thus without the need for computationally intensive prediction simulations at each sampling instant. The only nonlinearity, the dependence on temperature, can be incorporated in a linear parameter-varying model. Un modèle phénoménologique des batteries plomb-acide est développé et utilisé pour réaliser un estimateur d’acceptance de charge à court terme. Conceptuellement, le modèle est basé sur une équation différentielle partielle qui est discrétisée pour simplifier. La prédiction des états du modèle est améliorée par l’utilisation d’observateurs du courant et de la charge de la batterie. Comme le modèle est essentiellement linéaire, la prédiction à court terme peut être formulée en forme close. Il n’est donc plus nécessaire d’avoir recours à des simulations complexes à chaque instant d’échantillonnage. La seule dépendance non-linéaire, celle à la température, peut être incorporée dans un modèle linéaire à paramètre variable.

  2. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  3. Electrolyte depletion control laws for lead-acid battery discharge optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenno, R.; Nefedov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The technique described in this paper balances the power and energy withdrawn from a battery in galvanostatic discharge control that aims for stabilisation of the electrolyte concentration above the depletion level. This aim is achieved with relatively simple proportional feedback controls that are exponentially stabilising controls for a simple diffusion process that is the core part of battery processes. Although the full mapping of the proposed controls to state is rather complex, it has shown that the transformation works. In practice, these controls can be approximated either with the integrated past controls or with a simple exponential function that depends on a few parameters adjusted to the electrochemical processes in a battery under consideration. The battery control is tested in simulation on a detailed model developed for a lead-acid electrochemical cell.

  4. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  5. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  6. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  7. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  8. Techniques for jar formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The market for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is growing steadily and will be given a further boost as the market for 36-V batteries for the 42-V PowerNet develops over the next few years. The manufacture of VRLA batteries poses, however, a number of complex technical problems that are not experienced in the manufacture of conventional flooded batteries. For the large-scale manufacture of automotive batteries or other small VRLA batteries of 100 Ah or less, jar formation rather than plate formation and dry charge would seem to be a logical and economically sound decision. For this to be successful, however, a number of key issues need to be reviewed, starting with a detailed consideration of battery design. This paper reviews issues associated with the jar formation of VRLA batteries. Guidance is given concerning filling techniques (gravity or vacuum fill), the formation process, charging techniques, and formation algorithms. Battery design and separator optimisation is discussed. The properties of the separator, e.g. wicking rate, fibre composition, surface area and compression, may have a critical impact on acid filling and jar formation, and may partially determine the filling and formation conditions to be used. The control of temperature during formation is particularly important. Formation algorithms and temperature data are presented. Attention is drawn to the possible loss of plate-group compression during the formation process, and how this may be avoided.

  9. Investigation of Adsorption of Lead(II) onto a Montmorillonite Clay modified by Humic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the adsorption of Pb(II) in aqueous solution onto humic acid (HA) surface. The adsorption of lead(II) ions was studied using montmorillonite clay as adsorbent in the presence of humic acid under fix pH condition. The effect of HA on the adsorption of Pb(II) onto montmorillonite depends on its concentration in the solution, i.e., metal adsorption decreases with increasing concentration of HA in the solution. The HA was found to enhance the metal adsorption capacity of mineral surfaces in ternary system. The adsorption for Pb(II) on HA was high and this may due to its strong affinity for carboxylic and phenolic groups of humic substances. Since Pb(II) is divalent cation so its adsorption may have consumed two carboxylic/phenolic groups of HA. The decrease in adsorption of Pb(II) in the presence of HA in a ternary system is may be due to the blocking of adsorptive surfaces and reduction of cation exchange capacity by the clay in the presence of HA through its polar adsorption on mineral surface. (author)

  10. Woven-grid sealed quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction and fabricating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quasi-bipolar lead-acid battery construction includes a plurality of bipolar cells disposed in side-by-side relation to form a stack, and a pair of monoplanar plates at opposite ends of the stack, the cell stack and monopolar plates being contained within a housing of the battery. Each bipolar cell is loaded with an electrolyte and composed of a bipolar electrode plate and a pair of separator plates disposed on opposite sides of the electrode plate and peripherally sealed thereto. Each bipolar electrode plate is composed of a partition sheet and two bipolar electrode elements folded into a hairpin configuration and applied over opposite edges of the partition sheet so as to cover the opposite surfaces of the opposite halves thereof. Each bipolar electrode element is comprised of a woven grid with a hot-melt strip applied to a central longitudinal region of the grid along which the grid is folded into the hairpin configuration, and layers of negative and positive active material pastes applied to opposite halves of the grid on opposite sides of the central hot-melt strip. The grid is made up of strands of conductive and non-conductive yarns composing the respective transverse and longitudinal weaves of the grid. The conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a lead sheath, whereas the non-conductive yarn has a multi-stranded glass core surrounded and covered by a thermally activated sizing.

  11. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist.

  12. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  13. A novel leady oxide combined with porous carbon skeleton synthesized from lead citrate precursor recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yanlin; Wang, Junxiong; Yuan, Xiqing; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Wu, Xu

    2016-02-01

    A novel nanostructured leady oxides comprising porous carbon skeleton has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor, recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste. The influences of O2 percentage in the calcination atmosphere (O2/N2 mixture) and the temperature on leady oxide product characteristics are studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major crystalline phases of the products are identified as lead oxides, metallic Pb, and carbon. Porous carbon is observed as skeletons within the leady oxide (PbO containing some Pb metal) particles. Mass percentage of Pb metal in the leady oxide increases with increasing the proportion of oxygen in the calcination atmosphere. However, the amount of carbon decreases from approximately 8.0 to 0.3 wt%, and the porous carbon skeleton structure is gradually damaged with oxygen concentration increasing. A model about the thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor is firstly proposed to elucidate these observations. The nanostructured leady oxides combined with porous carbon can be directly used as precursor of active materials in a new lead acid battery.

  14. Role of Indium Alloying with Lead as a Means to Reduce the Passivation Phenomena in Lead/Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of indium content on the anodic behaviour of Pb-In alloys in 4 M H2SO4 solution is investigated by potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, chronopotentiometric, and cyclic voltammetric techniques. The composition and microstructure of the corrosion layer on Pb-In alloys are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The potentiodynamic and chronopotentiometric curves show that the anodic behavior of all investigated electrodes exhibits active/passive transition. The active dissolution (except for alloy I and passive currents increase with increasing both In content and temperature. This indicates that the conductivity of the anodic film on Pb-In alloy is enhanced. This study exhibits that indium catalyses the oxidation of Pb (II to Pb (IV and facilitates the formation of a more highly conductive corrosion layer on lead. Alloy I (0.5% In exhibits that the corrosion rate is lower, while the passive current is higher than that of Pb. XRD, EDX, and SEM results reveal that the formation of both PbSO4 and PbO on the surface decreases gradually with increasing In level in the alloy and completely disappear at higher In content (15% In. Therefore, recharge of the battery will be improved due to indium addition to Pb.

  15. Sulfamic Acid-Catalyzed Lead Perovskite Formation for Solar Cell Fabrication on Glass or Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunlong; Sato, Wataru; Shoyama, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-04-27

    Lead perovskite materials such as methylammonium triiodoplumbate(II) (CH3NH3PbI3, PV) are promising materials for printable solar cell (SC) applications. The preparation of PV involves a series of energetically costly cleavages of the μ-iodo bridges via conversion of a mixture of PbI2 (PI) and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I, MAI) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into a precursor solution containing a polymeric strip of a plumbate(II) dimer [(MA(+))2(PbI3(-))2·(DMF)2]m, which then produces a perovskite film with loss of DMF upon spin-coating and heating of the substrate. We report here that the PI-to-PV conversion and the PV crystal growth to micrometer size can be accelerated by a small amount of zwitterionic sulfamic acid (NH3SO3, SA) and that sulfamic acid facilitates electron transfer to a neighboring electron-accepting layer in an SC device. As a result, an SC device on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass made of a 320 nm thick PV film using 0.7 wt % SA showed a higher short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor and hence a 22.5% higher power conversion efficiency of 16.02% compared with the device made without SA. The power conversion efficiency value was reproducible (±0.3% for 25 devices), and the device showed very small hysteresis. The device without any encapsulation showed a respectable longevity on a shelf under nitrogen under ambient light. A flexible device similarly fabricated on ITO/poly(ethylene naphthalate) showed an efficiency of 12.4%. PMID:27054265

  16. CADMIUM AND LEAD STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS GROWN ON ACID SOIL OF EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kovačević

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty corn (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown under field conditions in the west part of Brodsko-posavska county in Eastern Croatia during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The field trial was conducted in four replicates. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage (the second decade of July was taken for chemical analysis from each plot. Mean soil sample was taken by auger to 30 cm of depth. The total amounts of Cd and Pb in corn leaves were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soil was extracted by ammonium acetate-EDTA solution. The experimental field is acid hydromorphic soil (locality Malino with moderate levels of mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and aluminum. Also, mobile fraction of cadmium and lead are tolerable for growing of health food. Weather conditions during the study differed from the long-term mean. Low rainfall quantities during 5-months period and the higher air-temperatures characterized the 2000 growing season. Excess of rainfall in June and September, their shortage in July and August, as well as high temperatures in August, are main characteristics of weather during the corn growing seasons in 2001. Mean concentrations of cadmium and lead in corn leaves in our investigations were 0.14 ppm Cd and 0.420 ppm Pb. These amounts are low and not dangerous for plants, because critical concentrations of Cd and Pb in plants ranged from 5 to 10 ppm Cd and 10-20 ppm Pb. Considerable differences of cadmium and lead status in the ear-leaf were found among tested corn hybrids. For example, genetically induced differences from 0.07 to 0.21 ppm Cd were found, while these values for Pb were from 0.241 to 0.569 ppm Pb. Especially low Cd concentrations were found in six corn hybrids (OsSK373, E9917/99, Bc278, OsSK2-191, OsSK382 and Clarica: mean 0.092 ppm Cd, while in three hybrids it was considerably higher, but acceptable from the aspect of plant

  17. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  18. Acidic environment leads to ROS-induced MAPK signaling in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Riemann

    Full Text Available Tumor micromilieu often shows pronounced acidosis forcing cells to adapt their phenotype towards enhanced tumorigenesis induced by altered cellular signalling and transcriptional regulation. In the presents study mechanisms and potential consequences of the crosstalk between extra- and intracellular pH (pH(e, pH(i and mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (ERK1/2, p38 was analyzed. Data were obtained mainly in AT1 R-3327 prostate carcinoma cells, but the principle importance was confirmed in 5 other cell types. Extracellular acidosis leads to a rapid and sustained decrease of pH(i in parallel to p38 phosphorylation in all cell types and to ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 3 of 6 cell types. Furthermore, p38 phosphorylation was elicited by sole intracellular lactacidosis at normal pH(e. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation during acidosis led to necrotic cell death. No evidence for the involvement of the kinases c-SRC, PKC, PKA, PI3K or EGFR nor changes in cell volume in acidosis-induced MAPK activation was obtained. However, our data reveal that acidosis enhances the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, probably originating from mitochondria, which subsequently trigger MAPK phosphorylation. Scavenging of ROS prevented acidosis-induced MAPK phosphorylation whereas addition of H(2O(2 enhanced it. Finally, acidosis increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB via p38, leading to increased transcriptional activity of a CRE-reporter even 24 h after switching the cells back to a normal environmental milieu. Thus, an acidic tumor microenvironment can induce a longer lasting p38-CREB-medited change in the transcriptional program, which may maintain the altered phenotype even when the cells leave the tumor environment.

  19. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  20. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  1. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  2. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  3. Evolution of internal resistance during formation of flooded lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Chris; Deveau, Justin; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-09-01

    This study employs experimental techniques to measure the changing internal resistance of flooded, flat-plate lead-acid batteries during container formation, revealing a novel indicator of formation completeness. In order to measure internal resistance during formation, d.c. current pulses are superimposed over the constant formation current at set intervals, while change in voltage is measured. The resulting "pulsed" internal resistance is divided into ohmic and interfacial components by measuring the ohmic resistance with short d.c. pulses as well as with a.c. injection. Various constant-current container formations are carried out using different current levels, plate thicknesses, and pulsing techniques, yielding an array of resistance trends which are explained using Butler-Volmer kinetic theory. Ohmic and interfacial resistance trends are shown both theoretically and experimentally to eventually decay to a predictable steady-state value as the formation proceeds, suggesting that this internal resistance method can be used to detect the completion of the formation. The same principles are shown to apply to recharge cycles as well, but with potentially limited practical implications in comparison to formation.

  4. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  5. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchev, A.; Dumenil, S.; Alias, M.; Christin, R.; de Mascarel, A.; Perrin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the recent progress in the carbon honeycomb grid technology for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with absorptive glass-mat separators (AGM-VRLAB). The work is focused on the development of negative current collectors using industrial grade composite honeycomb precursors. The developed model AGM-VRLA cells comprised of one prototype honeycomb negative electrode and two conventional traction positive counter-electrodes show high utilisation of the negative active material and long cycle life both in high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling mode and in deep cycling mode. The analysis of the results from the cycle-life tests and the tear-down analysis indicate that the benefits delivered by the novel grids can be related to the low mesh size of the grid, low γ-coefficient, as well as the use of milled carbon fibre additive. The combination of the three, results in the reversibility of the negative active material sulfation process when the electrolyte concentration in the cells is lower than the one traditionally used in the AGM-VRLAB technology. The negative plates show no signs of irreversible degradation after more than 900 cycles in deep cycling mode and more than 2000 capacity turnovers (equivalent cycles) in HRPSoC cycling mode.

  6. The use of castor oil and ricinoleic acid in lead chalcogenide nanocrystal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph W. M.; Mubofu, Egid B.; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-08-01

    A green solution-based thermolysis method for the synthesis of lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals in castor oil (CSTO) and its isolate ricinoleic acid (RA) is described. The blue shift observed from the optical spectra of CSTO and RA-capped PbE nanocrystals (NCs) confirmed the evidence of quantum confinement. The dimensions of PbE NCs obtained from NIR absorption spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were in good agreement. The particle sizes estimated were in the range of 20, 25, and 130 nm for castor oil-capped PbS, PbSe, and PbTe, respectively. Well-defined close to cubic-shaped particles were observed in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of PbSe and PbTe nanocrystals. The high-resolution TEM and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) micrographs of the as-synthesized crystalline PbE NCs showed distinct lattice fringes with d-spacing distances corroborating with the standard values reported in literature.

  7. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites.

  8. Influence of the active mass particle suspension in electrolyte upon corrosion of negative electrode of a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, Yu.; Shtompel, G.; Ostapenko, E.; Leonov, V.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the suspension of positive active mass particles in the electrolyte on the performance of the negative electrode in a lead-acid battery is studied. A significant increase in the rate of corrosion of the lead electrode is shown when slime particles get in contact with its surface, which may result in the rise of macro-defects on the lugs of the negative electrodes.

  9. Biosynthesis of monoterpenoids in higher plants. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from amino acids with a carbon-skeleton similar to mevalonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tange, K. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-09-01

    Radioisotopically labeled L-valine, DL-alanine, sodium acetate, and DL-mevalonic acid were incorporated into linalool by the intact plant of Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. var. linalooliferum Fujita and into geraniol and citronellol by that of Pelargonium roseum Bourbon. The uptake of leucine and valine resulted in the preferential location of the radioactivity on the 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety of these acyclic monoterpenoids, whereas the uptake of alanine resulted in the preferential location on the isopentenyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety, much as in the cases of mevalonic acid and sodium acetate. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from the amino acids is discussed.

  10. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  11. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  12. Copper(II and lead(II complexation by humic acid and humic-like ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA KOSTIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of metal–humate complexes is an important factor determining and predicting speciation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment. A comparative investigation of the complexation of Cu(II and Pb(II with humic acid and humic-like ligands, such as benzoic and salicylic acid, was performed. The analysis was realized at pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and at an ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm-3 (NaCl using the Schubert ion-exchange method and its modified form. The stability constants were calculated from the experimental data by the Schubert method for complexes with benzoic and humic acid. A modified Schubert method was used for the determination of the stability constants of the complexes with salicylic acid. It was found that Cu(II and Pb(II form mononuclear complexes with benzoic and humic acid while with salicylic acid both metals form polynuclear complexes. The results indicate that Pb(II has a higher binding ability than Cu(II to all the investigated ligands. The Cu(II–salicylate and Pb(II–salicylate complexes showed noticeable higher stability constants compared with their complexes with humic acid, while the stabilities of the complexes with benzoic acid differed less. Salicylic and benzoic acids as humic-like ligands can be used for setting the range of stability constants of humic complexes with Cu(II and Pb(II.

  13. Effects of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Lead in Han Subjects from Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the distribution of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD polymorphism among Han subjects of the Chinese population and to study whether the polymorphism in the ALAD gene modifies the toxicity of lead in lead-exposed workers. For this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional study on 156 Chinese workers who were exposed to lead in lead-acid battery and electric-flex manufacturing plants. The authors found that the allele frequencies of ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 0.9679 and 0.0321, respectively. Workers with the ALAD 1-1 genotype were associated with higher blood lead levels than those with the ALAD 1-2 genotype. Blood and urine lead levels were much higher in storage battery workers than in cable workers. The self-conscious symptom survey showed that the incidences of debilitation, amnesia and dreaminess were much higher in those had more than five years of tenure or contact with lead on the job within the ALAD 1-1 genotype subgroup. Laboratory examinations showed that serum iron and zinc levels in workers’ with the ALAD 1-2 genotype were higher than those with the ALAD 1-1 genotype, especially in storage-battery workers. Correlation analysis indicated that the blood lead level negatively correlated with serum calcium, iron and zinc level. The data of this study suggest that the ALAD gene polymorphism and serum ion levels may modify the kinetics of lead in blood. Therefore, the authors recommend that an adequate intake of dietary calcium, iron, and zinc or the calcium, iron, and zinc supplementation should be prescribed to Chinese lead exposed workers.

  14. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers involved in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Tapu; Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of Pb exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices in the samples were quantified by using the Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the platelet count (β -0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β -0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β -0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results of the study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide.

  15. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author)

  16. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  17. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  18. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth;

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  19. Rhabdomyolysis-Associated Mutations in Human LPIN1 Lead to Loss of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, George G.; Collier, Sara L.; Chen, Zhouji; Eaton, James M.; Connolly, Anne M.; Bucelli, Robert C.; Pestronk, Alan; Harris, Thurl E.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome due to extensive injury of skeletal muscle. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is often caused by inborn errors in intermediary metabolism, and recent work has suggested that mutations in the human gene encoding lipin 1 (LPIN1) may be a common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children. Lipin 1 dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase; PAP) and acts as a transcriptional regulatory protein to control metabolic ge...

  20. Research of mechanical characteristics of pb-ca-sn alloys and tapes for cur-rent leads in sealed lead-acid batteries (VRLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Kazacha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The modern trend in lead-acid battery industry is the changeover to reliable and safe leak-proof VRLA batteries. However, the properties of grid alloys of these batteries are still insufficiently studied, that hampers application of these batteries at railway transport. The purpose of this work is the research of dependence of mechanical properties of grid alloys on temperature conditions of casting, deformation of rolling and ageing time. Methodology. Mechanical properties of alloys and grids have been defined at standard tensile testing machine R-0,5. Findings. The rolling of lead-calcium alloys with deformation more than 90% raises their durability and reduces their plasticity. When rising the temperature of the casting moulds (in range 60-170°С the durability of lead-calcium and lead-antimony alloys decreases, and the plasticity increases, that are mostly evident for PbCa0.1Sn0.3 alloy, and least of all – for PbCa0.05Sn1.1 alloy. Durability of lead-calcium and lead-antimony alloys increases and plasticity decreases with increasing the time of ageing: this is mostly evident for alloy PbCa0.05 Sn1.1 and strips made from it. Originality. It was determined that decrease of alloys overcooling at crystallization results in drop of their durability and increase of plasticity. The composition and structure of alloys strongly influence dynamics of their ageing. Practical value. It is proposed by authors: a to increase the temperature of crystallization of alloy for negative grid strip to 120-160°С instead of 80-120°С, that will raise plasticity of strip and reduce deterioration of the equipment; b to replace PbSb1.8Se alloy of cast grids by PbCa0.1Sn0.3 alloy, that will allow reducing weight of grids by 25 % at the same durability; c to increase range of ageing of grids cast from PbCa0.1Sn0.3 alloy to 3-30 days that reduces the production costs. It’s all taken together will reduce deterioration of the process equipment and cut down

  1. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana M.; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  2. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Cao-Paz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC and state of health (SoH of the battery.

  3. A method for making electrode grids for a lead acid storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukunaga, K.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-07-13

    The lattices are cast from a lead, tin and arsenic alloy, rapidly cooled by a coolant and processed at a temperature of 50 to 200C, after which they are again cooled. The lattices have high mechanical durability.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  5. New lead acid batteries for heavy duty trucks - more robust and maintenance free; Neue, robustere und wartungsfreie Bleibatterien fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Michael; Sarrau, Jean-Francois [Exide Technologies SAS, Gennevilliers (France)

    2011-08-15

    Today's truck industry is moving inevitably towards cleaner emission standards and limits. That way new requirements followed. For example: High vibration resistent batteries. The reason is, that the Adblue tank is now integrated in the former space of the starter battery, which has to be positioned in rough environment at the back of a truck. Therefore Exide developed special lead acid batteries with a high vibration standard. (orig.)

  6. Modified titanium foil's surface by high temperature carbon sintering method as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Zhu, Junsheng

    2014-12-01

    Titanium foil can be a type of ideal material as the substrate for bipolar lead-acid battery. However, it can't be directly used because it can be oxidized in the high voltage and strong oxidizing conditions. In this paper, we coat the titanium suboxide on the titanium foil surface by means of the high temperature carbon sintering method for the improvement of corrosion resistance of titanium metal and use it as the substrate to bipolar lead-acid battery to study its effect on the battery performances. Modified titanium foils are characterized by SEM, XRD, corrosion resistance test and electronic conductivity test. The electrochemical properties of the bipolar lead-acid battery are investigated by constant current charge/discharge method. The results demonstrate that the titanium foil carbon-sintered at 800 °C for 2 h has the most excellent chemical stability and electronic conductivity. Initial specific capacities of positive active material of bipolar lead-acid battery with modified titanium as the substrate at 0.25C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C discharge rate are 99.29 mAh g-1, 88.93 mAh g-1, 77.54 mAh g-1, and 65.41 mAh g-1. After 50 cycles, the specific capacity of positive active material at 0.5C is 81.36 mAh g-1 and after 100 cycles, the specific capacity at 1C is 61.92 mAh g-1.

  7. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  8. The Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Supplementation against Damage Caused by Lead in the Testes of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang SHAN; Tian TANG; Xiaobin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant that may have toxic effects on the male.Vitamins may protect against toxic effects of lead in the liver and reproductive system,which is confirmed by our initial research.The aim of this study was to further investigate the protec-tive effects of vitamins (ascorbic acid combined with thiamine) on lead acetate (Pb)-induced repro-ductive toxicities in mice and study the possible mechanisms underlying these effects.Forty-five male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups,15 mice in each and received daily intragastric ad-ministration with control,Pb (20 mg/kg),and Pb+vitamins (ascorbic acid of 420 mg/kg+thiamine of 30 mg/kg) for 6 weeks,respectively.The Pb-treated animals showed significant decreases in the epididymal sperm count and motility compared to the control group,while the Pb+vitamins group had significant increases for these variables.Moreover,an increasing apoptosis of germinal cells in-duced by Pb was reduced by vitamin treatment.Pb induced the activation of Caspase-3,Fas/Fas-L and Bcl-2 with elevated levels,and the adaptor protein primarily regulated signaling through Fas and required for Fas-induced apoptosis.In conclusion,ascorbic acid combined with thiamine exhibited protective effect on reproductive system by inhibiting Pb-induced excessive cell apoptosis.

  9. Assessment of high power HEV lead-acid battery advancements by comparative benchmarking with a European test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Mario; Pede, Giovanni; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Macerata, Diego

    The technical and practical suitability of lead-acid batteries for applications in vehicles with electrical drivetrains (battery-powered or hybrid electric) has been experimentally investigated in a variety of testing programmes. Under the direction and funding support of the Commission of the European Community, since early 1990s, the R&D Organisation EUCAR, a collaborative partnership of most European car manufacturers, has been conducting battery technological assessment projects, through bench tests carried out by different independent laboratories throughout Europe, using agreed test procedures. In this framework, ENEA acted as independent testing institute and tested, among others, three high power lead-acid batteries of various technologies (flat plate electrodes and spiral wound) for EV and HEV applications. In addition, different battery sizes and operating conditions have been tested at ENEA in a separate collaboration with ALTRA-IRISBUS. This paper intends to trace technological and performance improvements of high power lead-acid battery technology through the analysis of experimental data during parameter and life cycle tests, including the effects of battery sizes, charge/discharge profiles and testing procedures, with special emphasis on the reduction of the internal resistance and the variation of peak power and cycle life.

  10. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  11. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains

  12. Low atmospheric nitrogen loads lead to grass encroachment in coastal dunes, but only on acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Remke; E. Brouwer; A. Kooijman; I. Blindow; J.G.M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric N-deposition on succession from open sand to dry, lichen-rich, short grassland, and tall grass vegetation dominated by Carex arenaria was surveyed in 19 coastal dune sites along the Baltic Sea. Coastal dunes with acid or slightly calcareous sand reacted differently to atmos

  13. Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Yamagata, Maki; Obara, Takashi; Seki, Naoya; Kitamura, Takuya; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain base phytosphingosine is a component of sphingolipids and exists in yeast, plants and some mammalian tissues. Phytosphingosine is unique in that it possesses an additional hydroxyl group compared with other long-chain bases. However, its metabolism is unknown. Here we show that phytosphingosine is metabolized to odd-numbered fatty acids and is incorporated into glycerophospholipids both in yeast and mammalian cells. Disruption of the yeast gene encoding long-chain base 1-phosphate lyase, which catalyzes the committed step in the metabolism of phytosphingosine to glycerophospholipids, causes an ~40% reduction in the level of phosphatidylcholines that contain a C15 fatty acid. We also find that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid is an intermediate of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we show that the yeast MPO1 gene, whose product belongs to a large, conserved protein family of unknown function, is involved in phytosphingosine metabolism. Our findings provide insights into fatty acid diversity and identify a pathway by which hydroxyl group-containing lipids are metabolized. PMID:25345524

  14. Lead detoxification activities of a class of novel DMSA--amino acid conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanxia; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Hu, Xiaomin; Hou, Baoguang; Peng, Li; Zheng, Meiqing; Wu, Jianhui; Peng, Shiqi

    2011-06-20

    The coupling of the 1-carboxyl of DMSA with l-amino acids led to a class of novel 1-(carbonyl-l-amino-acid)-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids (DMSA--amino acid conjugates, DMSA-Gly, -Ser, -Val, -Leu, -Ile, -Asn, -Asp, -Gln, -Glu, -Met, -Phe, and -Trp). In the in vivo evaluation of Pb-loaded mice, 0.4 mmol/kg of the conjugates effectively decreased the Pb levels of the femur, brain, kidney, liver, and blood, greatly enhanced urination, and increased the Pb levels of both urine and feces, while causing no redistributions of Pb to the other organs, especially to the brain. With respect to lowering the bone and brain Pb, DMSA-Ile, -Asn, -Gln, and -Met were more effective than DMSA. This benefit was attributed to their high transmembrane ability. In contrast to Pb, the essential metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ca of the treated mice were not affected by the administration of the conjugates. Silico molecular modeling predicted that the conjugates had little hepatotoxicity, except possibly for DMSA-Phe.

  15. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing. PMID:27264784

  17. Rapid reduction of lead leachate from hazardous fly ash using microwave treatment with acid combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Mei; Wang, Li-Pang; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Yu-Min

    2016-02-01

    The novelty of this study is to rapidly reduce hazardous lead leachates from solid waste using microwave digestion treatment, which is an energy-saving and low greenhouse gas emission technology. The article presents the reduction of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration in the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by the microwave digestion treatment in HNO3/H2SO4 combination, and focuses on the effects of treatment time and temperature. The results obtained from this study indicated a significant reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration and showed sufficient reduction in leaching levels to render the treated fly ash safe in lead compound leaching characteristics. The reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration can reach 98% in 15 minutes of treatment time. This is equivalent to the original toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration of 46.2 mg L(-1) in raw fly ash being reduced down to less than 1.0 mg L(-1). Based on the experimental data obtained in this study, a useful correlation between reduction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed. For engineering applications, the necessary minimum treatment time is solved using a graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time (t(min)) is obtained if the desired reduction efficiency (η) and treatment temperature (T) are known. The effects of treatment time and temperature are discussed. Some problems caused by the microwave digestion treatment method are also delineated in this article. PMID:26526019

  18. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. PMID:26642446

  19. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  20. Removal of lead ions from acid aqueous solutions using zeolite bearing tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Boris; Jakupi, Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution come from a number of different sources, and pollutants are divided up into various classes, such as organic pollutants, inorganic fertilizers, metals and radioactive isotopes. Organic pollutants are susceptible to biological degradation, unlike heavy metals which are not degrade into harmless products. Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. Because heavy metals are high...

  1. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  2. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Lisewski

    Full Text Available The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions and in structure (structural defects trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a sensitive to random errors and (b restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  3. Rhabdomyolysis-Associated Mutations in Human LPIN1 Lead to Loss of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, George G; Collier, Sara L; Chen, Zhouji; Eaton, James M; Connolly, Anne M; Bucelli, Robert C; Pestronk, Alan; Harris, Thurl E; Finck, Brian N

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome due to extensive injury of skeletal muscle. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is often caused by inborn errors in intermediary metabolism, and recent work has suggested that mutations in the human gene encoding lipin 1 (LPIN1) may be a common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children. Lipin 1 dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase; PAP) and acts as a transcriptional regulatory protein to control metabolic gene expression. Herein, a 3-year-old boy with severe recurrent rhabdomyolysis was determined to be a compound heterozygote for a novel c.1904T>C (p.Leu635Pro) substitution and a previously reported genomic deletion of exons 18-19 (E766-S838_del) in LPIN1. Western blotting with patient muscle biopsy lysates demonstrated a marked reduction in lipin 1 protein, while immunohistochemical staining for lipin 1 showed abnormal subcellular localization. We cloned cDNAs to express recombinant lipin 1 proteins harboring pathogenic mutations and showed that the E766-S838_del allele was not expressed at the RNA or protein level. Lipin 1 p.Leu635Pro was expressed, but the protein was less stable, was aggregated in the cytosol, and was targeted for proteosomal degradation. Another pathogenic single amino acid substitution, lipin 1 p.Arg725His, was well expressed and retained its transcriptional regulatory function. However, both p.Leu635Pro and p.Arg725His proteins were found to be deficient in PAP activity. Kinetic analyses demonstrated a loss of catalysis rather than diminished substrate binding. These data suggest that loss of lipin 1-mediated PAP activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis in lipin 1 deficiency. PMID:25967228

  4. Rhabdomyolysis-Associated Mutations in Human LPIN1 Lead to Loss of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, George G; Collier, Sara L; Chen, Zhouji; Eaton, James M; Connolly, Anne M; Bucelli, Robert C; Pestronk, Alan; Harris, Thurl E; Finck, Brian N

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome due to extensive injury of skeletal muscle. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is often caused by inborn errors in intermediary metabolism, and recent work has suggested that mutations in the human gene encoding lipin 1 (LPIN1) may be a common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children. Lipin 1 dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase; PAP) and acts as a transcriptional regulatory protein to control metabolic gene expression. Herein, a 3-year-old boy with severe recurrent rhabdomyolysis was determined to be a compound heterozygote for a novel c.1904T>C (p.Leu635Pro) substitution and a previously reported genomic deletion of exons 18-19 (E766-S838_del) in LPIN1. Western blotting with patient muscle biopsy lysates demonstrated a marked reduction in lipin 1 protein, while immunohistochemical staining for lipin 1 showed abnormal subcellular localization. We cloned cDNAs to express recombinant lipin 1 proteins harboring pathogenic mutations and showed that the E766-S838_del allele was not expressed at the RNA or protein level. Lipin 1 p.Leu635Pro was expressed, but the protein was less stable, was aggregated in the cytosol, and was targeted for proteosomal degradation. Another pathogenic single amino acid substitution, lipin 1 p.Arg725His, was well expressed and retained its transcriptional regulatory function. However, both p.Leu635Pro and p.Arg725His proteins were found to be deficient in PAP activity. Kinetic analyses demonstrated a loss of catalysis rather than diminished substrate binding. These data suggest that loss of lipin 1-mediated PAP activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis in lipin 1 deficiency.

  5. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  6. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  7. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-jie; Tang, Chao-bo; Tang, Mo-tang; Chen, Yong-ming

    2015-08-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead-acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: T = 880°C; t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The results suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  8. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Kimberly [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: dula@hampshire.edu; Xing, Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed.

  9. Al/Pb lightweight grids prepared by molten salt electroless plating for application in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Ketao; Liu, Fangyang; Yu, Xiaoying; Xue, Haitao; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a lightweight Pb plated Al (Al/Pb) grid was prepared by molten salt electroless plating. The SEM and bonding strength test show that the lead coating is deposited with a smooth surface and firm combination. CV test shows that the electrochemical properties of Al/Pb electrodes are stable. 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with Al/Pb grids as negative collectors are assembled and the performances including 20 h capacity, rate capacity, cycle life, internal resistance are investigated. The results show that the cycle life of Al/Pb-grid cells is about 475 cycles and can meet the requirement of lead-acid batteries. Al/Pb grids are conducive to the refinement of PbSO4 grain, and thereby reduce the internal resistance of battery and advance the utilization of active mass. Moreover, weight of Al/Pb grid is only 55.4% of the conventional-grid. In this way, mass specific capacity of Al/Pb-grid negatives is 17.8% higher and the utilization of active mass is 6.5% higher than conventional-grid negatives.

  10. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  11. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed

  12. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, Eckhard [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification. (author)

  13. Recent improvements in PbO2 nanowire electrodes for lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Alessandra; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2015-02-01

    Lead oxide nanowires are an attractive alternative to conventional pasted electrodes, owing to their high surface area leading to high specific energy batteries. Here, we report the performance of template electrodeposited PbO2 nanowires used as positive electrodes. Nanostructured electrodes were tested at constant charge/discharge rate from 2 C to 10 C, with a cut-off potential of 1.2 V and discharge depth up to 90% of the gravimetric charge. These new type of electrodes are able to work at very high C-rate without fading, reaching an efficiency of about 90% with a very good cycling stability. In particular, after an initial stabilization, a specific capacity of about 200 mAh g-1, very close to the theoretical one of 224 mAh g-1, was drained for more than 1000 cycles at a C-rate higher than 1 C with an efficiency close to 90%. This behaviour significantly distinguishes PbO2 nanostructured electrodes from the conventional ones with pasted active material. In addition, discharge at a quasi-constant voltage of about 2.1 V, without reaching the cut-off potential also at high C-rate, occurs. This implies a quasi-constant energy supply during fast discharge. According to these findings, innovative applications as hybrid or electrical mobility or buffer in renewable energy plants can be envisaged.

  14. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  15. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudia, M.; Matrakova, M.; Zerroual, L.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of the positive electrode of lead-acid battery. The use of the additive in the positive paste is to increase the capacity and cycle life of the positive active material. Mineral porous additives, dispersed uniformly in the PAM, may act as acid reservoirs and favor the ionic diffusion. The results show that the addition of mineral additive in the paste before oxidation influences the composition and the crystal size of the PAM after oxidation. We observe a remarkable improvement of the discharge capacity of the PAM for an amount of additive ranging between 1 and 5%. Nano-sized particles of PbO2 with amorphous character are obtained. XRD, TG and DSC, SEM, and galvanostatic discharge were used as techniques of investigation.

  16. Identification of Scirpus triqueter root exudates and the effects of organic acids on desorption and bioavailability of pyrene and lead in co-contaminated wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yunyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xiao; Tao, Kaiyun; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; He, Chiquan

    2015-11-01

    Root exudates (REs) of Scirpus triqueter were extracted from the rhizosphere soil in this study. The components in the REs were identified by GC-MS. Many organic acids, such as hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, vanillic acid, octadecanoic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and so on, were found. Batch simulated experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of different organic acids, such as citric acid, artificial root exudates (ARE), succinic acid, and glutaric acid in REs of S. triqueter on desorption of pyrene (PYR) and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated wetland soils. The desorption amount of PYR and Pb increased with the rise in concentrations of organic acids in the range of 0-50 g·L(-1), within shaking time of 2-24 h. The desorption effects of PYR and Pb in soils with various organic acids treatments decreased in the following order: citric acid > ARE > succinic acid > glutaric acid. The desorption rate of PYR and Pb was higher in co-contaminated soil than in single pollution soil. The impacts of organic acids in REs of S. triqueter on bioavailability of PYR and Pb suggested that organic acids enhanced the bioavailability of PYR and Pb in wetland soil, and the bioavailability effects of organic acids generally followed the same order as that of desorption effects. PMID:26154043

  17. An acid-stable Zn(II) complex: electrodeposition in sulfuric acid and the effect on the zinc-lead dioxide battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao Miao; Gong, Yun; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Hui Fang; Lin, Jian Hua

    2014-12-01

    An acid-stable Zn(II) complex formulated as Zn2(HL)2(SO4)·H2O (1) and an acid-unstable complex formulated as Zn2L2·12H2O (2) were hydro(solvo)thermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 features a uninodal 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) dense architecture with {4(12)·6(3)}-pcu topology, and complex 2 exhibits a 2-nodal (3, 6)-connected 3D open architecture with (4·6(2))2(4(2)·6(10)·8(3))-rtl topology. The results indicate that the stability of complex 1 in sulfuric acid is probably associated with the coordinated SO4(2-) in the quite dense structure, and complex 1 can also be synthesized via electrodeposition in sulfuric acid; it can improve the discharging characteristics of the zinc-lead dioxide battery at room temperature.

  18. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI2 nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI2 that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5-5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor-acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  19. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jie Hu; Chao-bo Tang; Mo-tang Tang; Yong-ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead–acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:T = 880°C;t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The re-sults suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic cal-culations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  20. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase−/− mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase−/− mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase−/− mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits

  1. Colorimetric detection of lead (II) based on silver nanoparticles capped with iminodiacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a colorimetric probe for the determination of Pb(II). It is based on the use of silver nanoparticles that have been functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA-Ag NPs). The absorption spectrum and solution color of IDA-Ag NPs undergo dramatic changes on exposure to Pb(II) with a new absorption peak appearing at 650 nm and a concomitant color change from yellow to green. This is assumed to result from the aggregation of IDA-Ag NPs induced by Pb(II). Under optimum conditions, there is a linear relationship between the ratio of the absorbances at 650 and 396 nm, respectively, and the concentration of Pb(II) in the 0.4 to 8.0 μM concentration range, with a detection limit of 13 nM. The method was applied to the determination of Pb(II) in tap water and urea samples, and recoveries ranged from 93.7 % to 98.6 %. (author)

  2. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription. PMID:26699907

  3. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription.

  4. Mechanistic insight into the nucleation and growth of oleic acid capped lead sulphide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aabhash; Spooner, Nigel A; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-18

    The quantum dots (QDs) of lead sulphide (PbS) are attractive near-infrared (NIR) active materials and have promising applications in a wide variety of applications. Till date many efforts have been made on optimizing its synthesis; however, current mechanistic understanding involving the nucleation and growth of these QDs has not reached the same level as that for other QDs. In this study, we present a detailed understanding on synthesis mechanism of PbS QDs so as to provide guidance for future QDs synthesis. The synthesis of PbS QDs is largely independent of classical nucleation process and the hot-injection of precursors may not be necessary for the successful synthesis of PbS QDs. The synthesis is basically a growth dominated process and is controlled by the Ostwald ripening of PbS QDs. In addition, reaction temperature and ligand are the key parameters for controlling QD growth. Temperature provides energy for overcoming activation barrier of QD growth while the ligands enhance QD growth via altering the environment for QD growth. Following the mechanism governing the synthesis of PbS QDs, we demonstrate that the size tuning of PbS QDs in ultra-small (<2 nm) can be achieved, which has been typically challenging following the hot injection synthesis.

  5. Mechanistic insight into the nucleation and growth of oleic acid capped lead sulphide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aabhash; Spooner, Nigel A; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-18

    The quantum dots (QDs) of lead sulphide (PbS) are attractive near-infrared (NIR) active materials and have promising applications in a wide variety of applications. Till date many efforts have been made on optimizing its synthesis; however, current mechanistic understanding involving the nucleation and growth of these QDs has not reached the same level as that for other QDs. In this study, we present a detailed understanding on synthesis mechanism of PbS QDs so as to provide guidance for future QDs synthesis. The synthesis of PbS QDs is largely independent of classical nucleation process and the hot-injection of precursors may not be necessary for the successful synthesis of PbS QDs. The synthesis is basically a growth dominated process and is controlled by the Ostwald ripening of PbS QDs. In addition, reaction temperature and ligand are the key parameters for controlling QD growth. Temperature provides energy for overcoming activation barrier of QD growth while the ligands enhance QD growth via altering the environment for QD growth. Following the mechanism governing the synthesis of PbS QDs, we demonstrate that the size tuning of PbS QDs in ultra-small (synthesis. PMID:27156571

  6. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance.

  7. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  8. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  9. BOM design for lead-acid battery%铅酸蓄电池的 BOM 构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨密; 孔德珍; 朱有凤

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses in detail how to design BOM for lead acid battery based on its structure and manufacture technology. The standard battery layer is recommended in the light of production process and data management, and various kinds of material needed to build the layer are analyzed for their application in general and special for the battery manufacturing. The expectation is cherished by the authors that this work will arouse interests from other battery manufactures and an industry standard of data application for lead-acid battery may be established with the effort of all colleagues related.%本文针对铅酸蓄电池的结构以及制造工艺,较为详细地描述了 BOM(物料清单)的构建方式。根据生产实际以及数据管理两方面的特点提出标准电池层,并且把建立该层次的各种物料详细加以分析,探讨了每一种物料的共性与特点,力求真正做到结合生产实际。

  10. Nonlinear phenomenon in monocrystalline silicon based PV module for low power system: Lead acid battery for low energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, A.; El Amraoui, M.; El Abbassi, A.; Messaoudi, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, we report the indoor photo-electrical measurements of monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic (PV) module associated with 4 Ah lead acid battery as a storage unit for low power PV system applications. Concerning the PV module, our measurements show, at low illumination regime, that the short circuit current ISC increases linearly with the illumination power levels. Moreover, for high illumination levels, the mechanism of bimolecular recombination and space charge limitation may be intensified and hence the short current of the PV module ISCMod depends sublinearly on the incident optical power; the behavior is nonlinear. For the open circuit voltage of the PV module VOCMod measurements, a linear variation of the VOCMod versus the short circuit current in semi-logarithmic scale has been noticed. The diode ideality factor n and diode saturation current Is have been investigated; the values of n and Is are approximately of 1.3 and 10-9 A, respectively. In addition, we have shown, for different discharging-charging currents rates (i.e. 0.35 A, 0.2 A and 0.04 A), that the battery voltage decreases with discharging time as well as discharging battery capacity, and on the other hand it increases with the charging time and will rise up until it maximized value. The initial result shows the possibility to use such lead acid battery for low power PV system, which is generally designed for the motorcycle battery.

  11. Study on titanium foil coated with partial reduction titanium dioxide as bipolar lead-acid battery's substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Pure titanium foil cannot be directly as the substrate for the bipolar lead-acid battery due to its surface oxidized into titanium dioxide in the cell cycle. The poor electronic conductivity of titanium dioxide will increase substrate's ohmic resistance and can affect the cell's electrochemical performances. In this paper, titanium foil's surface is coated with a lay of partial reduction titanium dioxide (TiO2-x) which has excellent chemical stability and high electronic conductivity by means of sol-gel method. Through XRD, SEM and four-probe test, it shows that the modified titanium's surface has the most superior crystal structure and morphology and the highest electronic conductivity in the sintering temperature of 800 °C. We subsequently assemble bipolar lead-acid batteries with Ti coated by TiO2-x as the substrate material. The batteries are discovered that when charged and discharged in 3.5 V-4.84 V at 0.5C the voltage between the charge and discharge voltage platform is 0.3 V, and the initial discharge specific capacity can reach 80 mAh g-1. When the current rate is up to 1C and 2C, the initial discharge specific capacity is 70 mAh g-1and 60 mAh g-1. After 100 cycles, the initial specific capacity only decreases 12.5%.

  12. Experimental Study on Acid Leaching of Lead Matte%铅冰铜盐酸浸出试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋朝金; 黄海飞; 杨跃新

    2015-01-01

    采用盐酸加入双氧水氧化浸出铅冰铜,使铅冰铜中的铜与铅、银、金等金属分离而分别回收,探索从铅冰铜高效、清洁回收有价金属的新工艺。通过试验,详细考察盐酸起始浓度、氧化剂的用量、液固比、反应温度、搅拌速度和浸出时间对铜浸出率的影响,得出铅冰铜酸性氧化浸出的最佳条件。%The oxidation leaching of lead matte by adding hydrogen peroxide under hydrochloric acid was carried out to separate and recycle the Cu,Pb,Ag,Au and other metals,so as to explore a new technology of high efficiency and clean recycling of valuable metals.Through the test,the effect of initial concentration of hydrochloric acid,oxidant dosage,liquid solid ratio,reaction temperature,stirring speed and leaching time was investigated in detail on the leaching rate of copper,and the optimum leaching condition of lead matte was achieved.

  13. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  14. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  15. Status and Development of Recycling Technology of Lead Paste from Spent Lead Acid Battery%废铅酸蓄电池铅膏回收利用技术的现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹光; 黄草明

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of material components of lead-acid battery were analyzed , the research pro‐gress of the lead paste recycling technologies were introduced . The advantages and disadvantages of each process were compared . The traditional lead -acid battery pyrometallurgical process has some disadvan‐tage , such as higher energy consumption and great pollution . A novel hydrometallurgical process is pro‐posed to recover lead paste with aqueous solution of citric acid developed in University of Cambridge . Mo‐reover , ultrafine lead oxide powder is prepared from spent lead battery and used directly in the manufacture of new battery , which gives a new thought for the recycling of waste lead acid battery .%对铅酸蓄电池的物质组成特性进行了分析,介绍了铅膏回收技术的发展现状,对比了各工艺的优缺点。传统的铅酸蓄电池火法冶炼工艺存在能耗高,污染大的缺点。剑桥大学开发的柠檬酸湿法浸取铅膏的新工艺,回收 PbO超细粉体直接用于电池生产,为废旧铅酸电池的回收提供了一种新的思路。

  16. The Use of Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber Composites as Buss Bars in Lead-Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaluch, Amanda M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of the Firefly Energy Space Act Agreement project to investigate the possible use of composite materials in lead acid batteries. Specifically, it examined the use of intercalated graphite composites as buss bars. Currently, buss bars of these batteries are made of lead, a material that is problematic for several reasons. Over time, the lead is subject to both corrosion at the positive plate and sulfation at the negative plate, resulting in decreased battery life. In addition, the weight and size of the lead buss bars make for a heavy and cumbersome battery that is undesirable. Functionality and practicality of lead buss bars is adequate at best; consequently, investigation of more efficient composite materials would be advantageous. Practically speaking, graphite composites have a low density that is nearly one fourth that of its lead counterpart. A battery made of less dense materials would be more attractive to the consumer and the producer because it would be light and convenient. More importantly, low weight would be especially beneficial because it would result in greater overall power density of the battery. In addition to power density, use of graphite composite materials can also increase the life of the battery. From a functional standpoint, corrosion and sulfation at the positive and negative plates are major obstacles when considering how to extend battery life. Neither of these reactions are a factor when graphite composites replace lead parts because graphite is chemically non-reactive with the electrolyte within the battery. Without the problem of corrosion or sulfation, battery life expectancy can be almost doubled. The replacement of lead battery parts with composite materials is also more environmentally favorable because of easy disposal of organic materials. For this study, both pristine and bromine intercalated single-ply graphite fiber composites were created. The composites were fabricated in such a way as to

  17. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution. PMID:24289023

  19. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution.

  20. The effects of lead on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, growth, hemoglobin content, and reproduction in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, R; Dave, G; Sjöbeck, M L

    1985-04-01

    The effects of continuous exposure to lead for various periods and recovery in clean water on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity, hemoglobin content, growth, and reproduction were studied in Daphnia magna. Steady-state inhibition of ALA-D activity was reached within 2 days in 16, 64, and 256 micrograms Pb liter-1, but restoration in clean water was prolonged in relation to previous exposure. In spite of the inhibition of ALA-D activity hemoglobin content increased after 2 days in 16 and 24 micrograms Pb liter-1. Furthermore, hemoglobin content in previously exposed animals increased during recovery in clean water. Maximum hemoglobin content (2.9 times control value) was found after 2 days recovery of animals exposed to 64 micrograms Pb liter-1. These findings suggest that some enzyme(s) other than ALA-D in the biosynthetic pathway of hemoglobin formation is (are) more sensitive to lead. Growth, in contrast to reproduction, was stimulated by low concentrations of lead (less than 64 micrograms Pb liter-1), although in 256 micrograms Pb liter-1 growth was also significantly impaired. After 19 days the 16 and 50% reproductive impairment concentrations were less than or equal to 1 and 10 micrograms Pb liter-1, respectively. PMID:3987601

  1. Enhanced performance of Zn(II)-doped lead-acid batteries with electrochemical active carbon in negative mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Hu, Chen; Chen, Liying; Zhang, Dong; Ding, Ping; Chen, Dong; Liu, Hao; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xianzhang; Lai, Xiaokang

    2016-10-01

    The effect and mechanism of Zn(II) on improving the performances of lead-acid cell with electrochemical active carbon (EAC) in negative mass is investigated. The hydrogen evolution of the cell is significantly reduced due to the deposition of Zn on carbon surface and the increased porosity of negative mass. Zn(II) additives can also improve the low-temperature and high-rate capacities of the cell with EAC in negative mass, which ascribes to the formation of Zn on lead and carbon surface that constructs a conductive bridge among the active mass. Under the co-contribution of EAC and Zn(II), the partial-state-of-charge cycle life is greatly prolonged. EAC optimizes the NAM structure and porosity to enhance the charge acceptance and retard the lead sulfate accumulation. Zn(II) additive reduces the hydrogen evolution during charge process and improves the electric conductivity of the negative electrode. The cell with 0.6 wt% EAC and 0.006 wt% ZnO in negative mass exhibits 90% reversible capacity of the initial capacity after 2100 cycles. In contrast, the cell with 0.6 wt% EAC exhibits 84% reversible capacity after 2100 cycles and the control cell with no EAC and Zn(II) exhibits less than 80% reversible capacity after 1350 cycles.

  2. Lead in Missouri Streams: Monitoring Pollution from Mining with an Assay for Erythrocyte [delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALA-D) in Fish Blood

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The activity of the erythrocyte enzyme d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and,...

  3. PREPARATION OF LEAD-ACID BATTERY USING ELECTROPLATED RETICULATED SiC AS THE POSITIVE CURRENT COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zou; X.M. Cao; C. Tian; J.S. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of using Pb-electroplated reticulated SiC as the positive current collector for lead-acid batteries was investigated. Reticulated SiC with two aperture sizes (3 and 2mm) were tested as the substrate of positive electrode. It was found that the reticulated SiC has an excellent corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution, and the Pb layer electroplated on reticulated SiC showed analogous electrochemical behavior to metal Ph. Preliminary test of the battery performance indicated that the utilization efficiency of the positive active mass of new designed batteries are improved compared with the conventional batteries. The improvement could be ascribed to the high specific surface area of the reticulated structured positive current collector, which was further supported by the even better performance of the battery made from a smaller aperture size (2mm) reticulated SiC as the substrate of the positive electrode.

  4. Novel Metal-organic Framework Compound Pb(C5H4NCOO)2 Showing One-dimensional Channel Defined as Four Leads and Four Nicotinic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yu; ZHOU Rui-sha; SONG Jiang-feng; XU Ji-qing

    2009-01-01

    the zigzag chain by edge-sharing mode along(001) direction. Pb atom is connected by six nicotinic acid molecules, leading neutral 3D metal-organic framework with a channel defined by four Pb atoms and four nicotinic acid molecules.

  5. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  7. Three-layered absorptive glass mat separator with membrane for application in valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidenov, V.; Pavlov, D.; Cherneva, M.

    During charge and discharge of the lead-acid cell equal amounts of H 2SO 4 participate in the reactions at the two types of plates (electrodes). However, the charge and discharge reactions at the positive plates involve also 2 mol of water per every mole of reacted PbO 2. Consequently, a concentration difference appears in the electrolyte between the two electrodes (horizontal stratification), which affects the reversibility of the processes at the two electrodes and thus the cycle life of the battery. The present paper proposes the use of a three-layered absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator, the middle layer playing the role of a membrane that divides (separates) the anodic and cathodic electrolyte spaces, and controls the exchange rates of H 2SO 4, H + ions, O 2 and H 2O flows between the two electrode spaces. To be able to perform this membrane function, the thinner middle AGM layer (0.2 mm) is processed with an appropriate polymeric emulsion to acquire balanced hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties, which sustain constant H 2SO 4 concentration in the two electrode spaces during cycling. Three types of polymeric emulsions have been used for treatment of the membrane: (a) polyvinylpyrollidonestyrene (MPVS), (b) polyvinylpyrrolidone "Luviskol" (MPVP), or (c) polytetrafluorethylene modified with Luviskol (MMAGM). It is established experimentally that the MMAGM membrane maintains equal acid concentration in the anodic and cathodic spaces (no horizontal stratification) during battery cycling and hence ensures longer cycle life performance.

  8. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  9. Lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A sealed, low maintenance battery (10, 100) is formed of a casing (14, 102) having a sealed lid (12, 104) enclosing cell compartments (22, 110) formed by walls (24, 132). The cells comprise a stack (26) of horizontally disposed negative active plates (30) and positive active plates (28) interspersed with porous, resilient separator sheets (30). Each plate has a set of evenly spaced tigs (40, 41) disposed on one side thereof; like polarity tigs being disposed on one side and opposite polarity tigs on the other. Columns of tigs are electrically and mechanically joined by vertical bus bars (46). The bus bars contain outwardly projecting arms (56) of opposite polarity which are electrically joined at each partition wall (24) to electrically connect the cells in series. The stack is compressed by biasing means such as resilient pad (58) attached to the lid or by joining the tigs (52) to the post (48) at a distance less than the thickness of the mat (124). The end bus bars (46) are joined to straps (60, 62) which connect to the terminals (16, 18). The negative plates contain more capacity than the positive plates and the starved electrolyte imbibed in the separator sheets permits pressurized operation during which oxygen diffuses through the separator sheet to the negative plate where it recombines. Excess pressure is relieved through the vent and pressure relief valve (20).

  10. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  11. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  12. Study on New Technology of Dismantling and Sorting for Lead-acid Battery%铅酸蓄电池拆解分选新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳亭; 李玉

    2014-01-01

    The article summarized present situation in recycling of lead-acid batteries at home and abroad , and analyzed the general process& development on lead-acid battery recycling and secondary lead production worldwide .Meanwhile , new processes of dismantring and sorting was introduced .%本文分析了世界范围内及我国铅酸蓄电池回收现状,及铅酸蓄电池回收生产再生铅的一般工艺及发展,并提出新的工艺流程。

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  14. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymäki, Teemu T T; Nonappa; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X X; Ikkala, Olli

    2016-09-14

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20-50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions. PMID:27491728

  15. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymäki, Teemu T T; Nonappa; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X X; Ikkala, Olli

    2016-09-14

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20-50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions.

  16. Study of the relation between changes on blood lead and blood uric acid induced by occupational lead exposure%职业性铅暴露工人血铅和血尿酸的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 张健杰

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the changes of blood uric acid and blood lead induced by occupational lead exposure.METHODS The concentration-short term exposure of lead fume in the workshop was detected through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The workers without lead exposure were selected the control group.According to the concentration of blood lead,263 workers exposed to lead were divided into occupation within the limits and super occupation limit group.The changes of blood lead levels and uric acid index were analyzed.RESULTS The permissible concentration-time weighted average (PC-TWA) of lead fume in workshops was 0.13mg/m3.The frequency of lead monitoring samples higher than national standard in the workshops was 68.61%.The levels of blood lead (3.16 ± 0.03) μmol/L and blood uric acid (528 ± 109.48) μmol/L in group of exposure were statistically higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05).This analysis confirmed lead exposure and ascending blood lead were responsible for blood uric acid.CONCLUSION Occupational lead exposure might cause the elevation of blood lead level as well as blood uric acid.The higher blood lead level,the more serious the level of blood uric acid.%目的 研究职业性铅作业工人血铅和尿酸的变化,探讨血铅浓度变化和血尿酸指标之间的关系.方法 车间空气中铅烟的短时间接触浓度用原子吸收火焰法检测.选择一般情况可比的非铅作业工人作为对照,根据接触铅的浓度是否超过职业限值将263名铅接触工人分为职业限值内组及超职业限值组.分析不同血铅水平和血尿酸指标的变化.结果 (1)车间空气中铅烟的时间加权平均容许浓度(PC-TWA)达0.13 mg/m3,超标率为68.61%; (2)接铅超职业限值组血铅浓度达(3.16±0.03) μmol/L、尿酸为(528±109.48) μmol/L,均显著高于对照组(P<0.05); (3)血铅浓度的变化和尿酸异常率存在一致的变化趋势.结论 职业性铅接触引起血铅浓度

  17. 双极性铅酸蓄电池的研究及进展概述%Updated research and progress of bipolar lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石沫; 朱溢慧; 章小琴; 吴亮; 柯娃; 吴秋菊; 戴贵平

    2016-01-01

    Compared to conventional lead-acid batteries, bipolar lead-acid batteries have many advantages, such as lower ohmic resistance, higher speciifc capacity, higher speciifc power, and longer cycle life. In this paper, the development history and latest research progresses of bipolar lead-acid batteries are introduced, and the differences of structure characteristic and performance between bipolar lead-acid and common lead-acid battery have also been discussed.%双极性铅酸蓄电池与传统的铅酸电池相比,具有低欧姆电阻、高比容量、高比功率与长循环寿命等优点。本文概述了双极性铅酸电池的发展历史和研究现状,并简单介绍了双极性铅酸蓄电池的结构特点、与普通铅酸蓄电池性能的差异等。

  18. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil.

  19. Modeling the impact of paste additives and pellet geometry on paste utilization within lead acid batteries during low rate discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargonen, Muhammed M.

    2015-01-01

    When designing a lead acid battery, there are many factors to consider in order to obtain the best compromise of cost, performance, and ease of manufacturability. We use a modeling approach to study some of the key factors which affect the amount of active material which can be utilized during a low rate discharge. We investigate the effects of pellet size, pellet geometry, disconnected grid mesh borders, and inert paste additives. Furthermore, we look at how the internal path length resistance within a pellet is dependent on those features. Our findings correlate well with earlier works, and help to explain some of the previously observed phenomenon. It is observed that utilization is indeed affected by pellet size, but small grid mesh sizes on the order of ∼4 mm edge lengths are necessary in order to realize a significant benefit. Utilization is presented as a function of pellet size, aspect ratio of the pellets, and the loading level of the inert additives in the pellets up to ten percent by volume.

  20. Effects of rest time on discharge response and equivalent circuit model for a lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Lalitha; Hu, Tingshu

    2015-05-01

    This work carries out a detailed investigation on the effects of rest time on the discharge response and the parameters of the Thevenin's equivalent circuit model for a lead acid battery. Traditional methods for battery modeling require a long rest time before a discharging test so that a steady state is reached for the open circuit voltage. In a recent work, we developed an algebraic method for parameter identification of circuit models for batteries by applying discharging tests after variable and possibly very short rest time. This new method opens a door to the understanding of the effects of rest time on battery behavior, which may be used for better simulation, analysis and design of battery powered systems for improved battery efficiency and state of health. As we used the new method to extract circuit parameters after different rest times, we observed some unexpected results on the relationship between the rest time and circuit parameters. The initial voltages on the capacitors can be negative and becomes more negative as the rest time is increased. We also observed that the time constants increase with rest time. Relationships between rest time and other parameters are also reported in this paper.

  1. The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyad Rafa'a Zair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

  2. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; ZHU Cheng; LI Li-ping; SUN Zhong-yang; PAN Xue-bo

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) was an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens and also plays an important role in mediating plant response to some abiotic stress. The possible effects of SA on the growth and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress were studied. When rice seedlings grown in nutrient solution containing Pb2+ (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 mmol/L) for 18 d, the plant biomass as well as the chlorophyll content of leaves decreased with increased Pb concentration. The pretreatment with SA (treated with 0.1 mmol/L SA for 48 h before Pb stress) partially protected seedlings from Pb toxicity. The chlorophyll contents in leaves were significant higher in leaves of Pb-exposed with SA pre-treatment seedlings than in Pb-exposed plants at the same Pb intensity. SA pre-treated alone could significantly increase the length of shoot and root of seedlings but the vigour difference was not marked under long-term exposure to Pb toxicity. SA pre-treated influence the H2O2 level in leaves of seedlings by up-regulating the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and repressing the activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) depending on the concentrations of Pb2+ in the growth medium. The results supported the conclusion that SA played a positive role in rice seedlings against Pb toxicity.

  3. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil. PMID:26286803

  4. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  5. Does acute lead (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin; Blicher, Martin E; Sejr, Mikael K

    2015-11-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb) exposure for 7 days would influence survival in intertidal blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) after exposure to realistic sub-zero air temperatures. A full factorial experiment with five tissue Pb concentrations between 0 and 3500 μg Pb/g and six sub-zero temperatures from 0 to -17 °C were used to test the hypothesis that sub-lethal effects of Pb may increase the lethality caused by freezing in blue mussels exposed to temperatures simulating Greenland winter conditions. We found a significant effect of temperature on mortality. However, the short-term exposure to Pb did not result in any effects of Pb, nor did we find interactions between Pb and temperature. We analysed the relative abundance of major phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the gill tissue, but we found no significant effect of Pb tissue concentration on PLFA composition. Results suggest that Pb accumulation has limited effects on freeze tolerance and does not induce membrane damage in terms of persistent lipid peroxidation.

  6. Comparison of different approaches for lifetime prediction of electrochemical systems - Using lead-acid batteries as example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17/19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Wenzl, Heinz [Electrical Energy Storage Group, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology and Beratung fuer Batterien und Energietechnik, Am Bergwaeldchen 27, D-37520 Osterode (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    Different approaches for lifetime prediction for electrochemical energy storage devices are discussed with respect to their general concepts. Examples for their implementation and advantages and disadvantages are given. The models are based on: (a) physical and chemical processes and their interaction as regards ageing effects; (b) weighting of the Ah throughput whenever the operating conditions deviate from the standard conditions used for determining the lifetime under laboratory conditions; (c) an event-oriented concept from mechanical engineering (Woehler curves) which is based on a pattern recognition approach to identify severe operating conditions. Examples and details are explained for lead-acid batteries. The approaches can be applied to other electrochemical technologies including fuel cells. However, it is beyond the scope of this paper, to describe the models in all mathematical details. The models are used in system design and identification of appropriate operating strategies and therefore they must have high computational speed to allow for a comparison of a large number of system variations. (author)

  7. Lead, zinc, and chromium concentrations in acidic headwater streams in Sweden explained by chemical, climatic, and land-use variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Huser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data series (1996–2009 for eleven acidic headwater streams (< 10 km2 in Sweden were analyzed to determine factors controlling concentrations of trace metals. In-stream chemical data as well climatic, flow, and deposition chemistry data were used to develop models predicting concentrations of chromium (Cr, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn. Data were initially analyzed using partial least squares to determine a set of variables that could predict metal concentrations across all sites. Organic matter (as absorbance and iron related positively to Pb and Cr, while pH related negatively to Pb and Zn. Other variables such as conductivity, manganese, and temperature were important as well. Multiple linear regression was then used to determine minimally adequate prediction models which explained an average of 35% (Cr, 52% (Zn, and 72% (Pb of metal variation across all sites. While models explained at least 50% of variation in the majority of sites for Pb (10 and Zn (8, only three sites met this criterion for Cr. Investigation of variation between site models for each metal revealed geographical (altitude, chemical (sulfate, and land-use (silvaculture influences on predictive power of the models. Residual analysis revealed seasonal differences in the ability of the models to predict metal concentrations as well. Expected future changes in model variables were applied and results showed the potential for long-term increases (Pb or decreases (Zn for trace metal concentrations at these sites.

  8. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  9. 铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产简述%Clean Production in Lead-Acid Battery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarized domestic clean production of lead-acid batteries,and related policies were briefed.The advanced technology and foreign regulations of clean production of lead-acid battery industry were also briefly introduced.Finally the advanced technology and management prospect of clean production in lead-acid battery industry were given.%文章就国内铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产水平和相关环境保护政策进行简述,并介绍了国外铅酸蓄电池清洁生产的环保先进技术和法规,最后展望了我国铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产先进技术和管理方向。

  10. 锑精炼除铅渣硝酸浸出回收铅的研究%Study on Lead Recovery from Lead Slag of Antimony Refining by Nitric Acid Leaching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦岩松; 盘有旺

    2013-01-01

    采用硝酸浸出的方法从锑精炼除铅渣中回收金属铅,考察了液固比、浸出温度和时间、硝酸浓度等对铅浸出率的影响.结果表明,适宜的浸出工艺为:液固比4、浸出温度80℃、浸出时间50 min、硝酸浓度7.0 mol/L.在此条件下,铅浸出率可以达到94%.%Lead was recovered from lead slag of antimony refining by nitric acid leaching process.The effects of ratio of liquid to solid (L/S),leaching temperature and time,and nitric acid concentration on lead leaching rate were investigated.The results show that the lead leaching rate is above 94% under the optimum conditions including L/S of 4,leaching temperature of 80 ℃,leaching time of 50 min,and nitric acid concentration of 7.0 mol/L.

  11. 难处理铅锌矿酸浸渣回收硫酸铅的工艺研究%Study on recovery lead sulfate from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传宝; 颜文斌; 徐辉; 高峰; 华骏

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process using sodium chloride and suliuric acid mixed solution, leaching lead from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine and preparing the lead sulfate by dilute leaching so lution. The influences of sodium chloride concentration,the liquid-solid ratio,time,temperature,acid concentration on lead leaching rate and diluted times,time on the lead sulfate precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the lead leaching rate of 82. 1% . when sodium chloride concentration of 330 g/L, sulfuric acid concentration of 1 mol/L,the liquid-solid ratio of 7: 1 at 95℃ for 1. 5 h, the purity of 99.1% products. The leaching solution in diluted times of 2.5 for standing time 7 h,lead sulfate precipitation rate was 93%. The lead recovery rate was 76% , it was improved by more than 30% compared with the traditional method.%采用氯化钠-硫酸混合溶液对铅锌矿难处理酸浸渣进行浸出,对浸出液稀释,制备硫酸铅,考察了氯化钠浓度、液固比、时间、温度和硫酸浓度等因素对酸浸渣的浸出影响和考察稀释倍数、时间等因素对沉淀硫酸铅的影响.结果表明,在氯化钠浓度为330 g/L,液固比为7:1,时间为1.5h,温度95℃,硫酸浓度为1mol/L的条件下,铅的浸出率为82.1%;在浸出液稀释倍数为2.5,静置时间7h的条件下,硫酸铅的沉淀率为93%,产品纯度为99.1%.铅的回收率为76%,比传统方法提高30%以上.

  12. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  13. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene;

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  14. Progress on electrode materials for lead acid flow battery based on electrolyte with soluble lead%全沉积型铅酸液流电池电极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭东; 毕孝国; 牛微

    2012-01-01

    A novel lead acid flow battery with no separator and a single electrolyte, lead (II) in organic acid, was described. The function and performance requirements of the electrode of lead acid flow battery were summed. The progress and recent development of the study on the electrode materials were reviewed. The results suggest that the most prospective electrode materials are the graphite felt and carbon foam and the study on the electrode modification is very important.%全沉积型铅酸液流电池是以可溶性二价铅离子在有机酸中的电沉积/溶解反应为充放电基础的新型储能装置.归纳了全沉积型铅酸液流电池电极的功能和性能要求,介绍了电极材料的研究进展情况.分析得到了当前最具应用前景的电极材料是碳素类和泡沫材料类,尤其是石墨毡和碳泡沫电极表面的改性研究是液流电池的一个重要研究方向.

  15. Influence of Combined Therapeutic Potential of Meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Calcium Disodium Edetate on Lead-induced Testicular Alterations in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOVINDER J.S. FLORA; USHA ARORA; ARD PRAHLAD K. SETH

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  16. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  17. 铅酸蓄电池的工作原理与维护方法%The Working Principle And Maintenance Of Lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俊斐

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the basic principles of lead-acid batteries, analyzes the capacity, the charge/discharge characteristics and the environmental factors of lead-acid batteries. Besides, the paper has discussed lead-acid batteries'rational use and maintenance in practical work. The main purpose of this paper is how to improve lead-acid batteries' availability and reliability, and then extend the batteries' use life, make the batteries more efficient, ensure the power supply system work safely.%简述了铅酸蓄电池的基本原理,对铅酸蓄电池的容量、充放电特性以及环境因素等进行了分析,结合实际工作对铅酸蓄电池的合理使用和维护进行了论述,旨在提高蓄电池的可用性和可靠性,使其寿命接近设计寿命,并使铅酸蓄电池发挥最好的效能,确保供电系统的运行安全。

  18. The Working Principle And Maintenance Of Lead-acid battery%浅析UPS的工作原理及维护方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the basic principles of lead-acid batteries, analyzes the capacity, the charge/discharge characteristics and the environmental factors of lead-acid batteries. Besides, the paper has discussed lead-acid batteries'rational use and maintenance in practical work. The main purpose of this paper is how to improve lead-acid batteries' availability and reliability, and then extend the batteries' use life, make the batteries more efficient, ensure the power supply system work safely.%本文旨在简述UPS的基本原理,对UPS的分类、容量、电池选择等进行了分析,结合实际工作对UPS和蓄电池的合理使用和维护进行了论述,旨在提高UPS的可用性和可靠性,使其电池寿命接近设计寿命,确保供电系统的运行安全。

  19. 中国铅酸电池市场应用现状和未来展望%Lead-acid battery market application and future prospects in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福鸾

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarized the market application of lead-acid batteries in recent years in China. It’s reviewed the impact of national environmental remediation storm on lead-acid battery manufacturing enterprises and the development of the industry since 2011. The market growth and industrial development trends of lead-acid batteries in China were prospected and some kinds of promising advanced lead-acid battery technology were also brielfy described.%本文概述了近年来中国铅酸电池的市场应用现状。介绍了2011年以来,国家环境整治风暴对铅酸电池生产企业和行业发展所带来的影响。并展望了未来中国铅酸蓄电池应用市场增长点和产业发展趋势。还简述了一些有发展前景的先进铅酸电池技术。

  20. 中国铅酸电池市场应用现状和未来展望%Lead-acid battery market application and future prospects in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福鸾

    2014-01-01

    本文概述了近年来中国铅酸电池的市场应用现状。介绍了2011年以来,国家环境整治风暴对铅酸电池生产企业和行业发展所带来的影响。并展望了未来中国铅酸蓄电池应用市场增长点和产业发展趋势。还简述了一些有发展前景的先进铅酸电池技术。%This paper summarized the market application of lead-acid batteries in recent years in China. It’s reviewed the impact of national environmental remediation storm on lead-acid battery manufacturing enterprises and the development of the industry since 2011. The market growth and industrial development trends of lead-acid batteries in China were prospected and some kinds of promising advanced lead-acid battery technology were also brielfy described.

  1. The inlfuence of solid expanders on performances of lead-acid batteries%固体膨胀剂对铅蓄电池性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳; 张慧; 王斌

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of additives ( sodium lignosulfonate and humic acid) as solid expanders added in the negative active material of lead-acid batteries. By using cyclic voltametry and AC impedance, discharge capacity test, water loss during cycling process, charge retention and capacity recovery, and type test of ifnished lead-acid batteries, the inlfuence of sodium lignosulfonate and humic acid on the properties of lead-acid batteries were studied.%本文在电池中加入固体膨胀剂木素磺酸钠与腐殖酸,通过测试循环伏安(CV)、交流阻抗(E I S)、放电容量及循环过程失水量、荷电保持和容量恢复能力,及进行成品电池型式试验,研究木素磺酸钠与腐殖酸对电池性能的影响。

  2. Influence of bicarbonate and humic acid on effects of chronic waterborne lead exposure to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2010-01-31

    Historically, the USEPA has only considered water hardness when establishing acute and chronic water quality criteria (WQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater. Yet, recent evidence suggests that hardness may not be protective during chronic Pb exposure and that other factors (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity) influence toxicity. In fact, we have recently shown that Ca(2+) (as CaSO(4)) does not protect against Pb accumulation in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during chronic exposures whereas DOC as humic acid (HA) clearly does. To more clearly define the water chemistry parameters mediating chronic Pb toxicity we carried out 300 d exposures to study the influence of DOC and alkalinity on Pb accumulation and toxicity to fathead minnows at 2 different Pb concentrations (170 and 580 nM (35 and 120 microg/L)). Alkalinity was adjusted by addition of 500 microM NaHCO(3) and DOC by addition of 4 mg/L HA. Fish were collected at 4, 30, 150 and 300 d of exposure to measure growth and Pb accumulation. Breeding assays (21 d) were performed at the end of these exposures to assess reproductive and larval behavioral endpoints. To determine whether effects were acute or chronic, switched breeding exposures were performed in which control breeders were transferred to either high or low Pb conditions and Pb-exposed breeders transferred to tap water without Pb. Mortality and growth effects were observed primarily in the high Pb treatments and within the first 10 d of exposure. Strong protection against Pb accumulation was afforded by increased DOC at both Pb concentrations. Increased alkalinity also appeared to moderately reduce Pb accumulation although not to the level of statistical significance. Tissue distribution of Pb was analyzed at 300 d and was found to accumulate mostly in bone, gill, intestine and kidney. Unexpectedly, high Pb reduced total reproductive output and increased average egg mass in the HCO(3)(-) and DOC treatments but not in the control water

  3. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12 h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic > citric > acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric > oxalic > acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil.

  4. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Brendorp, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine) in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) only, 1748 (16%) had cardiovascular disease (CVD) only and 6397 (60%) had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations...... (mean +/- standard deviation) at screening were significantly higher among patients with CVD compared to patients without CVD (p uric acid decreased...

  5. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008 proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  6. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  7. Trends for isolated amino acids and dipeptides: Conformation, divalent ion binding, and remarkable similarity of binding to calcium and lead

    CERN Document Server

    Ropo, Matti; Baldauf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We derive structural and binding energy trends for twenty amino acids, their dipeptides, and their interactions with the divalent cations Ca$^{2+}$, Ba$^{2+}$, Sr$^{2+}$, Cd$^{2+}$, Pb$^{2+}$, and Hg$^{2+}$. The underlying data set consists of 45,892 first-principles predicted conformers with relative energies up to about 4 eV (about 400kJ/mol). We show that only very few distinct backbone structures of isolated amino acids and their dipeptides emerge as lowest-energy conformers. The isolated amino acids predominantly adopt structures that involve an acidic proton shared between the carboxy and amino function. Dipeptides adopt one of two intramolecular-hydrogen bonded conformations C$_5$ or equatorial C$_7$. Upon complexation with a divalent cation, the accessible conformational space shrinks and intramolecular hydrogen bonding is prevented due to strong electrostatic interaction of backbone and side chain functional groups with cations. Clear correlations emerge from the binding energies of the six divalent ...

  8. Distribution and Determination of Cadmium in Lead-Acid Battery%铅酸蓄电池中镉的分布与测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉; 许丰; 杨君; 邓大伟

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and determination of cadmium in lead'acid battery were studied by FAAS. It was found that the content of Cd in the positive grid attained to about 94% of the total content of Cd in whole lead-acid battery, and the mass of Cd in whole lead-acid battery was about 1.06 times of the Cd content in the positive grid. When Cd content (w1) in a single positive grid was determined, the total Cd content in the whole lead-acid battery could be calculated by multiplying w1, by n (the number of positive grid) and the correction factor, K (generally taking 1.06) and dividing by the mass of the lead-acid battery m0.%应用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定了铅酸蓄电池中镉含量,并对其在各部件中的分布进行了研究。结果表明:含镉蓄电池中94%左右的镉集中分布在正板栅中(即含镉铅酸蓄电池含镉质量约为其正极板栅含镉质量的1.06倍)。因此,仅需测定正极板栅的总镉量(即单一正极板栅的镉测定值叫1乘以正极板栅数”)乘以修正因子K(一般取值1.06)再除以整只蓄电池的质量m0,即可求得整只铅酸蓄电池中镉的含量。

  9. Impact of lead-acid battery manufacturers on the environment and human lead burden%铅酸蓄电池厂对环境及人体铅负荷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽波; 张金良; 刘玲

    2013-01-01

    The present paper intends to view and summary impact of lead-acid battery manufacturers on the environment and human lead burden based on the articles published from 1990 to 2011.To make this summary,we have searched the articles on the lead pollution and human body load through the dataset of CNKI,Science Direct database,PUBMED and Google Scholar.Finally,we have chosen 45 articles and surveys on the lead-acid battery manufacturers,including 34 battery manufacturers from 34 cities in 15 provinces of the country.The range of the average lead dust and lead fume reported in the workplace stands 0.032-2.880 mg/m3 and 0.027-0.710 mg/m3,respectively,which exceeded the national standard limitation with proportion of 0-100.0% and 25.0%-95.6%.The reported average blood lead levels (BLLs) and urinary lead level of workers were 138.0-869.4 μg/L and 0.28-1.24 μmol/L.Of them,0-100.0% and 4.8%-74.4% were higher than the general occupational exposure limits.The lead concentrations in the atmosphere,surface water and soil around the lead-acid battery manufacturers were 0.000 4-1 420.0 mg/ m3,0.003-29.925 mg/L and 0.05-2 980.00 mg/kg,respectively.The average BLLs of children nearby lead-acid battery manufacturers were 91.20-531.68μg/L,the percentage of elevated blood lead level was 8.9%-97.1%.All those suggested that there were series lead pollution in the workshops of lead-acid battery factories,China.The burden of lead for workers is higher,too.In addition,the surroundings nearby the battery factory have been contaminated by lead as well.The BLL among children living around the battery factory was higher than those living in urban or rural areas free from lead-emission industrious enterprise.%通过《中国知网》、Science Direct、PubMed、Google Scholar等数据库筛选19902011年发表的关于我国铅酸蓄电池企业对周边环境、职业人群及周围人群影响的文献44篇,涉及我国15个省的34个城市,分析了我国铅酸蓄电池厂

  10. On the use and maintenance of automotive lead acid batteries%浅谈汽车铅蓄电池的使用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞霞; 徐增祥

    2012-01-01

    for a long time, both diesel car or automobile gasoline power are used in lead-acid battery. This is due to the relative to other types of batteries battery low prices, large capacity, and safe and reliable use of so much of the vast number of users of all ages. However, if the lead battery using same and improper maintenance endanger people's safety, but also is easy to cause early damage. For the vast number of users, and can correct use and maintenance of lead-acid battery, this paper is only a lead-acid battery performance characteristics, and use and maintenance should pay attention to the problem talks about a few view. To illustrate the problem conveniently, this paper only with 6QW60 lead acid battery for example.%长期以来,无论是柴油汽车或是汽油汽车的电源均采用铅酸蓄电池。这是由于这种蓄电池相对其它种类电池价格低、容量大,加之使用安全可靠所以倍受广大用户的青睐。然而,如果铅蓄电池使用与维护不当同样危及人的安全,同时也极容易造成早期损坏。为使广大用户了,且能正确使用与维护车用铅蓄电池,本文仅就车用铅蓄电池的工作特性,及使用与维护中应注意的问题谈几点看法。为了说明问题方便,本文仅以6QW60铅蓄电池为例进行说明。

  11. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  12. Development and design of self-adjusting type acid overlfow pot for lead-acid battery%蓄电池自调节式溢酸壶开发设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 方明学; 杨惠强

    2013-01-01

      本文主要针对蓄电池自调节式溢酸壶的开发设计进行了分析和阐述。通过对蓄电池自调节式溢酸壶的开发设计,可使蓄电池在加酸充电或者电池内化成充电过程中,自行、及时回补电池内部酸液,有效保证了电池的品质。%This development and design of self-adjusting type acid overlfow pot for lead-acid battery were analyzed and explained in this paper. The spilled electrolyte could be reiflled into the lead-acid battery with the self-adjusting type acid overlfow pot by itself and in time, so that the quality of lead-acid battery could be effectively guaranteed.

  13. Conductance testing compared to traditional methods of evaluating the capacity of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries and predicting state-of-health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, D.O. (Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems, Inc., Madison, NJ (United States)); Croda, T.G. (Sprint, Long Distance Div., Burlingame, CA (United States)); McShane, S.J.; Hlavac, M.J. (Midtronics, Inc., Willowbrook, IL (United States)); Champlin, K.S.

    1992-09-15

    Recently, timed discharge capacity tests were performed on 336 individual valve-regulated lead/acid cells in a telecommunications power system. The results were compared with traditional methods of determining cell health (i.e., float voltage, open-circuit voltage, and calculated specific gravity). At the same time, conductance measurements were taken, and these results were also compared to the results of the timed discharge capacity tests. Data will be presented which show that traditional methods indicate almost no correlation to timed discharge capacity testing. Conductance test data will be presented which show a very nearly linear correlation. Based on this correlation, these results indicate that conductance testing can provide users of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with a valuable predictive tool for determining the state-of-health of individual cells. (orig.).

  14. The Roles of Alkyl Branches of Ionic Liquid in the Corrosion Resistance of Pb/Sb/Sn Grids Alloy in Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of ionic liquids (ILs including mono, bicyclohexyl, and tetrahexyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate on the corrosion behaviour of Pb/Sb/Sn grids alloy of lead-acid battery with Pb, Sb (1.66 wt%, and Sn (0.24 wt%. Electrochemical behaviour has been investigated using Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with various concentrations of ILs as electrolyte additives in 4.0 mol⋅L-1 sulphuric acid. The obtained results indicated that, by increasing number of alkyl or cycloalkyl branches in ILs, the corrosion rate of the lead alloy decreases, whereas inhibition efficiency shows a reverse effect. In the presence of all ILs in different concentrations, conversion current of PbSO4 to PbO2 (ia and ic increases, while the reversibility, deduced from peak potential differences, decreases. Also, the effect of ILs adsorption model on the corrosion behaviour of electrode was proposed.

  15. Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U.; Bindner, Henrik W.;

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the lifetime of lead-acid batteries in applications with irregular operating conditions such as partial state-of-charge cycling, varying depth-of-discharge and different times between full charging is known as a difficult task. Experimental investigations in the laboratory are difficult...... into account are based on a detailed analysis and understanding of ageing processes in lead-acid batteries. The ' normal ' user can adapt the model to different battery types simply from the data sheet information on cycle lifetime and float lifetime. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... system sizing and different battery technologies on battery lifetime. It is a tool for system designers and system operators to select appropriate batteries, to do a proper system design (sizing of the battery, power generators and loads), and to implement an optimized operation strategy (end...

  16. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, pacid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  17. VRLA铅酸蓄电池充电技术与内阻测量%Research on Charging Technology and Internal Resistance Testing of Lead-Acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 颜湘武

    2012-01-01

    研究了铅酸蓄电池的反应原理和特点,充电过程中的极化现象,分析了蓄电池常规充电、快速充电、智能充电的原理和特点,阐述了蓄电池内阻的不同测量方法。%This paper researches on the reaction principle and characteristics of lead-acid batteries, and the polarization phenomenon of the battery charging process, analyzs the principles and characteristics of conventional charging, fast char ging, intelligent charging methods of lead-acid batteries, finally descrihs different measurement methods of the internal re sistance in the process of charging.

  18. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  19. 微欧级蓄电池内阻测量方法%Measuring Method about Microhm Internal Resistance of Lead-acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨锋; 葛俊锋; 叶林; 陈朝辉

    2015-01-01

    A practical microhm internal resistance of lead-acid battery measuring system was designed as a result of the defi-ciencies in this field .The system was connected by four-wire method and the AC signal of 1kHz was injected into the lead-acid battery , then the weak signals generated at both ends of the battery was amplified , filtered and transformed to RMS .The system ef-fectively suppressed noise and disturbance , and simplified design , which achieved the measurement of microhm internal resistance of lead-acid battery.The experiments show that the system can be effectively used in the measurement of microhm internal resist -ance of lead-acid battery , and the measurement results are stable and reliable .%针对目前微欧级蓄电池内阻测量存在的不足,设计了一套实用的微欧级蓄电池内阻测量系统。该系统运用四引线连接法,将1kHz的交流信号注入电池,再将电池两端产生的微弱信号通过差分放大、带通滤波,有效值转换等技术,有效地抑制了噪声和干扰,简化了设计,实现了微欧级蓄电池内阻的测量。实验结果表明,该系统可有效地应用于微欧级蓄电池内阻的测量,且测量结果稳定可靠。

  20. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu; Aiwansoba Raymond Osas; Osawaru Moses Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when ...

  1. 聚天冬氨酸应用于铅蓄电池的研究%Research on polyaspartic aicd as an additive of lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 赵冬冬; 马换玉; 刘松

    2015-01-01

    本文以聚天冬氨酸为膨胀剂,取代负极活性物质中的木素磺酸钠,测试其对铅蓄电池低温和荷电保持性能的影响。添加聚天冬氨酸后,电池首次低温放电容量较低,但随着低温循环次数增加,其放电容量逐渐升高,至稳定时,放电容量略高于木素磺酸钠电池的。电解液添加质量分数为1.0%的聚天冬氨酸后,对硫酸铅晶粒有细化作用,电池容量恢复性较好。%In this paper, the effect on the low temperature capacity and charge retention of lead-acid battery with polyaspartic acid instead of sodium lignosulphonate in the negative active materials was reviewed. The results showed that the low temperature capacity of battery was increased slowly as cyclic life increasing though the ifrst capacity was lower, and the stable discharge capacity of lead-acid battery with polyaspartic acid was a little more than that with sodium lignosulphonate. The capacity recovery of battery was better when the polyaspartic acid was added into electrolyte because it could reifne the crystalline structure of lead sulfate.

  2. 铅酸蓄电池容量及寿命的研究分析%Study and Analysis on the Capacity and Life of Lead Acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬俏

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了铅酸电池容量及充电状态SOC分析;对铅酸电池使用寿命情况进行阐述,并分析了影响其实用寿命的主要因素;提出了无损均衡控制技术及均衡控制的设计方案,设计结果表明均衡充电具有效率高,能量损耗小、安全可靠等特点,能延长铅酸蓄电池的循环使用寿命。%The capacity of lead-acid battery and charging the SOC state of; of lead-acid battery using life carries on the elaboration, and analyzes the main factors affect its service life; nondestructive Equilibria Control and balance control design scheme is proposed. The calculation results show that equilibrium charging with high efifciency, small energy consumption, safe and reliable, and other characteristics, extend the service life of the lead-acid battery recycling.

  3. 铅酸蓄电池鼓包原因及防治措施%Causes and Prevention Measures of Drum Pack for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉华; 华平; 张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    Valve controlled lead-acid battery has the advantages of good sealing, no leakage, no pollution, recycla?blecharging, low cost, safe use, etc. But in the use of lead-acid batteries,the drum pack phenomenon often occurs, thus reducing the servicelife. In this research, the structure and working principle of lead-acid battery are analyzed for the causes of the drum pack, and then the prevention measures are found.%阀控铅酸蓄电池具有密封好、无泄漏、无污染、可循环充电、成本低廉、使用安全等优点,但在使用中铅酸蓄电池经常出现鼓包现象,降低了其寿命.本研究从铅酸蓄电池的结构、工作原理分析其鼓包原因,找出其防治措施.

  4. 用盐酸从锌烟尘中浸出铅锌试验研究%Leaching of Lead and Zinc From Zinc Dust Using Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红燕; 森维; 孔馨; 李富宇

    2014-01-01

    研究了用盐酸从炼铅厂烟化段产出的锌烟尘中浸出分离铅和锌,考察了液固体积质量比、盐酸浓度、浸出温度和浸出时间对铅、锌浸出率的影响,确定了最佳浸出参数。试验结果表明:在浸出温度80℃、液固体积质量比8∶1、盐酸浓度6 mol/L最佳条件下,铅和锌的浸出率均大于90%。%Leaching of lead and zinc from zinc dusts coming from fuming stage in lead smelter were studied using hydrochloric acid .The effects the ratio between liquid volume and solid mass , concentration of acid ,leaching temperature and leaching time on zinc and lead leaching rates were examined .The results show that under the best conditions of the ratio between liquid volume and solid mass of 8∶1 ,leaching temperature of 80 ℃ and HCl concentration of 6 mol/L ,the leaching of lead and zinc are both more than 90% .

  5. Overexpression of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I leads to susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizure in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter,and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters.With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1),the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.Though displaying no spontaneous seizure activity,these mice exhibit altered electroencephalographic patterns and increased susceptibility to seizure induced by kainic acid.In addition,the GABAA receptor and glutamate transporters are up-regulated in transgenic mice,which perhaps reflects a compensatory or corrective change to the elevated level of GAT1.These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission,and seizure susceptibility can be altered by neurotransmitter transporters.

  6. Behaviour and reliability of lead-acid batteries in stand-alone photovoltaic systems; Comportamiento y durabilidad de baterias de plomo-acido en sistemas fotovoltaicos autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Barrionuevo, N.

    2007-07-01

    Vented stationary lead-acid batteries are currently the most commonly used type of accumulator in stand-alone PV systems. The state-of the art of the technology suggests that lead-acid batteries will maintain a predominant position in the PV market for the next years. Additionally to the specific operating requirements of batteries in PV systems, there are other questions not completely solved related to battery characterisation and testing methods for this type of application. The objective of this work is to contribute to the operational optimisation and reliability improvement of lead-acid batteries operating in stand-alone PV systems. This objective has been approached by means of eminently experimental works. These works are focused firstly on functional characterisation of batteries, with special emphasis on capacity and characteristic voltages study and secondly on degradation analysis of these batteries taking into account the specific working conditions of stand-alone PV systems which main characteristic is its wide variability of operational conditions (current rates, temperature and state of charge). In relation with battery characterisation, a procedure for the determination of the usable capacity of lead-acid batteries has been established and applied to a set of commercial batteries at different current rate and temperature conditions. From each battery experimental data and using a model equation describing the battery capacity as function of current rate and temperature, the corresponding parameters for each battery have been obtained. A comparative analysis of the model application to experimental data and data supplied by the manufacturer is included. Also, initial gassing voltage and end-of-charge voltage values have been measured at different current rate and temperature conditions for the whole set of batteries. Experimental values of voltage from each battery have been fitted with high degree of accuracy to simple mathematical expressions for

  7. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL−1. Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3–10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5–200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10−4. The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities. - Highlights: • The health risks of children living around a typical lead-acid battery was analyzed. • The exposure pathways of children to 12 heavy metal(loid)s were assessed. • Courtyard soil and indoor dust and duplicate food were contaminated by metal(loid)s. • Food ingestion was the major pathway for children's exposure to most metal(loid)s. • Higher potentially non-cancer and cancer risks happened to the local children. - The children living around a typical lead-acid battery plant suffered from serious health risks, which mainly attributed to food ingestion and air inhalation exposure

  8. [Inhibition rate of gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes as a reliable index for individual workers of low lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, H; Omichi, M; Ohishi, H; Ishikawa, K; Hirashima, N

    1983-09-01

    As the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes is decreased by lead exposure, we considered that a net reduction of ALAD activity by lead in blood should be the difference between the activity fully activated with zinc (Zn2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and that without activation. The optimal condition of activation of ALAD was found by addition of 0.25 mM of Zn2+ and 10 mM of DTT in the reaction mixture. Judging from our previous results that the amount of inhibition of ALAD activity can be represented as the rate of inhibition and is closely correlated with the dose of lead administered to rabbits, the inhibition rate of ALAD activity and lead content in blood (Pb-B) of lead workers were measured. The scatter diagram obtained from the inhibition rate and lead content in blood has two groups being divided at 50 micrograms/ml of Pb-B. In one group less than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B, the inhibition rate has been closely related to Pb-B., the regression equation being Y = 1.82 X + 11.7, and the correlation coefficient + 0.926. In another group more than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B the inhibition rate remained constant at the 90% level. Measurement of the inhibition rate suggests to have practical validity for monitoring lead exposure in workers, and by means of a nomograph lead content in blood can be estimated from the inhibition rate.

  9. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    OpenAIRE

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Yong Meng; Tan Sheau Wei; Yeap Swee Keong; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (H...

  10. Research of improving lead-acid storage battery life-span%提高铅酸蓄电池寿命方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成建生

    2011-01-01

    首次提出在铅酸蓄电池内部加装可控点燃装置的方法,来提高铅酸蓄电池的循环寿命.原理是采用三段大电流脉冲过充电提高铅酸蓄电池组充电电压,加大充电电流,可控点燃装置点燃充电过程中产生的氢气和氧气,提高氢、氧的复合率.通过对同类型铅酸蓄电池内部的压力测量,不同工作模式时容量衰减比对,对铅酸蓄电池的循环寿命进行了研究.研究表明:铅酸蓄电池内部的气体压力减小,循环寿命比同类铅酸蓄电池提高1.5~2倍,深循环寿命可达600次.%The way of adding a controlled firing device inside the lead-acid storage battery was brought forward firstly to enhance the cycle life-span of leard-acid storage battery in this paper. The charging volt of the lead-acid storage battery group and the charging current could be improved by the way of three sections heavy current pulse over-charging. The controlled firing device fired the hydrogen and oxygen produced in the charging process to improve the hydrogen and oxygen recombination rate. By measuring the internal pressure of different types of lead acid batteries, and comparing the capacity attenuation in different working modes, the life of lead acid batteries were researched. The results show that the internal pressure of the battery is reduced, the life is extended by 1.5 - 2 times comparing with the similar types of batteries, and the deep cycle life can reach 600 times.

  11. The influence of the pickling and curing processes in the manufacturing of positive tubular electrodes on the performance of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, E. E.; Geyer, L.; Poorun, A.

    The effects of changing the dipping and curing times of tubular positive electrodes on the discharge capacity were investigated. The comparative study showed that longer dipping and curing times do not necessarily result in electrodes with better first capacity performance. Acid adsorption studies of tubular plates filled with lead oxide showed that about one-third of the acid, that would have been adsorbed after 15 h, was already adsorbed after 5 s of dipping. The optimum surface area and porosity of the cured active material was obtained after 15-60 min of dipping. This is equivalent to the rest period used in the formation process where the plates are kept in the acid just before charging. Curing times should be kept around 24 h in order to reduce the free lead in the oxide. The study showed that the pore size distribution of the formed active material influenced the high current discharge ability more than the available surface area of the positive electrode. However, the surface area and pore size distribution changed dramatically during capacity cycling and the continuous capacity performance of the tubular electrode was partially influenced by the initial characteristics of the cured active material.

  12. Residual Host Cell Protein Promotes Polysorbate 20 Degradation in a Sulfatase Drug Product Leading to Free Fatty Acid Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Nitin; Salamat-Miller, Nazila; Salinas, Paul A; Taylor, Katherine D; Basu, Sujit K

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the root cause behind an observed free fatty acid particle formation and resulting Polysorbate 20 (PS20) loss for a sulfatase drug product upon long-term storage at 5 ± 3°C. Reversed- phase chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis as well as charged aerosol detection was used to characterize the peaks associated with the intact and degraded PS20. Additionally, a proteomics study was undertaken to identify the residual host cell proteins in the sulfatase drug substance. PS20 stability studies were conducted in the presence of sulfatase, a sulfatase inhibitor, putative phospholipase B-like 2, and mock drug substance produced using a null cell line vector under experimental conditions optimized for PS20 degradation. This study provides the first published evidence where the residual host cell protein present in the drug substance was identified and experimentally shown to catalyze the breakdown of PS20 in a protein formulation over time, resulting in free fatty acid particles and PS20 loss. This study demonstrates the importance of early detection of potential impurities in the protein drug substance that may contribute to polysorbate degradation to make a judicious selection of the surfactant and its optimized concentration for the final drug product. PMID:27032893

  13. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  14. Gelled electrolytes for use in absorptive glass mat valve-regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA) batteries working under 100% depth of discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantichanakul, Titiporn; Chailapakul, Orawon; Tantavichet, Nisit

    2011-10-01

    Gelled electrolytes prepared from fumed silica for use in absorptive glass mat valve-regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA) batteries and the effect of veratraldehyde addition on the electrochemical behavior and performance of AGM VRLA batteries are investigated. Cyclic voltammetry is used to investigate differences in the electrochemical behaviors of nongelled and gelled electrolytes and between gelled electrolytes with and without veratraldehyde. Battery performance is tested under 100% depth of discharge (100% DoD) conditions at both low- (0.1 C) and high- (1 C) rate discharges. The addition of silica or veratraldehyde does not affect the main reaction of the lead-acid batteries but tends to suppress the hydrogen evolution reaction. AGM VRLA batteries with gelled electrolytes have a higher discharge capacity and longer cycle life than the conventional nongel AGM VRLA batteries. The addition of 0.005% (w/v) veratraldehyde further improves battery performance, but higher (0.01%, w/v) veratraldehyde concentrations reduce it and correlate with the enhanced growth of lead sulfate crystals. The AGM VRLA battery prepared from a gelled electrolyte containing 0.005% (w/v) veratraldehyde provides the best battery performance in every operating temperature studied (0-60 °C).

  15. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterson Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied. Methods and results Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24% had diabetes mellitus (DM only, 1748 (16% had cardiovascular disease (CVD only and 6397 (60% had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations (mean ± standard deviation at screening were significantly higher among patients with CVD compared to patients without CVD (p Conclusion A four week daily intake of sibutramine and life style changes was associated with significant reductions in mean uric acid levels. Changes in renal glucose load in diabetes seem to counteract a potential uricosuric effect of sibutramine. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  16. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  17. Adsorption properties of silica surface-grafted with a salicylhydroxamic acid-functionalized polymer toward lead ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixin; Xie, Meina; Wang, Hongjing; Shi, Xiaohui; Lei, Caiping [North University of China, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-03-15

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), functionalized composite chelating adsorbing material SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2}, was prepared through the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 5-chloromethyl-salicylhydroxamic acid with poly (2- hydroethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) modified silica gel particles PHEMA/SiO{sub 2}. The SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} composites were characterized by FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nitrogen absorption. The adsorption behavior, adsorption thermodynamic, and adsorption mechanism of SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} for Pb2+ ions were studied, and the pH value of the medium on the adsorption property and chelating adsorption ability of SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} for Pb2{sup +} ions was also investigated. The experimental results show that SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} possesses strong chelating adsorption ability for Pb2{sup +} ions, and the adsorption capacity for Pb2{sup +} ions at 308K reached 57 mg/g. The adsorption process is a chemical adsorption process driven by entropy, and the adsorption capacity increases with rising temperature. In pH range that can inhibit the hydrolysis of heavy metal ions, increasing the pH value of the medium strengthens the adsorption ability of SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} toward Pb2{sup +} ions. The adsorption behavior is monomolecular and follows Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacity is almost the same after ten consecutive adsorption- desorption experiments of SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} for Pb2{sup +} ions, indicating that SHA-PHEMA/SiO{sub 2} has excellent elution property and reusability.

  18. 大型防爆特殊型铅酸蓄电池的研制%Development of a large capacity explosion-proof special lead acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丰章; 夏美学; 宋鑫

    2001-01-01

    The technical specification,designing of keyparts,preparing,tests and technical level of the large capacity explosion-proof special lead acid battery were presented.%简要介绍了D-1200-KT大型煤矿防爆特殊型电源装置用铅酸蓄电池的技术要求,关键件的设计思路、试制过程、试验结果及已达到的技术水平。

  19. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  20. Influence of the steric effect of flexible isomeric phenylenediacetic acids on the resultant lead(II) coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunlong; Zhao, Yanqing; Yang, Guo-Ping, E-mail: ygp@nwu.edu.cn; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2015-03-15

    To study the steric effect of the flexible dicarboxylate ligands on the resultant formations of coordination polymers (CPs), four new Pb{sup II} CPs [Pb(1,2-pda)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Pb(1,3-pda)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Pb{sub 2}(1,4-pda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (3a and 3b) have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The X-ray crystallography study reveals that CP 1 is a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network via the weak Pb···O interactions built on 1D chain-like structure. CP 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, showing a 4-connected sra (4{sup 2}.6{sup 3}.8) framework where a left-handed helical motif is formed by Pb{sup II} ions and trans-1,3-pda ligands. More interestingly, CPs 3a and 3b are two true 3D polymorphs and have the different morphology. Topologically, the framework of 3a exhibits a 4-connected lon 6{sup 6} motif, while that of 3b is a (4,6)-connected fsh (4{sup 3}.6{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 6}.8{sup 3}) net. It is found that the three isomeric pda anions display the various coordination fashions in four CPs. The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four new Pb{sup II}-based CPs have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Highlights: • Four Pb{sup II}-based coordination polymers were produced by phenylenediacetic acids. • The crystal and topological structures of the

  1. Direct Sulfuric Acid Leaching of A Lead-zinc Oxide Ore%氧化铅锌矿直接硫酸浸出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺山明; 王吉坤; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    The direct sulfuric acid leaching process of lead-zinc oxide ore is investigated, and the impact factors on leaching are described. The results show that the more than 97% of zinc can be leached, more than 98% of lead into the slag, the rate of fluid production is greater than 162. 5L/m2 · H, the zinc content in residue is about 2. 5% and the lead content in residue is greater than 40% , under the optimal condition. The leaching residue can be sent to the lead smelting process.%探讨用硫酸直接浸出氧化铅锌矿,研究各种因素对浸出的影响.结果表明,在最佳工艺条件下,锌的浸出率可达97%以上,铅入渣率可达98%以上,产液速率大于162.5L/m2·h,渣含锌约2.5%,渣含铅量高达40%以上,浸出渣可送往炼铅系统处理.

  2. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  3. Overexpression of the laeA gene leads to increased production of cyclopiazonic acid in Aspergillus fumisynnematus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun Jin; Kim, Na Kyeong; Lee, Doyup; Kim, Won Gon; Lee, Inhyung

    2015-11-01

    To explore novel bioactive compounds produced via activation of secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters, we overexpressed an ortholog of laeA, a gene that encodes a global positive regulator of secondary metabolism in Aspergillus fumisynnematus F746. Overexpression of the laeA gene under the alcA promoter resulted in the production of less pigment, shorter conidial head chains, and fewer conidia. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that SM production in OE::laeA was significantly increased, and included new metabolites that were not detected in the wild type. Among them, a compound named F1 was selected on the basis of its high production levels and antibacterial effects. F1 was purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC and identified as cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) by LC/MS, which had been previously known as mycotoxin. As A. fumisynnematus was not known to produce CPA, these results suggest that overexpression of the laeA gene can be used to explore the synthesis of useful bioactive compounds, even in a fungus for which the genome sequence is unavailable.

  4. Design and cost study for development of lead--acid batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [Goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinlein, C E

    1977-01-01

    A design for an improved state-of-the-art (ISOA) battery is proposed in this report. It is believed that this ISOA design is the most efficient design achievable within the constraints of the ISOA battery development program. These constraints include realistic time and financial limitations, and compatibility with existing high-speed production equipment. The ISOA battery is in fact an improved, state-of-the-art lead--acid battery suitable for use in an electric vehicle. A durable, light-weight polypropylene container and cover complete with single-point watering and venting features are incorporated in the ISOA design. A number of materials and process parameters with profound affect on battery performance will be chosen only after extensive evaluation and cell testing. Development of an advanced lead--acid electric vehicle battery will involve the evaluation and application of effective forward concepts in the design of the battery. Many weight-saving designs will be incorporated. Significant improvements in active material efficiencies and integrity are required. The goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 life cycles are ambitious but achievable. The cycle life goal appears to be the most formidable. Investigations of charging equipment and parameters will be undertaken. The impact of manufacturing plants on the environment and natural resources is discussed. 3 figures, 23 tables. (RWR)

  5. Genetic, molecular and expression features of the Pervenets mutant leading to high oleic acid content of seed oil in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe Séverine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervenets is a sunflower population that displays seed oil with a high oleic acid content [HOAC]. Our aim is to reconcile all the data gathered on this mutant in a unique explanatory mechanism. All Pervenets-derived [HOAC] lines display no accumulation or a very reduced accumulation of the DELTA12-desaturase transcript in the embryos during the stages for oil accumulation. They also carry oleHOS specific RFLP markers revealed by an DELTA12-desaturase cDNA used as a probe. The linoleic or [LO] genotypes do not carry this RFLP marker, but another allele: oleLOR (oleHL locus. Linkage disequilibrium between the oleHOS allele and [HOAC] was verified. We studied the mode of inheritance of [HOAC] in two segregating populations. A F2 progenies revealed one dominant allele for [HOAC] that co-segregated with the oleHOS allele showing that the Pervenets mutation and oleHOS were closely linked. F6 recombinant inbred lines, showed the [HOAC] trait due to two independent loci: the locus carrying the oleHOS allele and another locus sup. One allele, supole, at this second locus may suppress the effect of the oleHOS allele on the [HOAC] trait. Northern analyses performed on [HOAC] lines and F1 ([HOAC] x [LO] hybrids revealed under-accumulation of DELTA12-desaturase transcript. Thus Pervenets mutation acts in trans. The oleHOS genomic region that may carry the Pervenets mutation was cloned. A genomic library was constructed in lambdafixII with the DNA from the RHA345 [HOAC] line and screened with a DELTA12-desaturase cDNA as a probe. Two overlapping clones were entirely sequenced and revealed carrying a gene for an DELTA12-desaturase probably located in the RE. This corresponds to the invariant part of the oleHL locus. Another clone (11.1 probably carries DELTA12-desaturase repeated sequences that cause instability of the clone. We showed that the 11.1 clone carries most of cDNA sequence, but due to its organization it is not yet sequenced. A mutation mechanism

  6. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution.

  7. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  8. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A. [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States); Moseley, P.T. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. (orig.)

  9. Acid drainage at the inactive Santa Lucia mine, western Cuba: Natural attenuation of arsenic, barium and lead, and geochemical behavior of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Francisco Martin, E-mail: fmrch@geologia.unam.mx [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Prol-Ledesma, Rosa Maria; Canet, Carles [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alvares, Laura Nunez; Perez-Vazquez, Ramon [Facultad de Geologia y Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio (Cuba)

    2010-05-15

    A detailed geochemical study was conducted at the inactive Zn-Pb mine of Santa Lucia, in western Cuba. The studied mine-wastes are characterized by high total concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE), with average values of 17.4% Fe, 5.47% Ba, 2.27% Pb, 0.83% Zn, 1724 mg/kg As and 811 mg/kg Cu. Oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine-waste dumps and in the open pit produces acid mine effluents (pH = 2.5-2.6) enriched in dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (up to 6754 mg/L), Fe (up to 4620 mg/L) and Zn (up to 2090 mg/L). Low pH values (2.5-2.8) and high dissolved concentrations of the same PTE were found in surface waters, up to 1500 m downstream from the mine. Nevertheless, concentrations of As, Ba and Pb in acid mine effluents and impacted surface waters are relatively low: 0.01-0.3 mg/L As, 0.002-0.03 mg/L Ba and 0.3-4.3 mg/L Pb. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of lead-bearing barite and beudantite and the more common solid phases, reported elsewhere in similar environments including Fe-oxyhydroxides, jarosite, anglesite and plumbojarosite. Because the reported solubilities for barite and beudantite are very low under acidic conditions, these minerals may serve as the most important control in the mobility of As, Ba and Pb. In contrast, Fe-oxyhydroxides are relatively soluble under acidic conditions and, therefore, they may have a less significant role in PTE on-site immobilization. Mine-wastes and stream sediments show a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enrichment relative to heavy REE (HREE). In contrast, acid mine effluents and surface waters are enriched in HREE relative to LREE. These results suggest that the LREE released during the oxidation of sulfides are captured by secondary (weathering) minerals, while the MREE are removed from the altered rocks. The low concentrations of LREE in acid stream water suggest that these elements can be retained in the sediments more strongly than HREE and MREE. One

  10. Summary on Present Situation and Its Service Life of Dynamic Lead-acid Batteries Development%动力铅酸电池的发展现状及其使用寿命的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    介绍了铅酸电池的种类,详细分析了水平铅酸电池、卷式电池、双极性铅酸电池使用发展的情况,指出了各类铅酸的优点和不足,并提出了提高铅酸电池使用寿命的几种方法.%Lead-acid batteries are widely used in electric vehicles, especially electric bicycles. It describes the level of lead - acid batteries, battery volume, the characteristics of bipolar lead- acid batteries, lead acid batteries to extend the service life of progress.

  11. 提高铅酸电池活性物质利用率%mproving active material utilization of lead acid batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎智刚; 胡信国

    2001-01-01

    Lead acid batteries had a disadvantage of low specific energy by weight as motive power sources of electric vehicles.The utilization of active material was one of the most important factors that affected the specific energy. If the utilization of active material of lead acid batteries could be improved, the specific energy by weight would be increased and the single charge trip range of electric vehicles would also be increased. The main factors influencing the specific energy by weight included current density, plate thickness, active material structure, the conductivity of active material, grids, electrolyte volume and density. As a result,the utilization of active material and the specific energy by weight of lead acid batteries by way of changing the parameters of allthese factors was improved.%铅酸电池作为电动车用动力电池存在着重量比能量低的缺点,而活性物质的利用率是影响比能量的一个重要因素。如果铅酸电池的活性物质利用率能够得以提高,那么它的重量比能量将得以提高,电动汽车充电一次的续驶里程将会提高。影响铅酸电池活性物质利用率的主要因素有:电流密度、极板厚度、活性物质的结构、活性物质和板栅的导电性能及电解液的体积和密度等。因此,我们可以通过改变上述参数来提高活性物质的利用率,从而提高铅酸电池的重量比能量。

  12. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when IAA and lead were used. About 100 % germination was recorded after seven days. This suggests that water melon seeds can initiate growth even in lead polluted environment. Optimum level of 5 ppm IAA with the different levels of lead treatments may be recommended. Most important was that higher concentrations of Pb in the control (without IAA did not inhibit seedling shoot nor root growth. Longest seedling shoot length (cm was 10.33 ± 1.24 and 12.13 ± 2.06 on the seventh and eighth day respectively with the combined treatment levels of 1 ppm IAA and 15 ppm Pb. On the ninth day, 15.27 ± 0.96 was obtained from 1 ppm IAA and 20 ppm Pb. Longest seedling root length (cm values were recorded from the combined treatment levels of 0 ppm IAA and 10 ppm Pb for the seventh (9.10 ± 0.47 and ninth (10.37 ± 1.81 day respectively and 0 ppm and 15 ppm Pb on the eighth (9.37 ± 0.84 day. Significant means were also obtained with the treatment level of 0 and 20 ppm IAA. This present study suggest the germination of C. lanatus under Pb polluted environment may be rescued with optimum IAA.

  13. Influence of paste composition and curing program used for the production of positive plates with PbSnCa grids on the performance of lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Rogachev, T.; Bogdanova, L.

    The cycle life performance of lead acid batteries with PbSnCa grids is strongly affected by the structure and properties of PAM and of the interface PAM/grid. The latter interface is formed during curing and formation of the positive plates. The processes that take place on curing of positive lead acid battery plates produced with Concast or Conroll PbSnCa grids and 3PbOPbSO 4·H 2O (3BS) or 4PbOPbSO 4· xH 2O (4BS) pastes are discussed in this paper. The enhanced processes of Sn and Ca segregation in the alloy of the grids during plate curing lead to the formation of a thin layer of a new phase, composed of the intermetallic compound (Pb 1- xSn x) 3Ca, in the spaces between the metal grains or sub-grains. This layer makes the interface heterogeneous and exerts a detrimental effect on the cycle life of the battery. In order to suppress its effect on battery performance, the thickness of this layer should be reduced by reducing the content of Ca in the grid alloy. During plate curing, the heterogeneous surface of the grid alloy is oxidized under the action of oxygen and H 2O at elevated temperature and the alkaline solution in the paste pores. A corrosion layer is formed comprising a thin sub-layer (CL1) and a thick partially hydrated lead oxide sub-layer (CL2). The 4BS/CL2 contact surface is larger and more stable than that between the 3BS particles and the CL2 layer. Both 3BS and 4BS particles are bonded to the CL2 layer through their hydrated layers. When curing is conducted at temperatures above 80 °C, 3BS particles are converted into 4BS ones which contain water. It has been established that positive plates produced with 4BS plates cured at 50 °C have the longest cycle life and adequate capacity performance, but a bit low power output. Positive plates prepared with 3BS pastes, which are then converted into 4BS ones during plate curing at 90 °C, have high initial capacity and power performance, but shorter cycle life. Batteries with plates produced with 4BS

  14. Study on leaching process of lead from acid residue%酸浸渣综合回收浸铅工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国敏; 俎小凤; 张福元

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to the comprehensive recovery of low-grade lead in acid residue from cyanidation process of golden leaching, salt leaching method was adopted to extract lead in the experimental study. Influences of the factors, such as liquid and solid (L/S) mass ratio, leaching temperature, leaching time, concentration of NaCl, and leaching pH, on leaching ratio of lead were studied through orthogonal experiment. It was found that when L/S mass ratio was 5, leaching tempeture was 333.15 K,mass fraction of NaCl was 30% ,pH =0,and leaching time was 4 h the best average lead leaching rate was 92.05% and relatively standard deviation was 4. 3‰. At room temperature, lead leaching rate also reached 90. 20% and relatively standard deviation was 4.1‰ So salt leaching method is an effective way of lead recovery and gold and silver yield improvement in comprehensive utilization of mines at room temperature.%针对氰化提金工艺酸浸渣中低品位金属铅的综合回收,采用盐浸法对金属铅进行了浸出实验研究,通过正交试验详细考察了浸出液固质量比、浸出温度、氯化钠浓度、浸出pH和浸出时间等因素对浸铅率的影响.结果表明,浸出液固质量比为5、浸出温度为333.15 K、氯化钠质量分数为30%、pH =0、浸出时间为4h的实验条件下,最佳平均浸铅率为92.05%,相对标准偏差RSD=4.3‰;室温下最佳平均浸铅率为90.20%,RSD =4.1‰.因此,酸浸渣常温盐浸提铅是综合利用矿产资源回收铅及提高金、银回收率的有效途径.

  15. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  16. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  17. Lead-acid batteries online monitoring automation and its implementation%铅酸蓄电池在线监测自动化及其实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛

    2016-01-01

    The application of lead-acid battery is the longest, most productive, most widely used batteries with high voltage, high-current discharge in a short time, a wide temperature range, low cost, reliable operation advantages, the defects are shorter cycle life, low speciifc energy, mainly used in all types of internal combustion engine vehicles and the tractors. Currently, maintenance-free lead-acid battery is the main direction of development, but in terms of the mode of production should be improved. Thus, the article studies automation of production, has a certain theoretical and practical signiifcance.%铅酸蓄电池是我国应用时间最长、产量最多、应用范围最广的一种蓄电池,有着工作电压高、短时间内大电流放电、使用温度范围宽、成本低、运行可靠的优势,缺陷在于循环寿命较短,比能量低,主要应用在各类汽车、拖拉机的内燃机中。目前,免维护铅酸蓄电池是主要的发展方向,但是在生产方式方面还有待完善。因此,文章对其生产自动化改造进行研究,有着一定的理论意义和实践意义。

  18. Engineering study of a 20 MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Final report for the period ending October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The Research and Engineering Operation of Bechtel Corporation conducted an engineering study of a 20-MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Ten alternative designs were evaluated. Basically, the configurations proposed for the demonstration plants are those of the mature plants which would follow. The designs of the individual plants are based on the cell designs and the means used to house the cells. Initially, proposed cell designs from five manufacturers were considered. To conform with the level of effort allowed for this engineering study, two manufacturers' cells (one open-tank design and one sealed cell design) were selected by ERDA and Bechtel as being representative. These designs formed the basis for the detailed evaluation conducted in this study. The plant and battery configurations evaluated in the study are a large open-tank cell, configured in rows and housed in four buildings; a sealed cell, configured in a single layer of close packed rows in a single building; a sealed cell, configured in a three-tiered arrangement in a single building; and a sealed cell, configured with groups of cells housed in weatherproof modules and placed outdoors. Annual operating costs based on these mature plant costs show lead--acid load-leveling plants are generally not economically competitive with the alternatives when no consideration is given to their other possible benefits to the power system. However, application of credits (e.g., transmission line or spinning reserve credits) can make such plants economically competitive with gas turbine peaking units in specific situations. 46 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)

  19. Methanothermal reduction of mixtures of PbSO4 and PbO2 to synthesize ultrafine α-PbO powders for lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengran; Liu, Yi; Lv, Weixin; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Wei; Bu, Xianfu; Li, Guanghua; Lei, Lixu

    2014-11-01

    Three artificial mixtures of PbSO4 and PbO2 as well as the active materials obtained directly from the positive plates of spent batteries have been solvothermally treated in methanol at 140 °C for 24 h, which produce mainly PbO·PbSO4. The PbO·PbSO4 can be easily desulphated with ammonium carbonate to produce PbCO3, which can be calcined to form α-PbO to be used as positive active material of lead acid batteries. The α-PbO powders are irregular particles and highly electrochemically active, which discharges around 165 mAh g-1 at 5 mA g-1, 80 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and 60 mAh g-1 at 400 mA g-1 with excellent cyclic stability in 50 cycles. SEM investigations show that the as-formed PbO·PbSO4 may inherit and enhance the morphological characteristics of PbSO4, and carbonation of PbO·PbSO4 does not destroy the rod-like characteristics. For the active material from the positive plates of spent lead acid batteries, the discharge capacities are 170 mAh g-1 at the current density of 5 mA g-1, and 60 mAh g-1 at 400 mA g-1, which is also similar. In 50 cycles, its capacity loss is only 5%.

  20. Research and development of 6-DZMJ-12 gelled lead-acid battery%6-DZMJ-12全胶体铅酸蓄电池的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂发; 郭志刚; 刘玉; 邓成智; 周文渭

    2016-01-01

    本文围绕电动自行车用全胶体铅酸蓄电池的研发,从电池内部结构设计、生极板预处理工艺、胶体配方和分散方式及充电化成工艺四个方面进行了研究。实验结果表明:全胶体电池可以满足电动自行车的使用需求,能够很大程度上解决酸分层等问题,进而延长电池的循环使用寿命。%The 6-DZMJ-12 gelled lead-acid batteries for E-bikes were studied from the aspects of internal structure design, plate pretreatment process, gel formula, dispersion, and charging of the formation process. Experimental results showed that the gelled batteries could fully meet the demands of electric bicycle power batteries, because stratiifcation of sulfuric acid electrolyte and other problems were solved largely to extend the life of battery.

  1. Macrophage interactions with polylactic acid and chitosan scaffolds lead to improved recruitment of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: a comprehensive study with different immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Hugo R; Esteves, Tiago; Quelhas, Pedro; Barbosa, Mário A; Navarro, Melba; Almeida, Catarina R

    2016-09-01

    Despite the importance of immune cell-biomaterial interactions for the regenerative outcome, few studies have investigated how distinct three-dimensional biomaterials modulate the immune cell-mediated mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) recruitment and function. Thus, this work compares the response of varied primary human immune cell populations triggered by different model scaffolds and describes its functional consequence on recruitment and motility of bone marrow MSC. It was found that polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan scaffolds lead to an increase in the metabolic activity of macrophages but not of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), natural killer (NK) cells or monocytes. PBMC and NK cells increase their cell number in PLA scaffolds and express a secretion profile that does not promote MSC recruitment. Importantly, chitosan increases IL-8, MIP-1, MCP-1 and RANTES secretion by macrophages while PLA stimulates IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 production, all chemokines that can lead to MSC recruitment. This secretion profile of macrophages in contact with biomaterials correlates with the highest MSC invasion. Furthermore, macrophages enhance stem cell motility within chitosan scaffolds by 44% but not in PLA scaffolds. Thus, macrophages are the cells that in contact with engineered biomaterials become activated to secrete bioactive molecules that stimulate MSC recruitment. PMID:27628173

  2. Absorptive glass mat separator surface modification and its influence on the heat generation in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenchev, Boris; Dimitrov, Mitko; Boev, Victor; Aleksandrova, Albena

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results from a comparative study between two types of valve-regulated lead-acid battery cells, with uncoated and polymer composite coated absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators. The volt-ampere characteristics of the studied cells, recorded at different ambient temperatures, show that the cells with polymer coated separators have significantly lower overcharge (recombinant) current than the cells with conventional untreated AGM separator. During overcharge, the higher recombinant current in the cells with plain separator leads to higher cell temperature than that of the cells with polymer coated AGM separator. The possibility to avoid thermal runaway (TR) is also illustrated during polarization of the cells at 2.65 V. After 320 h, a conventional cell has C/4 current (trend to TR), while the cells with composite coating sustain low (C/26) constant current for long period of time (at least 650 h). The cycle life test indicates stable operation of the cells with coated separator, while the conventional cell reaches high recombinant current and thus, it is susceptible to thermal runaway phenomena.

  3. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL(-1). Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3-10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5-200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities.

  4. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1 in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM. Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  5. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  6. Determination of the lead-acid battery's dynamic response using Butler-Volmer equation for advanced battery management systems in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Budde-Meiwes, Heide; Kowal, Julia; Sarfert, Christel; Schoch, Eberhard; Königsmann, Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hybrid vehicles (μH) are currently starting to dominate the European market and seize constantly growing share of other leading markets in the world. On the one hand, the additional functionality of μH reduces the CO2 emissions and improves the fuel economy, but, on the other hand, the additional stress imposed on the lead-acid battery reduces significantly its expected service life in comparison to conventional vehicles. Because of that μH require highly accurate battery state detection solutions. They are necessary to ensure the vehicle reliability requirements, prolong service life and reduce warranty costs. This paper presents an electrical model based on Butler-Volmer equation. The main novelty of the presented approach is its ability to predict accurately dynamic response of a battery considering a wide range of discharge current rates, state-of-charges and temperatures. Presented approach is fully implementable and adaptable in state-of-the-art low-cost platforms. Additionally, shown results indicate that it is applicable as a supporting tool for state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and scalable for the different battery technologies and sizes. Validation using both static pulses and dynamic driving profile resulted in average absolute error of 124 mV regarding cranking current rate of 800 A respectively.

  7. Macrophage interactions with polylactic acid and chitosan scaffolds lead to improved recruitment of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: a comprehensive study with different immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, Hugo R; Esteves, Tiago; Quelhas, Pedro; Barbosa, Mário A; Navarro, Melba; Almeida, Catarina R

    2016-09-01

    Despite the importance of immune cell-biomaterial interactions for the regenerative outcome, few studies have investigated how distinct three-dimensional biomaterials modulate the immune cell-mediated mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) recruitment and function. Thus, this work compares the response of varied primary human immune cell populations triggered by different model scaffolds and describes its functional consequence on recruitment and motility of bone marrow MSC. It was found that polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan scaffolds lead to an increase in the metabolic activity of macrophages but not of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), natural killer (NK) cells or monocytes. PBMC and NK cells increase their cell number in PLA scaffolds and express a secretion profile that does not promote MSC recruitment. Importantly, chitosan increases IL-8, MIP-1, MCP-1 and RANTES secretion by macrophages while PLA stimulates IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 production, all chemokines that can lead to MSC recruitment. This secretion profile of macrophages in contact with biomaterials correlates with the highest MSC invasion. Furthermore, macrophages enhance stem cell motility within chitosan scaffolds by 44% but not in PLA scaffolds. Thus, macrophages are the cells that in contact with engineered biomaterials become activated to secrete bioactive molecules that stimulate MSC recruitment.

  8. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  9. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  10. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  11. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of mesquite grown in acidic lead/zinc mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2011-02-15

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p<0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  12. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Biomass and the Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure of Mesquite Grown in Acidic Lead/Zinc Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A.; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2011-01-01

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p < 0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  13. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  14. A new valve-regulated lead/acid automotive battery for use in original equipment and supply to the replacement market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouache, S.; Douady, J. P.; Fossati, G.; Pascon, C.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries have been available since the beginning of the 1970s for stationary applications. Nevertheless, the development and the commercialization of VRLA starter batteries have been very slow and mainlyrestricted to certain niche markets. This is due to the difficulty in designing products that comply with the technical specificationsrequired by the operating conditions of modern cars, and that have both a high level of reliability and a cost in accordance with the needs ofthe automotive market. The STR (sealed technology with gas recombination) battery has been developed in order to place on the automotiveoriginal equipment and replacement markets a battery with the benefits of the VRLA technology, namely: absolutely no maintenance; cleanand safe; good open-circuit storage; good cycling ability; performance comparable with that of flooded batteries (i.e., cranking powerand reserve capacity, charge acceptance, rechargeability, and life). Due to the technical choices made for the components and forthe manufacturing process, the STR battery is today manufactured on a production line very similar to that for a flooded battery, with agood level of productivity and the same reliability as the best flooded batteries. For all these reasons, the STR battery is producedat a cost that is acceptable for automotive applications.

  15. Research on PAB electrolyte additive of lead-acid battery%铅酸蓄电池PAB电解液添加剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱松然

    2001-01-01

    Influence of PAB additive on properties of lead-acid battery have been examined by cyclic voltammetry discharge at constant current. The experiment results show that: PAB additive can improve 8% of the initial capacity of battery and raise the energy density to 35Wh/kg, when continuous duty, the cyclic life was increased, but intennittent duty, the cyclic life was decreased, and the self discharge was higher.%采用循环伏安、电池容量测量等方法考察了PAB电解液添加剂对电池性能的影响。试验结果表明:PAB添加剂可以提高约8%的初始容量,能量密度提到35Wh/kg左右,电池连续工作时还可以提高循环寿命,但间断工作时可能会缩短循环寿命。此外,电池自放电较大。

  16. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  17. 浅析影响航标用铅酸蓄电池使用寿命的主要因素%Analysis of Main Factors Influencing Lifespan of Lead-Acid Battery for Navigation Mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永涛

    2015-01-01

    文中从阀控式铅酸蓄电池的工作原理及特点入手,分析了影响航标用铅酸蓄电池使用寿命的主要因素,并在此基础上提出航标用铅酸蓄电池的使用与维护建议。%In this article,operating principle and characteristics of valve-regulated lead-acid(VRLA)battery are first-ly introduced.Then,main factors influencing lifespan of lead-acid battery for navigation mark are analyzed,based on which suggestions for using and maintaining this kind of lead-acid battery are finally proposed.

  18. Study on Copper Grid Electroplating Technology of Lead-acid Battery%铅酸蓄电池负板栅铜网电镀铅技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖; 黄子威

    2011-01-01

    介绍了铅酸蓄电池(Lead-acid battery)负极板栅铜网电镀工艺,对电镀前铜网的预处理和电镀技术进行了探讨,旨在提高产品质量,同时做到高效率、低能耗。%The electroplating technology of copper grid of negative electrode framework and current collector in lead-acid battery is introduced.The pretreatment and electroplating technology to improve product quality and manufacture efficiency are discussed.

  19. Over - discharge Protection of Lead - acid Battery in Mine Back - up Power%煤矿井下后备电源铅酸电池的过放保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪精浩; 冯利国

    2012-01-01

    研究了铅酸电池的过放保护,使铅酸电池能够在放电到达终止电压前便切断给外部供电;增加电池的使用寿命。%This paper studies the over - discharge protection of lead - acid battery which can make the lead - acid battery cut off the ex- ternal power supply before the power discharges up to the end voltage, and prolong the service life of the battery.

  20. 磷酸铁锂电池与铅酸蓄电池混合系统研究%Studies of Hybrid Energy System of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery and Lead-acid Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁好; 衣守忠; 王先友

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the differences of the charging and discharging characteristics between lithium iron phosphate batteries and lead-acid batteries,a new parallel hybrid power battery system with lithium iron phosphate batteries and lead-acid batteries and new charge/discharge system are developed.When charging, the lead-acid batteries attain the priority,so that lead-acid batteries can avoid to be charged less.When dis-charging,lithium iron phosphate batteries discharge with priority,while the lead-acid batteries are on the contrary,so lead-acid batteries can work in a state of shallow cycle,which can prolong the service life of the lead-acid batteries in the hybrid system.The hybrid battery system can effectively combine the advantages of both lithium iron phosphate batteries and lead-acid batteries,such as excellent discharge rate perform-ance,long cycle life and low cost et al,which make the system suitable for the application in the field of power batteries.%利用磷酸铁锂电池与铅酸蓄电池不同的充放电特点,开发了基于磷酸铁锂电池与铅酸蓄电池并联的混合动力电源系统,并设计了新型充放电制度。充电时铅酸蓄电池优先充电,使其免于欠充电;放电时磷酸铁锂电池电优先放电,铅酸蓄电池后放电,使铅酸蓄电池处于浅循环。这种充放电制度可以明显延长混合系统中铅酸蓄电池使用寿命,并且混合动力电源系统同时具有磷酸铁锂电池倍率性能优、循环寿命长及铅酸蓄电池价格低廉等特点,在动力电池领域有巨大的应用前景。

  1. δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and Peptide Transporter 2*2 Haplotype (hPEPT2*2) Differently Influence Neurobehavior in Low-Level Lead Exposed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sobin, Christina; Gisel Flores-Montoya, Mayra; Gutierrez, Marisela; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-01-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter haplotype 2*2 (hPEPT2*2) through different pathways can increase brain levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and are associated with higher blood lead burden in young children. Past child and adult findings regarding ALAD2 and neurobehavior have been inconsistent, and the possible association of hPEPT2*2 and neurobehavior has not yet been examined. Mean blood lead level (BLL), genotype, and ne...

  2. HBF4溶液中全铅液流电池%All-Lead Redox Flow Battery in a Fluoroboric Acid Electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东阳; 程杰; 潘军青; 文越华; 曹高萍; 杨裕生

    2011-01-01

    An all-lead redox flow battery in a fluoroboric acid electrolyte is proposed. The same electrolyte was used as both the negative and positive electrodes, and it consists of a high concentration solution of Pb(BF4)2 in aqueous fluoroboric acid, I.e., 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol ? L"1 Pb(BF4)2 in 1.0 mol ? L"' HBF4. The properties of the graphite and glassy carbon electrodes for both the positive and negative electrodes as current collectors were compared using cyclic voltammetry. We found that the graphite substrate was better than glassy carbon for both the negative electrode and the positive electrode. The all-lead redox flow battery was constructed using graphite substrates as both the positive and negative electrodes with a single electrolyte flow passing though the two electrodes. The performance of the batteries was evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge technique. Typically, an average coulombic efficiency of above 87% and an average energy efficiency of above 68% were obtained. An average energy efficiency of above 74% was achieved with electrolyte containing 1.0 or 1.5 mol ? L"1 Pb(BF4)2+1.0 mol ? L"1 HBF4 at current densities of 10 and 20 mAcrrr2.%报道了一种HBF4水溶液中的全铅液流电池,正、负电极电解液均采用Pb(BF4)2的HBF4水溶液.在酸性的四氟硼酸铅电解液中考察了石墨电极和玻碳电极作为工作电极的循环伏安性能,石墨电极较适于用作全铅液流电池的正、负电极.采用石墨电极作为电池的正、负电极并在四氟硼酸铅酸性电解液中进行充放电实验,其中Pb(BF4)2浓度分别为0.5、1.0和1.5 mol·L-1,且保持游离的HBF4浓度为1.0 mol·L-1.该电池为单液流电池,不需要隔膜分隔正、负极的电解液,电流密度为10、20和40 mA.cm-2,当限定充电容量为7.0 mAh·cm-2,放电电压截止到1.0V时,平均库仑效率大于87%,平均能量效率大于68%;当电解液采用1.0或1.5 mol·L-1 Pb(BF4)2+1.0 mol·L-1HBF4

  3. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  4. Multi-step constant-current charging method for electric vehicle, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries during night time for load-levelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power, Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power, Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power, Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power, Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power, Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs), the conditions for charging EV batteries with available current patterns should allow complete charging in a short time, i.e., less than 5 to 8 h. Therefore, in this study, a new charging condition is investigated for the EV valve-regulated lead/acid battery system, which should allow complete charging of EV battery systems with multi-step constant currents in a much shorter time with longer cycle life and higher energy efficiency compared with two-step constant-current charging. Although a high magnitude of the first current in the two-step constant-current method prolongs cycle life by suppressing the softening of positive active material, too large a charging current magnitude degrades cells due to excess internal evolution of heat. A charging current magnitude of approximately 0.5 C is expected to prolong cycle life further. Three-step charging could also increase the magnitude of charging current in the first step without shortening cycle life. Four-or six-step constant-current methods could shorten the charging time to less than 5 h, as well as yield higher energy efficiency and enhanced cycle life of over 400 cycles compared with two-step charging with the first step current of 0.5 C. Investigation of the degradation mechanism of the batteries revealed that the conditions of multi-step constant-current charging suppressed softening of positive active material and sulfation of negative active material, but, unfortunately, advanced the corrosion of the grids in the positive plates. By adopting improved grids and cooling of the battery system, the multistep constant-current method may enhance the cycle life. (orig.)

  5. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  6. Nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrochemical properties of carbon foam as constructive electrode for lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrochemical properties of coal tar pitch (CTP) based carbon foam (CFoam) was investigated. The different weight fractions of MWCNTs were mixed with CTP and foam was developed from the mixture of CTP and MWCNTs by sacrificial template technique and heat treated at 1,400 and 2,500 °C in inert atmosphere. These foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and potentiostat PARSTAT for cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that, bulk density of CFoam increases with increasing MWCNTs content and decreases after certain amount. The MWCNTs influence the morphology of CFoam and increase the width of ligaments as well as surface area. During the heat treatment, stresses exerting at MWCNTs/carbon interface accelerate ordering of the graphene layer which have positive effect on the electrochemical properties of CFoam. The current density increases from 475 to 675 mA/cm2 of 1,400 °C heat treated and 95 to 210 mA/cm2 of 2,500 °C heat-treated CFoam with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The specific capacitance was decreases with increasing the scan rate from 100 to 1,000 mV/s. In case of 1 % MWCNTs content CFoam the specific capacitance at the scan rate 100 mV/s was increased from 850 to 1,250 μF/cm2 and 48 to 340 μF/cm2 of CFoam heat treated at 1,400 °C and 2,500 °C respectively. Thus, the higher value surface area and current density of MWCNTs-incorporated CFoam heat treated to 1,400 °C can be suitable for lead acid battery electrode with improved charging capability.

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  8. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  9. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  10. 新能源汽车用电池内化成工艺探讨%Discussion on container formation process of lead-acid battery for new energy vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恭政; 阙奕鹏; 马永泉; 刘孝伟

    2015-01-01

    通过对新能源汽车用铅酸蓄电池不同内化成工艺的试验验证,重点研究了电池在内化成过程中不同的化成充电量、充电电流、化成充电工艺及正极板二氧化铅转化率对电池循环寿命的影响,从而优化了新能源汽车用铅酸蓄电池的内化成工艺,满足新能源汽车领域市场对电池使用寿命的要求。%Based on the different kinds of container formation process of lead-acid battery for new energy vehicle, the paper mainly discusses the effects of different charging level, charging current and charging process during container formation as well as the conversion rate of PbO2 in positive plate on the cycle life of lead-acid battery, thus to optimize the container formation process of lead-acid battery for new energy vehicle, and then meet the requirement of service life of lead-acid battery for new energy vehicle.

  11. Determination of the load state of lead-acid batteries using neural networks; Determinacion del estado de carga de baterias plomo-acido utilizando redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristin V, Miguel A; Ortega S, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The charge of lead-acid batteries (LAB), as in any other type of batteries, consists of replacing the energy consumed during the discharge. Nevertheless, as no physical or chemical process is good enough to totality recharge a battery, it is necessary to supply to it more than the 100% of the energy demanded during its discharge. A critical factor to make a suitable load control of the batteries is to determine its own state of load. That is to say, to have an efficient load control, it is necessary to count on means that allow to accurately determining the residual capacity of the battery to deliver load. This one is the one of the aspects of greater interest in the research centers around world. For this reason, in this work it was pretended to develop a calculation algorithm of the state of load of batteries based on a fuzzy-neural network that could calculate the state of load without using the battery current as an input. This is because one of the main problems for the designers of battery load controllers is the correct supervision of the current that circulates around the system in all the rank of operation of the same one because the sensors do not have a linear behavior. [Spanish] La recarga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA), como cualquier otro tipo de baterias, consiste en reponer la energia consumida durante la descarga. Sin embargo, como ningun proceso fisico o quimico es lo bastante eficiente para recargar a totalidad una bateria, es necesario suministrarle mas del 100% de la energia demandada durante su descarga. Un factor critico para realizar un adecuado control de carga de las baterias, es determinar su propio estado de carga. Es decir, para tener un control de carga eficiente, es necesario contar con un medio que permita determinar con precision la capacidad remanente de la bateria para entregar carga. Este es uno de los aspectos de mayor interes en los centros de investigacion alrededor el mundo. Por tal razon, en este trabajo se propuso

  12. 国内外废旧铅酸蓄电池回收模式探讨%Discussion on the Recycling of Waste Lead Acid Battery at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂君; 丛美超

    2014-01-01

    铅酸蓄电池由于含有大量的重金属成分,属于危险废物,如果不进行妥善处理,将对环境和人体健康产生严重威胁,但铅酸蓄电池又具有较高的回收利用价值,因此对废旧铅酸蓄电池的合理有效回收利用有着极大的必要性。比较了国内外铅酸蓄电池回收利用体制,提出我国废旧铅酸蓄电池回收行业的发展建议,为此类二次资源的合理有效利用提供借鉴。%Lead-acid battery contains heavy metals such as lead and cadmium after used up or abandoned .If discarded at will ,these heavy metals in battery will pollute the environment seriously .In addition ,there exist a lot of lead and other ma-terials in used lead-acid battery ,which can be recycled .So it’s necessary to reuse and recycle the used lead acid batteries . The systems of recycling lead acid batteries at home and abroad are compared and some recycling suggestions and schemes are proposed in this paper ,which can provide valuable references for the reasonable and effective use of this secondary re-source .

  13. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  14. Asthma induction in mice leads to appearance of alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in respiratory goblet-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Jensen, Niels-Erik Viby; Mandel, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    Allergic asthmatic inflammation in mice was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and visualized in the airways of asthmatic mice by spatial and temporal changes of carbohydrates containing sialic acid residues. Immunohistochemistry was used to demon...

  15. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  16. Investigation on occupational hazards and control measures in a lead-acid battery plant%某铅酸蓄电池厂职业危害及控制措施调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永生; 姜荣明

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某铅酸蓄电池厂存在的职业病危害及其控制措施,为职业病防制提供依据.方法 调查铅酸蓄电池厂的工艺流程、职业病危害因素分布、接触情况以及控制措施.结果 某铅酸蓄电池厂有多个环节可产生多种职业病危害因素,主要有铅烟、铅尘、硫酸和噪声等,经对危害因素的检测和整改,结果均符合国家职业卫生标准.结论 仍应采取严格的职业卫生防护措施和管理措施,切实保护劳动者健康权益.%[Objective] To know the occupational hazards and control measures in a lead-acid battery plant, provide the basis for occupational disease prevention. [Methods] The technological process, distribution of occupational hazard factors, contact condition and control measures in a lead-acid battery plant were investigated. [ Results] There were many occupational hazard factors in different production links of lead-acid battery plant, which included lead fume, lead dust, sulfuric acid and noise. The detection results of hazard factors achieved the national occupational health standards. [ Conclusion] It is important to carry out the strict occupational preventive strategies and management measures, so as to protect the health rights of laborers.

  17. 铅酸电池与锂电池全生命周期对比研究%Life cycle comparative study of lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩业斌

    2014-01-01

    本文从全生命周期的角度对铅酸电池与锂电池这两种电池进行了研究。从全生命周期来看,锂和铅资源都能满足电池使用的需求,锂的价格较高,铅酸电池的生产比锂电池的生产技术成熟,容易生产。两种电池的性能各有利弊,在使用寿命内综合考虑,锂电池的经济性比铅酸电池更具有优势,而铅酸电池更具有可回收利用的优势。从应用市场看铅酸电池还是有其特有的应用领域。综合来看,铅酸电池和锂电池各有各的优劣势,都有其存在的必要性。%The lead-acid batteries and the lithium batteries were studied in terms of the perspective of their life cycle. From the life cycle perspective, the resources both of lithium and lead can meet the needs for the battery use, but the price of lithium is higher than that of the lead, and the production technology of lead-acid battery is more mature than that of lithium battery, and easy to produce. As for battery performance, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Lithium batteries have predominance over lead-acid batteries in cycle life while lead-acid batteries are recyclable. From the marketplace, lead-acid batteries still possess their speciifc application areas. On the whole, both of these batteries have their own advantages and disadvantages and the necessity of their coexistence.

  18. Investigation on occupational hazards of a lead-acid battery assembly plant%某铅酸电池组装厂铅职业病危害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏光

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the occupational hazards in a lead-acid battery assembly plant, and provide scientific evidence for the government to regulate of lead-acid battery industry. [Methods]The comprehensive analysis results including occupational health survey, workplace dustproof/antipoison facilities investigation, lead dust/lead fume concentration detection and occupational health examination on lead-exposed workers were analyzed. [ Results ] The technology of lead-acid battery production was backward. The design and installation of protection facilities in workplace was unreasonable and ineffective. The exceeding standard rate of lead dust was 75% , that of lead fume was 100% , the highest exceeding standard multiples was 29. There were 29 {14% ) workers whose blood lead level exceeded standard, there were 6(3% ) suspected chronic occupational lead poisoning workers. [ Conclusion] The occupational hazards in the lead-acid battery assembly plant is serious. The plant should reform the local ventilation facilities and raise its effect. The adoption of advanced and automated technology is the fundamental way to treat lead hazards in process of lead-acid battery production.%目的 了解惠州地区铅酸电池生产铅职业病危害情况,为监管部门整治铅酸电池生产行业提供科学依据.方法 对现场进行职业卫生学调查、工作场所通风防尘(毒)设施检测、工作场所铅烟(尘)浓度检测及对接触铅作业工人职业健康检查等结果进行分析.结果 铅酸电池生产工艺落后,工作场所通风防尘设施设计、安装不合理,效果差;工作场所中铅尘超标率达75%,铅烟超标率达100%,最高超标29倍;接触铅作业工人血铅超正常值29人,占14.4%;疑似职业性慢性轻度铅中毒6人,占3.0%.结论 该铅酸电池组装厂铅职业病危害严重;建议企业加强对工作场所局部通风设施的改造,提高其控制效果,治理铅酸电池铅职业病危害的

  19. Analysis of Used Lead-acid Battery Regeneration Recycling Equipment and Technology%浅析废旧铅酸蓄电池的再生回收设备与工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦兴

    2012-01-01

    通过分析当前铅酸蓄电池的现状,分别阐述国内外废旧铅酸蓄电池的再生设备与工艺特点,说明铅再生的技术发展趋势。%By analyzing the current status of lead-acid batteries, describing of Production equipment and Technological Characters of ULAB at home and abroad to illustrate technology development trend of Secondary Lead.

  20. 利用硝酸回收机械化学活化后的硫化物浓缩液中的铅%Recovery of Lead from Sulfide Concentrate after Mechanochemical Activation Using Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G. Kholmogorov; O.N. Kononova; G.L. Pashkov; L.V. Shashina; V.P. Plekhanov; A.A. Sabetskiy

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of lead sulfide concentrates in nitric acidic solutions after ferric (Ⅲ) nitrate addition and mechanical preparation has been investigated. It was found out that the decomposition can be achieved in of mechanochemical activation. The use of [Fe(NO3)3-HNO3-H2O] aqueous salt system allows the decomposition of lead sulfide concentrate at room temperature and in this case the concentration of HNO3 does not exceed mechanochemical activation of this concentrate. The insoluble residues after the leaching contain SiO2, S0, FeCO3 and PbSO4.

  1. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has also been associated with juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior. In adults, lead can increase blood pressure ... and-forth manner, but rather from left to right (or vise-versa), or from the top of ...

  3. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  4. Some noticeable problems in the development of container for automotive lead-acid battery%汽车蓄电池槽开发过程中应注意的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先清

    2013-01-01

    Due to the difference of manufacturing level, there are some problems in the usage of containers for starting lead-acid batteries which are developed independently through imitating moulds of automotive batteries purchased from abroad. Therefore corresponding solutions are provided towards these problems, and it is hoped to be helpful for enterprises which just set foot on the production of starting lead-acid battery.%  由于制造水平的差异,省模仿外购汽车电池模具自主生产的电池槽在使用中存在些问题,针对出现的问题提供了相应的解决方案,希望对新涉足起动用铅酸蓄电池的企业有所帮助。

  5. 铅酸蓄电池正极活性物质添加剂的研究进展%Advances in research on positive additives for lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琪卉; 张慧; 张丽芳; 王斌; 程宇

    2015-01-01

    本文综述了阀控式铅酸蓄电池正极活性物质添加剂的研究进展。正极添加剂的加入能够改善正极活性物质脱落、容量损失、循环寿命缩减等问题,提高蓄电池初期容量。%In this review, recent progresses on the study of positive additives for lead-acid battery are introduced. Adding positive additives can improve the performances of lead-acid battery, such as the positive active material shedding, electric capacity loss and cycle life. The initial capacity of battery is enhanced as well.

  6. Advances in research on positive additives for lead-acid battery%铅酸蓄电池正极活性物质添加剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琪卉; 张慧; 张丽芳; 王斌; 程宇

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent progresses on the study of positive additives for lead-acid battery are introduced. Adding positive additives can improve the performances of lead-acid battery, such as the positive active material shedding, electric capacity loss and cycle life. The initial capacity of battery is enhanced as well.%本文综述了阀控式铅酸蓄电池正极活性物质添加剂的研究进展。正极添加剂的加入能够改善正极活性物质脱落、容量损失、循环寿命缩减等问题,提高蓄电池初期容量。

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  8. Metal Accumulation, Blood δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity and Micronucleated Erythrocytes of Feral pigeons (Columba Livia) Living Near Former Lead-Zinc Smelter “ Trepça” – Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Elezaj I. R.; Selimi I. Q.; Letaj K. Rr.; Millaku L. B.; Sefaja L.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cupper (Cu) in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 4.2.1.24) activity, hematocrit value (Hct) and micronuclei frequency (MN) of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica), collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year ) and in rural area (Koshare willage ) . The...

  9. Intelligent Protector of Valve-controlled Lead-acid Batteries Applied in Diesel Locomotives%内燃机车阀控式密封铅酸蓄电池用智能保护器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范孝铨; 王德志

    2001-01-01

    阐述了内燃机车用阀控式密封铅酸蓄电池智能保护器的主要技术特性和加装智能保护器的必要性。%In this paper, the main characteristics of intelligent protector of valve-controlled lead-acid batteries applied in diesel locomotives are expounded, and its necessity is discussed.

  10. 电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量快速检测技术研究%Investigation on quick measurement technique about capacity of lead-acid battery for electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍辉; 陈锋强; 臧宁; 王振波

    2014-01-01

    Some detection technologies of capacity of lead-acid battery for E-bike are introduced in this article. A rapid detection technology of lead-acid battery capacity is put forward by theoretical deduction. The accuracy and feasibility of this rapid capacity detection technology is veriifed by the test on 12 Ah lead-acid batteries for E-bikes.%本文简要介绍了电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量检测技术;通过理论推导,提出一种新型电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池容量快速检测技术,并以12A h电动助力车用铅酸蓄电池进行试验,结果表明这种快速容量检测技术具有很好的准确性和可行性。

  11. Design of on-line monitoring system for embedded lead-acid batteries%嵌入式铅酸蓄电池组在线监测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铁庄; 任武

    2012-01-01

    介绍了铅酸蓄电池的基本工作原理,分析了国内外铅酸蓄电池组监测技术的研究现状,设计了一种铅酸蓄电池组在线监测装置,实现对蓄电池组性能参数和状态的实时监测,为电池安全运行及日常维护工作提供主要的数据依据,对保证蓄电池机械的技术效能具有重要的意义.%: The paper introduces the basic working principle of lead-acid battery, and analyzes the research situation of monitoring technology for lead-acid batteries at home and abroad. An on-line monitoring device for the lead-acid batteries is designed for real time monitoring of performance parameters and status, which provides main data reference for battery operating safety and daily maintenance, as well as significant implication for ensuring mechanical and technical performance of battery equipment.

  12. 铅蓄电池行业准入审核需要注意的几个问题%Several problems needing attention for lead-acid battery industry applying for the access audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳颖; 高建峰

    2014-01-01

    According to the"Lead-acid battery industry access requirements","Technical guidelines for implementation of the lead-acid battery industry access requirements" and the main problems existing in the ifrst batch of the countryside lead-acid battery enterprises applied for the access audit, the authors proposed some key points which should be noticed for those who want to apply for the audit, and presented some practical cases to help them understand the relevant provisions in the access and make their correct judgements.%根据《铅蓄电池行业准入条件》[1]、《铅蓄电池行业准入实施技术指南》[2]及全国第一批铅蓄电池企业准入审核存在的主要问题[3],对企业申请准入审核提出需要关注的重点问题,通过具体实例帮助企业理解准入条件中的相关规定,做出是否符合准入规定的正确判断。

  13. The Status of Lead- acid Battery Recycling and Study on the Layout of Its Management%中国铅酸蓄电池回收处理现状及管理布局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅; 刘茜; 王菲菲; 钱岩

    2012-01-01

    近年来随着城市电动自行车、电动汽车的飞速增加,报废的铅酸蓄电池呈惊人的速度增长。本文总结了中国铅酸蓄电池的主要回收处理现状及生产工艺,并对相关企业进行了地理分布分析。结合中国实际经济发展情况及铅酸蓄电池企业的主要分布特点,提出了宏观管理布局与战略研究。%The waste lead - acid battery increase rapidly with the electric bicycles, electric cars are booming. This paper summarizes the status of recycling of lead - acid battery and main production processes, and analyses the characteristic of the re- lated enterprises geographic distribution. Layout of the macro - management and strategic research are proposed here, based on actual economic development and lead - acid battery business of the main distribution.

  14. Ability of Agrogyron elongatum to accumulate the single metal of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead and root exudation of organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Agrogyron elongatum were grown in nutrient solution containing moderate to high amounts of separate heavy metal of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in a greenhouse for a 9-day. Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb generally led to decrease in the elongation of roots although the length of seedlings exposed to Cd and Pb at 0,05 and 0.5 mg/L showed to be slightly greater than that of controls. Of the four metals in the experiment, Pb was absorbed and accumulated to the highest level, with the concentrations of 92754 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in roots and 11683 mg/kg DW in shoots. Cd was moderately accumulated in Agrogyron elongatum, but the maximum bioaccumulation coefficients (BCs) for rpots and shoots were observed. The patterns for Cu and Ni uptake and distribution in plants differed from those of Pb and Cd, as it was showed that the shoot accumulation of Cu and Ni was significantly higher than in roots. A. elongatum had the highest Ni concentration in shoots (30261 mg/kg DW)at the external concentration of 250 mg/L. Cu ranked second, with a shoot concentration of 12230 mg/kg DW when 50 mg/L Cu in solution was applied. For the four trace elements tested, the highest concentrations in shoots decreased by the order of Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd (mg/kg DW),and those in roots were Pb > Cd > Ni > Cu (mg/kg DW). Malic, oxalic and citric acids exuded by roots exposed to 1 and 50 mg/L of the metals were detected. Release of organic acids from plants significantly differed among the metal treatments. Cu was most effectively in inducing rpot exudation of the three types of organic acids. Cd, and Ni were also the inducers of secretion of malic and oxalic acids. With reference of Pb,a small amounts of malic and oxalic acids were detected in the root exudates, but few quantities of citric acid were found. However, no orrelation between alternations in root exudation of organic acids and metal accumulation could be established.

  15. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  16. Increasing Levels of Dietary Hempseed Products Leads to Differential Responses in the Fatty Acid Profiles of Egg Yolk, Liver and Plasma of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficiency with which dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted by hens into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for egg deposition is not clearly understood. In this study, dietary ALA levels were increased via the inclusion of hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in hen diets, with the goal of assessing the effects on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of total lipids and lipid classes in yolk, liver and plasma. Forty-eight hens were individually caged and fed one of six diets containing either HS:10, 20 or 30, HO:4.5 or 9.0 (%, diet) or a control (containing corn oil), providing a range (0.1-1.28 %, diet) of ALA. Fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids and lipid classes, including phosphatidyl choline (PtdCho) and ethanolamine (PtdEtn) in yolk, plasma and liver were then determined. Levels of n-3 FAs in both total lipids and lipid classes increased in all tissues. ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased linearly, while docosapentaenoic acid and DHA increased quadratically. The FA profiles of yolk closely reflected levels in both plasma and liver. While ALA was highly concentrated in the triacylglycerol, it was low but equally distributed between PtdCho and PtdEtn in all tissues; however, the net accumulation was lower (P < 0.0001) in liver compared to yolk and plasma. Levels of EPA and ALA in yolk-PtdEtn were linearly (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.93) associated, and reflected those in liver-PtdEtn (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.90). In the liver, a strong inverse correlation (P < 0.0001; r = -0.94) between PL-DHA and ALA-to-EPA ratio in PtdEtn supports theories of low substrate availability, possibly limiting the conversion of ALA into DHA for egg enrichment. PMID:27052441

  17. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  18. Monitoring acidic and basic molecular contamination in leading edge lithography and metrology applications: quantitative comparison of solid state and impinger-based sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle Vogt, Sarah; Landoni, Cristian

    2010-03-01

    Assessing molecular contamination (MC) at part-per-billion (ppbV) or part-per-trillion volume (pptV) levels in cleanroom air and purge gas lines is essential to protect lithography and metrology tools optics and components. Current lithography and metrology tool manufacturer's specifications require testing of some contaminants down to single digit pptV levels. Ideally this analysis would be performed with an on-line analyzer (capable of providing almost instant results): the best analyzers currently available are only capable of providing 100 pptV detection. Liquid impinger sampling has been the dominant sample collection method for sub ppbV acidic and basic MC analysis. Impinger sampling suffers from some inherent problems that can dramatically reduce the collection efficiency such as analyte solubility and evaporative losses. An innovative solid-state trapping technology has been recently developed by SAES Pure Gas along with the CollectTorr sampling system. NIST traceable gas phase standards have been used to compare the collection efficiency of the traditional impinger technology to that of the solid state trapping method. Results varied greatly for the different acid gases with sulfur dioxide showing comparable collection efficiencies while hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid showed much lower recoveries in the impingers than the solid-state traps. Ammonia collection efficiencies were slightly higher for the solid state traps and were improved in the impingers when an acidified solution was used as the collection media. The use of solid-state traps, besides being much simpler from both the handling and logistical stand point, eliminates the analyte solubility and evaporation problems frequently seen with the impinger sampling.

  19. 铅酸蓄电池回收再生产业善治路径选择%Research on Path Selection of Good Governance of Lead-acid Battery Recycling Regeneration Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2015-01-01

    With the development of new energy industry, the consumption demand of lead-acid battery in China has been vigorous, but the proportion of regenerate lead of total production accounts for less than 30%. It is increasingly important and urgent to increase the production of regenerate lead and to improve utilization of renewable resources and environmental security, to establish perfect market system and environmental management system, furthermore to form multivariate governance pattern. In this article SWOT analysis methods and normative research were adopted. Firstly the industry development trend of lead -acid batteries production and recycling was analyzed. Secondly, it is to form attributes good governance integrated with the theory of whole life-cycle management, extended producer responsibility (EPR) , environmental management and property trading, transformation for environmental economic policy to promote resource recycling and pollution control of lead-acid batteries. Thirdly, in order to establish good governance structure of lead-acid battery recycling and pollution control, the countermeasures for path selection o f Good Governance of it were proposed by associating multidimensional with include government, enterprise, industry, consumers and society.%随着新能源产业发展,我国铅酸蓄电池市场需求旺盛,但再生铅产量占比不足30%,增加再生铅产量,提高资源再生利用率及环境安全保障,建立完善的铅回收市场体系和环境管理体系,形成多元善治格局更趋重要且紧迫。首先,运用 SWOT 方法分析了铅酸蓄电池和铅回收产业发展态势;其次,将全生命周期管理、生产者责任延伸(EPR)、环境产权界定与交易和环境经济政策转型四个理论整合为铅酸蓄电池回收再生和污染治理善治属性;第三,构建铅酸蓄电池铅回收再生业态以及污染治理善治结构范式,并提出通过政府、企业、行业、消

  20. Heavy metal exposure in large game from a lead mining area: Effects on oxidative stress and fatty acid composition in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Monsalve-Gonzalez, Lidia [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.es

    2009-04-15

    The Pb mining area of the valley of Alcudia and the Sierra Madrona mountains (S. Spain) has been exploited intermittently for over 2100 years, since Roman occupation and up until the late 1900s. Red deer (n = 168) and wild boar (n = 58) liver and bone (metacarpus) were analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Lipid peroxidation, total and oxidized glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH peroxidase (GPX) and fatty acid composition were studied in liver of red deer. The concentrations of Pb in liver and bone of red deer and wild boar were higher in the mining area than in the control area, and higher in the wild boar than red deer, but well below the level associated with clinical signs of Pb poisoning. Liver levels of Cu, Cd and Se were also higher in red deer from the mining area. Red deer from the mining area had 39% less total GSH than in the control area. The percentage of docosahexaenoic acid in liver of red deer from the mining area was 16% lower than in the control area. - Heavy metal exposure reduces the level of glutathione and the percentage of docosahexaenoic acid in liver of red deer.

  1. Design features of a sulphuric acid plant based on lead and zinc sintering machine off-gas%硫酸用新型耐蚀合金的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕安

    2001-01-01

    Design features of a 150kt/a sulphuric acid plant based on lead and zinc sintering machine off-gases are described. The plant adopted a single absorption technology including closed dilute-acid-scrubbing gas cleaning and ammonia-acid off-gas treatment. The dilute acid settling system,cooling water circulation system, installation of electrostatic precipitator, high-temperature absorption technology and acid distributor of drying and absorption section, and preheater, hot bypass and insulation of conversion section are emphasized in detail.%论述硫酸对金属腐蚀的特殊性和合金设计的基本原理。介绍高温浓硫酸用高硅不锈钢HD-1、合金球墨铸铁HD-3以及稀硫酸用高钼含氮奥氏体不锈钢HD-7、HD-11的研究开发和应用范围。

  2. Discovery of EST-SSRs in lung cancer: tagged ESTs with SSRs lead to differential amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats are found in both coding and non-coding sequences of higher organisms. These sequences can be used in cancer genetics and diagnosis to unravel the genetic basis of tumor formation and progression. In this study, a possible relationship between SSR distributions and lung cancer was studied by comparative analysis of EST-SSRs in normal and lung cancerous tissues. While the EST-SSR distribution was similar between tumorous tissues, this distribution was different between normal and tumorous tissues. Trinucleotides tandem repeats were highly different; the number of trinucleotides in ESTs of lung cancer was 3 times higher than normal tissue. Significant negative correlation between normal and cancerous tissue showed that cancerous tissue generates different types of trinucleotides. GGC and CGC were the more frequent expressed trinucleotides in cancerous tissue, but these SSRs were not expressed in normal tissue. Similar to the EST level, the expression pattern of EST-SSRs-derived amino acids was significantly different between normal and cancerous tissues. Arg, Pro, Ser, Gly, and Lys were the most abundant amino acids in cancerous tissues, and Leu, Cys, Phe, and His were significantly more abundant in normal tissues than in cancerous tissues. Next, the putative functions of triplet SSR-containing genes were analyzed. In cancerous tissue, EST-SSRs produce different types of proteins. Chromodomain helicase DNA binding proteins were one of the major protein products of EST-SSRs in the cancerous library, while these proteins were not produced from EST-SSRs in normal tissue. For the first time, the findings of this study confirmed that EST-SSRs in normal lung tissues are different than in unhealthy tissues, and tagged ESTs with SSRs cause remarkable differences in amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissue. We suggest that EST-SSRs and EST-SSRs differentially expressed in cancerous tissue may be suitable candidate

  3. Small changes in environmental parameters lead to alterations in antibiotic resistance, cell morphology and membrane fatty acid composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Crompton

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in environmental conditions on growth characteristics, cell size and membrane fatty acid composition in S. lugdunensis. Liquid broth cultures of S. lugdunensis were grown under varying combinations of pH (6-8, temperature (35-39°C and osmotic pressure (0-5% sodium chloride w/w to reflect potential ranges of conditions encountered during transition from skin surfaces to invasion of wound sites. The cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase of growth and assessed for antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, generation time, formation of small colony variants, cell size (by scanning electron microscopy and membrane fatty acid composition. Stress regimes with elevated NaCl concentrations resulted in significantly higher antibiotic resistance (MIC and three of the combinations with 5% NaCl had increased generation times (P<0.05. It was found that all ten experimental growth regimes, including the control and centroid cultures, yielded significantly different profiles of plasma membrane fatty acid composition (P<0.0001. Alterations in cell size (P<0.01 were also observed under the range of conditions with the most substantial reduction occurring when cells were grown at 39°C, pH 8 (514±52 nm, mean ± Standard Deviation compared with cells grown under control conditions at 37°C with pH 7 (702±76 nm, P<0.01. It was concluded that S. lugdunensis responded to slight changes in environmental conditions by altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition

  4. Metal-Free Oxidative Nitration of α-Carbon of Carbonyls Leads to One-Pot Synthesis of Thiohydroximic Acids from Acetophenones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Shashikant U; Mukhopadhyay, Sushobhan; Priyanka, Kumari; Batra, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    A metal-free nitration of the α-C-H to carbonyl in propiophenones was achieved with I2/NaNO2 in the presence of an oxidant in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the medium. Conversely under similar conditions, reaction of acetophenones produced thiohydroximic acids via a radical-based cascade event which involves oxidative nitration of the α-carbon to a carbonyl followed by Michael addition of the thiomethyl group from DMSO and subsequent rearrangement. Besides DMSO, the scope of the reaction encompasses other symmetrical and unsymmetrical dialkylsulfoxides. PMID:27541178

  5. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter 2*2 haplotype (hPEPT2*2) differently influence neurobehavior in low-level lead exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobin, Christina; Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Gutierrez, Marisela; Parisi, Natali; Schaub, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase single nucleotide polymorphism 2 (ALAD2) and peptide transporter haplotype 2*2 (hPEPT2*2) through different pathways can increase brain levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid and are associated with higher blood lead burden in young children. Past child and adult findings regarding ALAD2 and neurobehavior have been inconsistent, and the possible association of hPEPT2*2 and neurobehavior has not yet been examined. Mean blood lead level (BLL), genotype, and neurobehavioral function (fine motor dexterity, working memory, visual attention and short-term memory) were assessed in 206 males and 215 females ages 5.1-11.8years. Ninety-six percent of children had BLLssex, age and mother's level of education) and sibling exclusion (N=252), generalized linear mixed model analyses showed opposite effects for the ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 genetic variants. Significant effects for ALAD2 were observed only as interactions with BLL and the results suggested that ALAD2 was neuroprotective. As BLL increased, ALAD2 was associated with enhanced visual attention and enhanced working memory (fewer commission errors). Independent of BLL, hPEPT2*2 predicted poorer motor dexterity and poorer working memory (more commission errors). BLL alone predicted poorer working memory from increased omission errors. The findings provided further substantiation that (independent of the genetic variants examined) lowest-level lead exposure disrupted early neurobehavioral function, and suggested that common genetic variants alter the neurotoxic potential of low-level lead. ALAD2 and hPEPT2*2 may be valuable markers of risk, and indicate novel mechanisms of lead-induced neurotoxicity. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine long-term influences of these genetic variants on neurobehavior. PMID:25514583

  6. Research on Wastewater Treatment Technology of Lead Acid Battery Production%铅酸蓄电池生产废水治理技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2011-01-01

    We treated wastewater of waste storage battery recycle and battery making factory with combined processes of oxidation reduction, neutralization and effective coacervation. Total water amount was 208m3/d. Original wastewater indexes were: pH 1 -2, total lead 13. 5mg/L, SS 450mg/L. Total lead, pH and SS in treated wastewater could reach discharge standard.%采用“氧化还原+中和反应+高效凝聚”工艺处理废蓄电池回收和电池制造企业生产废水。总处理水量为208m^3/d;进水水质:pH:1-2、总铅:13.5mg/L、SS:450mg/L。经该工艺处理后,废水中的总铅、pH、SS等指标均能达标排放。

  7. Determination of lead(Ⅱ) using sodium phytic acid modified glassy carbon electrode%植酸钠修饰玻碳电极测定铅(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮勇; 朱艳; 龙丽; 黄杉生

    2012-01-01

      A sodium phytic acid modified electrode was prepared by coating solution containing phytic acid on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical behavior of Pb2+at modified electrode were investigated by electrochemical methods and the measurement conditions were optimized. Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode, the modified electrode showed good characteristics in the response current for Pb2+, lower detection limit and fast analysis. Under the best experimental condition, the peak current of Pb2+has good linearity with concentra-tion in the range of 1.2×10-6~1.2×10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 8×10-7 mol/L. The modified electrode pre-pared simply showed good stability%  采用涂覆法制备了植酸钠修饰电极,采用电化学方法研究了Pb2+在修饰玻碳电极上的电化学行为,对测定条件进行了优化.与裸玻碳电极相比较,Pb2+在修饰电极上的峰电流强度明显提高,该方法检出限低、分析速度快.在最佳实验条件下,Pb2+在1.2×10-6~1.2×10-5 mol/L的浓度范围内与其峰电流呈良好的线性关系,检出限为8.0×10-7 mol/L.该修饰电极制备简单,稳定性好

  8. Comparison of Starting Performance Between LYP Battery and Lead -acid Battery%稀土锂钇蓄电池与铅酸蓄电池的起动性能比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱诗顺; 闫世良; 朱道伟; 程建伟; 胡继锡

    2012-01-01

    依据我国现行汽车起动用铅酸蓄电池国家标准,对一种新型稀土锂钇蓄电池和传统铅酸蓄电池进行实验,主要包括充放电性能、电池储备容量、比能量、低温放电、-18℃起动放电、充电接受能力和自放电等性能的实验比较研究以及实车起动实验研究。结果表明,该型稀土锂钇蓄电池在用作起动电池时较传统的铅酸蓄电池具有明显的优势,适合作汽车起动用蓄电池。%Based on current national standards of lead - acid battery for starting, some experiments on a new type of LYP ( rare - earth - lithium - yttrium power) battery and the traditional lead - acid battery were done. The charge - discharge performance, battery reserve capacity, specific energy, low - temperature discharge capacity, starter discharge capacity un- der - 18 ℃, charge acceptance ability, self- discharge capacity, and starting test were studied. The results show that the LYP battery has the advantage over the traditional lead - acid battery when used as the starter battery, and is more suitable to be used as the car starter battery.

  9. Review on the recent ten years research on additives in lead acid battery%最近10年铅酸电池添加剂研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰; 王东田; 翟淑芳; 董保光

    2001-01-01

    The development of additives in lead acid battery in the recentten years was summarized with 39 references.The additives for positive electrode,additives for negative electrode and additives for electrolyte were introduced.%总结了近10年来铅酸蓄电池所用添加剂的研究概况,并从正极添加剂、电解液添加剂和负极添加剂三个方面分别作了介绍。

  10. 从酸浸渣中综合回收金银铁铅的试验研究%Experimental research on comprehensive recovery of gold, Chinese silver,iron and lead from acid leaching slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛元昕; 薛光

    2011-01-01

    对从酸浸渣中综合回收金银铁铅进行了试验研究.试验结果表明,采用试验确定的工艺方法,不但可回收酸浸渣中铁铅,还可提高金银的氰化浸出率,分别可达98 %和70 %以上,能获得较好的经济效益和社会效益.%Experimental study is carried out on comprehensive recovery of gold, silver, iron and lead from acid leaching slag. The tests show that with the technology, not only the iron and lead can be recovered, but also the cyanide leaching rate of gold and silver can be enhanced, which is respectively up to 98 % and 70 %. Good economic and social benefits can be obtained.

  11. MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE INITIAL SOLUTION pH AT PRE-ASSUMED FINAL pH AND CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED LEAD DURING LEACHING OF GALENA IN BUTANOIC ACID SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. NWOYE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Model for predicting the initial solution pH at pre-assumed final pH and concentration of dissolved lead, during leaching of galena in butanoic acid solution has been derived. The model shows that the initial pH of the leaching is dependent on the values of the pre-assumed final solution pH and concentration of dissolved lead. The validity of the model was rooted in the expression e^(Nγ/α=∛Pb where both sides of the expression were approximately equal to 5. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted initial solution pH value from that of the corresponding experimental value was less than 3% which is quite within the acceptable deviation limit of experimental results.

  12. 非能动核电厂用蓄电池国产化情况分析%Analysis of the domestic situation of the lead-acid batteries for the passive nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪丹

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic performance requirements of class 1E batteries for the nuclear power plants are significantly different from those for active nuclear power plants. Now class 1E batteries for passive nuclear power plants are lead calcium batteries, but the domestic manufacturers with nuclear grade qualiifcation usually produce lead antimony batteries. In this paper, based on the performance differences of the two kinds of lead-acid batteries, combined with the discharge characteristics of class 1E batteries for passive nuclear power plants, the feasibility of using domestic lead antimony batteries and the possible problem replacing lead calcium batteries by lead antimony batteries are analyzed brielfy.%非能动核电厂对1E级蓄电池的性能要求与能动核电厂有很大差异,目前非能动核电厂采用的1E级蓄电池为铅钙蓄电池,而国内具有核级生产资质的蓄电池厂家生产的为铅锑蓄电池。本文基于这两种铅酸蓄电池的性能差异,结合非能动核电厂对1E级蓄电池的放电特性的要求,简要分析国产铅锑蓄电池使用的可行性及替换可能产生的问题。

  13. Exhaust lead-acid batteries recycling as a tool of the environmental protection policy. Energy, environmental and economic issues; Il riciclaggio delle batterie al piombo-acido esauste come strumento della politica di salvaguardia ambiental. Aspetti energetici, ambientali ed economici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picini, P.; Battista, A. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Lead is an heavy metal that has a major impact on human health and his removal from the environment is an important action for its protection. The aim of the present work is to provide a framework of the Italian lead recycling with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of COBAT activities (COBAT is the Mandatory Consortium to collect and recycle the exhaust lead-acid batteries and lead wastes). In order to better understand the context in which COBAT works, some statistical data on the lead production, consumption and end uses in Italy and in the world are provided. An estimate of the energy consumptions and the environmental impact related to Italian lead production was also carried out. [Italian] Il piombo e' uno dei metalli pesanti a maggiore impatto ambientale e sanitario e la sua rimozione dall'ambiente costituisce un'importante azione di protezione e tutela della salute umana. Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' quello di fornire un quadro di riferimento relativo al riciclaggio del piombo in Italia evidenziandone gli aspetti ambientali ed economici in relazione alle attivita' condotte dal COBAT (Consorzio Obbligatorio delle Batterie Esauste e dei rifiuti piombosi). In tal senso, per disporre di una visione piu' completa del contesto in cui si inserisce l'attivita' del Consorzio, vengono forniti alcuni dati di carattere statistico sulla produzione, sul consumo e sugli utilizzi del piombo in Italia e nel mondo e viene effettuata una stima dei consumi energetici e dell'impianto ambientale associati alla produzione di piombo nazionale.

  14. Redox cycling of endogenous copper by ferulic acid leads to cellular DNA breakage and consequent cell death: A putative cancer chemotherapy mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Tarique; Zafaryab, Md; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Rizvi, M Moshahid Alam; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a plant polyphenol showing diverse therapeutic effects against cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. FA is a known antioxidant at lower concentrations, however at higher concentrations or in the presence of metal ions such as copper, it may act as a pro-oxidant. It has been reported that copper levels are significantly raised in different malignancies. Cancer cells are under increased oxidative stress as compared to normal cells. Certain therapeutic substances like polyphenols can further increase this oxidative stress and kill cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. Through various in vitro experiments we have shown that the pro-oxidant properties of FA are enhanced in the presence of copper. Comet assay demonstrated the ability of FA to cause oxidative DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes which was ameliorated by specific copper-chelating agent such as neocuproine and scavengers of ROS. This suggested the mobilization of endogenous copper in ROS generation and consequent DNA damage. These results were further validated through cytotoxicity experiments involving different cell lines. Thus, we conclude that such a pro-oxidant mechanism involving endogenous copper better explains the anticancer activities of FA. This would be an alternate non-enzymatic, and copper-mediated pathway for the cytotoxic activities of FA where it can selectively target cancer cells with elevated levels of copper and ROS.

  15. M-CSF from Cancer Cells Induces Fatty Acid Synthase and PPARβ/δ Activation in Tumor Myeloid Cells, Leading to Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghanne Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate crosstalk between cancer cells and stromal myeloid cells. We find that Lewis lung carcinoma cells significantly induce PPARβ/δ activity in myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo. Myeloid cell-specific knockout of PPARβ/δ results in impaired growth of implanted tumors, and this is restored by adoptive transfer of wild-type myeloid cells. We find that IL-10 is a downstream effector of PPARβ/δ and facilitates tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis. This observation is supported by the finding that the CD11blowIL-10+ pro-tumoral myeloid cell is scarcely detected in tumors from myeloid-cell-specific PPARβ/δ knockout mice, where vessel densities are also decreased. Fatty acid synthase (FASN is shown to be an upstream regulator of PPARβ/δ in myeloid cells and is induced by M-CSF secreted from tumor cells. Our study gives insight into how cancer cells influence myeloid stromal cells to get a pro-tumoral phenotype.

  16. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  17. Identification of leads through in silico approaches utilizing benzylthio-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl acetic acid derivatives: A potent CRTh2 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sathya; Kulkarni, Seema A.; Sohn, Honglae; Madhavan, Thirumurthy

    2015-12-01

    Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Herein, we describe the pharmacophore based virtual screening combined with molecular docking and 3D-QSAR methods to identify new potent CRTh2 inhibitors. Several pharmacophore models were generated and validated by Guner-Henry scoring method. The best models were utilized as 3D Pharmacophore query to screen against ZINC database and the retrieved hits were further validated by fitness score, Lipinski's rule of five, Surflex docking and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) process. The optimum CoMFA model was developed using known inhibitors and the predictive ability of model was examined by statistical parameters like q2 = 0.552 and r2pred = 0.636. The biological activities of the screened compounds were calculated using the generated CoMFA model. Finally nine compounds were found to have good potential and high inhibitory activities and they may act as novel lead compounds for CRTh2 inhibitor designing.

  18. Research on Lead-acid Storage Battery' Model Based on Neural Network%基于神经网络的铅酸蓄电池模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智勇; 刘爱华; 杨占录

    2011-01-01

    According to the charge and discharge characteristics of a submarine lead-acid storage battery, the battery's charge and discharge equipment is designed for experiment. A solution is put forward which include the charge and discharge current, subsidiary system of storage battery and measurement of parameter. The accurate model of lead-acid storage battery iss build up based on experiment data and neural network technique.%根据某型潜艇蓄电池充放电的特点,设计了充放电装备用以进行模型试验,提出了充放电电流、蓄电池附属系统及参数测量实验的技术方案,以实验数据为基础,结合神经网络技术,建立了比较准确的蓄电池模型。

  19. Leaching of Iron From Water-quenched Slag in Lead Smelting Using Sulfuric Acid%用硫酸从铅冶炼水淬渣中浸出铁的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红燕; 孔馨; 森维; 肖锐敏; 鲁顺利

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of iron from water‐quenched slag in lead smelting using sulfuric acid was researched .T he effects of sulfuric acid concentration ,leaching temperature and leaching time on leaching of iron were examined .The results show that under the optimum process conditions of sulfuric acid concentration of 175 g/L ,leaching temperature of 60 ℃ and leaching time of 60 min , leaching rate of iron is up to 73 .85% .%研究了用硫酸从铅冶炼水淬渣中浸出铁。考察了硫酸质量浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间对铁浸出率的影响。试验结果表明,用硫酸浸出铁,在硫酸质量浓度175 g/L、浸出温度60℃、浸出时间60 min最佳条件下,铁浸出率达73.85%。

  20. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  1. Study on process of recovering lead from acid leaching residue by precipitation transformation method%沉淀转化法综合回收酸浸渣中铅的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福元; 俎小凤; 彭国敏

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive recovery of low-grade lead in the acid leaching residue from cyanidation process for golden leaching was made through precipitation transformation method.The recovery process was introduced.Influences of factors, such as mass ratio of liquid to solid (L/S), amount of ammonium bicarbonate, and reaction time on converting rate of lead in the reaction process of ammonium bicarbonate and acid leaching residue were also studied through orthogonal tests.The optimum conditions were as follows:mass ratio of L/S was 2.0,amount of ammonium bicarbonate was 30 g,and reaction time was 2.0 h. The transformation ratio of lead reached 97% under those conditions.%通过沉淀转化法对氰化提金工艺酸浸渣中低品位铅进行了综合回收.介绍了回收工艺流程,通过正交实验考察了酸浸渣采用碳酸氢铵转化过程中液固比、碳酸氢铵用量、转化时间等因素对铅转化率的影响,确定了转化反应的最佳条件为:转化液固质量比为2.0、碳酸氢铵用量为30 g、转化时间为2.0 h.在最佳条件下反应,铅转化率可达97%.

  2. Structures of battery- and energy management systems using lead-acid batteries and ultracaps; Strukturen von Batterie- und Energiemanagementsystemen mit Bleibatterien und Ultracaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, D.

    2007-07-01

    The publication presents methods of damage-free operation of lead batteries in electric road vehicles. The original charging method used in the citySTROMer car was based on the total voltage, causing permanent overload and fast ageing of modules. The charge state of the vehicle is defined on the basis of the residual charge state, a charge balance, and an evaluation of the temperature-compensated minimum module voltage. The time when current limiting is necessary is recognized reliably, and the charge state indicator works reliably soon after starting. The vehicle has an integrated power-assist store. Ultracap modules of various capacities were characterized in the laboratory. A variant was constructed in which the battery is discharged permanently with average driving current while the ultracap is used for making up the difference to the load at a given moment. The load cases for power-assist were identified on the basis of real driving cycles. The system can be described as an onboard dual-voltage system. The higher voltage of the ultracap provides higher power for acceleration. The availability of the ultracap is ensured in 90 percent of all accelerations. The first battery set installed in the car is now in its fourth winter, with a mileage of nearly 7000 km. In March 2006, 63 Ah were recorded in battery driving cycle in urban traffic at temperatures below freezing point. After commissioning in May 2002, 71 Ah were recorded. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit entwickelt Verfahren zum schaedigungsfreien Betrieb von Bleibatterien in elektrischen Strassenfahrzeugen. Das urspruenglich im untersuchten citySTROMer eingesetzte Ladeverfahren war an der Gesamtspannung orientiert und hat Module hoeherer Spannungslage ueberladen. Die permanente Ueberladung fuehrt zu einem sehr schnellen Alterungsprozess. Die Ladezustandsbestimmung im Fahrzeug erfolgt ueber die Bestimmung des Restladegrades, eine Ladungsbilanzierung und die Auswertung der temperaturkompensierten

  3. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  4. 基于LIN总线的阀控式铅酸蓄电池管理系统设计%Design of valve regulated lead-acid battery management system based on LIN bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴昌浩; 刘其峰; 黄智宇; 刘明亮

    2011-01-01

    电池管理系统作为电动汽车重要的组成部件之一,被广泛地用于汽车电池组管理中,来确保电池的高性能、高可靠性和高稳定性.电池管理系统能够保护电池免受破坏,预测电池寿命以及在电池工作的情况下维护和保养电池.由于铅酸蓄电池充放电过程的复杂性和非线性,采用非线性最小二乘法回归得到电池的初始荷电状态.针对阀控式铅酸蓄电池,设计了基于本地互联网络的电池管理系统,在此基础上利用片上卡尔曼滤波算法对电池荷电状态进行在线修正.同时,介绍了电压采集模块,电流采集模块,温度采集模块,通信电路模块.验证试验结果表明,当电池荷电状态处于30%~70%范围内时,荷电状态平均相对误差为3%左右.%Battery management system (BMS), as one of important component in electric vehicle, is widely used in automotive battery management in order to ensure performance, high reliability and high stability. BMS can prevent battery from damage, predict battery state of health, and maintain battery in work condition. Due to the complex and nonlinear electrochemical process of lead-acid battery in charging and discharging, the initial battery state of charge (SOC) was obtained by non-linear least squares regression method (NLLSRM) in the paper. For valve regulated lead-acid battery (VRLA), a battery management system based on local interconnect network (LIN) was designed and on chip Kalman filter algorithm was employed to correct SOC on-line. At the same time, a detailed hardware circuit schemes of primary modules was introduced, including voltage sampling module, current sampling module, temperature sampling module, data transfer module. The validation experimental results show that the proposed lead-acid battery control unit is high credible and the SOC estimation average relative error is about 3% when the battery is 30%SOC to 70%SOC status.

  5. 某铅酸蓄电池生产企业工人血铅水平及其影响因素分析%Analysis of blood lead level and its influencing factors of workers in one lead acid storage cell enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩倩; 张恒东; 胡飞飞; 夏超一; 龚伟; 朱宝立; 杨红

    2013-01-01

    lead acid storage cell enterprise in Jiangsu Province.Methods An occupational health field investigation was done to this storage cell enterprise at the end of June 2011 to measure the air lead fume (dust) concentration of workplaces.Health-care information of 1364 person-times from 2009-2011 was collected,including blood lead level,general state of health,life and health habit.One way ANOVA and ordinal multi-categorical logistic stepwise regression were used to analysis the influencing factors of blood lead level.Results The lead fume concentration range was 0.008-0.354 mg/m3 among 12 measuring points,which 7 places were unqualified,while the concentration range of lead dust was 0.023-2.432 mg/m3,24 out of 27 measuring places were unqualified,both the qualified rate were low.The blood lead concentration of objects was (259.54 ± 106.62) μg/L,among which 96 people (7.04%)who ≥400 μg/L should be identified as suspected "observation object",blood lead concentration ≥600 μg/L was not found.The blood lead concentration of male (279.76 ± 114.93 μg/L) was significantly higher than female (242.44 ±95.86) μg/L (t =6.441,P <0.01).The proportion of ≥400.μg/L in male (11.04%,69/625) was significantly higher than female (3.65%,27/739) (x2 =28.237,P < 0.01).The blood lead concentration of workers who exposed to lead fume or dust (265.93 ± 103.70) μg/L was significantly higher than those of not exposed to lead (205.30 ± 115.62) μg/L (t =-6.037,P < 0.01),the blood lead concentration of workers who exposed to lead dust was (267.38 ± 98.02) μg/L significantly higher than those of exposed to lead fume (260.81 ± 121.80) μg/L(t =-2.408,P <0.05).The proportion of ≥400 μg/L in workers who exposed to lead fume (dust) (7.60%,93/1223)was significantly higher than those of not exposed to lead (2.13%,3/141) (x2 =4.538,P < 0.05).Ordinal multi-categorical logistic stepwise regression found that the lead fume concentration ≥ 0.03 mg/m3,lead dust

  6. Effect of graphite content on the properties of positive plate of lead-acid battery%石墨量对铅酸电池正极板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昱萦; 赵棉; 张彦杰; 赵婧; 李勇; 陈志雪; 王梦阳; 丁克强

    2016-01-01

    The different content of graphite was added into the positive paste of lead-acid battery used in industry. Then the positive plates made of graphite-doped paste after the industrial process were assembled with conventional negative plates to be small cells. The electrochemical performance of the simulated cells was thoroughly investigated. The prepared graphite-doped positive plates were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. The results indicated that the positive plates with 0.5 g graphite and 25g lead oxidy had higher discharge capacity. Three contacting modes of lead grid, graphite particles and lead paste were proposed to interpret the obtained results.%在工业用铅酸电池正极铅膏中添加了不同量的石墨,经工业工艺处理后使之成为正极板,之后与常规的负极板构成小电池。对所得到的小电池进行了放电试验。同时,本文利用 XRD、SEM、EDS等技术对添加不同量石墨的正极材料进行了表征。结果表明,向正极铅膏(约25 g铅粉)中添加0.5 g石墨的电池具有较高的放电容量。为解释不同石墨掺杂量对铅酸电池正极材料性能的影响机理,本文提出了铅板栅、石墨颗粒与铅膏颗粒的三种接触方式。

  7. 再生铅冶炼的人体健康风险评价——以一再生铅冶炼企业10万吨废旧铅酸蓄电池项目为例%Impact Assessment of Remelted Lead on Health Taking a 10 Tons of Waste Lead - acid Battery Project as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲华

    2012-01-01

    再生铅冶炼是对铅废弃物的循环利用,也是防治铅污染的重要手段,但如果在,台炼过程中处置不当,会对人体健康产生较大风险。环境健康风险评价是定量描述环境中污染物对人体产生健康危害风险的重要方法。本文以年处理10万t废铅酸蓄电池为例,利用美国环保总署健康风险评价模型,计算分析了铅冶炼周围居民经呼吸(大气颗粒物)、食入(粮食)和皮肤接触途径摄入铅而引起的健康风险。计算结果表明,再生铅冶炼企业排放的铅尘通过土壤和呼吸途径引起居民健康的风险较低,小于1。%Remelting lead is an impartment way to reuse the waste and to prevent lead pollution, but it may pose health risks without appropriate treatment. Environmental Health Risk Assessment is an important method for quantitatively describing the relationship between the pollution and the human health. This article takes a 10 tons waste lead - acid batteries project for instance and adopts the theories and the models for Health Risk Assessment recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The study calculates the heavy metals intake risk through inhalation, foods and skins. The results show that the risk index of lead dusts is less than 1.

  8. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  9. Application of PbO2 addition to the positive paste of lead acid battery%铅蓄电池正极铅膏加PbO2的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽渊; 吴寿松

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility and advantage of adding PbO2 to positive paste of lead acid battery was already investigated and got positive results. It was aiming to use this formula change in actual production, presented the procedure of addition and the good results was obtained:reducing forming time, enhancing PbO2 content and improving initial capacity.%不少人已试验了铅蓄电池正极加PbO2,得到正面结果,作者们则立足于实用,介绍了加PbO2的具体方法及其效果。

  10. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  11. 电动汽车铅酸电池脉冲快速充电系统设计%Design of the Pulse-type Fast Speed Charging System of Lead-Acid Battery for Electric Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段朝伟; 张雷; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    为了缩短电动汽车铅酸电池的充电时间,提高能量接受率,基于带放电电流脉宽调制技术,设计了汽车电池脉冲快速充电系统.该系统采用嵌入式控制和上位机监控相结合的方式,软硬设计合理,性能可靠.试验数据分析表明,该系统有效缓解了电池的极化现象,缩短了汽车铅酸电池的充电时间,提高了电池能量接受率.系统具有广泛的应用前景.%In order to shorten the charging time of the lead-acid battery for electric car,and improve the energy acceptance rate,based on current pulse width modulation technology with discharging,the pulse type fast speed charging system of the battery for electric car has been designed.By adopting embedded control and combining with host computer monitoring,the system is designed reasonably in hardware and software and offers reliable performance.The analysis of test data indicates that this system effectively alleviates the polarization phenomenon of battery,shortens the charging time of the lead-acid battery,and enhances the energy acceptance rate.The system possesses broad applicable prospects.

  12. Silver extraction using nitric acid from lead-zinc mine tail slag by response surface design%响应面法优化硝酸浸铅锌矿尾渣回收银工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦松

    2011-01-01

    以硝酸浸铅锌矿尾渣回收银工艺进行了研究.以银浸出率为评价指标,探讨了硝酸质量浓度、液固比、浸出时间和浸出温度对回收银工艺的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面法对银浸出的条件进行了优化.结果表明,当硝酸质量浓度为33.16%,液固比为16.39:1,在64.62℃的条件下浸出1.3h,该模型预测的最大银浸出率为69.73%.验证实验误差<3%,表明该模型与实际情况拟合良好.%The extraction process using nitric acid leaching silver from lead-zinc mine tail slag was studied. According to silver leaching rate using as an evaluation index, the effect of nitric acid mass concentration, the liquid-solid ratio,leaching time and leaching temperature on silver leaching rate was discussed. Based on single factor experiment, the leaching condition is further optimized by response surface method. The results showed that the largest model silver leaching rate of 69. 73% was obtained under the conditions of the concentration of 33.16% nitric acid quality and the liquid-solid ratio of 16.39:1 at 64.62 ℃ for 1.3 h. The verify error of the model was less than 3% ,and the model was fitted for the actual experiments well.

  13. Ecological impact of acid precipitation. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabloes, D.; Tollan, A. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 134 of the papers presented in these proceedings. Investigations into: transport and deposition, vegetation and soils, water quality, aquatic biota, impacts on soils and indirect effects on vegetation, effects on water quality, effects on aquatic biota, and various integrated studies are all discussed. Six papers were previously input to the data base.

  14. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You ... EPA Home » Lead » Learn about Lead Learn about Lead General Lead Information Read more about lead in ...

  15. Effect of lignosulfonates on the performance of lead-acid battery negative plate%木素磺酸钠对铅酸电池负极性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付颖达; 唐有根; 宋永江; 胡菁

    2011-01-01

    Effect of lignosulfonates on the capacity and cycle performance under high-rate partial-star-of-charge(HRPSoC) of lead-acid battery negative plate was studied. With the content of lignosulfonates increased from 0.2% to 0.6%, the initial capacity of battery increased from 6.262 Ah to 6.781 Ah, but the cycle life of negative under HRPSoC decreased from 6215 times to 4202 times. Lignosulfonates adsorbed on the surface of lead impeded eharge process, which led the increasing of polarization in charge process.%研究了木素磺酸钠对铅酸电池负极容量和高倍率部分荷电状态(HRPSoC)下循环性能的影响.随着木素磺酸钠的含量从0.2%增加到0.6%,电池的初始容量从6.262 Ah增加到6.781 Ah,但HRPSoC时,负极的循环寿命由6 215次减少到4 202次.木素磺酸钠吸附在铅表面阻碍了充电过程,导致充电过程的极化增大.

  16. 核电厂铅酸蓄电池充放电方式分析%The Analysis for Selection of the Lead-acid Battery Charging and Discharging Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 李波; 孔凡华

    2015-01-01

    蓄电池作为直流系统的最后一道保护屏障,其运行状况、性能是直流系统安全稳定运行的决定性因素,而充放电试验是验证蓄电池运行状况的基本方法.文章以某核电铅酸蓄电池为例,着重介绍了铅酸蓄电池在不同工况下的充放电方式.通过查阅相关文献、调查研究并结合现场实际情况,对不同工况下蓄电池的充放电方式进行了确认;同时对不同充放电方式的适用范围及其优缺点进行了分析,为铅酸蓄电池组设计了合理的充放电方式选用方法,为铅酸蓄电池的安全稳定运行打下了坚实的基础.%The operation of battery,as the last barrier of DC system,determines the stable op-eration of the DC system. Capacity test is the basic way to verify the battery performance. This article takes the lead-acid battery of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant as example,shows the different charging and discharging modes. The charging and discharging modes under different conditions are confirmed depending on relevant literature,investigation and the actual situation. The advantages and disadvantages of different charging and discharging modes,and also the scope of application are discussed in this paper. Areasonable charging and discharging method forlead-acid batteries is selected,which laid a solid foundation for the safe and stable operation of lead-acid battery.

  17. 新千年前十年铅酸蓄电池的发展方向%Development of lead-acid batteries in the first decade of the new millennium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴甫洛夫,D

    2001-01-01

    The positions of lead-acid batteries (LAB) among all electrochemical power sources (EPS) as wellas of the new requirements of the battery market to this type of batteries were overviewed. Valve-regulatedlead-acid batteries were the least maintenance batteries, so the problems that had been solved or were still inthe process of solving so as to make VRLA batteries meet the basic performance requirements to EPS duringthe new decade were investigated. General considerations related to lead-acid batteries were followed by de-tailed descriptions of the processes that were of major importance for the performance of VRLAB. The in-fluence of additional (parasitic) reactions as well as on the efficiency of the closed oxygen cycle and the ther-mal problems related to its malfunction was discussed in details. Technical solutions to these problems wereproposed. Finally, some new LAB designs were discussed, which would occupy important positions on thebattery market during the next decade.%回顾了铅酸蓄电池(LAB)在所有电化学电源(EPS)中的地位以及电池市场对铅酸蓄电池新的要求。阀控式铅酸蓄电池(VRLAB)是需要最少维护的电池,重点讨论了已解决或正在解决的VRLA电池的基础性能,以满足未来10年电池市场对电化学电源的要求。在对那些对VRLAB性能有重要作用的过程进行详细论述之后,论述了研制铅酸蓄电池一般要考虑的问题。特别要注意附加反应对封闭氧气循环的利用率和热问题的影响。最后讨论了一些新型LAB设计,这些电池在未来10年的电池市场中将占有很重要的位置。

  18. 氧压酸浸低品位富银硫化矿富集提取银和锌%Silver and Zinc Recoveries by Acid Pressure Oxidative Leaching of Silver-bearing Lead-Zinc-Iron Sulfide Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁铎强; 王吉坤; 汪云华

    2008-01-01

    The beneficiation of silver-bearing lead-zinc-iron sulfide concentrate from Yunnan Lancang Lead Ore Co.,Ltd is very difficult because of existence of great deal of pyrite and marcasite with content up to 70%,and the a-certain-extent oxidation of galena to yellow lead.In the present work,acid pressure oxidative leaching of such complex sulfide was investigated at the temperature ranging 90~170℃ to shed new light on the deportment of silver from the source concentrates to the residue with subsequent recovery by cyanidation.Lab-scale leaching experiments were conducted in a 2L autoclave to investigate the influences of temperature,acidity,sodium iodide usage,oxygen partial pressure,oxygen flow rate on the recoveries of silver and zinc.The results obtained show that the recovery of silver depends on whether the leached silver is incorporated into jarosite or convened into silver iodide by reaction with sodium iodide.Under optimum conditions,recoveries of silver and zinc can reach 71.5% and 41.29%,respectively.%由于含有大量的黄铁矿和白铁矿(它们约占原矿的70%,质量分数),以及闪铅矿一定程度上的氧化,云南澜沧铅矿股份有限公司所产的富银硫化矿难以富集.本文通过对该矿在90-170℃下氧压酸浸,以期连同后面的氰化能提取精矿中的银.通过进行2L高压釜的小型试验,考察了温度、酸度、碘化钠用量、氧分压、氧气流速对银和锌回收率的影响.结果表明,银的回收率取决于银是否进入黄钾铁矾渣,或者与碘化钠反应生成碘化银沉淀.在优化的条件下,银和锌的回收率分别达到71.5%和41.29%.

  19. Evaluation of Occupational Hazards in A Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery Production Project%某公司阀控式密封铅酸蓄电池生产项目职业危害现状评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀莲; 姬有仓; 彭唯; 苏玥

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the occupational hazard and its degree in a value regulated lead acid battery production project, to identify the critical control point of occupational hazard, and develop effective countermeasures of occupational hazard prevention and control.[Methods]The combination of field hygienic survey, detection and analysis, and quantitative classification was adopted to perform evaluation.[Results]The main occupational hazards in the production process were lead dust, lead fume, sulfuric acid, graphite dust, coal dust, manganese dust, noise, etc.Dust concentrations ranged from 0.6 ~ 10.7 mg/m3.Graphite dust time-weighted average concentration in piecewise area exceeded the standard.Chemical toxic lead fume concentration was in the range of 0.004 ~ 11.629 mg/m3, lead dust concentration in the range of 0.004 ~ 13.637 mg/m3, TWA over standard in each measured point.When sulfuric acid concentration ranged from < 0.14 ~ 2.20 mg/m3, short-term exposure limits ( STEL ) exceeded standard in washing operation point of formation area.The noise of furnace area in lead powder workshop exceeded standard, and the maximum value was 97.9 dB ( A ).80% of workplace illumination did not meet the occupational health requirements.Based on test results, the critical control point of dust was piecewise operation.The critical control point of chemical poison was mixing of paste, formation, solidification, packaging, welding, casting operations section.The critical control point of physical factors was noise when the lead powder machine grinding.[Conclusion]Lead dust and smoke TWA concentration exceeds the occupational health limits in various degrees.It is a production enterprise with serious occupational hazard.Rectification must be carried out.The enterprise should increase the workshop, improve the facility layout, operate dust proof and gas defense facilities effectively to prevent the generation of occupational hazards.%目的 调查某公司阀控式

  20. Simulating hypoxia-induced acidic environment in cancer cells facilitates mobilization and redox-cycling of genomic copper by daidzein leading to pro-oxidant cell death: implications for the sensitization of resistant hypoxic cancer cells to therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Aamir; Bhat, Showket H; Khan, Husain Y; Zubair, Haseeb; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of action involved in the anti-cancer activity of daidzein and identification of cancer specific micro-environment as therapeutic target of this secondary metabolite derived from soy. Our data indicated that daidzein induces cellular DNA breakage, anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We demonstrated that such a daidzein-induced anti-cancer action involves a copper-dependant pathway in which endogenous copper is mobilized by daidzein and redox-cycled to generate reactive oxygen species which act as an upstream signal leading to pro-oxidant cell death. Further in the context of hypoxia being a resistant factor against standard therapies and that an effect secondary to hypoxia is the intracellular acidification, we show that the anticancer activity of daidzein is modulated positively in acidic pH but copper-specific chelator is still able to inhibit daidzein activity. Moreover, an experimental setup of hypoxia mimic (cobalt chloride) revealed an enhanced sensitivity of cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of daidzein which was neutralized in the presence of neocuproine. The findings support a paradigm shift from the conventional antioxidant property of dietary isoflavones to molecules capable of initiating a pro-oxidant signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species. Further, the clinical relevance of such an action mechanism in cancer chemoprevention is also proposed. This study identified endogenous copper as a molecular target and acidic pH as a modulating factor for the therapeutic activity of daidzein against cancer. The evidence presented highlights the potential of dietary agents as adjuvants to standard therapeutic regimens.