WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid methyl esters

  1. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  2. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  3. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  4. Fragrance material review on carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 41135 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2- propenoic acid...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-methyl- 2- -1... for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-,phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid...

  6. New bis(alkythio) fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition reaction of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to mono-unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is well-known for analytical purposes to determine the position of double bonds by mass spectrometry. In this work, the classical iodine-catalyzed reaction is expanded to other dialkyl disulfides (RSSR), ...

  7. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.640 Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. The food additive methyl esters of higher fatty acids may be safely used in animal feeds in accordance with the...

  9. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...- -, methyl ester (generic). 721.2078 Section 721.2078 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject...

  11. Electron driven processes in chlorodifluoroacetic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyra, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to gas phase 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroacetic acid methyl ester (CClF2COOCH3) is studied by means of a crossed beams apparatus. Effective cleavage of the C-Cl bond is observed within a broad resonance in the energy range 0-1 eV and visible via the appearance of the light fragment Cl-. In chlorodifluoroacetic acid cleavage of the C-Cl bond was observed not only via the Cl- anion formation but predominantly via expulsion of the neutral chlorine atom leading to the formation of the (M-Cl)- anion. Similar to the previously studied esters CF3COOCH3 and CF3COOC2H5[I. Martin, J. Langer, E. Illenberger, Z. Phys. Chem. 222, 1185 (2008)], we observe reaction due to the cleavage of the ester bond resulting in the formation of the closed shell (M-CH3)- anion.

  12. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of a mixture of either methyl or ethyl esters of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1578 Section 721.1578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1576 - 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cyclohexyl] methyl] ester. 721.1576 Section 721.1576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1162; CAS...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)amino-, methyl ester. 721.1728 Section 721.1728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-, methyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is...

  16. Transferable force field for carboxylate esters: application to fatty acid methylic ester phase equilibria prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2012-03-15

    In this work, a new transferable united-atoms force field for carboxylate esters is proposed. All Lennard-Jones parameters are reused from previous parametrizations of the AUA4 force field, and only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is introduced for the ester chemical function. Various short alkyl-chain esters (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate) and two fatty acid methylic esters (methyl oleate and methyl palmitate) are studied. Using this new force field in Monte Carlo simulations, we show that various pure compound properties are accurately predicted: saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies, critical properties, liquid-vapor surface tensions. Furthermore, a good accuracy is also obtained in the prediction of binary mixture pressure-composition diagrams, without introducing empirical binary interaction parameters. This highlights the transferability of the proposed force field and gives the opportunity to simulate mixtures of industrial interest: a demonstration is performed through the simulation of the methyl oleate + methanol mixture involved in the purification sections of biodiesel production processes.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. 721.10133 Section 721.10133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester... identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer (PMN P-07-401; CAS No....

  18. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  19. 75 FR 50926 - 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C12-16-alkyl esters, telomers with 1-dodecanethiol, polyethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C12-16-alkyl esters, telomers with 1-dodecanethiol... tolerance for residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C12-16- alkyl esters, telomers with 1-dodecanethiol... residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C12-16-alkyl esters, telomers with 1-dodecanethiol, polyethylene...

  20. Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl esters. ... In order to achieve a two-step transesterification process was developed to convert rubber seed oil to its methyl esters. The first step, acid catalyzed ... Article Metrics.

  1. 77 FR 20314 - 2-Propenoic Acid, 2-Methyl-, 2-Ethylhexyl Ester, Telomer With 1-Dodecanethiol, Ethenylbenzene and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic Acid, 2-Methyl-, 2-Ethylhexyl Ester, Telomer With 1- Dodecanethiol...-methyl-, 2- ethylhexyl ester, telomer with 1-dodecanethiol, ethenylbenzene and 2- methyloxirane polymer...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-ethylhexyl ester, telomer with 1-dodecanethiol, ethenylbenzene and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., methyl ester. 721.4097 Section 721.4097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500°C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460°C to 560°C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500°C.

  4. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  5. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  6. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible.

  7. Chemically modified fatty acid methyl esters: their potential for use as lubrication fluids and surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of lubrication fluids and surfactants from methyl oleate. The synthesis of materials made using an epoxidation route is the focus. This versatile method of chemical modification of fatty acid methyl esters improves their oxidati...

  8. The occurrence of 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen root bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lognay G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing search for natural fumigants from Senegalese plants, we have investigated Securicicidaca longepedunculata root barks and demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate, I is responsible of their biocide effect against stored grain insects. A second unknown apparented product, II has been systematically observed in all analyzed samples. The present paper describes the identification of this molecule. The analytical investigations including GCMS, GLC and 1H-NMR. spectrometry led to the conclusion that II corresponds to the 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester.

  9. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  10. Resolution of 4-amino-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid methyl esters using hydrolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, M; Baines, B S; Dawson, M J; Lawrence, G C

    1992-11-01

    A number of esterases (EC 3.1.1.1) and lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) of microbial and mammalian origin were screened for the ability to resolve racemic 4-amino-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid methyl ester derivatives as potential intermediates in the production of carbocyclic nucleosides. Surprisingly, functionalization of the remote amino group had a profound effect on both the rate and enantioselectivity of hydrolysis of the methyl ester. 4-(Benzoylamino)-2-cyclopentenecarboxylic acid, methyl ester (V) with pig liver esterase gave the highest enantioselectivity. The residual ester, which was of the correct absolute stereochemistry [(+) 1S, 4R] for carbocyclic nucleoside synthesis, could be obtained in high optical purity. Optimization of pH, solvent type, and concentration improved the enantioselectivity of the process by a further twofold.

  11. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  12. Fatty acid methyl esters yield and phorbol esters degradation during transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil by alkaline, acid and enzyme catalyzed method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosa Koji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas has recently been the focus of intense research as a raw material of biomass fuel. However, the carcinogenesis promoter action of the phorbol esters in the Jatropha raises concerns for health and environmental risk. The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between the fatty acid methyl esters yield and the phorbol esters degradation ratio during the transesterification of the Jatropha oil by alkaline, acid and enzyme catalyzed method, respectively. The phorbol esters in Jatropha oil were degraded during the transesterification of the Jatropha curcas oil by alkaline and acid catalyzed methanol methods. The degradation ratio was significantly correlated with the fatty acid methyl esters yields in alkaline catalyzed transesterification. The results obtained in this study suggest that the health and environmental risk of the phorbol esters in a Jatropha BDF can be significantly reduced by a complete transesterification of the crude oil by controlling the transesterification condition appropriately.

  13. 75 FR 4292 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2... residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2... permissible level for residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and...

  14. Low-temperature phase behavior of fatty acid methyl esters by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures have many uses including biodiesel, lubricants, metal-working fluids, surfactants, polymers, coatings, green solvents and phase-change materials. The physical properties of a FAME mixture depends on the fatty acid concentration (FAC) profile. Some products hav...

  15. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  16. Synthesis of (S)-ricinoleic acid and its methyl ester with the participation of ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Józef; Bonikowski, Radoslaw; Szewczyk, Malgorzata; Ciolak, Kornelia

    2014-10-01

    (R)-ricinoleic acid methyl ester obtained from commercial castor oil was transformed in a three-step procedure into its S-enantiomer in overall 36% yield using ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) in the key step process. The developed procedure provides easy access to (S)-ricinoleic acid and its methyl ester of over 95% enantiomeric excess. Optical rotations of the newly obtained compounds as well as their chromatographic and spectral characteristics are provided and discussed in the context of enantiopurity both of the substrate material and the final products.

  17. Potentiation of insulin release in response to amino acid methyl esters correlates to activation of islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A; Hedeskov, C J

    1986-01-01

    Column perifusion of mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the ability of amino acids and their methyl esters to influence insulin release and activate islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In the absence of L-glutamine, L-serine and the methyl ester of L-phenylalanine, but neither L...... glutamate dehydrogenase activity showed that only the two methyl esters of L-phenylalanine and L-serine activated the enzyme. It is concluded that the mechanism by which methyl esters of amino acids potentiate insulin release is most likely to be mediated by the activation of pancreatic beta-cell glutamate...

  18. Preparation of 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester by ozonolysis of vegetable oils and its polycondensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil-based and potentially biodegradable polyesters were prepared from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester. This paper describes ozonolysis of vegetable oils and the method for preparation of useful monomers and in particular 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester. Ozonolysis of soybean oil and castor oil in methanol and methylene chloride solution, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride was used to obtain a mixture of triols, diols and monols. Triglyceride triols were separated from the rest of the mixture and transesterified with methanol to obtain methyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin. The main component of fatty acids was 9-hydroxynonanoic acid methyl ester, which was characterized and used for polycondensation by transesterification. High molecular weight polyhydroxy alcanoate was a solid having a melting point of 75°C. The molecular weight of the resulting polyester was affected by the purity of the monomer and side reactions such as cyclization. The polymer was characterized by chromatographic, thermal and analytical methods.

  19. Kinetically controlled synthesis of monoglyceryl esters from chiral and prochiral acids methyl esters catalyzed by immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Andreina; Filice, Marco; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Palomo, Jose M; Guisan, Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Partial acylation of only one primary hydroxyl group of glycerol generates a chiral center at position 2. Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) catalyzes the kinetically controlled transesterification of different aromatic carboxylic acids methyl esters with glycerol. High synthetic yields of glyceryl esters (around 70-80%) were obtained even in the presence of significant concentrations of water (from 5% to 20%). After a long incubation of the reaction mixture in the presence of the biocatalyst only pure free acid was obtained. Other lipases (from Geobacillus thermocatenulatus and from Thermomyces lanuginose) also catalyzed similar kinetically controlled transesterifications although less efficiently. RML immobilized on Sepharose-Q showed a high activity and specificity, compared to the immobilization by other techniques, only producing monoglyceryl esters with all substrates. In particular, monoglyceryl-phenylmalonate product was synthesized in 82% overall yield and >99% diastereomeric excess at pH 7.0 and 37°C and 90% glycerol.

  20. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9... § 573.637 Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10...

  1. Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), produced from dissolving wood pulp, were chemically functionalized by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester (CME). CME performs as both the reaction reagent and solvent. Transesterified CNC (CNCFE) was characterized for their chemical structure, morphology, crystalline structure, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity...

  2. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  3. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  4. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  5. Beyond fatty acid methyl esters: Expanding the renewable carbon profile with alkenones from Isochrysis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to characteristic fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), biodiesel produced from Isochrysis sp. contains a significant amount (14% dry weight) of predominantly C37 and C38 longchain alkenones. These compounds are members of a class of lipids known collectively as polyunsaturated long-chain al...

  6. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8500 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8500 Section 721.8500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... hept-3-ylmethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-30) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4792 - 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich. 721.4792 Section 721.4792 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... esters, C13-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich (PMN P-99-1189; CAS No...

  9. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  10. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  11. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples.

  12. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  13. Asymmetric Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction of long chain keto alkanoic acid methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYE YUSUFOGLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available 3-, 7- and 13-Monoketo tetradecanoic acid methyl esters carrying a ketogroup at the ends and at the middle of the chain with 14 carbon atoms were reduced by a Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reaction in the presence of R-(+-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol, 1,2:5,6-D-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol and L-(–-menthol. The highest enantiomeric purity of 65% ee was found for 13-hydroxy ester isomer. The enantiomeric excess was determined by 1H-NMR shift with Eu(tfc3 and by optical rotation.

  14. Lewis acid catalysed methylation of N-(9H-fluoren-9-yl)methanesulfonyl (Fms) protected lipophilic α-amino acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Alò, Danila; Belsito, Emilia Lucia; Di Gioia, Maria Luisa; Romio, Emanuela; Siciliano, Carlo; Liguori, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    This work reports an efficient Lewis acid catalysed N-methylation procedure of lipophilic α-amino acid methyl esters in solution phase. The developed methodology involves the use of the reagent system AlCl3/diazomethane as methylating agent and α-amino acid methyl esters protected on the amino function with the (9H-fluoren-9-yl)methanesulfonyl (Fms) group. The removal of Fms protecting group is achieved under the same conditions to those used for Fmoc removal. Thus the Fms group can be interchangeable with the Fmoc group in the synthesis of N-methylated peptides using standard Fmoc-based strategies. Finally, the absence of racemization during the methylation reaction and the removal of Fms group were demonstrated by synthesising a pair of diastereomeric dipeptides. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs); Sintese de novas amidas graxas a partir da aminolise de esteres metilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D' Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D' Oca, Marcelo G., E-mail: dqmdoca@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  16. Characterization of Lipids and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Contents in Leaves and Roots of Crocus vallicola

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLI, Nurettin; KIRAN, Zerrin; SEYMEN, Hasan; GENÇ, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and other lipids in leaves and roots of Crocusvallicola were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). In this work, twenty-eight compounds, including 22 FAMEs, 1 aldehyde, 3 hydrocarbons (substitute alkane and alkene), 2 alcohols in the leaves and twenty-one compounds (17 FAMEs, 1 anhydride, 1 substitute alcohol, 1 ketone, 1 substitute amide) in the roots were identified by GC-MS from C. vallicola. Th...

  17. Chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-UV and GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Myller S.; Pinho, David M.M.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z., E-mail: psuarez@unb.br [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Mendonca, Marcio A. [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Resck, Ines S. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) (method A) was used for simultaneous determination of total amounts of triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters in alcoholysis of different oil (cotton, canola, sunflower, corn and soybean) samples. Analyses were carried out at 40 deg C for 20 min using a gradient of methanol (MeOH) and 2-propanol-hexane 5:4 (v/v) (PrHex): 100% of MeOH in 0 min, 50% of MeOH and 50% of PrHex in 10 min maintained with isocratic elution for 10 min. Another HPLC-UV method (method B) with acetonitrile isocratic elution for 34 min was used to determine the fatty acid composition of oils analyzing their methyl ester derivatives. Contents were determined with satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 3%), linearity (r{sup 2} > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of quantification). Method B was compared with an official gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) from American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) in the determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in biodiesel real samples. (author)

  18. Effect of fatty acid methyl esters from plastrum testudinis on proliferation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuehua ZHANG; Heping ZENG; Dongfeng CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The ointment of plastrum testudinis was extracted using petroleum ether,ether and dichloromethane sequentially and the extracts were methyl,esteri,fled. The effects on the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bMMSCs) were examined by MTT[3,(4,5,dimethylthiazol,2,yl),2,5,diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometry analysis. The volatile components of the samples were studied by gas chromatography,mass spectrometry (GC,MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the methyl,esterified parts can promote the proliferation of stem cells and they all contain palmitic acid methyl ester. Palmitic acid methyl ester can promote proliferation when the concentration was 0.15 μg/μL. It may be concluded that the palmitic acid methyl ester is important for the methyl,esterified parts that have effects on proliferation.

  19. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g{sup -1}. The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (40 C), and 14.6 h (110 C). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 C and -19 C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition. (author)

  20. Catalytic Autoxidation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Jatropha Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe K. Endalew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal catalysts for transesterification of vegetable oils can cause autoxidation side reactions which reduces the fuel quality of the biodiesel. On the other side, oxidation of highly unsaturated oils can open opportunities for the synthesis of other important renewable chemical products. This study reports catalytic oxidation of fatty acids of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO by Li-CaO/Fe2(SO43 catalyst during transesterification at mild reaction conditions. The catalytic oxidation of the triglycerides was shown to be enhanced by the presence of lithium incorporated in the otherwise active catalyst combination of CaO/Fe2(SO43 used for high conversion into FAME. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was used to assess the reaction products.

  1. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. Esterification Reaction of Glycerol and Palm Oil Oleic Acid Using Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid Catalyst as Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, V. I.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-02-01

    Esterification reaction between glycerol with palm oil oleic acid to produce glycerol ester and one of the utilization of glycerol esters is as ingredients of drilling fluids formula for oil drilling needs. The purpose of this research is to get the best conditions of the esterification process. The esterification reaction does with the reactants is glycerol with purity of 97.6%, palm oil oleic acid with the molar ratio is 1:1, Methyl Ester Sulfonate Acid (MESA) catalyst 0.5%, and stirring speed 400 rpm. The temperature range of 180°C to 240°C and the processing time between 120 to 180 minutes. The results showed that the best conditions of the esterification reaction at the temperature 240°C and time process are 180 minute. The increasing temperature resulted that the acid number decreases and causing the conversion increased. The maximum conversion is 99.24%, density 0.93 g/cm3, flash point 241°C, pour point -3°C, the boiling point of 244 °C, the acid value of 1.90 mg KOH/g sample, kinematic viscosity 31.51 cSt (40°C), surface tension 37.0526 dyne/cm and GCMS identification, glycerol ester at 22,256 retention time (minutes) and wide area 73.75 (%). From the research results obtained glycerol ester with characteristics suitable for drilling fluid formulations.

  3. Ultrasound in fatty acid chemistry: synthesis of a 1-pyrroline fatty acid ester isomer from methyl ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Syed-Rahmatullah, M S; Lam, C K; Kalluri, P

    1994-12-01

    A novel 1-pyrroline fatty acid ester isomer (viz. 8-5-hexyl-1-pyrrolin-2-yl) octanoate) has been synthesized from methyl ricinoleate by two routes with an overall yield of 42 and 30%, respectively. Most of the reactions are carried out under concomitant ultrasonic irradiation (20 KHz, ca. 53 watts/cm2). Under such a reaction condition, the reaction time is considerably shortened, and product yields are high. Dehydrobromination under concomitant ultrasonic irradiation of methyl 9, 10-dibromo-12-hydroxyoctadecanoate with KOH in EtOH furnishes methyl 12-hydroxy-9-octadecynoate (66%) within 15 min. Hydration of the latter under ultrasound with mercury(II)acetate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran yields exclusively methyl 12-hydroxy-9-oxo-octadecanoate (95%) in 30 min. The hydroxy group in the latter compound is transformed to the azido function via the mesylate, and treatment of the azido-oxo intermediate (methyl 12-azido-9-oxooctadecanoate) with Ph3P under ultrasonic irradiation furnishes the requisite 1-pyrroline fatty acid ester (77%). The same azido-oxo intermediate has also been obtained by the oxidation of methyl 12-azido-9-cis-octadecenoate using benzoquinone and a catalytic amount of Pd(II)chloride in aqueous tetrahydrofuran under concomitant ultrasonic irradiation (90 min) to give the product in 45% yield. The latter reaction does not take place even under prolonged silent stirring of the reaction mixture.

  4. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    KAUST Repository

    Urban, Jiří T.

    2011-09-26

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2012-02-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel.

  6. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  7. Thermolytic reactions of esters. Part IV. The methyl esters of cyanoacetic, acetoacetic and malonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, W.A.M. den; Louw, R.; Kooyman, E.C.

    1968-01-01

    The compounds on the title proved to be more stable than their ethyl analogues, 1,2-acid elimination being impossible. Acetic acid causes a pronounced rate enhancement. Kinetic as well as product data - including the effect of added water and/or alcohols - are interpreted on the basis of acetic acid

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONTENT OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS (FAME AND GLYCEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol produced by transesterification reaction contain atoms that in the reagents belong to methanol and, therefore, are not renewable. A method to evaluate the content of the renewable and non-renewable energetic fraction, released during their combustion, was 52 Fig. 2 - Correlation between EFNR and NCM of FAME. Fig. 3 - Correlation between NCM and NS. Fig. 4 - Correlations between EFNR and NS. 07_Toscano(541_47 26-01-2010 9:35 Pagina 52 developed using a thermochemical criteria, based on bond dissociation energies and the knowledge of the molecular structure of the reagents and the products. Results show that the fraction of non-renewable energy in the most diffused FAME is lower than 1% depending on the lengths of the carbonaceous methyl esters. Meanwhile, the energetic supply for the GL of this fraction is about 1.6%. The data reported in this document can be used to develop a criteria that corrects the fiscal mechanism aspects of some renewable energy products.

  9. N-( p-Ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives of amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters - Synthesis and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eißmann, Frank; Weber, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    A series of N-( p-ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives ( 1-4) of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine as well as the dipeptides glycylglycine and L-alanylglycine has been synthesized via a two-step reaction sequence including the reaction of an appropriate N-( p-bromobenzoyl) precursor with trimethylsilylacetylene followed by deprotection of the trimethylsilyl protecting group, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of the amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters 1-4 are reported. The amide and peptide bonds within each molecular structure are planar and adopt the trans-configuration. The packing structures are governed by N sbnd H⋯O interactions leading to the formation of characteristic strand motifs. Further stabilization results from weaker C sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯π contacts.

  10. Soybean biodiesel methyl esters, free glycerin and acid number quantification by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, Natasha; Rodrigues, Elizabeth; Rumjanek, Victor; Zamian, José Roberto; da Rocha Filho, Geraldo Narciso; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Production of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, from transesterification of vegetable oil driven by heterogeneous catalysts is a promising alternative to fossil diesel. However, achieving a successful substitution for a new renewable fuel depends on several quality parameters. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of methyl esters, free glycerin and acid number in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in the presence of hydrotalcite-type catalyst to produce biodiesel. Reaction parameters, such as temperature and time, were used to evaluate soybean oil methyl esters rate conversion. Temperatures of 100 to 180 °C and times of 20 to 240 min were tested on a 1 : 12 molar ratio soybean oil/methanol reaction. At 180 °C/240 min conditions, a rate of 94.5 wt% of methyl esters was obtained, where free glycerin and free fatty acids were not detected.

  11. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-methyl-ω-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-methyl-ω-hydroxy, ester with...

  12. Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.

  13. 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as potent anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-01-19

    Based on the structure of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which exhibits selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line, (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-yl)-methanone (18m) was designed and synthesized as a biologically stable derivative containing no ester group. Although the potency of 18m was almost the same as our initial hit compound 1, 18m is expected to last longer in the human body as an anticancer agent.

  14. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  15. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  17. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  18. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  19. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  20. Evaluation of the retention pattern on ionic liquid columns for gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Chen; Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2014-07-11

    Fatty acid methyl esters from marine sources were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on three ionic liquid columns, SLB-IL61, SLB-IL82 and SLB-IL100 (Supelco). Retention indices (equivalent chain lengths) are reported for more than 100 compounds and the overlap patterns are evaluated from these data. The influence of chromatographic conditions on the retention indices of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters is also evaluated. Compared to typical alternative phases the retention patterns on all three columns are highly dependent on the conditions. The SLB-IL61 phase had overlaps between nutritionally important fatty acids that could not be resolved by changing the chromatographic conditions. This column is therefore regarded as unsuitable for clinical and nutritional studies of the fatty acid composition, but similar overlaps may be avoided on IL82 and IL100. On all three columns double bonds close to the carboxyl group in the analytes contribute with limited retention, which makes it challenging to predict the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters.

  1. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐%Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate(MES) is an anionic surfactant based on natural oils generated from plant and animal as raw materials. MES has good detergency, lime soap dispersing ability, hard water-resistance, emulsibility, water-solubility and biodegradability; besides, it can improve the solubility of soap in water. Because of the good performance of MES, it can be used in synthetic powder detergent, compound soap powder, composite soap, shampoo and personal care products. The present production situation, product forms, properties as well as applications of MES were related.%脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐简称(MES)是以天然动植物油脂为原料制得的脂肪酸系阴离子表面活性剂。它具有良好的去污性、钙皂分散性、抗硬水性、乳化性、增溶性和生物降解性,并能改进肥皂的溶解性。由于MES性能优良,主要用于合成洗衣粉、复合皂粉、复合肥皂、香波以及个人清洁用品中。对MES的生产现状、产品形式、性能以及应用进行了概述。

  2. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  3. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  4. Self-assembled structure of alkyloxy substituted benzoic acid methyl ester on HOPG:An STM study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qunhui; LU Jun; WAN Lijun; BAI Chunli

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembled structures of 3,4,5-tris-dodecy- loxy benzoic acid methyl ester (E12), 3,4,5-tris-tetradecy- loxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (E14) and their mixture (E12/E14) have been studied on HOPG by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Dimer-like patterns induced by dipole-dipole interaction are observed in E12 and E14 monolayers. The molecules form close-packed rows and interdigitate with the alkyl chains in adjacent molecules. The structural differences are proposed to be from the different length of substituted alkyl chains. Owing to similar adsorption energy, phase separation is observed in the E12 and E14 mixed adlayer with different domains.

  5. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  6. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Irene; Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra; Estevez-Braun, Ana; de las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE(2) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE(2) in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty acid methyl esters with two vicinal alkylthio side chains and their NMR characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition reaction of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to double bonds in alkenes and monounsaturated fatty acid esters in the presence of iodine or other catalysts to give bis(methylthio) derivatives has largely served analytical purposes in mass spectrometry with scattered reports on the addition of o...

  8. Biocatalytic potential of lipase from Staphylococcus sp. MS1 for transesterification of jatropha oil into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Shelley Sardul; Maan, Pratibha; Sharma, Rohit

    2014-11-01

    An extracellular lipase producing isolate Staphylococcus sp. MS1 was optimized for lipase production and its biocatalytic potential was assessed. Medium with tributyrin (0.25 %) and without any exogenous inorganic nitrogen source was found to be optimum for lipase production from Staphylococcus sp. MS1. The optimum pH and temperature for lipase production were found to be pH 7 and 37 °C respectively, showing lipase activity of 37.91 U. It showed good lipase production at pH 6-8. The lipase was found to be stable in organic solvents like hexane and petroleum ether, showing 98 and 88 % residual activity respectively. The biotransformation using the concentrated enzyme in petroleum ether resulted in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters like methyl oleate, methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. Thus, the lipase under study has got the potential to bring about transesterification of oils into methyl esters which can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

  9. Esterification of oil adsorbed on palm decanter cake into methyl ester using sulfonated rice husk ash as heterogeneous acid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Erwin, Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2017-02-01

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m2.g-1 after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17:1 for 5 hours at 120 °C.

  10. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  11. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg-Zn heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2011-06-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a substitute to petroleum diesel was investigated in this study from crude jatropha oil (CJO), a non-edible, low-cost alternative feedstock, using aluminium modified heterogeneous basic oxide (Mg-Zn) catalyst. The transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters yielded 94% in 6h with methanol-oil ratio of 11:1, catalyst loading of 8.68 wt.% at 182°C and the properties of CJO fuel produced were determine and found to be comparable to the standards according to ASTM. In the range of experimental parameters investigated, it showed that the catalyst is selective to production of methyl esters from oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) and water content of 7.23% and 3.28%, respectively in a single stage process. Thus, jatropha oil is a promising feedstock for methyl ester production and large scale cultivation will help to reduce the product cost.

  12. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  13. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  14. Photodynamic inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms and planktonic cells by 5-aminolevulinic acid and 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yingli; Wang, Li; Han, Lei; Lei, Jin'e; Ishaq, Hafiz Muhammad; Nair, Sean P; Xu, Jiru

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae, particularly extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae, is currently a great challenge. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy is a promising approach for killing antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and its derivative 5-ALA methyl ester (MAL) in the presence of white light to cause photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of K. pneumoniae planktonic and biofilm cells. In the presence of white light, 5-ALA and MAL inactivated planktonic cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Biofilms were also sensitive to 5-ALA and MAL-mediated PDI. The mechanisms by which 5-ALA and MAL caused PDI of ESBL-producing K. pneumonia were also investigated. Exposure of K. pneumonia to light in the presence of either 5-ALA or MAL induced cleavage of genomic DNA and the rapid release of intracellular biopolymers. Intensely denatured cytoplasmic contents and aggregated ribosomes were also detected by transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that PDI of biofilms caused aggregated bacteria to detach and that the bacterial cell envelope was damaged. This study provides insights into 5-ALA and MAL-mediated PDI of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxyl -pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jie; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; XU Kang-Zhen; MA Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 4-(4,6-dimethoxylpyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea carboxylic acid methyl ester was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxyl pyrimidine, potassium thiocyanate and methyl chloroformate in ethyl acetate. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurement were obtained by recrystallization with the solvent of dimethyl formamide at the room temperature. The structure was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic data: C9H12N4O4S, Mr = 272.29, monoclinic, space group C2/m with a = 1.6672(3), b = 0.66383(12), c = 1.1617(2) nm, β = 109.275(2)°, V = 1.2136(4) nm3, Dc = 1.490 g/cm3, μ = 0.281 mm-1, F(000) = 568, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0341and wR2 = 0.1042.

  16. Effects of bis homoallylic and homoallylic hydroxyl substitution on the olefinic 13C resonance shifts in fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, P E; Sonnet, P E; Schwartz, D P; Osman, S F; Weisleder, D

    1992-04-01

    Substitution of a hydroxyl group at the bis homoallylic position (OH group located three carbons away from the olefinic carbon) in C18 unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAE) induces a 0.73 +/- 0.05 ppm upfield and a 0.73 +/- 0.06 ppm downfield shift on the delta and epsilon olefinic 13C resonances relative to the unsubstituted FAE, respectively. If the hydroxyl group is located on the carboxyl side of the double bond of the bis homoallylic hydroxy fatty acid esters (BHAHFA), the olefinic resonances are uniformly shifted apart by [formula: see text] where delta delta dbu represents the absolute value of the double bond resonance separation in the unsubstituted FAE and 1.46 ppm is the sum of the absolute values of the delta and epsilon shift parameters. With hydroxyl substitution on the terminal methyl side of the double bond, the olefinic shift separation is equal to [formula: see text] In homoallylic (OH group located two carbons away from the olefinic carbon) substituted FAE the gamma and delta induced hydroxyl shifts for the cis double bond resonances are +3.08 and -4.63 ppm, respectively while the trans double bond parameters are +4.06 and -4.18 ppm, respectively. The double bond resonance separation in homoallylic hydroxy fatty acid esters (HAHFA) can be calculated from the formula [formula: see text] for cis and [formula: see text] for the trans case when the OH substitution is on the carboxyl side of the double bond. Conversely, when the OH resides on the terminal methyl side, the double bond shift separations for cis and trans isomers are [formula: see text] and [formula: see text] respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Fatty acid methyl esters, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanowalls coatings such as lubricity improvers of low sulfur diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cursaru, Diana Luciana; Tanasescu, Constantin [Petroleum-Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    In this study the lubricity of diesel fuel was restored by different methods, firstly by classic addition of fatty acid methyl esters or by dispersing carbon nanotubes into diesel fuels and secondly, by protecting the metallic surfaces which are in the direct contact to the low sulfur diesel fuel, by application of solid carbon nanowalls coatings synthesized by radiofrequency plasma beam deposition. The fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by transesterification of the sun flower oil in the presence of methanol. The carbon nanotubes were synthesized by CO disproportionation method and were characterized by RAMAN spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CNWs layers, before the friction tests, were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, while the wear on the steel balls was investigated by optical microscopy of the HRRT apparatus and the wear track on the steel disk was investigated by SEM, AFM and profilometry. The lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. It has been found that CNWs layers exhibit a lubricating potential for the rubbed surfaces in the presence of low sulfur diesel fuels. Tribological analyses of various carbon materials revealed that the friction coefficient of carbon nanowalls is close to the values obtained for graphite. (orig.)

  18. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  19. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, Arvinda K; Palit, Meehir; Shakya, Purushottam; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Sekhar, K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometric (GC/EI-MS) analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids (DAESAs). These sulfonic acids are important environmental signatures of nerve agent VX and its toxic analogues, hence GC/EI-MS analysis of their methyl esters is of paramount importance for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. DAESAs were prepared by condensation of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid with dialkylamines, and by condensation of dialkylaminoethyl chloride with sodium bisulfite. GC/EI-MS analysis of methyl esters of DAESAs yielded mass spectra; based on these spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions.

  20. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  1. 40 CFR 721.1725 - Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methyl-enebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. 721.1725 Section 721.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-, di-2-propenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The..., Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methylenebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. (2) The significant new uses are: (i)...

  2. Fingerprint vibrational spectra of protonated methyl esters of amino acids in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Aude; Macaleese, Luke; Maître, Philippe; Lemaire, Joël; McMahon, Terrance B

    2007-03-14

    Infrared spectra of the protonated monomers of glycine, alanine, valine, and leucine methyl esters are presented. These protonated species are generated in the gas phase via matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) within the cell of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer (FTICR) where they are subsequently mass selected as the only species trapped in the FTICR cell. Alternatively, they have also been generated by electrospray ionization and transferred to a Paul ion-trap mass spectrometer where they are similarly isolated. In both cases IR spectra are then derived from the frequency dependence of the infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) in the mid-infrared region (1000-2200 cm(-1)), using the free electron laser facility Centre de Laser Infrarouge d'Orsay (CLIO). IR bands are assigned by comparison with the calculated vibrational spectra of the lowest energy isomers using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. There is in general good agreement between experimental IRMPD spectra and calculated IR absorption spectra for the lowest energy conformer which provides evidence for conformational preferences. The two different approaches to ion generation and trapping yield IRMPD spectra that are in excellent agreement.

  3. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester: A fluorescence study in condensedphase and jet-cooled molecular beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Chakraborty; Samiran Kar; D N Nath; Nikhil Guchhait

    2007-03-01

    Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester (AMBME) have been investigated spectroscopically. AMBME, with its weak charge donor primary amino group, shows dual emission in polar solvents. Absorption and emission measurements in the condensed phase support the premise that the short wavelength emission band corresponds to local emission and the long wavelength emission band to the charge transfer emission. Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra show the presence of two low-energy conformers in jet-cooled molecular beams. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory help to determine structure, vibrational modes, potential energy surface, transition energy and oscillator strength for correlating experimental findings with theoretical results.

  4. [Comparative assessment of Cladophora, Spirogyra and Oedogonium biomass for the production of fatty acid methyl esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, I; Muhammad, A; Hameed, U

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for the mitigation of ecological impacts by use of diesel has been focus of intensive research. In the present work, algal oils extracted from cultivated biomass of Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp. and Oedogonium sp. were evaluated for the lipase-mediated synthesis of fatty acid monoalkyl esters (FAME, biodiesel). To optimize the transesterification of these oils, different parameters such as the alkyl group donor, reaction temperature, stirring time and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Four different alcohols i.e. methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were tested as alkyl group donor for the biosynthesis FAME and methanol was found to be the best. Similarly, temperature 50 C and stirring time of 6 h were optimized for the transesterification of oils with methanol. The maximum biodiesel conversions from Cladophora (75.0%), Spirogyra (87.5%) and Oedogonium (92.0%) were obtained when oil to alcohol ratio was 1 : 8.

  5. Quantification of trace fatty acid methyl esters in diesel fuel by using multidimensional gas chromatography with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R L; Rawson, P M; Evans, D J; Marriott, P J

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of contamination of marine and naval diesel fuels (arising from product mixing or adulteration) with biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters can be problematic, especially at very low levels. A suitable solution for this task for trace amounts of individual fatty acid methyl esters with resolution and quantification can be achieved by using a multidimensional gas chromatographic approach with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. A unique column set comprising a 100 m methyl-siloxane nonpolar first dimension column and high-temperature ionic liquid column in the second dimension enabled identification of individual fatty acid methyl esters at below the lowest concentrations required to be reported in a diesel fuel matrix. Detection limits for individual fatty acid methyl esters compounds ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/L, with excellent linearity up to 5000 mg/L and repeatability of the method from 1.3 to 3.2%. The method was applied to the analysis of diesel fuel samples with suspected biodiesel contamination. Contamination at 568 mg/L was calculated for an unknown sample and interpretation of the results permitted the determination of a likely source of the contamination.

  6. Mobility-limited polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) /[6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Liang-Bih; Preske, Amanda E; Mamiya, Arthur A; Filho, Demétrio A da Silva; Cardoso, George C

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices made from blends of a polyarylamine biscarbonate ester (PABC) and [6,6]-phenyl $C_{61}$ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been fabricated and characterized. PABC is a hole transporting co-polymer prepared from reacting N,N'diphenyl-N,N'bis(3-hydroxyphenyl)1,1;biphenyl(4,4'diamine), diethylene glycol bischloroformate, and triethylemine. By varying the polymer loading in the blend, optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 0.45\\% has been achieved for a blend consisting of 25 wt\\% PABC, which is an order of magnitude higher than the PCE for a 45 wt\\% blend. The optimal ratio is at about 0.44:0.56 molar ratio of the active hole transporting to electron transporting moieties. Results of mobility studies suggest that blends with higher PABC loading have efficiencies limited by 'hole' transport. Also responsible for the lower efficiency at higher PABC concentrations was optical filtering. The efficiency does not appear to be limited by deep charge trapping. Density fun...

  7. Used frying oils and fats and their utilization in the production of methyl esters of higher fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvengros, J. Jan; Cvengrosova, Zuzana [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2004-08-01

    From the point of view price and available capacity used frying oils or fats (UFO) represent an attractive raw material for the production of methyl esters (ME) of higher fatty acids as alternative fuels for diesel engines. If they are treated such that the required quality, with an acidity number up to 3.0 mg KOH/g and a water content up to 0.1 wt%, is achieved they can be processed to ME using standard techniques of alkali-catalysed transesterification with methanol which are utilized for production of the ME from new oils/fats. The problematic waste can thus be converted to an ecologically friendly fuel. Vacuum distillation of free fatty acids in a film evaporator is an effective method for simultaneously decreasing the content of FFA and water in UFO. Final distillation of raw ME in a film vacuum evaporator results in practically all parameters required by the standard, in the final ME being achieved. Undesirable low-temperature properties of ME derived from UFO, due to higher fraction of saturated acyls, can be adjusted by the addition of depressants-flow improvers for winterization. Some simplified methods for the quality control of UFO and ME are discussed. The conversion of acylglycerols to ME is monitored by GLC with a packed column, where the peak areas of ME in the sample before and after the reaction with an effective methylation agent are compared. The method for the determination of the water content in esters utilizes the reaction of calcium carbide with water, the volume of acetylene being measured. (Author)

  8. Production of Methyl Laurate from Coconut Cream through Fractionation of Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the production of methyl laurate from coconut cream through fractionation of methyl esters. Coconut oil was produced by wet processing of coconut cream. The esters were prepared by reacting coconut oil and methanol using homogeneous catalyst KOH in a batch reactor, followed by fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) at various reduced pressures applying differential batch vacuum distillation. Experimental data were compared with simulation of a batch distillation ...

  9. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and of volatile lipid oxidation products from fish lipid extracts are analyzed by multivariate data analysis [principal component analysis (PCA)]. Peak alignment is necessary in order to include all sampled points of the chromatograms in the data set....... The ability of robust algorithms to deal with outlier problems, including both sample-wise and element-wise outliers, and the advantages and drawbacks of two robust PCA methods, robust PCA (ROBPCA) and robust singular value decomposition when analysing these GC data were investigated. The results show...... that the usage of ROPCA is advantageous, compared with traditional PCA, when analysing the entire profile of chromatographic data in cases of sub-optimally aligned data. It also demonstrates how choosing the most robust PCA (sample or element-wise) depends on the type of outliers present in the data set....

  10. Synthesis of (2R, 4R)-2-N-tert-Butyloxycarbonyl Amino-4,5-epoxido-valeric Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of (2R, 4R)-2-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl amino-4, 5-epoxido- valeric acid methyl ester 8, which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of (2'S, 2R) -3-trans-nitrocyclopropyl-alanine, was first accomplished.

  11. Synthesis of (2R,4R)—2—N—tert—Butyloxycarbonyl Amino—4,5—epoxido—valeric Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinRongQIN; YuLiXIE; 等

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of (2R,4R)-2-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl amino-4,5-epoxido-valeric acid methyl ester 8,which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of (2′S,2R)-3-trans-nitrocyclopropyl-alanine,was first accomplished.

  12. Origin of the enhanced performance in poly(3-hexylthiophene) : [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester solar cells upon slow drying of the active layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Xie, Hangxing; Boer, Bert de; Popescu, Lacramioara M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on slowly dried films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester is investigated, combining charge transport measurements with numerical device simulations. Slow drying leads to a 33

  13. Methods of preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. Statistical assessment of the precision characteristics from a collaborative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The official regulations for the control of the olive and olive pomace oils of the European Union (EU and International Olive Oil Council (IOOC include the determination of fatty acids in order to be applied to several purity criteria. The determination of fatty acids require the preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME for the subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with good precision and reproducibility. Among the methods used in the laboratories of both the industries and the official institutions looking after the olive oil control, the ones selected were: 1 cold methylation with methanolic potash and 2 hot methylation with sodium methylate followed by acidification with sulphuric acid in methanol and heating. A statistical assessment of the precision characteristics were performed on the determination of fatty acids using both methods by a collaborative trial following the directions included in the AOAC regulation (AOAC 1995. In oils with low acidities, the results obtained for both methylation methods were equivalent. However, the olivepomace oil sample (acidity 15.5% showed significative differences between the fatty acid compositions obtained using both methylation methods. Finally, the methylation with the acidic+basic method did not yield an increase of the trans-isomers of the fatty acids.Los métodos oficiales para el control del aceite de oliva y de orujo de oliva de la Unión Europea (UE y del Comité Oleícola Internacional (COI incluyen la determinación de ácidos grasos en la aplicación de varios criterios de pureza. La determinación de ácidos grasos requiere la preparación de los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAME y su posterior análisis mediante cromatografía de gases con una buena repetibilidad y reproducibilidad. Entre los muchos métodos usados por los laboratorios de la industria y de los organismos oficiales de control, se seleccionaron los siguientes: 1 metilación en frío con potasa

  14. High-throughput capillary gas chromatography for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and fatty acid methyl esters in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2002-01-01

    High-throughput capillary gas chromatography (CGC) methods, developed during the Belgian 1999 "dioxin" food crisis, for the determination of the contaminating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the fatty acid composition of the lipids are described. For PCB analysis, the fat obtained by ultrasonic extraction is fractionated by matrix solid-phase dispersion, and the PCBs are analyzed by CGC-electron capture detection on a 10-mL x 100-microm-i.d. HP-5MS column. Analytical conditions for the high-speed column are deduced from analyses on conventional CGC columns using the method translation software. The concept of retention time locking is implemented to facilitate the elucidation of the PCB markers. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are prepared by the sodium methylate procedure on part of the ultrasonic extract followed by analysis on 10-mL x 100-microm-i.d. HP-WAX or BPX-70 capillary columns. By optimizing both the sample preparation and CGC analysis, the throughput is more than fifty PCB and FAME samples per day with the same robustness as conventional methods.

  15. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: characterisation of beta-oxidation and ultrastructural changes in the genus Sporidiobolus sp. cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Blin-Perrin, Caroline; Krasniewski, Isabelle; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeannine

    2005-09-01

    Cell structure modifications and beta-oxidation induction were monitored in two strains of Sporidiobolus, Sp. Ruinenii and Sp. pararoseus after cultivation on ricinoleic acid methyl ester. Ultrastructural observations of the yeast before and after cultivation on fatty acid esters did not reveal major modifications in Sp. ruinenii. Unexpectedly, in Sp. pararoseus a proliferation of the mitochondrion was observed. After induction, Sp. ruinenii principally exhibited an increase in the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), hydroxyacyl-CoA deshydrogenase (HAD), thiolase and catalase. In contrast, Sp. pararoseus lacked ACO and catalase activities, but an increase in acyl-CoA deshydrogenase (ACDH) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH) activity was observed. These data suggest that in Sp. ruinenii, beta-oxidation is preferentially localized in the microbody, whereas in Sp. pararoseus it might be localized in the mitochondria.

  16. Cavitation assisted synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from sustainable feedstock in presence of heterogeneous catalyst using two step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sumit M; Gole, Vitthal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-03-01

    The present work reports the intensification aspects for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from a non-edible high acid value Nagchampa oil (31 mg of KOH/g of oil) using two stage acid esterification (catalyzed by H₂SO₄) followed by transesterification in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO). Intensification aspects of both stages have been investigated using sonochemical reactors and the obtained degree of intensification has been established by comparison with the conventional approach based on mechanical agitation. It has been observed that reaction temperature for esterification reduced from 65 to 40 °C for the ultrasonic approach whereas there was a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time for transesterification from 4h for the conventional approach to 2.5h for the ultrasound assisted approach. Also the reaction temperature reduced marginally from 65 to 60 °C and yield increased from 76% to 79% for the ultrasound assisted approach. Energy requirement and activation energy for both esterification and transesterification was lower for the ultrasound based approach as compared to the conventional approach. The present work has clearly established the intensification obtained due to the use of ultrasound and also illustrated the two step approach for the synthesis of FAME from high acid value feedstock based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step.

  17. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cardinali

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality.In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole, with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days. FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI and ester-linked method (EL.The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2 values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time.Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  19. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Alessandra; Pizzeghello, Diego; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. Materials and Methods In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures) treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole), with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days). FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI) and ester-linked method (EL). Results and Discussion The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2) values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time. Conclusion Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides. PMID:26694029

  20. Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperature and Molar Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeti Widyawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylolpropane esters were synthesized by transesterification of calophyllum methyl esters and trimethylolpropane using a calcium oxide as the catalyst. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions (temperature: 130 0C, reaction time: 5 h, reactant molar ratio: 3.9:1, catalyst amount 3%w/w, and formed  trimethylolpropane ester of 79.0% were obtained. The basic physicochemical properties of the trimethylolpropane esters were the following : kinematic viscosities of 56.40 cSt and 8.8 cSt at 40 0C and 100 0C,  viscosity index 193, flash point 218 0C and pour point -3 0C. So Methyl esters of fatty acids of would callophylum  methyl ester is good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils.

  1. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M.L.; Quinn, Matthew; Wychen, Stefanie van; Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. (orig.)

  2. Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  3. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  4. Effect of Solvent Additives on the Solution Aggregation of Phenyl-C61-Butyl Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-11-24

    High-boiling-point solvent additives, employed during the solution processing of active-layer formulations, impact the efficiency of bulk hetero-junction (BHJ) organic solar cells by influencing the morphological / topological features of the multicomponent thin film. Here, we aim at a better understanding of how these additives change the aggregation landscape in the casting solution prior to film deposition via a multi-scale computational study of the aggregation phenomena of phenyl-C61-butyric-acid methyl ester (PCBM) in various solutions. The energetic landscape of PCBM-solvent / solvent-additive intermolecular interactions is evaluated at the electronic-structure level through symmetry-adapted perturbation theory to determine the nature and strength of non-covalent forces important to aggregation. Molecular dynamics simulations highlight how the choice of solvent and solvent additives control the formation of molecular aggregates. Our results indicate that high-boiling-point solvent additives change the effective interactions among the PCBM and casting-solvent molecules and alter the equilibrium PCBM aggregate sizes in solution.

  5. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  6. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  7. Effects of Temperature and Humidity History on Brittleness of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Morigaki, Atsunori; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Tobori, Norio; Aramaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    α-Sulfonated fatty acid methyl ester salts (MES), which were made from vegetable sources, are attractive candidates for eco-friendly washing detergents because they have various special features like excellent detergency, favorable biodegradability, and high stability against enzymes. To overcome some disadvantages of powder-type detergents like caking, sorting, and dusting, we studied how temperature and humidity history, as a model for long-term storage conditions, can affect crystalline structures and reduce the brittleness of MES powder. We characterized the crystalline structure of MES grains using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements and determined the yield values, which measure the brittleness of MES grains, in shear stress using dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. This study confirmed that MES crystals form three pseudo-polymorphs via thermal or humidity conditioning: metastable crystals (αsubcell), anhydrous crystals (β subcell), and dihydrate crystals (β' subcell). Further, we found that the yield value increases upon phase transition from the β subcell to the β' subcell and from the β' subcell to the αsubcell. Therefore, controlling the thermal and humidity conditioning of MES grains is an effective way to decrease the brittleness of MES powders and can be used to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of powder-type detergents in the absence of co-surfactants.

  8. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagutu, Agatha W.; Chhabra, Sumesh C.; Lang' at-Thoruwa, Caroline C. [Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-0100, Nairobi (Kenya); Thoruwa, Thomas F.N. [Department of Energy Engineering, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); Mahunnah, R.L.A. [University of Dar-es Salaam, Muhimbili College of Medicine, P.O. Box 53486, Dar-es Salaam (Tanzania)

    2010-08-15

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L{sup -1} (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries. (author)

  9. Presence of tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acids in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their N-methoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, T; Sanchez, F

    1997-03-28

    Various tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acids (TH beta C-3-COOH) are identified in commercial foods and drinks by GC-MS. Positive identification of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) is demonstrated in soy and tabasco sauces, wine, beer, wine vinegar, cider, orange juice, toasted bread, blue cheese and yoghurt. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (THCA) occurs in toasted bread, beer, cider, wine vinegar, soy and tabasco sauce, orange juice and blue cheese. MTCA and THCA are reported for the first time in several of these products. MTCA appears as a mixture of two diastereoisomers with the same mass spectra. MTCA is the major TH beta C-3-COOH in foodstuffs except for toasted bread that contains more THCA. GC-MS analysis of N-methoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives of TH beta C-3-COOHs was used for chemical identification. Those derivatives were synthesized in a qualitatively using methyl chloroformate or methyl chloroformate and diazomethane reagents. Electron impact mass spectra of N-methoxycarbonyl-TH beta C-3-COOH methyl esters are reported and fragmentation assigned and discussed. These results prove the presence of TH beta C-3-COOHs in commercial foodstuffs suggesting their uptake during the daily consumption of foods.

  10. Silane Reduction of 5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic Acid Diethyl Ester: Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Gum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the synthesis of pyridoxine have been investigated. The key intermediate, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (5, was reduced with either a silane monomer (MeSiH(OEt2 or a polysiloxane (polymethylhydrosiloxane, PMHS to afford crude pyridoxine. An isolation technique utilizing a commercially available resin was devised, affording the desired product, vitamin B6, in an overall yield of 38-54 % and a purity of 76%.

  11. A library synthesis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-09-06

    As a result of a hit-to-lead program using a technique of solution-phase parallel synthesis, a highly potent (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-[6-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl]methanone (15b) was synthesized as an optimized derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which was discovered as a screening hit from small-molecule libraries and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line.

  12. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation.

  13. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PROSES SULFONASI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI METHYL ESTER SULFONIC ACID (MESA MENGGUNAKAN SINGLE TUBE FALLING FILM REACTOR (STFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujdalipah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Temperature and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA Production Process usingSingle Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR Siti Mujdalipah, Erliza Hambali, Ani Suryani, Edi Zulchaidir ABSTRAK Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA merupakan produk antara dari surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES. MESmemiliki beragam aplikasi dalam produk personal care, pencuci dan pembersih, dan untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR. Proses produksi MESA menggunakan gas SO3 dalam Single Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR merupakanteknologi yang umum digunakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi proses sulfonasi metil ester oleinterbaik menggunakan gas SO3 dalam STFR. Kajian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap penelitian, tahap analisis,dan tahap pengolahan data. Tahap produksi MESA terdiri dari pembuatan metil ester (ME dari olein minyak sawit dankajian pengaruh suhu dan lama proses sulfonasi. Tahap analisis meliputi analisis sifat Þ siko kimia olein minyak sawit,analisa sifat Þ siko kimia ME olein sawit, dan analisis sifat Þ siko kimia MESA olein sawit. Kajian pengaruh suhu danlama proses sulfonasi terhadap proses sulfonasi metil ester olein terdiri dari suhu 70, 90, dan 110 oC dan lama prosessulfonasi 30, 60, dan 90 menit. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar bahan aktif. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 juga menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruhnyata terhadap nilai pH, bilangan asam, bilangan iod, dan kemampuan MESA dalam menurunkan tegangan antarmuka(IFT, Interfacial Tension antara air formasi dan minyak bumi. Proses sulfonasi terbaik dicapai pada suhu sulfonasi 90oCdan lama proses sulfonasi 90 menit. Kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik dapat menghasilkan MESA dengan karakteristikkadar bahan aktif 31,44%, pH 2,66, bilangan asam 24,88 ml NaOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 11,95 mg I/g sampel, danmemiliki kemampuan menurunkan IFT antara air formasi dan minyak bumi dari 30 dyne

  14. 76 FR 32332 - BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... (Animal Use); Methyl Esters of Conjugated Linoleic Acid; Silicon Dioxide AGENCY: Food and Drug... for the safe use of methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a source of fatty acids in lactating dairy cow diets and for use of silicon dioxide as a carrier for the methyl esters of CLA. DATES...

  15. Changes in the aggregation patterns of Z-2,3-diphenylpropenoic acid and its methyl ester on substituting the olefinic hydrogen with CF 3 group—an FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. T.; Felföldi, K.; Pálinkó, I.

    2005-06-01

    While in the unsubstituted Z-2,3-diphenylpropenoic acid and its methyl ester the olefinic protons rarely were part of any hydrogen bonding interaction, upon substitution by CF 3 group, the possibility of (aromatic)C-H⋯F intermolecular hydrogen bond appeared and indeed realised for the molecules ( E-2,3-diphenyl-3-CF 3-propenoic acid and its methyl ester) in the solid state. This type of close contact was indicated experimentally by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  16. Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on Fuel properties of Biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biodiesel standards are exhaust emissions, lubricity ... oils are usually associated with low free fatty acid .... ensure good cold start properties and minimize the .... Blending effects of biodiesels on oxidation stability and low temperature flow ...

  17. Fractionation of fish oil fatty acid methyl esters by means of argentation and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its utility in total fatty acid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcimder, M.; Hammers, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The utility of reversed-phase and argentation high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as pre-fractionation methods in fatty acid analysis is discussed. Both HPLC modes were applied to cod liver oil fatty acid methyl esters. Apart from positional isomers, the fractions obtained by reversed-phas

  18. Ruthenium catalysed redox transformation of cinnamaldehyde to 3-phenylpropionic acid and methyl ester.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Johannes G. de; Roelfes, Gerard; Green, Richard

    1998-01-01

    3-Phenylpropionic acid (2) is an intermediate for the anti-aids drug Indinavir. The one step conversion of cinnamaldehyde (4) into 2 was attempted using homogeneous ruthenium catalysts. Use of [H2Ru(Ph3P)4] induced mainly decarbonylation of 4 to give styrene. Use of RuCl3/PCy3 gave a mixture of 2 an

  19. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  1. Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng S. Foon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methyl esters of palm oil, which consists of saturated and unsaturated esters (0.6 to 95.9% unsaturation of the C12 to C18 fatty acids, solidify at the two temperature ranges, -52 to -45°C and -24 to 21°C, when the esters are cooled. When the esters are heated, they melt at two distinct temperatures, -25 and -33°C and a broad peak at -9 to 28°C. The heating thermograms also showed an exothermic crystallisation peak in between two endothermic melting peaks, indicating the occurrence of re-crystallisation of low melting methyl esters into higher melting point crystal and then melt again at higher temperature.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  3. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles and nutritive values of 20 marine microalgae in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Suk Suh; So Jung Kim; Jinik Hwang; Mirye Park; Taek-Kyun Lee; Eui-Joon Kil; Sukchan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the fatty acid (FA) composition of 20 marine microalgae species, including sevenDiophyceae, sixBacillariophyceae, fourChlorophyceae, twoHaptophyceae and oneRaphidophyceae species.Methods: Microalgal cells cultured at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology were harvested during the late exponential growth phase and the FA composition analyzed.Results:The FA composition of microalgae was species-specific. For example, seven different species ofDinophyceae were composed primarily of C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, while C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were abundant FAs in six species ofBacillariophyceae. In addition, fourChlorophyceae, twoHaptophyceae and oneRaphidophyceae species all contained a high degree of C16:1n-7 [(9.28-34.91)% and (34.48-35.04)%], C14:0 [(13.34-25.96)%] and [(26.69-28.24)%], and C16:0 [(5.89-29.15)%] and [(5.70-16.81)%]. Several factors contribute to the nutritional value of microalgae, including the polyunsaturated FA content and n-3 to n-6 FA ratio, which could be used to assess the nutritional quality of microalgae.Conclusions:This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the FA composition and nutritional value of microalgae species in South Korea, and identifies the potential utility of FAs as species-specific biomarkers.

  4. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  5. Determination of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae Scenedesmus dimorphus biomass by GC-MS with one-step esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Satya Girish Chandra; Belovich, Joanne M; Xu, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Algae can synthesize, accumulate and store large amounts of lipids in its cells, which holds immense potential as a renewable source of biodiesel. In this work, we have developed and validated a GC-MS method for quantitation of fatty acids and glycerolipids in forms of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae biomass. Algae Scenedesmus dimorphus dry mass was pulverized by mortar and pestle, then extracted by the modified Folch method and fractionated into free fatty acids and glycerolipids on aminopropyl solid-phase extraction cartridges. Fatty acid methyl esters were produced by an optimized one-step esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids with boron trichloride/methanol. The matrix effect, recoveries and stability of fatty acids and glycerolipids in algal matrix were first evaluated by spiking stable isotopes of pentadecanoic-2,2-d2 acid and glyceryl tri(hexadecanoate-2,2-d2 ) as surrogate analytes and tridecanoic-2,2-d2 acid as internal standard into algal matrix prior to sample extraction. Later, the method was validated in terms of lower limits of quantitation, linear calibration ranges, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy using tridecanoic-2,2-d2 acid as internal standard. The method developed has been applied to the quantitation of fatty acid methyl esters from free fatty acid and glycerolipid fractions of algae Scenedesmus dimorphus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Multiresidue determination of acidic pesticides in water by HPLC-DAD with confirmation by GC-MS using conversion to the methyl ester with trimethylsilyldiazomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Thomas W; Brumley, William C

    2003-08-01

    A multiresidue pesticide methodology is studied and results for acidics are reported here, with base/neutral to follow. This work studies a literature procedure as a possible general approach to many pesticides and potentially other analytes that are considered to be liquid chromatographic (LC) candidates, rather than gas chromatographic (GC) ones. The analysis of the sewage effluent of a major southwestern U.S. city serves as an example of the application of the methodology to a real sample. Recovery studies were also conducted to validate the proposed extraction step. A gradient elution program was followed for the high-performance LC (HPLC) leading to a general approach for acidics. Confirmation of identity was by electron ionization-GC-mass spectrometry (MS) after conversion of the acids to the methyl ester (or other appropriate methylation) by means of trimethylsilyldiazomethane. The 3,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is used as an internal standard to monitor the reaction, and polychlorobiphenyl #19 is used for the quantitation internal standard. Although others have reported similar analyses of acids, conversion to the methyl ester is by means of diazomethane itself, rather than by the more convenient and safe trimethylsilyldiazomethane. Thus, the present paper supports the use of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with all of these acids (trimethylsilyldiazomethane has been used in environmental work with some phenoxyacetic acid herbicides) and further supports the usefulness of this reagent as a potential replacement for diazomethane. The HPLC approach here could also serve as the separation basis for an LC-MS solution for confirmation of identity, as well as quantitation.

  7. Thermo- and pH-sensitive gel membranes based on poly-(acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester)-graft-poly(acrylic acid) for selective permeation of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Katakai, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Masaru E-mail: katsu@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2005-04-01

    Thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes were synthesized by {gamma}-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (AAc) onto thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). The gel membranes of poly(A-ProOMe) with 15 mol% graft chains of AAc exhibited both thermo- and pH-responses. Under the condition (pH 6.0, 30 deg. C) in which the thermo-sensitive unit shrinks and the pH-sensitive unit swells, the selective permeation of Li ion over Co and Ni ions can be achieved.

  8. 蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物洗涤性能的研究%Washing performance of ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; 张勇; 孙晋源; 武华萍

    2015-01-01

    The washing properties of different average ethylene oxide (EO) adduct number of ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters (ECAME) was tested and the hydrolysis resistant ability of ECAME was investigat-ed under different pH. The results showed that ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters with 14 of EO adduct number (ECAME- 14) had the best washing property. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME- 14 was low under pH=4~9 for 4 weeks. Under alkaline condition, the surface activity of ECAME- 14 was weakened while its surface ac-tivity was enhanced under acidic condition.%对不同平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数的蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME)的洗涤性能进行了测定,并考察了其在不同pH条件下的抗水解能力.结果表明,平均EO加合数为14的蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME-14)的洗涤能力最好.在pH为4~9的溶液中放置4周,ECAME-14水解率很低.在碱性条件下,其表面活性被削弱,但在酸性条件下,其表面活性增强.

  9. Synthesis of comb type and semi-interpenetrating networks of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester and poly (acrylic acid) for Cu (II) immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Giovanni [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, A. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.m [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, A. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    Graft copolymer hydrogels and semi-interpenetrating networks (s-IPN) of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAAc) were synthesized in methanol solutions, by ionizing radiation (gamma rays from a Co{sup 60} source at room temperature). These systems are thermo and pH-sensitive and the pH sensitivity increases from acidic to basic solutions. The Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST), due to presence of poly (acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester) (PA-ProOMe) has been found between 18 and 20 deg. C and an unexpected Upper Critical Solution Temperature (UCST) due to poly acrylic acid (PAAc) has been found between 21 and 22 deg. C. Preliminary studies on the immobilization of Cu{sup 2+} for both hydrogels were done at several pH values at room temperature. Other techniques employed to characterize the comb type hydrogels and sIPN included scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and infrared (FTIR-ATR).

  10. Specificity of Mucor miehei lipase on methyl ester substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina, M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters constitute a good substrate for the characterization of lipase typospecificity. In the present work, the hydrolytic action of lipase from Mucor miehei was studied. It was demonstrated that this lipase preferentially catalyses the hydrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters with small number of double bonds. It was also found that this lipase shows a specificity in the hydrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters with short aliphatic chain.Los esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos constituyen un buen sustrato para la caracterización de tipos de especificidad de lipasa. En el presente trabajo, se estudió la acción hidrolítica de lipasa de Mucor miehei. Se demostró que esta lipasa cataliza preferencialmente la hidrólisis de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos con número pequeño de dobles enlaces. Se encontró también que esta lipasa muestra una especificidad en la hidrólisis de ásteres metílicos de ácidos grasos con cadena alifática corta.

  11. Commercial- and whitewashing-grade limestone as a heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from used frying oil (UFO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Shweta; Singh, Bhaskar; Sharma, Yogesh C. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India); Frometa, Amado Enrique N. [Universidad Tecnologica de Izucar de Matamoros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Commercial-grade limestone used in whitewashing which is a low-cost material has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters. The catalyst was characterized by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of its physicochemical nature. The catalyst was calcined at 900 C for 2.5 h for the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. The catalyst was further activated by dissolving 1.5 wt% of catalyst in 30 ml methanol (7.5:1, methanol to used frying oil molar ratio) and stirred at 25 C for 1 h on a magnetic stirrer. The transesterification reaction was performed using calcium oxide as a catalyst and then with the ''activated calcium oxide.'' The conversion obtained was 94.4 % with calcium oxide and was found to be lower for the ''activated calcium oxide'' (i.e., 87.36 %). The conversion increased to 96.8 % on increasing the catalyst amount to 2.0 wt% in 5 h. A high yield (>95 %) of fatty acid methyl esters was observed when either calcium oxide or ''activated calcium oxide'' was taken as catalyst. The catalytic activity of calcium oxide obtained from low-grade limestone has been found to be comparable with the laboratory-grade CaO. (orig.)

  12. Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Methionine methyl ester forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with diorganotin(IV). The corresponding ... coordination compounds R2SnX2L2 is controlled by the nature of. R, the leaving ... nitrate were obtained from Acros Organics. Carbonate-free.

  13. 40 CFR 721.8485 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. 721.8485 Section 721.8485 Protection of...-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. (a) Chemical substance and...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano- 1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester (PMN P-99-1075; CAS No. 43048-08-4) is...

  14. L-Altruronic acid formed by epimerization of D-galacturonic acid methyl esters during saponification of citrus pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, D; Qiu, F; Mort, A J

    2001-02-15

    While searching for oligosaccharides containing rhamnose residues in the endopolygalacturonase (EPG) digest of saponified citrus pectin, we found several oligomers containing, in addition to galacturonic acid, a sugar previously unreported in pectin. The 1- and 2-D 1H NMR spectra of the oligosaccharides were consistent with the sugar being a uronic acid with its 2- and 3-hydroxyls being axial and 4-hydroxyl being equatorial. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that the oligomers consisted solely of uronic acids. Reduction of the uronic acids in the oligosaccharides converted them to galactose and altrose. The altrose was found to be the L enantiomer by comparison of its trimethylsilyl (-)-2-butyl glycosides to those of authentic D-altrose and a racemic mixture. The sugar was not found in oligosaccharides prepared from EPG digestion of citrus pectin deesterified with pectin methylesterase rather than saponification. Thus, it appears that during saponification, a small proportion of the methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in pectins is epimerized at C-5 leading to formation of L-altruronic acid residues.

  15. Probing the Active Center of Benzaldehyde Lyase with Substitutions and the Pseudosubstrate Analogue Benzoylphosphonic Acid Methyl Ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J.; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar (Rutgers); (Michigan); (Brandeis)

    2008-07-28

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of (R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg{sup 2+} as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 {angstrom} (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  16. Probing the active center of benzaldehyde lyase with substitutions and the pseudosubstrate analogue benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gabriel S; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L; Petsko, Gregory A; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2008-07-22

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg (2+) as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 A (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K ) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  17. Antileukemic and cytogenetic effects of modified and non-modified esteric steroidal derivatives of 4-methyl-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino benzoic acid (4-Me-CABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousteris, Manolis A; Koutsourea, Anna I; Arsenou, Evagelia S; Papageorgiou, Athanasios; Mourelato, Dionisis; Nikolaropoulos, Sotiris S

    2002-01-01

    The increase of the damaging effects on specific DNA sequences and the reduction of the subsequent toxicity of nitrogen mustards has been achieved by their chemical conjugation with modified steroids through an esteric bond. In an attempt to study the structure-activity relationships of these compounds, we synthesized eight steroidal esters of 4-methyl-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminobenzoic acid (4-Me-CABA). The anti-leukemic and cytogenetic effects of the parent alkylating agent were compared with those produced by the steroidal compounds, in vivo against leukemias P388 and L1210 and in vitro for induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) and on proliferation rate indices (PRI). The results demonstrate that the existence of the NH-CO group, either as an endocyclic lactamic or as an out of the ring amidic one but at axial conformation, at the steroid-carrier moiety is necessary for the expression of the antileukemic activity. The synthetic route for the preparation of the steroidal esters and their physicochemical data are also reported.

  18. Rhodotorulaglutinis phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase enzyme catalyzed synthesis of the methyl ester of para-hydroxycinnamic acid and its potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybeth C MacDonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26 enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5, temperature (37 C, speed of agitation (50 rpm, enzyme concentration (0.080 µM, and substrate concentration (0.50 mM. Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ~15% in 1 h incubation period and ~63% after an overnight (~18 h incubation period. The product (p-HCAM of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR. Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  19. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Marybeth C; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E; MacInnis, Judith A; D'Cunha, Godwin B

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications.

  20. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests with S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Son, Hyeong-U; Yoon, Cheol-Sik; Nam, Sung-Hee; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Han

    2014-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungi that is well-known for demonstrating a resistance to environmental change. To confirm whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester (DHFAME) produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 causes phototoxicity when used for cosmetic purposes due to its anti-tyrosinase activity, we conducted in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests. There were no significant changes or damage observed in the compound-treated group with regards to skin phototoxicity, while 8-methoxypsoralen, which served as a positive control, induced toxic effects. The in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, an alternative assessment, was used for further confirmation of the phototoxicity. The results showed that DHFAME did not exhibit phototoxicity at the designated concentrations, with or without UV irradiation in the 3T3 cells. These results indicated that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 does not induce phototoxicity in the skin. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that DHFAME shows potential for use as a cosmetic ingredient that does not cause skin phototoxicity.

  1. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Kirk J; Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  2. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  3. Characterization, quantitation and evolution of monoepoxy compounds formed in model systems of fatty acid methyl esters and monoacid triglycerides heated at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, O.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoepoxy compounds formed after heating methyl oleate and linoleate, triolein and trilinolein at 180°C for 5, 10 and 15 hours, were characterized and quantitated after derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters by using two base-catalyzed procedures. Structures were identified by GC-MS before and after hydrogénation. A complete recovery of the epoxy compounds was obtained by comparing results from methyl oleate and linoleate before and after transesterification, and good repeatability was also attained. Similar amounts of epoxides were found for methyl esters and triglycerides of the same degree of unsaturation, although formation was considerably greater for the less unsaturated substrates, methyl oleate and triolein, possibly due to the absence of remaining double bonds in the molecule which would involve a lower tendency to participate in further reactions. On other hand, independently of the degree of unsaturation of the model systems and of the period of heating, significantly higher amounts of trans isomers were formed. Finally from comparison between the amounts of epoxides and the level of polar fatty acids in samples, it was deduced that monoepoxy compounds were one of the major groups formed under the conditions used.

    En este estudio se identifican y cuantifican los compuestos epoxidados formados a partir de sistemas modelo de oleato y linoleato de metilo, trioleína y trilinoleína, calentados a 180°C durante 5,10 y 15 horas. La identificación se lleva a cabo mediante CG-EM en las muestras de esteres metílicos antes y después de someter a hidrogenación y para su cuantificación se utilizan dos procedimientos de transesterificación en medio alcalino. La comparación de las cantidades obtenidas, antes y después de la derivatización de los sistemas modelo de esteres metílicos, permitió deducir que la recuperación fue completa, obteniéndose también una excelente repetibilidad. Las cantidades de ep

  4. Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Suellen F; Oliveira, Denilson F; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Soares, Ana Carolina F; Midiwo, Jacob O; Souza, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.

  5. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  6. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae, a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL. Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3,7-dimethyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid 2-ethyl ester 6-methyl ester and its 6-ethyl ester 5-naphthalene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagarajaiah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The compounds 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3,7-dimethyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid 2-ethyl ester 6-methyl ester (2a and 3,7-dimethyl-5-naphthalen-1-yl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (2b were synthesized by the base catalyzed cyclocondensation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thione with ethylacetoacetate. IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis were used to characterize these compounds. The structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O–H…N, C–H…O, C–H…π and π…π weak interactions.

  8. Production of Methyl Laurate from Coconut Cream through Fractionation of Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P. Sitompul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the production of methyl laurate from coconut cream through fractionation of methyl esters. Coconut oil was produced by wet processing of coconut cream. The esters were prepared by reacting coconut oil and methanol using homogeneous catalyst KOH in a batch reactor, followed by fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME at various reduced pressures applying differential batch vacuum distillation. Experimental data were compared with simulation of a batch distillation employing the simple Raoult’s model and modified Raoult’s model of phase equilibria. Activity coefficients (γi were determined by optimization to refine the models. The modified Rault’s model with activity coefficients gave better agreement with the experimental data, giving the value of γi between 0,56-0,73. For a given boiling temperature, lower operating pressure produced higher purity of C10 and C12 FAME for respective distillates.

  9. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structure and physicochemical characterization of 3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xinbing; Cao, Sali; Yang, Chunjing; He, Huyiligeqi; Ni, Jian

    2017-02-01

    3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester (T-OA) is a newly discovered potential antitumor compound. However, the poor solubility of T-OA leads to poor dissolution and limited clinical application. So as to enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of T-OA, an investigation of the polymorphism of T-OA was successfully undertaken. A new solvate and an amorphous form of T-OA were discovered through a comprehensive polymorph screening experiments. Their structures were elucidated by single-crystal structure analysis and extensively characterized by PXRD, DSC and SEM. The powder dissolution rates were compared with those of the previously known polymorph. Thermodynamic stability and phase transformation are also discussed in detail.

  11. Synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of 3-biaryl-8-oxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Lokman; Madras, Bertha K.; Meltzer, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Stille cross coupling protocols were utilized for the synthesis of 3-(biaryl)-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid methyl esters, which furnished products in high yields where in some cases Suzuki coupling under the conditions utilized provided complex reaction mixture. Samarium iodide reduction of the resulting coupling products produced both of the 2β-carbomethoxy-3-biaryl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane diastereomers and the 2α-carbomethoxy-3-biaryl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane diastereomers. Among the series synthesized, the benzothiophene substituted compounds demonstrated significant binding profiles of inhibition of WIN 35,438 with 177 fold selectivity for DAT vs. SERT. PMID:22398259

  12. In vitro release control of ketoprofen from pH-sensitive gels consisting of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) and saturated fatty acid sodium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, M.; Hiroki, A.; Miyajima, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Katakai, R.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of saturated fatty acid sodium salts (C n), sodium laurate (C 12), sodium myristate (C 14), sodium palmitate (C 16), and sodium stearate (C 18), on the swelling of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (A-ProOMe) gel was investigated in different pH solutions. The C n-loaded gels collapsed in a buffer solution with pH 3.0, while they expanded in a buffer solution with pH 6.5. This effect was strongly influenced by the number of methylene units in C n, as the threshold for causing this sensitivity existed between C 12 and C 14. On the other hand, a pulsatile release of ketoprofen occurred when the gel was cycled in buffer solutions between pH 3.0 and pH 6.5. This behavior may be attributable to the surface-regulated mechanism.

  13. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) with Ky(MgCa)2xO3 as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Lee, S C; Hameed, B H

    2011-12-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from palm oil using eggshell modified with magnesium and potassium nitrates to form a composite, low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. The catalyst, prepared by the combination of impregnation/co-precipitation was calcined at 830 °C for 4 h. Transesterification was conducted at a constant temperature of 65 °C in a batch reactor. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the reaction parameters, and the conditions that gave highest yield of FAME (85.8%) was 5.35 wt.% catalyst loading at 4.5 h with 16:1 methanol/oil molar ratio. The results revealed that eggshell, a solid waste, can be utilized as low-cost catalyst after modification with magnesium and potassium nitrates for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotransformation of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester by human intestinal flora and evaluation on their inhibition of NO production and antioxidant activity of the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Nan; Li, Wei; Xu, Wei; Wu, Shuai

    2013-05-01

    4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (1) was anaerobically incubated with human intestinal flora and four biotransformation products (2-5) were obtained. Their structures were elucidated as 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (2), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3), trans-caffeic acid (4) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (5) on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode array detector, chromatographic separation of 1-5 was performed on an analytical C18 column. The time course of the biotransformation was studied to probe into the biotransformation mechanism of 1 by human intestinal flora. In addition, the inhibitory activity of the parent compound 1 and its four main biotransformation products 2-5 on the inhibition of nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and their DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in cell-free bioassay system were estimated.

  15. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  16. Facile and Efficient Syntheses of (±)-2,6-Dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2,7-octadienoic Acid and Its Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xing; CHEN Xi-hui; HUANG Chu-sheng

    2003-01-01

    The facile and efficient total syntheses of monoterpenoid acid 7a and its ester 7b, isolated from Artemisia siebert and Piper aduncum respectively, can be completed in four steps with an overall yield 41%.

  17. Effects of blending alcohols with poultry fat methyl esters on cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Hem; Walker, Terry [Biosystems Engineering, 114 Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States); Toler, Joe [Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Smith, William F. [Southeast Biodiesel, North Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols to poultry fat methyl esters. The alcohol type did not result in a statistically significant difference in low temperature performance at similar blend ratios in poultry fat methyl esters. In addition, blends of ethanol in poultry fat methyl esters afforded the least viscous mixtures, whereas isopropanol and butanol blends were progressively more viscous, but still within specifications contained in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in failure of the flash point specifications found in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Flash points of butanol blends were superior to those of isopropanol and ethanol blends, with the 5 vol.% butanol blend exhibiting a flash point (57 C) superior to that of No. 2 diesel fuel (52 C). Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in an improvement in acid value with increasing content of alcohol. An increase in moisture content of biodiesel was observed with increasing alcohol content, with the effect being more pronounced in ethanol blends versus isopropanol and butanol blends. Finally, none of the alcohol-methyl ester samples exhibited a phase separation at sub-ambient temperatures. (author)

  18. Supramolecular synthons in designing low molecular mass gelling agents: L-amino acid methyl ester cinnamate salts and their anti-solvent-induced instant gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pathik; Kumar, D Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2011-04-04

    Easy access to a class of chiral gelators has been achieved by exploiting primary ammonium monocarboxylate (PAM), a supramolecular synthon. A combinatorial library comprising of 16 salts, derived from 5 L-amino acid methyl esters and 4 cinnamic acid derivatives, has been prepared and scanned for gelation. Remarkably, 14 out of 16 salts prepared (87.5 % of the salts) show moderate to good gelation abilities with various solvents, including commercial fuels, such as petrol. Anti-solvent induced instant gelation at room temperature has been achieved in all the gelator salts, indicating that the gelation process is indeed an aborted crystallization phenomenon. Rheology, optical and scanning electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, and X-ray powder diffraction have been used to characterize the gels. A structure-property correlation has been attempted, based on these data, in addition to the single-crystal structures of 5 gelator salts. Analysis of the FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data reveals that some of these salts can be used as supramolecular containers for the slow release of certain pest sex pheromones. The present study clearly demonstrates the merit of crystal engineering and the supramolecular synthon approach in designing new materials with multiple properties.

  19. Novel Strategy of Using Methyl Esters as Slow Release Methanol Source during Lipase Expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Kumari; Rani Gupta

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first ...

  20. 脂肪酸甲酯生物柴油改善低硫柴油的润滑性能%Lubrication properties of fatty acid methyl esters as low-sulfur diesel enhancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅德清; 罗演强; 沈学峰; 陆大勇; 袁银男

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly rigorous restriction on the sulfur content in diesel leads to a decrease in fuel lubricity. This reduced lubricity can cause damage to the fuel injection system of an engine. Biodiesel, which is derived from animal fats or vegetable oils by transesterification under alkali or acid catalysts, has been prevailed as an alternative fuel. It has been observed that the fatty acid esters in biodiesel play an active role in enhancing lubricity. Therefore, now biodiesel can serve as an additive to low-sulfur diesel fuel. To correlate the carbon chain length, unsaturation and hydroxylation of the fatty acid methyl ester to its lubricity, methyl myristic (C14:0), methyl palmitic (C16:0), methyl stearate (C18:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18:2), methyl linolenate (C18:3), methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH), castor oil methyl ester and cooking waste oil methyl ester were added to low-sulfur diesel fuel by 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Two types of biodiesel from castor oil and cooking waste oil, representing the mixtures of multiple fatty acid methyl esters, were also added to diesel fuel for wear test. The specified components of the two mixture solutions were determined by GC-MS. The low-sulfur diesel used in the test was manufactured by a hydrogenation process. The lubricity of various samples was studied using a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) analysis method. Each wear test was repeated three times to minimize the error. As for methyl myristic (C14:0), methyl palmitic (C16:0) and methyl stearate (C18:0), we found that the fatty acid methyl ester with longer carbon chain had a better lubricity. For the C18 series, such as methyl stearate (C18:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18:2) and methyl linolenate (C18:3), an enhancement in lubricity was observed with the increase in the unsaturation degree of esters. Although with the same carbon chain length and unsaturation, methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH), as a hydroxylated

  1. Synthesis of a high-grade lubricant from sunflower oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillion Gérard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of saturated branched fatty acid methyl esters by codimerization of ethylene with conjugated linoleic methyl esters from sunflower oil. The catalytic system used is composed of iron, diimine and a reducing agent. This four-step synthesis will be discussed. After a last step of transesterification with TMP (trimethylolpropane a lubricant with interesting characteristics (in particular a high thermal stability and a good cold behavior is obtained

  2. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  3. Ultrasound assisted production of fatty acid methyl esters from transesterification of triglycerides with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst: optimization, mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted transesterification of triglycerides (TG) with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst was investigated, where the changes in the reactants and products (diglycerides (DG), monoglycerides (MG), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerin (GL)) concentrations were discussed to understand the reaction mechanism and kinetics under ultrasound irradiation. The optimum reaction condition for the FAME production was the concentration of KOH 1.0 wt.%, molar ratio of TG to methanol of 1:6, and irradiation time of 25 min. The rate constants during the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME were estimated by a curve fitting method with simulated curves to the obtained experimental results. The rate constants of [Formula: see text] were estimated to be 0.21, 0.008, 0.23, 0.005, 0.14 and 0.001 L mol(-1)min(-1), respectively. The rate determining step for the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME was the reaction of MG with methanol into GL and FAME. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of capillary gas chromatographic retention times of fatty acid methyl esters in human blood using MLR, PLS and back-propagation artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Khani, Hadi; Ahmadi-Roudi, Behzad; Mirakhorli, Shima; Fereyduni, Ehsan; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-15

    Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models correlating the retention times of fatty acid methyl esters in high resolution capillary gas chromatography and their structures were developed based on non-linear and linear modeling methods. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used for the selection of the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. Gravitational index (G2), number of cis double bond (NcDB) and number of trans double bond (NtDB) were selected among a large number of descriptors. The selected descriptors were considered as inputs for artificial neural networks (ANNs) with three different weights update functions including Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation network (LM-ANN), BFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, and Shanno) quasi-Newton backpropagation (BFG-ANN) and conjugate gradient backpropagation with Polak-Ribiére updates (CGP-ANN). Computational result indicates that the LM-ANN method has better predictive power than the other methods. The model was also tested successfully for external validation criteria. Standard error for the training set using LM-ANN was SE=0.932 with correlation coefficient R=0.996. For the prediction and validation sets, standard error was SE=0.645 and SE=0.445 and correlation coefficient was R=0.999 and R=0.999, respectively. The accuracy of 3-2-1 LM-ANN model was illustrated using leave multiple out-cross validations (LMO-CVs) and Y-randomization.

  5. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie; Yacoot, Andrew; Cacialli, Franco

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of "molecular terraces" whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  6. Efficient and stable, structurally inverted poly(3-hexylthiopen): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterojunction solar cells with fibrous like poly(3-hexylthiopen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, Jayasundera, E-mail: jayasundera@yahoo.com [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, CP 20000, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Shankar, Karthik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Grimes, Craig A., E-mail: cgrimes@engr.psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Thelakkat, Mukundan, E-mail: mukundan.thelakkat@unibayreuth.de [Applied Functional Polymers and Laboratory for Solar Energy Research, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We investigated an inverted organic photovoltaic device structure in which a densely packed {approx} 100 nm thin TiO{sub 2} layer on fluorine doped conducting glass serves as anode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate)/Au layer on top of the active layer serves as cathode. The active layer is comprised of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiopene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The rectification behavior of such a device is improved significantly and injection losses are minimized compared to devices without any compact TiO{sub 2} layer. Moreover, nanostructured P3HT active layer was achieved in-situ by spin coating concentrated pure P3HT and P3HT:PCBM blend and solar cell performances on thickness of the active layer were also investigated. For the inverted solar cells constructed with different concentrations of P3HT and PCBM keeping the P3HT:PCBM ratio 1:0.8 (wt.%), the highest short circuit current and efficiency was observed when the P3HT and PCBM concentration was equal to 1.5 (wt.%) and 1.2 (wt.%) respectively. This leads to highly stable and reproducible power conversion efficiency above 3.7% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity under AM 1.5 conditions.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and local anti-inflammatory activity of the L-phenylalanine methyl ester derivative of dexamethasone-derived cortienic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobričić Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L-phenylalanine methyl ester derivative of dexamethasone - derived cortienic acid (DF was synthesized and its crystal structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal system is orthorhombic with space group P212121 and cell constants a = 8.2969 (3 Å, b = 18.9358 (8 Å, c = 20.0904 (6 Å, V = 3156.4 (2 Å3 and Z = 4. Ring A of the steroid nucleus and phenyl ring in the 17β-side chain are almost planar. Rings B and C have a slightly distorted chair conformation, whereas ring D has an envelope conformation. The packing of DF is characterized by a network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds involving the O4 atom from one side of the steroid nucleus and O1 and F1 atoms from the other side as hydrogen bond acceptors. Apart from the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal packing, there are also numerous intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the N-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...F type. Local anti-inflammatory activity of DF was evaluated by use of croton oil-induced ear edema test. This derivative achieved maximal inhibition of ear edema at significantly lower concentration in comparison with dexamethasone. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172041, 172014 i 172035

  8. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  9. Solvated crystals based on [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with the hexagonal structure and their phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lidong; Han, Yanchun

    2012-02-09

    This work focuses on the structural exploration of micro-sized crystals based on a well-known methanofullerene, [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We have succeeded in producing PCBM crystals with the hexagonal symmetry through the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method. We found that smaller but more regular PCBM crystals tend to form in the oversaturated PCBM solutions with solvents of lower solubility for PCBM, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane. The structure of the produced crystals also shows a dependence on the solvents, which can be attributed to the incorporation of different solvent molecules into PCBM crystals. Under thermal annealing, for the first time, we have observed a crystalline to crystalline phase transformation of these hexagonal PCBM crystals. Along with the phase transformation, the morphology of the crystals has also been transformed from the hexagon to long needles. In addition, the needlelike crystals arrange themselves with a relative angle of 60° to each other, which implies an intrinsic structural correlation between needlelike and hexagonal crystals.

  10. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  11. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes - Part XIV: Crystal structure of O,O’-dipropyl ester of (S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(4-methyl-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Jelena M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidentate N,N'-ligand precursor, O,O'-dipropyl ester of (S,S- ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride, [(S,S- H4eddl]Cl2, was prepared and its crystal structure is given herein. It crystallizes in a P42 space group of tetragonal crystal system with a = 16.5620 (2 Å, b = 16.5620 (2 Å, c = 5.2240 (1 Å and Z = 2.

  12. Analysis and Comparison of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in the Urea Clathrate and Its Filtrate by GC-MS%GC-MS 法分析比较尿素包合物及其滤液中各种脂肪酸甲酯的质量分数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李添宝; 吴越

    2014-01-01

    采用尿素包合法对混合脂肪酸甲酯进行分离,利用 GC-MS-QP2010气质联用仪,通过面积归一化法分别测出尿素包合物及其滤液中各种脂肪酸甲酯的质量分数,得出:在尿素包合物中主要是饱和脂肪酸甲酯、油酸甲酯及少量的多价不饱和脂肪酸甲酯,而滤液中不饱和脂肪酸甲酯由原来的83.77%提高到99.7%.%Mixed fatty acid methyl esters were separated by urea adduct method.The contents of fatty acid methyl esters in the urea clathrate and its filtrate were measured by GC-MS-QP2010 gas chromatograph-mass spec-trometer with area normalization method respectively.The result showed that fatty acid methyl esters in the urea clathrate are mainly saturated fatty acid methyl esters and methyl oleate, and a small amount of multivalent unsatu-rated fatty acid methyl esters, but the content of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in the filtrate is raised from 83.77%to 99 .7%.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies of the molecular structure of 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Betül; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Çalışkan, Nezihe; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the title molecule, 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (C30H34N2O2S1), was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P21/c. with Z = 4, a = 14.1988(6), b = 19.0893(5), c = 10.1325(4) Å, V = 2674.56(17) A3. The optimized structure parameters of the studied molecule was determined theoretically using HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) methods for ground state, and compared with previously reported experimental findings. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimental frequencies obtained by FT-IR spectra. The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) are also performed.

  14. Liquid-phase characterization of molecular interactions in polyunsaturated and n-fatty acid methyl esters by (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Nitzan; Berman, Paula; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Linder, Charles; Wiesman, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    To identify and develop the best renewable and low carbon footprint biodiesel substitutes for petroleum diesel, the properties of different biodiesel candidates should be studied and characterized with respect to molecular structures versus biodiesel liquid property relationships. In our previous paper, (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry was investigated as a tool for studying the liquid-phase molecular packing interactions and morphology of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The technological potential was demonstrated with oleic acid and methyl oleate standards having similar alkyl chains but different head groups. In the present work, molecular organization versus segmental and translational movements of FAMEs in their pure liquid phase, with different alkyl chain lengths (10-20 carbons) and degrees of unsaturation (0-3 double bonds), were studied with (1)H LF-NMR relaxometry and X-ray, (1)H LF-NMR diffusiometry, and (13)C high-field NMR. Based on density values and X-ray measurements, it was proposed that FAMEs possess a liquid crystal-like order above their melting point, consisting of random liquid crystal aggregates with void spaces between them, whose morphological properties depend on chain length and degree of unsaturation. FAMEs were also found to exhibit different degrees of rotational and translational motions, which were rationalized by chain organization within the clusters, and the degree and type of molecular interactions and temperature effects. At equivalent fixed temperature differences from melting point, saturated FAME molecules were found to have similar translational motion regardless of chain length, expressed by viscosity, self-diffusion coefficients, and spin-spin (T 2) (1)H LF-NMR. T 2 distributions suggest increased alkyl chain rigidity, and reduced temperature response of the peaks' relative contribution with increasing unsaturation is a direct result of the alkyl chain's morphological packing and molecular

  15. Pengaruh Rasio Mol Reaktan dan Lama Sulfonasi terhadap Karakteristik Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) dari Metil Ester Minyak Sawit (Effects of Mol Ratio and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) Characteristics from Methyl Ester of Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Hidayati; Pudji Permadi; Hestuti Eni

    2017-01-01

    An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES) was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 ) and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1), 4.5 hour (L2) and 6 hour (L3). The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced em...

  16. 4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxybenzoic Acid Methyl Ester: A Curcumin Derivative Targets Akt/NFκB Cell Survival Signaling Pathway: Potential for Prostate Cancer Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki P. Kumar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor NFKB and the serine/threonine kinase Akt play critical roles in mammalian cell survival signaling and have been shown to be activated in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCA. We have developed an analogue of curcumin called 4hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (HMBME that targets the Akt/NFκB signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate the ability of this novel compound to inhibit the proliferation of human and mouse PCA cells. HMBME-induced apoptosis in these cells was tested by using multiple biochemical approaches, in addition to morphological analysis. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the HMBME-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis, illustrating the direct role of Akt signaling in HMBME-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. Further, investigation of the molecular events associated with its action in LNCaP cells shows that: 1 HMBME reduces the level of activated form of Akt (phosphorylated Akt; and 2 inhibits the Akt kinase activity. Further, the transcriptional activity of NFκB, the DNA-binding activity of NFκB, and levels of p65 were all significantly reduced following treatment with HMBME. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt, but not the kinase dead mutant of Akt, activated the basal NFκB transcriptional activity. HMBME treatment had no influence on this constitutively active Aktaugmented NFκB transcriptional activity. These data indicate that HMBME-mediated inhibition of Akt kinase activity may have a potential in suppressing/decreasing the activity of major survival/antiapoptotic pathways. The potential use of HMBME as an agent that targets survival mechanisms in PCA cells is discussed.

  17. Quantum confinement-tunable ultrafast charge transfer at the PbS quantum dot and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester interface

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, AlA'A O.

    2014-05-14

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives to existing photovoltaic technologies. Here, we investigate charge transfer and separation at PbS QDs and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and steady-state photoluminescence quenching measurements. We analyzed ultrafast electron injection and charge separation at PbS QD/PCBM interfaces for four different QD sizes and as a function of PCBM concentration. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum size effect, is the key element for efficient electron injection and charge separation processes. More specifically, the steady-state and time-resolved data demonstrate that only small-sized PbS QDs with a bandgap larger than 1 eV can transfer electrons to PCBM upon light absorption. We show that these trends result from the formation of a type-II interface band alignment, as a consequence of the size distribution of the QDs. Transient absorption data indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to PCBM occurs within our temporal resolution of 120 fs for QDs with bandgaps that achieve type-II alignment, while virtually all signals observed in smaller bandgap QD samples result from large bandgap outliers in the size distribution. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that charge transfer rates at QD interfaces can be tuned by several orders of magnitude by engineering the QD size distribution. The work presented here will advance both the design and the understanding of QD interfaces for solar energy conversion. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Calculating the iodine value for Italian heavy pig subcutaneous adipose tissue from fatty acid methyl ester profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Ulrici, Alessandro; Macchioni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, different equations were compared as for their effectiveness in predicting the iodine value (IV), based on fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs. In particular, six equations were tested: AOCS (1); modified AOCS (2), including all unsaturated FA (UFA); regression models obtained using the stepwise regression procedure as variable selection method, calculated considering only UFA (3) or all the FA (4); regression models obtained using the backward elimination procedure, calculated considering only UFA (5) or all the FA (6). The comparison of the equations performance, estimated using an external test set, showed that the use of regression models led to significant enhancements of prediction accuracy with respect to the AOCS equations. Using both equations 4 and 6, the average paired differences between experimental and predicted IV values were not statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to use these equations for IV estimation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs.

  19. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  20. Quantitative profiling of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid and its conjugate with l-nitroarginine methyl ester in mononuclear cells by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Ferrone, Vincenzo; Patruno, Antonia; Ferrone, Alessio; de Medina, Philippe; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco

    2017-01-30

    Oxyprenylated natural products were shown to exert in vitro and in vivo remarkable anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. This paper describes a rapid, selective, and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for determination of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) and its conjugate with l-nitroarginine methyl ester (GOFA-L-NAME) in mononuclear cells. Analytes were extracted from cells using methanol and eluted on a GraceSmart RP18 analytical column (250×4.6mm i.d., 5μm particle size) kept at 25°C. A mixture of formic acid 1% in water (A) and methanol (B) were used as mobile phase, at a flow-rate of 1.2mL/min in gradient elution. A fluorescence detector (excitation/emission wavelength of 319/398nm for GOFA and GOFA-L-NAME), was used for the two analytes. Calibration curves of GOFA and GOFA-L-NAME were linear over the concentration range of 1.0-50μg/mL, with correlation coefficients (r(2))≥0.9995. Intra- and inter-assay precision do not exceed 6.8%. The accuracy was from 94% to 105% for quality control samples (2.0, 25.0 and 40μg/mL). The mean (RSD%) extraction recoveries (n=5) for GOFA and GOFA-L-NAME from spiked cells at 2.0, 25.0 and 40.0μg/mL were 92.4±1.5%, 94.7±0.9% and 93.8±1.1%, for GOFA and 95.3±1.2%, 94.8±1.0% and 93.9±1.3%, for GOFA-L-NAME. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.3μg/mL and 1.0μg/mL for GOFA and GOFA-L-NAME. This method was successfully applied to measure GOFA and GOFA-L-NAME concentrations in a mononuclear cells.

  1. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: addition of reducing agents to the reaction medium influences beta-oxidation activities, gamma-decalactone production, and cell ultrastructure in Sporidiobolus ruinenii cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeanine; Michel, Joël; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Viel, Christophe; Cachon, Rémy

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of Sporidiobolus ruinenii yeast to the use of reducing agents, reflected in changes in the oxidoreduction potential at pH 7 (Eh7) environment, ricinoleic acid methyl ester catabolism, gamma-decalactone synthesis, cofactor level, beta-oxidation activity, and ultrastructure of the cell, was studied. Three environmental conditions (corresponding to oxidative, neutral, and reducing conditions) were fixed with the use of air or air and reducing agents (hydrogen and dithiothreitol). Lowering Eh7 to neutral conditions (Eh7 = +30 mV and +2.5 mV) favoured the production of lactone more than the more oxidative condition (Eh7 = +350 mV). In contrast, when a reducing condition was used (Eh7 = -130 mV), the production of gamma-decalactone was very low. These results were linked to changes in the cofactor ratio during lactone production, to the beta-oxidation activity involved in decanolide synthesis, and to ultrastructural modification of the cell.

  2. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  3. Accurate bond energies of biodiesel methyl esters from multireference averaged coupled-pair functional calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A

    2014-09-04

    Accurate bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are important for characterizing combustion chemistry, particularly the initial stages of pyrolysis. Here we contribute to evaluating the thermochemistry of biodiesel methyl ester molecules using ab initio BDEs derived from a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2)-based scheme. Having previously validated this approach for hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates, herein we provide further validation for bonds within carboxylic acids and methyl esters, finding our scheme predicts BDEs within chemical accuracy (i.e., within 1 kcal/mol) for these molecules. Insights into BDE trends with ester size are then analyzed for methyl formate through methyl crotonate. We find that the carbonyl group in the ester moiety has only a local effect on BDEs. C═C double bonds in ester alkyl chains are found to increase the strengths of bonds adjacent to the double bond. An important exception are bonds beta to C═C or C═O bonds, which produce allylic-like radicals upon dissociation. The observed trends arise from different degrees of geometric relaxation and resonance stabilization in the radicals produced. We also compute BDEs in various small alkanes and alkenes as models for the long hydrocarbon chain of actual biodiesel methyl esters. We again show that allylic bonds in the alkenes are much weaker than those in the small methyl esters, indicating that hydrogen abstractions are more likely at the allylic site and even more likely at bis-allylic sites of alkyl chains due to more electrons involved in π-resonance in the latter. Lastly, we use the BDEs in small surrogates to estimate heretofore unknown BDEs in large methyl esters of biodiesel fuels.

  4. Therapeutic effects of C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) on radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Ya-Qiong; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhe, Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. CDDO-Me attenuated radiation-induced lung inflammation. CDDO-Me also decreased the Masson's trichrome stain score, hydroxyproline content, and mRNA level of profibrotic genes, and blocked radiation-induced collagen accumulation and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDDO-Me ameliorates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and this synthetic triterpenoid is a promising novel therapeutic agent for RILI. Further mechanistic, efficacy, and safety studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CDDO-Me in the management of RILI.

  5. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.

    1986-05-01

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released (/sup 3/H)methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress.

  6. 环氧白花油脂肪酸甲酯的无羧酸法制备工艺%Preparation of epoxidized fatty acid methyl ester of styrax tonkinensis seed oil without carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 聂小安; 刘振兴; 王义刚; 蒋剑春

    2014-01-01

    The self-made heteropolyphosphatotungstate was used as phase transformation catalyst in the epoxidation reaction of styrax tonkinensis seed oil. The epoxidation reaction was an efficient and environ-ment friendly process without traditionally used carboxylic acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiment as follows:fatty acid methyl ester of styrax tonkinensis seed oil 10 g, molar ratio of cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate to phosphoric acid to tung stic acid of heteropoly-phosphatotungstate 2:1:4, hydrogen peroxide dosage 5. 67 g, dropping rate of hydrogen peroxide 150 mL/h,reaction time 0. 5 h and ethyl acetate dosage 20 mL. Under these conditions, the epoxy value of epoxidized styrax tonkinensis seed oil fatty acid methyl ester could reach 4 . 67%. The process had the items of short reaction time and no organic acid waste water pollution.%以白花油为原料,采用自制的季铵盐型磷钨杂多化合物为相转移催化剂,构建无羧酸的均相环氧化反应体系,并通过正交实验优化反应条件。确定的最佳反应条件为:10 g白花油脂肪酸甲酯,氯代十六烷基吡啶、磷酸与钨酸摩尔比2:1:4的季铵盐型磷钨杂多化合物为催化剂,双氧水用量5.67 g,双氧水滴加速度150 mL/h,反应时间0.5 h,乙酸乙酯用量20 mL。在最佳条件下制备的环氧白花油脂肪酸甲酯的环氧值可达4.67%,并可有效缩短反应时间,避免有机酸废水污染。

  7. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaric acid esters (FAE are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica and sarcoidosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest some activity in malignant melanoma as well.

  8. Preparation and characterization oF Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina A. Mazzieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity.

  9. Preparation and characterization of Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzieri, Vanina A.; Sad, Mario R.; Vera, Carlos R.; Pieck, Carlos L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica; Grau, Ricardo [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity. (author)

  10. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of sunflower oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rosana de Cassia S.; Lara, Luciano R.S. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica], e-mail: rosana@unisc.br; Bitencourt, Thiago B.; Nascimento, Maria da Graca [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nunes, Marta R. dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of the methyl esters of sunflower oil with lipase from Candida antarctica B and aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence and absence of an acyl donor was investigated. The biphasic system (CH{sub C}l{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) comprised Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB, 1000 u g{sup -1}) and 30% (v/v) aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In some cases the conversion was higher than 99%. The best results were obtained for the biphasic system after 16 h of reaction, at 30 deg C, using 10 mmol of octanoic acid in relation to 1 g of the oil, 6 mL of dichloromethane and 5 mL of water. (author)

  11. 脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物的生产工艺及性能研究%Study on Production Process and Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Ethoxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Production condition of fatty acid methyl ester ethoxylates at home and abroad was introduced, and its production process and properties were discussed, application prospect of MEE was analyzed.%论述了国内外脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物的现状,主要对其生产工艺、产品性能进行了分析讨论,并在此基础上对其应用前景进行了阐述。

  12. Nanofibrillar self-organization of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester by dip-coating: a simple method to obtain efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, L; Bagnis, D; Kenny, J M

    2009-03-04

    In this paper the dip-coating technique has been investigated as a method for the production of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based solar cells. We found that the utilization of the dip-coating technique for the RR-P3HT:PCBM system can facilitate its self-assembly into a nanofibrillar lamellar structure after evaporation of the solvent. The condition for the formation of the nanofibrillar structures leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.6% by using only this approach without thermal treatment.

  13. A novel alkenoic acid ester and a new benzophenone from Ranunculus ternatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel alkenoic acid ester, (E)-4-hydroxy-dodec-2-enedioic acid-12-O-methyl ester and a new benzophenone, ethyl (S)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl]-2-hydroxypropanoate, together with a known compound, (E)-4-hydroxy-dodec-2-enedioic acids were isolated from the roots of Ranunculus ternatus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  14. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of γ-Nitro Aliphatic Methyl Esters Via Michael Additions Promoted by Microwave Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Coutiño, Francisco D.; Jaime Escalante

    2009-01-01

    A simple and efficient protocol has been developed for the direct synthesis of γ-nitrobutyric acid methyl esters under microwave irradiation. This methodology reduces reaction times from days to minutes, compared to conventional conditions. Additionally, these conditions increased yields and provided cleaner reactions.

  16. Thermal Decomposition of Potential Ester Biofuels. Part I: Methyl Acetate and Methyl Butanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porterfield, Jessica P.; Bross, David H.; Ruscic, Branko; Thorpe, James H.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2017-06-09

    Two methyl esters have been examined as models for the pyrolysis of biofuels. Dilute samples (0.06 - 0.13%) of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and methyl butanoate (CH3CH2CH2COOCH3) were entrained in (He, Ar) carrier gas and decomposed in a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from the methyl esters were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the pulsed micro-reactor were roughly 20 Torr and residence times through the reactors were approximately 25 - 150 µs. Reactor temperatures of 300 – 1600 K were explored. Decomposition of CH3COOCH3 commences at 1000 K and the initial products are (CH2=C=O and CH3OH). As the micro-reactor is heated to 1300 K, a mixture of (CH2=C=O and CH3OH, CH3, CH2=O, H, CO, CO2) appears. The thermal cracking of CH3CH2CH2COOCH3 begins at 800 K with the formation of (CH3CH2CH=C=O, CH3OH). By 1300 K, the pyrolysis of methyl butanoate yields a complex mixture of (CH3CH2CH=C=O, CH3OH, CH3, CH2=O, CO, CO2, CH3CH=CH2, CH2CHCH2, CH2=C=CH2, HCCCH2, CH2=C=C=O, CH2=CH2, HCΞCH, CH2=C=O). Based on the results from the thermal cracking of methyl acetate and methyl butanoate, we predict several important decomposition channels for the pyrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, R CH2-COOCH3. The lowest energy fragmentation will be a 4-center elimination of methanol to form the ketene, RCH=C=O. At higher temperatures, concerted

  17. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  18. A simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juying; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Haishuang; Teng, Xue; Ai, Shiyun; Mang, Minglin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion is developed based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots (Tyr-CDs) and tyrosinase system. The carbon dots are obtained by simple hydrothermal reaction using citric acid as carbon resource and L-tyrosine methyl ester as modification reagent. The carbon dots are characterized by transmission electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The carbon dots show strong and stable photoluminescence with a quantum yield of 3.8%. Tyrosinase can catalyze the oxidation of tyrosine methyl ester on the surface of carbon dots to corresponding quinone products, which can quench the fluorescence of carbon dots. When organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are introduced in system, they can decrease the enzyme activity, thus decrease the fluorescence quenching rate. Methyl parathion, as a model of OPs, was detected. Experimental results show that the enzyme inhibition rate is proportional to the logarithm of the methyl parathion concentration in the range 1.0×10(-10)-1.0×10(-4) M with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 4.8×10(-11) M. This determination method shows a low detection limit, wide linear range, good selectivity and high reproducibility. This sensing system has been successfully used for the analysis of cabbage, milk and fruit juice samples.

  19. PENGARUH RASIO MOL REAKTAN DAN LAMA SULFONASI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK METHYL ESTER SULFONIC (MES DARI METIL ESTER MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1, 4.5 hour (L2 and 6 hour (L3. The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced emulsion stability of 68.25%, acid value of 2.57 mg KOH/g, iod value 10.91 g 1od/100 g sample, interfacial tension of 1.806 dyne/cm at MES concentration of 1% (w/w. The optimal salinity occured at concentration of 20.000 ppm which 1FT value of 0.0055 dyne/cm. Heating at a temperature of 800 C for 30 days with the addition of 2 3. Keywords: MES, sulfonation, NaHSO   ABSTRAK Sebuah penelitian tentang proses produksi metil ester sulfonat menggunakan bahan baku metil ester minyak kelapa sawit dilakukan secara faktorial menggunakan NaHSO sebagai agen pensulfonasi dengan variasi rasio mol NaHSO 1:1,25, 1:1,5, 1:1,75 dan 1:2 dan lama sulfonasi.dengan variasi 3; 45; dan 6 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik terdapat pada rasio metil ester dan mol reaktan 1:1,5 dan  lama reaksi  4,5 jam dan suhu reaksi lOOoC yang menghasilkan nilai stabilitas emulsi 68,25%, bilangan asam 2,57 mg KOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 10,91 g 1od/100 g sampel. Konsentrasi metil ester sulfonat MES terbaik untuk menghasilkan 1FT terendah adalah 1% (b/b yaitu 1,806 dyne/cm, salinitas optimal terjadi pada 20.000 ppm NaCl dengan nilai 1FT 0,0055 dyne/cm. 0,098 dyne/cm. Kata kunci: MES, proses sulfonasi, NaHSO

  20. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Pachyrhizus erosus seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for additional or alternative feedstocks is one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, the fuel properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (commonly known as yam bean or Mexican potato or jicama) seed oil methyl esters were investigated by methods prescribed in biodiesel...

  1. Structure and Reactivity of the Cysteine Methyl Ester Radical Cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Van Stipdonk, M.; Ryzhov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure and reactivity of the cysteine methyl ester radical cation, CysOMe(center dot+), have been examined in the gas phase using a combination of experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. CysOMe(center dot+) undergoes rapid ion molecule reactions with dimethyl disulfide, a

  2. Structure and Reactivity of the Cysteine Methyl Ester Radical Cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Van Stipdonk, M.; Ryzhov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure and reactivity of the cysteine methyl ester radical cation, CysOMe(center dot+), have been examined in the gas phase using a combination of experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. CysOMe(center dot+) undergoes rapid ion molecule reactions with dimethyl disulfide,

  3. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  4. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  6. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  7. Hydrogen bond docking site competition in methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailiang; Tang, Shanshan; Du, Lin

    2017-06-01

    The Osbnd H ⋯ O hydrogen bonds in the 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-methyl ester complexes in the gas phase have been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Methyl formate (MF), methyl acetate (MA), and methyl trifluoroacetate (MTFA) were chosen as the hydrogen bond acceptors. A dominant inter-molecular hydrogen bond was formed between the OH group of TFE and different docking sites in the methyl esters (carbonyl oxygen or ester oxygen). The competition of the two docking sites decides the structure and spectral properties of the complexes. On the basis of the observed red shifts of the OH-stretching transition with respect to the TFE monomer, the order of the hydrogen bond strength can be sorted as TFE-MA (119 cm- 1) > TFE-MF (93 cm- 1) > TFE-MTFA (44 cm- 1). Combining the experimental infrared spectra with the DFT calculations, the Gibbs free energies of formation were determined to be 1.5, 4.5 and 8.6 kJ mol- 1 for TFE-MA, TFE-MF and TFE-MTFA, respectively. The hydrogen bonding in the MTFA complex is much weaker than those of the TFE-MA and TFE-MF complexes due to the effect of the CF3 substitution on MTFA, while the replacement of an H atom with a CH3 group in methyl ester only slightly increases the hydrogen bond strength. Topological analysis and localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis was also applied to compare the interactions in the complexes.

  8. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Capillary GC of fatty acid methyl esters with MS detection only yields information about the molecular weight of the compound. However, if picolinyl esters of fatty acids are analysed in this way it is possible to obtain more information about their structure, perhaps even the cis or trans...... configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped...

  9. Vinylic polymerization of Norbornenecarboxylic Acid Esters by Palladium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    New thermoplastic norbornene polymers containing ester groups were prepared byvinylic polymerization of norbornene-carboxylic acid esters by Pd(Ⅱ)-based catalysts. Themonomers were obtained by Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with acrylic acid esters(methyl and butyl) as mixtures of endo/exo (ratio 40/60)-isomers and were converted topolymers in 60%~70% conversion. The endo-isomer was less reactive than the exo-isomer.To obtain higher molecular weight the more reactive pure exo-isomer was prepared andpolymerized with the Pd (Ⅱ)-catalysts, tetrakis (acetonitrile) Pd (Ⅱ) bis (tetrafluoroborate)and (η3-allyl)Pd(Ⅱ)SbF6, in high conversion. These polymers showed high glass transitiontemperatures, high transparency and good solubility in common solvents.

  10. Anticholinesterase activity of fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.Ya.; Brel, V.K. Martynov, I.V.

    1984-11-01

    Results are presented from pharmacologic and biochemical experiments leading to the conclusion that fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters have anticholinesterase activity. Since the esters caused muscular weakness in mice, experiments were performed on isolated tissue preparation. The biochemical experiments consisted of finding the biomolecular constants of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the esters, using acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, as well as horse serum cholinesterase. The ethyl and n-propyl esters of halogen nitroacetic acid were used in all experiments. It was found that the propyl ester caused an increase in the force of individual contractions in the isolated muscle specimens, plus an inability of the muscle to retain tetanus. The substances were determined to have an anticholinesterase effect. The mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition is not yet known. It is probable that the substances acylate the serine hydroxyl of the esterase center of the cholinestersase. 7 references, 1 figure.

  11. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  12. Study of influence of fluid hydrolysis based methyl esters in its rheological properties; Estudo da influencia da hidrolise de fluidos a base de esteres metilicos nas suas propriedades reologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altoe, Ana Lucia Francischet; Nascimento, Regina Sandra Veiga [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Polo de Xistoquimica]. E-mail: ana.altoe@ig.com.br; rsandra@iq.ufrj.br; Brandao, Edimir; Sa, Carlos Henrique de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    The drilling of wells in deep water requires the use of environmentally correct fluids, as the ester based drilling fluids, that in shallow water conditions are extremely advantageous. However, its use in ultra deep water regions, produces an increase of the viscosity, causing serious operational and economical problems. The ester based drilling fluids contain a fatty acid methyl esters mixture, obtained from soybean oil transesterification, and many others additives. The composition mixture has an influence on the physical and chemical properties of the fluids, as viscosity and hydrolysis tendency, and also on the rheological properties. The principal objective is to establish correlations between structural characteristics of fatty acids methyl esters and their basic hydrolysis tendency on drilling conditions. The esters used for this study were methyl esters of oleic, stearic and lauric acids. The kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction was obtained with {sup 1}H NMR. (author)

  13. Mono-thioesters and di-thioesters by lipase-catalyzed reactions of alpha,omega-alkanedithiols with palmitic acid or its methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N; Klein, E; Vosmann, K; Mukherjee, K D

    2004-06-01

    1- S-Mono-palmitoyl-hexanedithiol and 1- S-mono-palmitoyl-octanedithiol were prepared in high yield (80-90%) by solvent-free lipase-catalyzed thioesterification of palmitic acid with the corresponding alpha,omega-alkanedithiols in vacuo. Similarly, 1,6-di- S-palmitoyl-hexanedithiol and 1,8-di- S-palmitoyl-octanedithiol were prepared in moderate yield (50-60%) by solvent-free lipase-catalyzed thioesterification of palmitic acid with 1- S-Mono-palmitoyl-hexanedithiol and 1- S-mono-palmitoyl-octanedithiol, respectively. An immobilized lipase preparation from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) was more effective than a lipase B preparation from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) or a lipase preparation from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM). Lipase-catalyzed transthioesterifications of methyl palmitate with alpha,omega-alkanedithiols using the same enzymes were less effective than thioesterification for the preparation of the corresponding 1- S-mono-palmitoyl thioesters.

  14. ZrOCl2·8H2O:An Efifcient and Cheap Catalyst for Esteriifcation of Free Fatty Acids to Methyl Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jie; Zhang Qiuyun; Huang Congmin; Zhou Kaizhi; Ma Peihua

    2014-01-01

    The esteriifcation of lauric acid with methanol could be efifciently catalyzed by ZrOCl2·8H2O, and this reaction was studied to develop a green method for biodiesel production. The inlfuencing factors, such as amount of catalyst, reac-tion time and molar ratio of acid to methanol, were investigated. The results indicated that the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst showed high catalytic activity, and gave a 97.0%methyl laurate conversion rate under the following optimized conditions, viz.:a lauric acid/methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a catalyst dosage of 4%, and a reaction duration of 2 h at methanol relfuxing tem-perature. The catalyst could be easily recovered while its activity could be well retained after three cycles. The ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst also exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the esteriifcation of different free long-chain fatty acids (including non-edible oils with high acid value) with different short carbon chain alcohols. Therefore, the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst has good potential for the synthesis of biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks such as waste vegetable oils and non-edible oils.

  15. Green Synthesis of Acid Esters from Furfural via Stobbe Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhra Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent-free Stobbe condensation of furfural 1 with dimethyl succinate 2 under anhydrous conditions at room temperature using dry-solid potassium tertiary butoxide gave 3-carbomethoxy, 4-furyl-3-butenoic acid 3, which upon methylation followed by Stobbe condensation reaction with different aldehydes and/or ketones under anhydrous conditions at room temperature afforded substituted carbomethoxy acids 5a–f. These acid ester products were saponified to the corresponding dicarboxylic acids 6a–f which are useful in the synthesis of photochromic fulgides.

  16. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: Evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-01

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions.

  17. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  18. Ultrafast transient optical studies of charge pair generation and recombination in poly-3-hexylthiophene(P3ht):[6,6]phenyl C61 butyric methyl acid ester (PCBM) blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, James; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E; Bruno, Annalisa; Ma, Fei; Haque, Saif A; Yarstev, Arkady; Sundstrom, Villy; Nelson, Jenny

    2011-12-29

    Charge generation and recombination are studied in blend films of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6']phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. We find that the charge generation yield depends upon both blend film composition and thermal annealing. The data suggest that recombination occurs over a wide range of time scales and that, in the least favorable cases, the fastest charge recombination occurs on a time scale similar to exciton diffusion. The results are explained using a simple model that incorporates the effect of P3HT domain size on exciton diffusion and uses empirical models of recombination kinetics. We propose our method as a route to interpretation of spectroscopic data where different processes occur on similar time scales.

  19. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Kumari

    Full Text Available One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5% caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  20. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  1. Production and Characterization of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswara Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is emerging as a promising substitute of an alternative fuel and has gained significant attention due to the predicted depletion of conventional fuels availability in near future and environmental pollution concern. Utilization of biodiesel produced from Jatropha oil by transesterification process is one of the most promising options to replace conventional fossil diesel fuel. The physical properties such as density, Kinematic viscosity, flash point, carbon residue, Pour point and Cetane number were found out for diesel, Jatropha oil and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JOME produced in the laboratory. Properties obtained for the Jatropha oil methyl ester are very closely matched with the values of conventional diesel fuel and can be used without any modification in the existing diesel engine.

  2. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  3. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  4. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  5. Regulation of polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase by polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins

    OpenAIRE

    Amissah, Felix; Taylor, Shalina; Duverna, Randolph; Ayuk-Takem, Lambert T.; Lamango, Nazarius S

    2011-01-01

    Polyisoprenylation is a set of secondary modifications involving proteins whose aberrant activities are implicated in cancers and degenerative disorders. The last step of the pathway involves an ester-forming polyisoprenylated protein methyl transferase- and hydrolytic polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase)-catalyzed reactions. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been linked with antitumorigeneis and tumorigenesis, respectively. PUFAs are stru...

  6. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  7. 3,3-二甲基-4-戊烯酸甲酯合成方法的改进及表征%Improved Synthesis of 3,3-Dimethyl-4-pentenoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艳芳; 余慧群; 莫友彬; 周海; 彭初和

    2012-01-01

    采用相模法以原乙酸三甲酯与3-甲基-2-丁烯醇为原料,经过重排反应和酯交换反应,合成了除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的重要中间体3,3-二甲基-4-戊烯酸甲酯.改进相模的工艺更适应工业生产,收率达到85.6%,产品纯度达到99.2%.%3,3 -Dimethyl -4 -pentenoic acid methyl ester is an important intermediate for the synthesis of pyrethroids pesticides. It can be prepared using 3-methyl-2-buten-l-ol and trimethyl orthoacetate as the starting materials, through Claisen rearrangement and transesterification reaction ( Sagami method). This method was improved for industrial production and the product was obtained in 85.5% yield with purity of 99.2%.

  8. Phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester intramolecular interactions and conformational analysis by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormanich, Rodrigo A; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Rittner, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid conformational analysis in solution are scarce, since these compounds present a bipolar zwitterionic structure ((+)H3NCHRCOO(-)) in these media. Also, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have been classified as the sole interactions governing amino acid conformational behavior in the literature. In the present work we propose phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester conformational studies in different solvents by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the conformational behavior of the phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl esters are similar and are dictated by the interplay between steric and hyperconjugative interactions.

  9. Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the

  10. Synthesis and hydrolysis resisting capacity of ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters%蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物的合成与耐酸耐碱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; Martino Di Serio; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters (ECAME - 10)obtained directly from castor oil acid methyl esters by the use of a special homogeneous catalyst. The average ethylene oxide (EO)adduct number of ECAME - 10 was determined by saponification value,gas chromatography (GC)and 1 HNMR. The hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 was investigated under different pH value conditions. The appearance changes of ECAME - 10 solution under different storing time periods was tracked and photographed and surface tension of different stages of the solution at different stages was measured. Results showed that the hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 is rather strong. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME - 10 is below 40% in pH value range of 4 - 9 after eight weeks. Surface tension of solutions can be kept stable after the hydrolysis reaction.%在一定的温度和压力条件下,以及特制的均相催化剂作用下,直接由蓖麻油酸甲酯得到了产物蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME -10)。通过皂化值、气相色谱(GC)和1 HNMR 测定了ECAME -10的平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数,在不同pH条件下测定了ECAME -10的耐酸耐碱性,并跟踪拍摄了不同pH溶液不同阶段的外观照片,同时测定了不同阶段溶液的表面张力。结果显示:ECAME -10有较强的抗水解能力,当pH =4~9时,ECAME -10的水解较慢,8周后其水解率在40%以下;水解后的表面张力数据表明,水解后溶液的表面张力可保持稳定。

  11. 磺酸功能化离子液体催化不饱和脂肪酸甲酯的环氧化研究%Epoxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in the Presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡双飞; 王利生

    2011-01-01

    The epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by peroxyacetic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid was studied in the presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) [C3SO3HMIM][HSO4] as catalyst. The effects of hydrogen peroxide/ethylenic unsaturation ratio, acetic acid concentration, IL concentration, recycling of the IL catalyst, and temperature on the conversion to oxirane were studied. The kinetics and thermodynamics of unsaturated FAMEs epoxidation and the kinetics of oxirane cleavage of the epoxidized FAMEs by acetic acid were also studied. The conversion of ethylenic unsaturation group to oxirane, the reaction rate of the conversion to oxirane, and the rate of hydrolysis (oxirane cleavage) were higher by using the IL catalyst.

  12. Production of fatty alcohol from palm oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty alcohol is an important raw material for the production of surfactants, and is currently in demand by markets and has a high potential for growth. Moreover, fatty alcohol can be made from methylester that is produced from fats and natural oil. The production of fatty alcohol involved hydrogenation using the suspension method process and methyl ester in palm oil as the raw material. Copper chromite was used as the catalyst for the hydrogenationreaction and the experiment was proceeded in a close system pressure reaction vessel. The reaction was conducted at approximately 150-250oC, 1100-1700 psig, 2-8% catalyst W/V of methyl ester and reaction timefrom 5-20 hr. After the reaction, the products were analysed to check for percent conversion using gas chromatography (GC. The hydrogenation reaction began at 200oC. The best hydrogenation reaction for theproduction of fatty alcohol occurred at 250oC, 1700 psig, 6% catalyst and reaction time of 20 hr, which gave a purity greater than 97%.

  13. Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra seed oil: parametric and optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Bokhari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have continued to stimulate research into biodiesel as a green fuel alternative produced from renewable resources. In this study, Kapok (Ceiba pentandra oil methyl ester was produced by using microwave-assisted technique. The optimum operating conditions for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Kapok seed oil including temperature, catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, and irradiation time were investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD. A maximum conversion of 98.9 % was obtained under optimum conditions of 57.09 °C reaction temperature, 2.15 wt% catalyst (KOH loading, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:9.85, and reaction time of 3.29 min. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to verify the conversion of the fatty acid into methyl esters. The properties of Kapok oil methyl ester produced under the optimum conditions were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards.

  14. Development of a Method for the N-Arylation of Amino Acid Esters with Aryl Triflates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the N-arylation of amino acid esters with aryl triflates is described. Both α- and β-amino acid esters, including methyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl esters, are viable substrates. Reaction optimization was carried out by design of experiment (DOE) analysis using JMP software. The mild reaction conditions, which use t-BuBrettPhos Pd G3 or G4 precatalyst, result in minimal racemization of the amino acid ester. This method is the first synthetic application of the t-BuBrettPhos Pd G4 precatalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the observed erosion in enantiomeric excess is due to racemization of the amino acid ester starting material and not of the product. PMID:27498618

  15. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester (PMN...

  20. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, also known as polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters, when used as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  2. Total Synthesis of the Phenolic Glycolipid Mycoside B and the Glycosylated p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Methyl Ester HBAD-I, Virulence Markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso, Santiago; Geerdink, Danny; ter Horst, Bjorn; Casas-Arce, Eva; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic glycolipid mycoside B, present in Mycobacterium bovis and hypervirulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been synthesized for the first time. Multiple methyl groups were introduced by the extensive use of catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions, asymmetric hydrogenation of

  3. α-磺基脂肪酸甲酯钠盐的漂白工艺研究%Study on the Bleaching Technology of α - SulPhonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明华

    2015-01-01

    α - sulphonated fatty acid methyl ester(MES)has been widely received as a new kind of “ green surfactant“ , which has excellent detergency,hard water resistibility and good biological degradability. Based on the experiments conducted in laboratory,this article study on the bleaching technology,the optimum reaction conditions are obtained. Under the optimum reaction conditions,the colour of MES has been reduced from 6000 to 84.%α-磺基脂肪酸甲酯钠盐是一种新型的环境友好型阴离子表面活性剂,具有优良的去污力、抗硬水性和生物降解性等优点。本文在实验室工作的基础上,对α-磺基脂肪酸甲酯钠盐的漂白工艺进行研究,得出了较佳的工艺条件。经该工艺漂白后,产品的色泽可降到84。

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of new dithiocarbamic acid 6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-1H-anthra[1,2-d]-imidazol-2-yl methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Nur İpek; İncesu, Zerrin; Özkay, Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    A novel series of dithiocarbamic acid 6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl methyl esters were synthesized and their cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were evaluated on HeLa cells. Some of these compounds showed potent cytotoxic activities and are able to induce the apoptosis mechanism in this cell line. Especially, 2c, 2d, and 2f had a high cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 8 or 10 μM at 24 h. These three compounds also induced HeLa cell apoptosis as compared to mitoxantrone. Particularly, 3 μM of 2f induced a high rate of early apoptotic cells (12.9%) at 6 h whereas mitoxantrone induced early apoptosis (5.5%) at 24 h. Compound 2c demonstrated a high ADP/ATP ratio (9.31) in HeLa cells at 12 h compared to mitoxantrone or other compounds, suggesting that 2c might induce HeLa cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Caspase-3 activity started to increase after treatment with 6 μM of 2c for 6 h, and the maximal peak of activity was obtained at 12 h of incubation time. All three compounds were found to be potent apoptotic inducers compared to mitoxantrone. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mechanistic Insights into an Unexpected Carbon DioxideInsertion Reaction through the Crystal Structures of CarbamicDiphenylthiophosphinic Anhydride and 1-[( 4-Nitrophenyl )-sulfonyl ]-trans-2,5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI, Min; SHEN, Yu-Mei; JIANG, Jian-Kang

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structures of an unexpected carbon dioxide inserted carbamicdiphenylthiophosphinic anhydride and 1-[(4-nitrophenyl) sulfonyl]- trans-2, 5-pyrrolidinedicarboxylic acid methyl ester were determined by X-ray analysis. They crystallized in the space group P21(#4) with α=0.9550(2), b=0.9401(4), c= 1.2880(2) nm, β= 107.74°, V=1.1013(5) nm3, D calcd = 1.349 g/cm3, Z = 2 and P212121 ( # 19)with α= 1.4666(2), b = 0.7195(2), c = 1.6339(2) nm, V= 1.7240(7) nm3, Dcalcd= 1.434 g/cm3, Z=4, respectively.Through the investigation of these two crystal structures, the mechanistic insights into this unexpected carbon dioxide insertion in the reaction of trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine with diphenylthiophosphoryl chloride in the presence of potassium carbonate were disclosed.

  6. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process.

  7. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  8. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  9. L-leucine methyl ester stimulates insulin secretion and islet glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P; Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A

    1983-01-01

    Column perifusion of collagenase-isolated mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the dynamics of insulin release in experiments lasting for several hours. The methyl esters of L-leucine and L-arginine were synthesized. Whereas L-arginine methyl ester (L-arginine OMe) had no effect, L-leucine OMe...

  10. A study on emission performance of a diesel engine fueled with five typical methyl ester biodiesels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fujia; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Wenmiao; Shuai, Shijin

    As an alternative and renewable fuel, biodiesel can effectively reduce diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matter and dry soot. However, the biodiesel effects on emissions may vary as the source fuel changes. In this paper, the performance of five methyl esters with different sources was studied: cottonseed methyl ester (CME), soybean methyl ester (SME), rapeseed methyl ester (RME), palm oil methyl ester (PME) and waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). Total particulate matter (PM), dry soot (DS), non-soot fraction (NSF), nitrogen oxide (NO x), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated on a Cummins ISBe6 Euro III diesel engine and compared with a baseline diesel fuel. Results show that using different methyl esters results in large PM reductions ranging from 53% to 69%, which include the DS reduction ranging from 79% to 83%. Both oxygen content and viscosity could influence the DS emission. Higher oxygen content leads to less DS at high load while lower viscosity results in less DS at low load. NSF decreases consistently as cetane number increases except for PME. The cetane number could be responsible for the large NSF difference between different methyl esters.

  11. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope−δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope−δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values from −210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ13CVPDB-LSVEC from −40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ15NAir from −5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a 2H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ2H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain 13C and carbon-bound organic 2H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  14. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  15. Discrimination of pulp oil and kernel oil from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by fatty acid methyl esters fingerprinting, using GC-FID and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Machado, Adelia F; Tres, Alba; van Ruth, Saskia M; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Lopes, Paulo Sergio N; Bizzo, Humberto R

    2015-11-18

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scientific literature concerning the differences between the compositions of pequi kernel and pulp oils. Therefore, in this study, different pequi genotypes were evaluated to determine the fatty acid composition of pulp and kernel oils. PCA and PLS-DA were applied to develop a model to distinguish these oils. For all evaluated genotypes, the major fatty acids of both pulp and kernel oils were oleic and palmitic acids. Despite the apparent similarity between the analyzed samples, it was possible to discriminate pulp and kernel oils by means of their fatty acid composition using chemometrics, as well as the unique pequi genotype without endocarp spines (CPAC-PQ-SE-06).

  16. Synthesis of Thienamycin methyl ester from 2-deoxy-D-ribose via Kinugasa reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluch, Magdalena; Grzeszczyk, Barbara; Staszewska-Krajewska, Olga; Chmielewski, Marek; Furman, Bartłomiej

    2016-03-01

    A novel synthesis of thienamycin is described. The crucial step of the synthesis is based on Cu(I)-mediated Kinugasa cycloaddition/rearrangement cascade reaction between terminal acetylene derived from D-lactic acid and suitable, partially protected, five-membered cyclic nitrone obtained from 2-deoxy-D-ribose. The reaction was performed in the presence of tetramethylguanidine as a base to provide 5,6-trans substituted carbapenam as the main product. Thus obtained carbapenam 11 with (5R,6S) configuration at the azetidinone ring was subsequently subjected to oxidation/deprotection/oxidation reaction sequence to afford the β-keto ester 20, which was directly transformed into N,O-protected methyl ester of thienamycin.

  17. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  18. [Stearic acid methyl ether: a new extracellular metabolite of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylophilus quaylei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, E A; Stepicheva, N A; Pshenichnikova, A B; Shvets, V I

    2010-01-01

    Methyl esters of fatty acids, free fatty acids, and hydrocarbons were found in the culture liquid and in the cellular lipids of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylophilus quaylei under optimal growth conditions and osmotic stress. The main extracellular hydrophobic metabolite was methyl stearate. Exogenous free fatty acids C16-C18 and their methyl esters stimulated the M. quaylei growth and survivability, as well as production of exopolysaccharide under osmotic and oxidative stress, playing the role of growth factors and adaptogens. The order of hydrophobic supplements according to the ability to stimulate bacterial growth is C18 : 1 > C18 : 0 > C16 : 0 > methyl oleate > methyl stearate > no supplements > C14: 0 > C12 : 0. The mechanism underlying the protective action of fatty acids and their methyl esters is discussed.

  19. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra.

  20. Effect of L-ascorbic acid as additive for exhaust emission reduction in a direct injection diesel engine using mango seed methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study the effect of L-ascorbic acid antioxidants additive for oxides of nitrogen emission reduction in a neat mango seed biodiesel fueled direct injection Diesel engine. The antioxidant additive L-ascorbic acid is tested on a Kirloskar-make four stroke water cooled single cylinder Diesel engine of 5.2 kW. There are four proportions of additive are used:1 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml, and 4 ml. Among the different additive proportion,4 ml concentration of L-ascorbic acid additive is optimal as oxides of nitrogen levels are substantially reduced up to 9% in the whole load range in comparison with neat biodiesel. However, hydrocarbon and carbonmonoxide emissions are found to have slightly increased by the addition of additive with biodiesel.

  1. Epoxidation of methyl esters derived from Jatropha oil: An optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Nadeem, M.; Devi, C.; Lee, S. Y. C.; Sagir, M.; Radhid, U.

    2013-05-01

    The optimization of the epoxidation reaction of methyl esters obtained from Jatropha oil was appraised. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the experimental design. Four reaction variables namely hydrogen peroxide/ C=C mole ratio, formic acid/C=C mole ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were evaluated. The optimum epoxidation conditions calculated by the quadratic model were 3.12 moles of hydrogen peroxide/C=C moles, 0.96 moles of formic acid/C=C moles, a reaction temperature of 70.0 degree centigrade and a reaction time of 277 minutes. A reaction optimized by the proposed process parameters provided a yield of 92.89 {+-} 1.29 wt.% with relatively improved reaction time. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction temperature were found to be the most significant variables while reaction temperature and hydrogen peroxide showed strong interactions. The epoxidized methyl esters were analyzed using FT-IR, 1H NMR and {sup 1}3C NMR techniques. This study suggested relatively higher molar ratio of formic acid required than was proposed in the literature. (Author) 33 refs.

  2. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scient

  3. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scient

  4. MULTIRESIDUE DETERMINATION OF ACIDIC PESTICIDES IN WATER BY HPLC/DAD WITH CONFIRMATION BY GC/MS USING CONVERSION TO THE METHYL ESTER WITH TRIMETHYLSILYDIAZOMETHANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiresidue pesticide methodology has been studied and results for acidics are reported here with base/neutral to follow. This work studies a literature procedure as a possible general approach to many pesticides and potentially other analytes that are considered to be liquid...

  5. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 1. Cyanide cations in the spectra of N-alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl-α-amino acids and their methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todua, Nino G.; Tretyakov, Kirill V.; Mikaia, Anzor I.

    2016-01-01

    The central mission for the development of the National Institute of Standards and Technology/National Institutes of Health/Environmental Protection Agency Mass Spectral Library is the acquisition of reference gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data for important compounds and their chemical modification products. The addition of reliable reference data of various derivatives of amino acids to The Library, and the study of their behavior under electron ionization conditions may be useful for their identification, structure elucidation, and a better understanding of the data obtained when the same derivatives are subjected to other ionization methods. N-Alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl derivatives of amino acids readily produce previously unreported alkylnitrilium cations of composition [HC≡N-alkyl]+. Homologous [HC≡N-aryl]+ cations are typical for corresponding N-aryl analogs. The formation of other ions characteristic for these derivatives involves oxygen rearrangement giving rise to ions [CnF2n+1–C≡N+–CnH2n+1] and [CnF2n+1–C≡N+-aryl]. The introduction of an N-benzyl substituent in a molecule favors a process producing benzylidene iminium cations. l-Threonine and l-cysteine derivatives exhibit more fragmentation pathways not typical for other α-amino acids; additionally, the Nω-amino group in l-lysine directs the dissociation process and provides structural information on the substitution at the amino functions in the molecule. PMID:26307698

  6. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Alahmed, Z.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Auluck, S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chyský, Jan [Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C{sub 15}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for the local density approximation (Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C–H…O, C–H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C–H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C–H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π–π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å). - Highlights: • Electronic structure, chemical bonding, and electron charge density were studied. • Density of states at Fermi level is 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, for LDA (EVGGA). • Bare electronic specific heat coefficient is 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for LDA(EVGGA). • There are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A., E-mail: annalisa.bruno@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Villani, F., E-mail: fulvia.villani@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Grimaldi, I.A.; Loffredo, F.; Morvillo, P.; Diana, R. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Haque, S. [Chemistry Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45.

  8. Study on blend systems of dodecyl polyglycosides and α- sulphonated fatty acid methyl ester%十二烷基多苷与脂肪酸甲酯磺酸钠的复配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康鹏; 许虎君; 李丹

    2012-01-01

    Surface chemical properties of dodecyl polyglycosides ( APG) /or ?sulphonated fatty acid methyl ester (MES) blend systems at 298 K were studied. The surface chemical parameters of the blend systems as well as the individual surfactants were determined based upon the establishment of the y - lg c plots, and regular solution theory was applied for calculating the performance of the blend systems and investigating whether synergism effects were existed in aspect of micelle formation, surface tension reduction efficiency and surface tension reduction effectiveness. Results showed that,the surface chemical performances of the blend systems are better than that of any individual surfactants, and the blend systems of APG/MES display synergism in surface tension reduction effectiveness and mixed micelle formation, but do not display synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency.%研究了十二烷基多苷(APG)与脂肪酸甲酯磺酸钠(MES)的复配体系在298 K下的表面化学性质.通过测定γ-Igc曲线,得到复配及单一体系的表面化学参数;并运用规则溶液理论对复配体系的性能进行了计算,研究了复配体系在胶束的形成、降低表面张力效率、降低表面张力效能3方面是否存在协同效应.结果表明,APG/MES复配体系表面化学性能优于单一体系,且复配体系在胶束的形成、降低表面张力的效率方面存在协同效应,但在降低表面张力的效能方面不存在协同效应.

  9. Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Esters in Biodiesel Fuel: Kinetics, Mechanisms and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ming

    Biodiesel continues to enjoy increasing popularity. However, recent studies on carbonyl compounds emissions from biodiesel fuel are inconclusive. Emissions of carbonyl compounds from petroleum diesel fuels were compared to emissions from pure biodiesel fuels and petroleum-biodiesel blends used in a non-road diesel generator. The concentration of total carbonyl compounds was the highest when the engine was idling. The carbonyl emissions, as well as ozone formation potential, from biodiesel fuel blends were higher than those emitted from petroleum diesel fuel. The sulfur content of diesel fuel and the source of biodiesel fuel were not found to have a significant impact on emissions of carbonyl compounds. Mechanism parameters of the thermal decomposition of biodiesel-range methyl esters were obtained from the results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The overall reaction orders are between 0.49 and 0.71 and the energies of activation are between 59.9 and 101.3 kJ/mole. Methyl esters in air have lower activation energies than those in nitrogen. Methyl linoleate has the lowest activation energy, followed by methyl oleate, and methyl stearate. The pyrolysis and oxidation of the three methyl esters were investigated using a semi-isothermal tubular flow reactor. The profiles of major products versus reaction temperature are presented. In the pyrolysis of methyl stearate, the primary reaction pathway is the decarboxylic reaction at the methyl ester functional group. Methyl oleate's products indicate more reactions on its carbon-carbon double bond. Methyl linoleate shows highest reactivity among the three methyl esters, and 87 products were detected. The oxidation of three methyl esters resulted in more products in all compound classes, and 55, 114, and 127 products were detected, respectively. The oxidation of methyl esters includes decarboxylation on ester group. The methyl ester's carbon chain could be oxidized as a hydrocarbon compound and form oxidized esters and

  10. Effects of ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme%超声波辐射对酶法制备椰子油脂肪酸甲酯的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚本前; 刘钟栋

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable energy, is environmental friendly. As the substitute and supplement for petroleum, biodiesel has many advantages, such as renewable, easily degradation, low of the combustion emissions and almost no greenhouse effect. In this paper ultrasonic radiation was used in esterifying synthesis biodiesel. The reaction was fast and yield was high. Ultrasonic radiation can assist lipase catalyzed ester synthesis by fatty acid and methanol in organic medium. Effects of different factors and ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme were studied. Coconut fatty acid, ethanol and lipozyme Novozym435 were the major raw material. The single factor is used in optimizing the parameters. The best condition was: enzyme 7% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; water 10% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; ultrasonic power 250W; the total reaction time 25min; n-hexane, 2mL/goil; molar ration of ethanol to coconut fatty acid 2' 1. The transesterification yield of 90. 18% was obtained under the optimum conditions.%生物柴油作为可再生能源,是环境友好的生物燃料,作为石化柴油的替代品及补充品具有可再生、易于降解、燃烧排放的污染物低、基本无温室效应等特点.本文利用超声辐射强化酯化制备生物柴油具有反应速度快,产率高等优点,探讨了超声辐照对有机相中脂肪酶催化脂肪酸与甲醇酯化反应的促进作用.以蒸馏椰子油脂肪酸、甲醇及Novozym435脂肪酶为主要原料,研究了不同因素及超声辐射对酶法促进油脂脂肪酸甲酯化的影响.对反应条件进行单因素实验,确定了最佳反应工艺参数.经分析初步得出脂肪酶催化甲酯化最佳条件为:酶用量7%,水加入量10%,超声功率250W,反应总时间25min,2mL正已烷/1g脂肪酸,甲醇与椰子油脂肪酸的摩尔比2∶1.在此条件下,脂肪酸甲酯转化率达到90.18%.

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  12. Hydroxycinnamic acids are ester-linked directly to glucosyl moieties within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In flaxseed hulls, lignans are present in an oligomeric structure. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), ester-linked to hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA), forms the backbone of this lignan macromolecule. The hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeA

  13. Experimental Analysis of Performance of Diesel Engine Using Kusum Methyl Ester With Diethyl Ether as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S. Jawre,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fossile fuels are widely used in diesel engine and continually depleting with increasing consumption and prices day by day. The fatty acid methyl ester has become an effective alternative to diesel. Various types of vegetable oil such as Jatropha, karanja, cottonseed, neem, sunflower, palm, mahuva, coconut etc. can be used as fuel in diesel engine. Kusum oil is one of the fuel used in present work. The viscosity of kusum oil is very high, so it was reduced by Transesterification process. This study presents effect of diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel of kusum (schliechera oleosa methyl ester on the performance and emission of diesel engine at different load and constant speed and two different injection pressure (170 and 190 bar. From literature it was observed that very few studies had been conducted on use of neat biodiesel and diethyl ether blends and use of kusum methyl ester (KME in diesel engine found to be very less as compared to different biodiesel. Hence this topic was taken under study. The fuels and its blends used are 100% diesel, B100 (100% KME, BD-1 (95% KME, 5% DEE, BD-2 (90% KME, 10% DEE, BD-3 (85% KME, 15% DEE respectively. It was observed that the performance of engine increases at high injection pres-sure. The results indicate that lower BSFC was observed with BD-3 as compared to B100, BD-1 and BD-2. Brake thermal efficiency of BD-3 decreased at 170 bar injection pressure but it increase at 190 bar. Drastic re-duction in smoke is observed with all blends at higher engine loads. DEE addition to biodiesel reflects better engine performance compared to neat biodiesel.

  14. The phytotoxic effects and biodegradability of stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VAUHKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the phytotoxicity of stored rapeseed (Brassica rapa oil (RSO and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME after "spill like" contamination on the growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare and the biodegradability of these substances in OECD 301F test conditions and in ground water. Rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester were both stored for a period of time and their fuel characteristics (e.g. acid number had changed from those set by the fuel standards and are considered to have an effect on its biodegradation. The phytotoxicity was tested using two different types of barley cultivars: ‘Saana’ and ‘Vilde’. The phytotoxic effect on the barley varieties was determined, after the growth season, by measuring the total biomass growth and the mass of 1000 kernels taken from the tests plots. Also visual inspection was used to determine what the effects on the barley growth were. These measurements suggest that both RSO and RME have a negative impact on barley sprouts and therefore the total growth of the barley. RSO and RME both decreased the total amount of harvested phytomass. The weight of 1000 kernels increased with low concentrations of these contaminants and high contamination levels reduced the mass of the kernels. The results of these experiments suggest that the stored rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil methyl ester are both phytotoxic materials and therefore will cause substantial loss of vegetation in the case of a fuel spill. The RSO and RME biodegraded effectively in the measurement period of 28 days under OECD test conditions: the degree of biodegradation being over 60%. The biodegradation in the ground water was much slower: the degree of biodegradation being about 10% after 28 days.;

  15. Growth inhibitory activity of fatty acid methyl esters in the whole seed oil of madagascar periwinkle (Apocyanaceae) against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyan, R S; Malarvannan, S; Eganathan, P; Rajalakshmi, S; Parida, Ajay

    2009-06-01

    Crude hexane and water extracts of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Syn: Vinca rosea) (Apocyanaceae) stem, leaf, and seed exhibited pesticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). The extracts differed significantly in their efficacy, with the crude hexane extract of whole seed being the most effective in curtailing pupal survivorship to 18% followed by the hexane extracts of leaf (21%) and stem (24%). Average pupal weight (68.2 mg) and length (1.5 cm) in the whole seed treatment were drastically reduced, compared with the controls (415.2 mg and 2.72 cm), subsequently reducing adult emergence to 15.7%. SiO2 column purification yielded eight fractions of which fraction 1 exhibited 90% larval mortality, with severe reduction of the larvae weight (12.7 mg) and length (1.5 cm). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fraction 1 suggested the presence of 16 compounds, among which oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and margaric acids were detected as major constituents. Presence of the alkane hydrocarbons triacontane, tetracosane, and heptacosane also was noted.

  16. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new bioconjugates of Salinomycin with amino acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczak, Michał; Sobusiak, Maria; Maj, Ewa; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Huczyński, Adam

    2015-09-01

    New Salinomycin (SAL) bioconjugates with amino acid methyl esters were obtained and their antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines including drug-resistant ones was studied. New compounds exhibit antiproliferative activity towards leukemia and doxorubicin-resistant colon adenocarcinoma cell line and are more effective and less toxic than the commonly currently used anticancer drugs.

  17. Acute and sub-acute effects of 2-butenoic acid-3-(diethoxy phosphinothioyl) methyl ester (RPR-II) on testis of albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I A; Reddy, B V; Mahboob, M; Rahman, M F; Jamil, Kaiser

    2002-02-01

    Acute and sub-acute toxic effects of a novel phosphorothionate coded as RPR-II on testis of albino rats were studied. In acute study rats received a single dose of 12.3 mg/kg of RPR-II and sacrificed after 24 hr. For sub-acute study 0.58 mg/kg/day was administered orally to rats for 10 and 21 days. Acute exposure of rats to RPR-II brought no change either in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) or in the structure of testis or in the serum levels of testosterone. Testis glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly decreased whereas, acid phosphatase (AcP) levels increased significantly at 24 hr post-treatment. On 7th day (withdrawal period) after the cessation of the treatment the GSH, GST, AcP, and AkP levels reached to near control. The sub-acute study revealed a significant decrease in GSI on 10th and 21st day of the treatment. In contrast, a time-dependent and significant increased in GSH level and GST activity was observed on 100th and 21st day of post-treatment, except GSH level on 10th day, which was declined. Due to RPR-II treatment the testis AcP and alkaline phosphatase (AkP) levels were significant at both 10th and 21st day of medication but AcP levels were increased whereas AkP levels decreased. The histopathological studies on day 10th showed considerable loss of spermatozoids in testis and at 21st day complete derangement of cellular organization was observed. Testosterone levels decreased significantly on 10th day and remained significantly low at 21st day. However, withdrawal studies showed a recovery in testis of rat treated with RPR-II. GST, GSH, GSI, AcP and AkP values recovered, testosterone levels were also well recovered but recovery in testis structure remained at a low profile. The present study suggests that RPR-II may cause testicular toxicity in rats affecting the normal functioning of testis and it also gave some new information in withdrawal studies.

  18. Accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes by 5-aminolevulinic acid and its esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Arisa; Hasunuma, Yuya; Kikuchi, Emii; Ishii, Takuya; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) by 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (ALA) and its esters, ALA methyl ester hydrochloride (mALA), ALA octyl ester hydrochloride (oALA), and ALA benzyl ester hydrochloride (bALA). From the fluorescence spectra of porphyrins accumulated in P.acnes, the order of porphyrin accumulation is as follows: ALA≫mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈0). Moreover, the PDT efficacy is reduced in the order of ALA>mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈without additives). These results confirm that ALA is superior to ALA esters in accumulating porphyrins in P.acnes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  1. 氢化棕榈酸甲酯磺酸盐的制备%Preparation of methyl ester sulfonates with methyl palmitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马传国; 刘会娟; 苗海卿; 汪鸿

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated palmitinic acid methyl ester sulfonate was synthesized through sulfonation reaction, aging reaction, neutralization and drying process using hydrogenated palmitinic acid methyl ester as raw materials, chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonating agent in trichloromethane system. The optimal conditions were approached through single factor experiments and the orthogonal experiments as follows; dropping temperature 40 ℃ , mass ratio of chloroform and methyl palmitate 2.0: 1.0, molar ratio of chlorsulfonic acid and methyl palmitate 1.55:1.0,sulfonation time 60 min,aging time 70 min. Under the optimal conditions, the content of hydrogenated palmitinic acid methyl ester sulfonate was 64. 36% and the colour of the product was light yellow.%在氯仿体系中,以氢化棕榈酸甲酯为原料、氯磺酸为磺化剂,通过磺化、老化、中和、干燥后制得氢化棕榈酸甲酯磺酸盐.经单因素及正交实验优化得到最佳工艺条件:滴加温度40℃,氯仿与甲酯质量比2.0∶1.0,氯磺酸与甲酯物质的量比1.55∶1.0,磺化时间60 min,老化时间70 min.在最佳工艺条件下,制备的产品颜色呈淡黄色,氢化棕榈酸甲酯磺酸盐的含量为64.36%.

  2. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Kafui Ayetor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of H2SO4 on viscosity of methyl esters from Jatropha oil (JCME, palm kernel oil (PKOME from Elaeis guineensis species, and coconut oil (COME has been studied. Effect of methanol to oil molar mass ratio on yield of the three feedstocks has also been studied. Methyl ester yield was decreased by esterification process using sulphuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4. Jatropha methyl ester experienced a viscosity reduction of 24% (4.1–3.1 mm2/s with the addition of 1% sulphuric acid. In this work palm kernel oil (PKOME, coconut oil (COME and Jatropha oil (JCME were used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel to investigate optimum parameters to obtain high yield. For each of the feedstock, the biodiesel yield increased with increase in NaOH concentration. The highest yield was obtained with 1% NaOH concentration for all. The effect of methanol in the range of 4:1–8:1 (molar ratio was investigated, keeping other process parameters fixed. Optimum ratios of palm kernel oil and coconut oil biodiesels yielded 98% each at methanol:oil molar ratio of 8:1. The physiochemical properties obtained for each methyl showed superior properties compared with those reported in published data.

  3. Crystallization behavior of fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from vegetable oils or animal fats has many attractive characteristics as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition (diesel) engines. However, biodiesel from the most common agricultural sources has flow properties that are susceptible to start up and operability problems during c...

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Babu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

  5. A Convenient Route to 4-Carboxy-4-Anilidopiperidine Esters and Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjermund Henriksen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised a tert-butyl ester of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines which resulted in a dramatic increase in the overall yield of the target N-propionylated- 4-anilidopiperidine-4-carboxylic acids and their corresponding methyl esters. These compounds are now available for use as precursors and reference standards, of particular value for the production of 11C and 18F-labelled 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidine radiotracers.

  6. 溶解度参数在脂肪酸甲酯溶解性研究中的运用%Study on Application of Solubility Parameter in Solubility Study of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆向红; 杨云财; 计建炳

    2011-01-01

    Solubility Parameters of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were calculated by group contribution methods.Results showed that solubility parameters of FAMEs increased with the chain length, but were not affected by the degree of unsaturation.KB values and extraction ability of FAMEs for pyridine in water were measured and compared with solubility parameters.It was shown that the consistency existed among KB value, extraction ability and solubility parameters.Hansen solubility parameters of FAMEs calculated by group contribution methods could reflect the solvency of FAMEs.Solubility parameter of FAMEs, organic solvents and organic impurities were compared.Results showed that FAMEs could instead of organic solvents and be used in industrial fields.FAMEs were a promising green solvent because of its safety, non -toxicity and bio -degradability.%采用基团贡献法计算了单个脂肪酸甲酯的溶解度参数,发现脂肪酸甲酯的溶解度参数随着碳链的增长而降低,而碳链不饱和度的增大对其影响有限.测定了几种脂肪酸甲酯的KB值,考察了生物柴油萃取废水中苯酚的萃取性能,并将其与脂肪酸甲酯的溶解度参数进行了比较,结果显示利用基团贡献法计算得到的脂肪酸甲酯的Hansen溶解度参数可以很好地反映脂肪酸甲酯的溶解性能.在此基础上,比较了脂肪酸甲酯与常用有机溶剂、常见有机污染物的溶解度参数,结果发现,脂肪酸甲酯与常用有机溶剂、常见有机污染物具有相近的溶解度参数,脂肪酸甲酯可以作为一种性能优良的绿色溶剂,替代常用的有机溶剂广泛应用与工业清洗、废弃物处理等方面.

  7. Ester Exchange Polymerization of 3-Hydroxyl Propionic Acid Methyl Ester Catalyzed by SO3 H-functionalized Ionic Liquids%磺酸功能化离子液体催化3-羟基丙酸甲酯酯交换聚合反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国荣; 刘建华; 宋大勇; 陈静; 夏春谷

    2012-01-01

    Employing SO3 H-functionalized ionic liquids as catalysts, the biodegradable poly [ 3-hydroxypropionic acid] (PHP) was obtained by ester exchange polymerization of 3-Hydroxyl propionie acid methyl ester(3-HPM). The effects of various ionic liquids, reaction temperature and reaction time on the polymerization performance were discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the FFIR, NMR and TG-DSC were applied to characterize the products. The PHP with Mw above 1.0×104 and yield above 82% could be obtained when catalyzed by [ BsMIm] [ OTf] under the opti- mal reaction conditions. In addition, the catalyst in the polymer could be removed completely after washing with water, efficiently avoiding the pollution of the product.%以磺酸功能化咪唑离子液体为催化剂,以3-羟基丙酸甲酯为原料,采用自身酯交换法合成了具有生物可降解性能的聚羟基脂肪酸酯.系统考察了离子液体种类、反应温度以及聚合反应时间对反应性能的影响,同时采用红外、核磁、热分析等手段对产物进行表征.研究结果表明:阴离子为CF3SO-3的磺酸功能化离子液体在120℃的低温下催化聚合反应所得聚酯Mw可达10 159,收率82.1%;通过水洗方法可有效去除产物中的离子液体催化剂,从而避免催化剂污染产物.

  8. Phenylpropanoid acid esters from Korean propolis and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Han, Myung-Suk; Kim, Dae-Won; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2014-08-01

    Ten phenylpropanoic acid esters were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Korean propolis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including NMR and ESI-MS. Caffeic acid esters with catechol moiety exhibited significant ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and protective effect against DNA damage by a Fenton reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half...... matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination....

  10. Synthesis of (2R,3aR,8aR)-6-Chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a- hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester by Reductive Cyclization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG,Wen-Xu(洪文旭); YAO,Zhu-Jun(姚祝军)

    2004-01-01

    A synthesis of(2R,3aR,8aR)-6-chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester(1)was achieved.An aldol reaction with Garner aldehyde,a hydroxyl introduction by Davis reagent,and a reductive intramolecular ring-closure reaction were served as the key steps.This piece of work provides a new way to synthesize the analogues of hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole,starting from readily available chemical substrates and inexpensive reagents.

  11. In vitro skin permeation and retention of 5-aminolevulinic acid ester derivatives for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lange, Norbert; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado; Rotta, Jeane Cristina Gomes; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2003-04-29

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), 5-aminiolevulinic acid (5-ALA) applied topically is converted, via the heme cycle, into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a photosensitizing agent, which upon excitation with light can induce tumor destruction. Due to its hydrophilic and zwitterionic characteristics, 5-ALA has limited penetration into the skin. More lipophilic 5-ALA ester derivatives are expected to cross stratum corneum more easily than 5-ALA. According to the determination of the partition coefficients of 5-ALA methyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl and n-octyl esters, these compounds showed an increased affinity to the SC, with 5-ALA hexyl ester and 5-ALA-octyl ester having the highest partition coefficients. Our in vitro skin permeation studies demonstrated an increased permeated amount for hexyl-ALA after 6 h of incubation, compared to other esters and 5-ALA. After 6 h, more 5-ALA-hexyl ester and -octyl ester were retained at viable epidermis and dermis than 5-ALA. According to these results, and considering that the conversion of 5-ALA into PpIX occurs preferentially in epidermis, it can be supposed that topical use of ester derivatives with longer chains (C(6) or C(8)) is an interesting proposal to optimize topical 5-ALA-PDT

  12. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  13. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  14. (Nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin as novel nitric oxide releasing aspirins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Rolando, Barbara; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Biondi, Stefano; Ongini, Ennio; Gasco, Alberto

    2009-08-27

    A series of (nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin were synthesized and evaluated as new NO-donor aspirins. Different amounts of aspirin were released in serum from these products according to the nature of nitrooxyacyloxy moiety present. In the aromatic series, there is a rather good linear correlation between the amount of aspirin released and the potencies of the products in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by collagen. Both the native compounds and the related nitrooxy-substituted acid metabolites were able to relax rat aorta strips precontracted with phenylephrine, in keeping with a NO-induced activation of the sGC as a mechanism that underlies the vasodilator effect. The products here described are new improved examples of NO-donor aspirins containing nitrooxy groups. They could represent an alternative to the use of aspirin in a variety of clinical applications.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  16. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  18. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl chlorid

  19. Origin of Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxy Esters through Catalytic Enantioselective Lactonization by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changotra, Avtar; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2016-08-05

    Kinetic resolution is a widely used strategy for separation and enrichment of enantiomers. Using density functional theory computations, the origin of how a chiral BINOL-phosphoric acid catalyzes the selective lactonization of one of the enantiomers of α-methyl γ-hydroxy ester is identified. In a stepwise mechanism, the stereocontrolling transition state for the addition of the hydroxyl group to the si face of the ester carbonyl in the case of the S isomer exhibits a network of more effective noncovalent interactions between the substrate and the chiral catalyst.

  20. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters –Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  1. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  2. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  3. Blends of babassu, palm kernal and coconut mame with fossil kerosene: low carbon number methyl esters as a possible source for renewable jet fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas Lois, Alberto; Canoira López, Laureano; Al-Lal Baeza, Ana María; Lapuerta, Magín

    2013-01-01

    Three different oils: babassu, coconut and palm kernel have been transesterified with methanol. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been subjected to vacuum fractional distillation, and the low boiling point fractions have been blended with fossil kerosene at three different proportions: 5, 10 and 20% vol.

  4. 9-蒽醛衍生化-高效液相色谱法拆分α-氨基酸甲酯和几种脂肪胺对映体%Enantiomer separation of α-amino acid methyl esters and some aliphatic amines as 9-anthraldimine derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金京玉; 黄虎; 李元宰

    2011-01-01

    The liquid chromatographic enantiomer separation of several α-amino acid methyl esters as 9-anthraldehyde Schiff base derivatives on five polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs) was described. The 9-anthraldehyde imine derivatives of α-amino acid esters were prepared by stirring 9-anthraldehyde with the α-amino acid ester hydrochloride salts. The chromatographic conditions were 3% - 10% (v/v) 2-propanol-n-hexane as the mobile phases at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at UV 254 nm. The performance of Chiralcel OD ( or Chiralcel OD-H) among the five CSPs was superior to those of the other CSPs for the resolution of 9-anthraldimine derivatives of α-amino acid methyl esters. The enantiomers of all α-amino acid methyl esters as the 9-anthraldimine derivatives were base-line resolved on Chiralcel OD or Chiralcel OD-H ( α = 1.24 - 5.47, Rs = 2.56 - 13.90). The L-enantiomers of all analytes were strongerly restrained than the respective D-enantiomers on the Chiralcel OD (or Chiralcel ODH) CSPs. The method was also used for the enantiomer separation of aliphatic amines and good separation was obtained. It is expected that the analytical method will be useful for the enantiomer resolution of other α-amino acid esters and amine compounds as 9-anthraldimine derivatives.%采用高效液相色谱法,以9-蒽醛为衍生试剂,在5种多糖衍生物的手性固定相(CSPs)上对几种α-氨基酸甲酯对映体进行了手性分离.色谱条件如下:流动相为含3%~10%(v/v)异丙醇的正己烷溶液,流速为1.0mL/min,检测波长为254 nm.结果表明,α-氨基酸甲酯-9-蒽醛亚胺衍生物在Chiralcel OD柱或Chiralcel OD-H柱上的手性分离结果优于其他CSPs,而且在Chiralcel OD柱或Chiralcel OD-H柱上全部得到了基线拆分(α=1.24~5.47,Rs=2.56~13.90),L-对映体在这两种色谱柱上的保留强于D-对映体.同时还考察了几种脂肪胺在5种多糖衍生物手性固定相上的对映体拆分

  5. Rare linking hydrogels based on acrylic acid and carbohydrate esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Akhmedov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of copolymerization of acrylic acid and esters poliallil sucrose; pentaerythritol and sorbitol, some of its laws are identified. The kinetic regularities of copolymerization and the optimum conditions of synthesis was established.

  6. Inert Reassessment Document for PEG Fatty Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tolerance reassessment decision document and action memorandum for the PEG fatty acid ester date September 28, 2005, included two tolerance exemptions (under 40 CFR 180.910 and $) CFR 180.930, respectively)

  7. Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters and a quinic acid purpurogallin carbonyl ester from the leaves of Castanopsis fissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Lin; Tsujita, Takaaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Matsuo, Yosuke; Kouno, Isao; Li, Dian-Peng; Nonaka, Gen-ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Triterpene hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) esters have only been isolated from Castanopsis species, and the distribution of these esters in nature is of chemotaxonomical interest. In this study, the chemical constituents of the leaves of Castanopsis fissa were examined in detail to identify and isolate potential HHDP esters. Together with 53 known compounds, 3,4-di-O-galloyl-1-O-purpurogallin carbonyl quinic acid (1) and 3,24-(S)-HHDP-2α,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxytaraxastan-28,20β-olide (2) were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The polyphenols of the leaves were mainly composed of galloyl quinic acids, triterpenes HHDP esters, ellagitannins and flavonol glycosides. In particular, the isolation yields of 1,3,4-trigalloyl quinic acid and compound 2 were 1.53% and 0.27%, respectively, from the fresh leaves. The presence of lipid soluble HHDP esters of oleanane-type triterpenes as one of the major metabolites is an important chemotaxonomical discovery. Lipase inhibition activities and ORAC values of the major constituents were compared. The triterpene HHDP ester showed moderate lipase inhibition activity and myricitrin gave the largest ORAC value.

  8. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using β-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters.

  9. Vapor movement of the synthetic auxin herbicides, aminocyclopyrachlor and its methyl ester under laboratory and enclosed chamber environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocyclopyrachlor (DPX MAT28) a newly discovered synthetic auxin herbicide and its methyl ester (DPX KJM44) appear to control a number of perennial broadleaf weeds. The potential volatility of this new herbicide and its methyl ester were determined under laboratory conditions and were also compar...

  10. Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Felix; vom Dorp, Katharina; Abraham, Marion; Hölzl, Georg; Wewer, Vera; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Lager, Ida; Montandon, Cyrille; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix; Stymne, Sten; Dörmann, Peter

    2012-05-01

    During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.

  11. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  12. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing...

  13. Microwave-assisted preparation of naphthenic acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA CIRIN-NOVTA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of esters of natural petroleum acids of the naphthenic type assisted with microwave irradiation under the conditions of acid catalysis was carried out with various alcohols: methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and tert-butyl alcohol. Microwave dielectric heating of the reaction mixture in an unmodified microwave oven with activation of the naphthenic acids with sulfuric and p-toluenesulfonic acid afforded the esters of the naphthenic acids. Depending on the catalyst and the steric and nucleophilic properties of the alcohols, the yield of naphthenic esters ranged from 31.25 % to 88.90 %. As a consequence of microwave dielectric heating, the esterification time was reduced from 6–10 h to 5 min.

  14. 蓖麻籽脂质提取与甲酯化衍生优化及其脂肪酸组成分析%Optimization of Castor Bean Lipid Extraction and Methyl Ester Derivation and Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼乔明; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 金淼; 吴东晓; 郑贤孟

    2012-01-01

    The effects on lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation of castor seeds were studied using different methods, and the fatty acid composition was also analyzed in this paper. The results indicated that significant differenees existed in the effects of different methods on the lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation(P <0. 05). The method of dichlormethane - methanol was effective in lipid extraction and the extraction level was 58. 25% , which had the great advantages of low toxicity, good solubility and complete extraction of lipids. Acid - alkali combined method had virtues of entire derivatization and less side effects, which could better reflect the fatty acid composition of castor seeds, and was a ideal method for the derivatization of castor seeds lipid. Meanwhile, castor oil mainly consisted of ricinoleic acid (76.43%~86. 50% ), linolic acid (4. 88%~6.27% ) and oleic acid (2.70%~4. 18%) , and also contained small amounts of palmitic acid, stearic acid, linolenic acid and dodecenoic acid.%采用不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和甲酯化衍生效果进行研究,并对其脂肪酸组成进行分析.结果表明:不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和衍生化效果存在显著差异(P<0.05);二氯甲烷-甲醇法的脂质提取率为58.25%,且具有低毒、溶解性强和提取完全的优点,是蓖麻籽脂质提取的有效方法;酸碱结合法具有衍生完全且副反应少等优点,能更好地反映蓖麻籽脂肪酸的真实组成,是蓖麻籽脂质甲酯化衍生的理想方法.同时蓖麻籽脂肪酸以蓖麻油酸(76.43%~86.50%)、亚油酸(4.88%~6.27%)和油酸(2.70%~4.18%)为主,并含有少量的棕榈酸、硬脂酸以及亚麻酸和二十碳烯酸.

  15. Efficient and Scalable Synthesis of 4-Carboxy-Pennsylvania Green Methyl Ester: A Hydrophobic Building Block for Fluorescent Molecular Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woydziak, Zachary R; Fu, Liqiang; Peterson, Blake R

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated fluorophores are valuable tools for studies of biological systems. However, amine-reactive single-isomer derivatives of these compounds are often very expensive. To provide an inexpensive alternative, we report a practical synthesis of 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester. Derivatives of this hydrophobic fluorinated fluorophore, a hybrid of the dyes Oregon Green and Tokyo Green, are often cell permeable, enabling labeling of intracellular targets and components. Moreover, the low pKa of Pennsylvania Green (4.8) confers bright fluorescence in acidic cellular compartments such as endosomes, enhancing its utility for chemical biology investigations. To improve access to the key intermediate 2,7-difluoro-3,6-dihydroxyxanthen-9-one, we subjected bis-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)methanone to iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution by hydroxide on scales of > 40 g. This intermediate was used to prepare over 15 grams of pure 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester in 28% overall yield without requiring chromatography. This compound can be converted into the amine reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester in essentially quantitative yield for the synthesis of a wide variety of fluorescent molecular probes.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the hydroxyl...

  17. Conversion of Oleum papaveris seminis oil into methyl esters via esterification process optimization and kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syam, A.M.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Hamid, H.A.; Al-Resayes, S.I.; Nehdi, I.A.; Al-Muhtaseb, A.H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an acid pre-treatment process and a kinetic study for the esterification reaction of Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of amberlite 120 as a solid catalyst to convert the oil into methyl esters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the reaction parameters, i.e. reaction time, percentage of the catalyst and volume ratio of methanol to oil. The results revealed that 0.87% w/w of catalyst concentration and 44.70% v/v of methanol to oil ratio provided final free fatty acid (FFA) contents of 0.60% w/w at 102.40 min of reaction time. It proved that the contribution of Amberlite 120 in the esterification of FFA was highly significant. The kinetics of the esterification in Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of the amberlite 120 catalyst were also investigated to establish the reaction rate constant (k), reaction order, and activation energy. The study was performed under the optimized parameters at three reaction temperatures (50, 55, and 60 ºC). The value of k was in the range of 0.013 to 0.027 min-1. The first-order kinetics’ model was suitable for this irreversible FFA esterification with the activation energy of about 60.9 KJ·mol-1. (Author)

  18. Changes in the molecular composition of ester-bound aliphatics with depth in an acid andic forest soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naafs, Derck Ferdinand Werner; Nierop, K.G.J.; Bergen, P.F. van; Leeuw, J.W. de

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the molecular composition of ester-linked aliphatic compounds with depth in an acid andic forest soil are studied. Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) using tetramethylammonium hydroxide in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed a dominance of cutin

  19. Colour indicator for enantiomeric excess and assignment of the configuration of the major enantiomer of an amino acid ester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, R.A.van; Feringa, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    A colour indicator for the full range of enantiomeric excess (-100% --> 100% ee) is presented which is based on visual colour inspection of a liquid crystal doped with the analyte, i.e. the methyl ester of amino acid phenylglycine, providing the enantiomeric excess and allowing the assignment of the

  20. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Suong; Ling, Hua; Yu, Ai-Qun; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid short-chain alkyl esters of different fatty acid carbon chain lengths. However, while fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters are useful biodiesel produced commercially, fatty acid esters with branched-chain alcohol moieties have superior fuel properties. Crucially, this includes improved cold flow characteristics, as one of the major problems associated with biodiesel use is poor low-temperature flow properties. Hence, microbial production as a renewable, nontoxic and scalable method to produce fatty acid esters with branched-chain alcohol moieties from biomass is critical. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters, including ethyl, isobutyl, isoamyl and active amyl esters using endogenously synthesized fatty acids and alcohols. Two wax ester synthase genes (ws2 and Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter sp.) were cloned and expressed. Both enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of fatty acid esters, with different alcohol preferences. To boost the ability of S. cerevisiae to produce the aforementioned esters, negative regulators of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, Rpd3 and Opi1, were deleted to increase flux towards fatty acyl-CoAs. In addition, five isobutanol pathway enzymes (Ilv2, Ilv5, Ilv3, Aro10, and Adh7) targeted into the mitochondria were overexpressed to enhance production of alcohol precursors. By combining these engineering strategies with high-cell-density fermentation, over 230 mg/L fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters were produced, which is the highest titer reported in yeast to date. In this work, we engineered the metabolism of S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesels in the form of fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters, including ethyl, isobutyl, isoamyl and active amyl esters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of fatty acid isobutyl and active amyl esters in S. cerevisiae. Our findings will be useful for

  1. Enhancement of the Power Conversion Efficiency in the Inverted Organic Solar Cells Fabricated Utilizing a CeO2 Interlayer Between the Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-Phenyl C6 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester and the Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, N Sabari; Lee, Yong Hun; Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Tae Whan

    2015-01-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by using a precipitation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction patterns, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra, and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy spectra showed that the formed samples were CeO2 polycrystalline nanoparticles. Inverted organic solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/CeO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/MoO3/Ag were fabricated. Current density-voltage results showed that the power conversion efficiency of the device of the fabricated inverted OPV cells with a CeO2 interlayer between the P3HT:PCBM and the cathode was 0.39% larger than that without a CeO2 interlayer.

  2. Synthesis of fatty acid starch esters in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; van der Knoop, Sjoerd; Keijzer, Danielle; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an exploratory study on the synthesis of fatty acid/potato starch esters using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the solvent. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-25 MPa), temperature (120-150 degrees C) and various basic catalysts and fatty acid der

  3. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

  4. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  5. Levodopa methyl ester increases nerve growth factor expression in visual cortex area 17 in a feline model of strabismic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwen Li; Xing Lin; Shijun Zhang; Rong Li; Weizhe Jiang; Renbin Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a feline model of strabismic amblyopia was established during a sensitive developmental period, and the influence of levodopa methyl ester and levodopa on nerve growth factor expression in the visual cortex (area 17) was compared. Pattern visual-evoked potential and immunohistochemistry results showed that levodopa methyl ester and levodopa treatment shortened P100 wave latency, increased P100 amplitude, and increased the number of endogenous nerve growth factor-positive cells in visual cortex levels. In particular, the effects of levodopa methyl ester were superior to levodopa treatment.

  6. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of a Novel Gold(III Complex with O,O′-Diethyl Ester of Ethylenediamine-N,N′-Di-2-(4-MethylPentanoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pantelić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel gold(III complex, [AuCl2{(S,S-Et2eddl}]PF6, ((S,S-Et2eddl = O,O′-diethyl ester of ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(4-methylpentanoic acid was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1D (1H and 13C, and 2D (H,H-COSY and H,H-NOESY NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Density functional theory calculations confirmed that (R,R-N,N′ diastereoisomer was energetically the most stable isomer. In vitro antitumor action of ligand precursor [(S,S-H2Et2eddl]Cl2 and corresponding gold(III complex was determined against tumor cell lines: human adenocarcinoma (HeLa, human colon carcinoma (LS174, human breast cancer (MCF7, non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (A549, and non-cancerous cell line human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5 using microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay. The results indicate that both ligand precursor and gold(III complex have showed very good to moderate cytotoxic activity against all tested malignant cell lines. The highest activity was expressed by [AuCl2{(S,S-Et2eddl}]PF6 against the LS174 cells, with IC50 value of 7.4 ± 1.2 µM.

  8. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible fats...

  9. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-ethoxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-ylphenyl]benzyl}-1H-1,3-benzodiazole-7-carboxylate ethyl acetate hemisolvate, was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z-2-ethoxy-1-{(2′-(N′-hydroxycarbamimidoyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylate with diphenyl carbonate. There are two independent molecules (A and B with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent molecule in the asymmetric unit. In molecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxadiazole ring is 59.36 (17; the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15 and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11°. The corresponding dihedral angles in molecule B are 58.45 (18, 50.73 (16 and 85.37 (10°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = methyl torsion angles for the ethoxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in molecules A and B are 93.9 (3 and −174.6 (3°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π–π stacking interactions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536 (3Å] are also observed.

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  11. Stereoselective Formation of Trisubstituted Vinyl Boronate Esters by the Acid-Mediated Elimination of α-Hydroxyboronate Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K.; McIntosh, Melissa L.; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P.; Clark, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling re...

  12. Adsorption and wettability study of methyl ester sulphonate on precipitated asphaltene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, H. E.; Sukirman, Y.; Gholami, R.

    2016-03-01

    Asphaltene precipitation from crude oil and its subsequent aggregation forms solid, which preferentially deposit on rock surfaces causing formation damage and wettability changes leading to loss of crude oil production. To resolve this problem, asphaltene inhibitor has been injected into the formation to prevent the precipitation of asphaltene. Asphaltene inhibitors that are usually employed are generally toxic and non-biodegradable. This paper presents a new environmentally friendly asphaltene inhibitor (methyl ester sulphonate), an anionic surfactant, which has excellent sorption on formation rock surfaces. Result from adsorption study validated by Langmuir and Freundlich models indicate a favourable adsorption. At low volumes injected, methyl ester sulphonate is capable of reverting oil-wet sandstone surface to water-wet surface. Biodegradability test profile shows that for concentrations of 100-5000ppm it is biodegradable by 65-80%.

  13. Production of methyl ester from two microalgae by two-step transesterification and direct transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of oil extraction from Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. using different cell disruption and solvent system was investigated. The ultrasound cell disruption method showed the maximum oil extraction in both algae. Oil extraction with hexane resulted in maximum oil yield for both algae. The kinetic parameters were studied and the extraction followed the first-order kinetics. The activation energy and thermodynamic activation parameters were calculated for both microalgae and the results suggested that the extraction was endothermic, irreversible and spontaneous. The methyl ester yields by two-step transesterification and direct transesterification were 95 and 96% for Scenedesmus sp. and 89 and 92% for Chlorella sp. respectively. Both methods had similar net energy consumption suitable for industrial application. The methyl ester properties were analysed in comparison with those of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D6751 standards.

  14. Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Radwan, M.S.; Elfeky, S.M.S. [Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine for the first time the performance and combustion noise of an indirect injection diesel engine running with new fuel derived from pure jojoba oil, jojoba methyl ester, and its blends with gas oil. A Ricardo E6 compression swirl diesel engine was fully instrumented for the measurement of combustion pressure and its rise rate and other operating parameters. Test parameters included the percentage of jojoba methyl ester in the blend, engine speed, load, injection timing and engine compression ratio. Results showed that the new fuel derived from jojoba is generally comparable and a good replacement to gas oil in diesel engine at most engine operating conditions, in terms of performance parameters and combustion noise produced. (author)

  15. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-Methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic Ester Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-Guang; LI Zheng-Ming; YUAN Ping-Wei; WANG Wen-Yan

    2001-01-01

    In search of novel pyrazole derivatives with bioactivity,a se-ries of 3-methyl- 1H-pyrazole-4-caboxylic ester derivatives were synthesized via α-oxoketene dithioacetals as starting ma-terial.The structures of al1 compounds prepared were con-firmed by 1HNMR, IR, MS and elemental analyses.Prelimi-nary bioassays indicated that some compounds showed fungici-dal activity against wheat rust,phoma asparagi and antiviral activity against TMV.

  16. Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Fatty Acid Triester as Biolubricant from Palm-Based Methyl Esters and Trimethylolpropane%棕榈油甲酯制备生物润滑油三羟甲基丙烷脂肪酸三酯的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪勇; 王尔佩; 唐书泽; 张震; Martin J T Reaney

    2013-01-01

    以棕榈油脂肪酸甲酯(fatty acid methyl ester,FAME)和三羟甲基丙烷(trimethylolpropane,TMP)为原料,经酯交换反应制备可用作生物润滑油基础油的三羟甲基丙烷脂肪酸三酯(trimethylolpropane fatty acid tiester,TFATE).通过比较FAME的转化率和TFATE在反应混合物中的含量,探讨了催化剂种类、催化剂用量、反应时间、反应温度、反应物物质的量比及真空度对反应的影响.最佳合成条件为:催化剂为三羟甲基丙烷钾(Trimethylolpropane mono potassium salt,TMP-K),催化剂添加量为TMP-K与TMP物质的量比0.02:1,反应时间1h,反应温度128℃,FAME与TMP物质的量比4∶1,反应压力为300 Pa,在此条件下,脂肪酸甲酯的转化率为91.78%,反应混合物中TFATE质量分数为90.11%.经分子蒸馏分离纯化后终产品TFATE质量分数为97.02%.%The trimethylolpropane fatty acid triester (TFATE) .which was used as base oil for biolubricants,was synthesized by transesterification of the raw materials of palm oil fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME ) and trimethylolpropane (TMP). Reaction parameters, including catalyst type, catalyst dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature, mole ratio of FAME to TMP and the influence of vacuum on reaction, were investigated by comparing the conversion efficiency of FAME and TFATE content in the reaction mixture. Results showed that trimethylolpropane mono potassium salt (TMP - K) did the best performance for the reaction,and the optimal reaction parameters were listed as follows; mole ratio of TMP - K to TMP of 0. 02= 1,mole ratio of FAME to TMP of 4: 1,reaction pressure of 300 Pa,reaction temperature of 128℃ and reaction time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the reaction mixture contained 90. 11wt% TFATE and the conversion ratio of FAME reached 91. 78%. After removal of trimethylolpropane fatty acid monoester (TFAME) and unreacted FAME by molecular distillation,the content of TFATE in the final product was 97.02wt%.

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Jojoba Oil Methyl Ester as Biodiesel and as Blend Components in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis L.) produces seeds that contain around 50 to 60 weight percent of inedible long-chain wax esters that are suitable as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. A Jojoba oil methyl ester (JME) was prepared in effort to evaluate an important fuel propertie...

  18. In vitro pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.R. Litjens (Nicolle); E. van Strijen (Elizabeth); C. van Gulpen (Co); H. Mattie (Herman); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); H.B. Thio (Bing); P.H. Nibbering (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can be successfully treated with a mixture of fumaric acid esters (FAE) formulated as enteric-coated tablets for oral use. These tablets consist of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) and its main b

  19. Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel components (fatty acid alkyl esters) and related compounds at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Knothe; Kevin R. Steidley [US Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States). National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats is, has undergone rapid development and acceptance as an alternative diesel fuel. Kinematic viscosity is one of the fuel properties specified in biodiesel standards, with 40{sup o}C being the temperature at which this property is to be determined and ranges of acceptable kinematic viscosity given. While data on kinematic viscosity of biodiesel and related materials at higher temperatures are available in the literature, this work reports on the kinematic viscosity of biodiesel and a variety of fatty acid alkyl esters at temperatures from 40{sup o}C down to -10{sup o}C in increments of 5{sup o}C using the appropriately modified standard reference method ASTM D445. Investigating the low-temperature properties of biodiesel, including viscosity, of biodiesel and its components is important because of the problems associated with the use of biodiesel under these conditions. Such data may aid in developing biodiesel fuels optimized for fatty ester composition. An index termed here the low-temperature viscosity ratio (LTVR) using data at 0{sup o}C and 40{sup o}C (divide viscosity value at 0{sup o}C by viscosity value at 40{sup o}C) was used to evaluate individual compounds but also mixtures by their low-temperature viscosity behavior. Compounds tested included a variety of saturated, monounsaturated, diunsaturated and triunsaturated fatty esters, methyl ricinoleate, in which the OH group leads to a significant increase in viscosity as well as triolein, as well as some fatty alcohols and alkanes. Esters of oleic acid have the highest viscosity of all biodiesel components that are liquids at low temperatures. The behavior of blends of biodiesel and some fatty esters with a low-sulfur diesel fuel was also investigated. 28 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Synthesis and insecticidal activities of new pyrethroid acid oxime ester derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage in place of the ester linkage in pyrethroid ester are designed and prepared. Bioassay data of insecticidal activities of these compounds on Ostrinia nubilalis (H.) and Culex pipines (L.) are presented. Among them 4-dimethyaminobenzaldehyde oxime ester of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 4-dimethyamino benzaldehyde oxime ester of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are found to be potent insecticide against Ostrinia nubilalis (H.). Structure-activity relationship of the compounds is discussed.

  1. BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS OF COTTON SEEDS OIL (CEIBAPENTANDRA BY CHEMICALLY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS AND ION FRAGMENTATION OF METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel is commercial energy sources in many communities where their abundance progressively reduced and the resulting environmental pollution. Biodiesel is one alternative fuel made from vegetable which oils are suitable to replace the function of fossil fuels and environmentally friendly. Synthesis of biodiesel from cotton seeds oil was carried out by chemically ransesterification process. Composition of methyl esters in biodiesel thatwas analyzed by GC-MS are methyl palmitate (16.71%, methyl 8,11-octadecadienoic (46.45 % and methyl linoleate (4.21 %.The highest amount of biodiesel conversion isat ratio of oil and methanol (1:1 with the catalyst 1% (weight of oil. The produced biodiesel was 93.7 %. Chemical properties of the produced biodiesel meets the standard SNI 04-7182-2006 i.e. saponification value of 120.167 mg KOH / g, acid value of 0.28 mg KOH / g and iod value 55.84g iod/100g of sample.

  2. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4- Butanediol, Adipic... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester... residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4-butanediol, adipic acid,...

  3. Purification and characterization of solvent tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. for methyl ester production from algal oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2016-05-01

    Lipase from Bacillus sp. isolated from the oil contaminated soil was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography with a 5.1-fold purification and 10.5% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis of the enzyme revealed the molecular mass of 24 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for lipase activity were 6.5 and 37°C, respectively. The isolated lipase was stimulated by pretreatment with methanol and ethanol as well as by divalent metal ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). The enzyme showed high activity towards oleic rich oils. The enzyme immobilized on celite could retain 90% lipase activity after eight cycles. Transesterification of Botryococcus sp. oil using the immobilized enzyme for 40 h resulted in 80% yield of fatty acid methyl esters which had good properties for use as biodiesel. Overall results suggested that the solvent tolerant Bacillus lipase can be a potential biocatalyst for methyl ester production. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epoxidation of methyl esters derived from Jatropha oil: An optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq, M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the epoxidation reaction of methyl esters obtained from Jatropha oil was appraised. Response surface methodology (RSM based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed for the experimental design. Four reaction variables namely hydrogen peroxide/ C=C mole ratio, formic acid/C=C mole ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were evaluated. The optimum epoxidation conditions calculated by the quadratic model were 3.12 moles of hydrogen peroxide/C=C moles, 0.96 moles of formic acid/C=C moles, a reaction temperature of 70.0 °C and a reaction time of 277 minutes. A reaction optimized by the proposed process parameters provided a yield of 92.89 ± 1.29 wt.% with relatively improved reaction time. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction temperature were found to be the most significant variables while reaction temperature and hydrogen peroxide showed strong interactions. The epoxidized methyl esters were analyzed using FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. This study suggested relatively higher molar ratio of formic acid required than was proposed in the literature.

    Se ha evaluado la optimización de la reacción de epoxidación de ésteres metílicos obtenidos a partir de aceite de Jatropha. Se ha empleado para el diseño experimental una metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM, basada en un diseño compuesto central giratorio (CCRD. Cuatro variables de la reacción fueron evaluadas: relación molar peróxido de hidrógeno/C=C, relación molar ácido fórmico/C=C, temperatura de reacción y tiempo de reacción. Las condiciones óptimas de epoxidación calculadas por el modelo cuadrático fueron 3.12 moles de peróxido de hidrógeno/C=C moles, 0.96 moles de ácido fórmico/C=C moles, una temperatura de reacción de 70.0 °C y un tiempo de reacción de 277 minutos. Una reacción optimizada mediante los parámetros propuestos del proceso proporciona un rendimiento de 92.89

  5. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-08-16

    Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu(2+) cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu(2+), and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  8. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  9. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  10. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2900 - Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2900 Substituted aminobenzoic acid ester (generic name). (a) Chemical... acid ester (PMN P-84-951) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  13. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane... permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  15. 78 FR 70878 - Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester With 2-Methyloxirane Polymer With Oxirane...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester With 2- Methyloxirane Polymer... residues of Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester with 2-Methyloxirane Polymer with Oxirane... a maximum permissible level for residues of Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  17. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  18. 76 FR 8895 - Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With Aminoalcohol Alkoxylates; Exemption From the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With Aminoalcohol Alkoxylates; Exemption From the... acid esters with aminoalcohol alkoxylates (PFAEAA) with a minimum number average molecular weight (in... tolerance for residues of polymerized fatty acid esters with aminoalcohol alkoxylates (PFAEAA); limited to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  3. Marinamide, a novel alkaloid and its methyl ester produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Feng; LIN Yongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-isoquinolone analog designated as marinamide (A) and its methyl ester (B), were produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi (strains Nos. 1924 and 3893) from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectra methods (mainly by 2D NMR) as 4- (2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylic acid (A) and methyl 4-(2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylate (B), respectively. Compounds A and B were not obtained when either strain was cultured individually under the same conditions. The results showed that the application of mixed fermentation technique maybe rep- resents a potentially important approach to discover novel metabolites.

  4. Joint effects of dithiophosphoric acid ester and antioxidants on performance properties of mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borshchevskii, S.B.; Shabanova, Ye.V.; Zagorodnyy, N.G.; Trofimov, G.A.

    1982-05-01

    High temperatures, catalytic effects of metals and environmental oxidation bring significant changes in lubricating oils. The joint effects of the methylbenzyl ester of diisobutyldithiophosphoric acid and various phenol and amine antioxidant additives were studied. At 200/sup 0/C, 2,2-methylene-bis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) and 2,6-di(tert-butyl)-4-methylphenol had a prooxidational effect, while 4,4-methylene-bis(2,6(tert-butyl)phenol), phenol-alpha-naphthylamine and the mixed products of phenol alkylation by styrene (A0-20) inhibited oxidation. A0-20 reduced the methylbenzyl ester's prooxidational action, while the others had little effect. At 180/sup 0/C in the presence of copper, all tested antioxidants but A0-20 inhibited oxidation and the methylbenzyl ester increased that action. Little change was noted in the M-11 lubricating oil tested because of the additives. The combination of A0-20 and the ester improved antiwear, antiscratch and antioxidation properties better than other combinations. 4 references, 2 figures.

  5. Use of citric acid esters as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Georg; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany); Schieder, Doris [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemie Biogener Rohstoffe

    2013-06-01

    Common fuels for (adapted) diesel engines are fossil diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME or biodiesel) or vegetable oils. Furthermore the citric acid esters tributylcitrate (TBC) and triethylcitrate (TEC) are expected to be a possible diesel substitute. Their use as fuel was applied for a patent in Germany in 2010. According to the patent applicant the advantages are low soot combustion, independence of energy imports due to the possibility of local production and a broad raw material base. Their fuel properties have been analysed in the laboratory and compared with the relevant fuel standards. Only some of the determined values are meeting the specifications, but on the other hand few rapeseed oil characteristics (e. g. oxidation stability and viscosity) can be improved if the citric acid esters are used as a blend component. The operating and emission behaviour of a vegetable oil compatible CHP unit fuelled with various rapeseed oil and TBC blends were investigated and a trouble free and soot emission reduced engine operation due to the high molecularly bound oxygen content was observed. Long term test runs are necessary for an entire technical validation. (orig.)

  6. Fatty-acid alkyl esters in table olives in relation to abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, B.; Serio, M.G. di; Giacinto, L. di

    2016-07-01

    There are several methods to prepare table olives, and each of the steps and conditions during this processing can affect the composition and nutritional value of the product. The influence of abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments was examined here in terms of the lipid fraction of table olives. In ‘Greek style’ olives, a low concentration of brine can allow the growth of spontaneous microflora and consequent organoleptic defects (‘putrid/butyric fermentation’, ‘winey-vinegary’). Here, the ‘Kalamata’ and ‘Moresca’ cultivars can produce methyl esters (methyl oleate/ linoleate: 553 and 450 mg·kg−1 oil, respectively) and ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ inoleate: 4764 and 4195; palmitate: 617 and 886 mg·kg −1 oil, respectively). In ‘Sevillan style’ olives, a high NaOH concentration influences the fatty-acid composition less, but is difficult to eliminate, for a ‘soapy’ defect. The ‘Giarraffa’ and ‘Nocellara del Belice’ cultivars produce only ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ linoleate: 222 and 289 mg·kg−1 oil, respectively). With this production of ethyl and methyl esters from the principal fatty acids in the lipid fractions of table olives, methods that provide only biological treatments (i.e., Greek style) pose more risk than methods that provide only chemical treatments (i.e., Sevillan style). (Author)

  7. Fatty-acid alkyl esters in table olives in relation to abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanza, B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods to prepare table olives, and each of the steps and conditions during this processing can affect the composition and nutritional value of the product. The influence of abnormal fermentation and poorly conducted technological treatments was examined here in terms of the lipid fraction of table olives. In ‘Greek style’ olives, a low concentration of brine can allow the growth of spontaneous microflora and consequent organoleptic defects (‘putrid/butyric fermentation’, ‘winey-vinegary’. Here, the ‘Kalamata’ and ‘Moresca’ cultivars can produce methyl esters (methyl oleate/ linoleate: 553 and 450 mg·kg-1 oil, respectively and ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ inoleate: 4764 and 4195; palmitate: 617 and 886 mg·kg-1 oil, respectively. In ‘Sevillan style’ olives, a high NaOH concentration influences the fatty-acid composition less, but is difficult to eliminate, for a ‘soapy’ defect. The ‘Giarraffa’ and ‘Nocellara del Belice’ cultivars produce only ethyl esters (ethyl oleate/ linoleate: 222 and 289 mg·kg-1 oil, respectively. With this production of ethyl and methyl esters from the principal fatty acids in the lipid fractions of table olives, methods that provide only biological treatments (i.e., Greek style pose more risk than methods that provide only chemical treatments (i.e., Sevillan style.H

  8. Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters by Novozym 435 in tert-butanol ... Novozym 435 was used to catalyze the synthesis of fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters in tert-butanol using methyl palmitate, ... Article Metrics.

  9. Oviposition response ofLobesia botrana females to long-chain free fatty acids and esters from its eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D

    1996-01-01

    Avoidance of occupied ovisposition sites supposes that females perceive information related to their own progency. Fatty acids identified from egg extracts have been reevaluated using a different extraction method, and we have investigated the dose-dependent oviposition response of European grape vine moths (Lobesia botrana) to myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, and ethyl palmitate; all except ethyl palmitate have been identified from eggs ofL. botrana. A methylene dichloride extract of eggs fromL. botrana revealed the presence of saturated free fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, and stearic) and unsaturated acids (palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) in amounts ranging from 3.9 ng/egg equivalent for myristic acid to 30 ng/egg equivalent for palmitic and oleic acids. The extract also contained traces of methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. The greatest avoidance indexes were observed in response to palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. All the other compounds tested caused weaker responses. A reduction in the number of eggs laid was observed when moths were exposed to each of the esters applied at 0.3 µg per application spot. Reduction in eggs laid was also observed at a 10-fold higher dose of oleic acid. The present results confirm that general and simple molecules can be involved in the regulation of oviposition site selection and that they may participate in chemical marking of the eggs.

  10. Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; Elfeky, S.M.S.; Abu-Elyazeed, O.S.M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, University of Helwan, Masakin Elhelmia, Mattaria, Cairo 11718 (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the present work is to prepare jojoba methyl ester (JME) as a diesel fuel substitute. This was carried out experimentally and its chemical and physical properties were determined. Esterification method is used to produce methyl ester from raw jojoba oil. This method is optimized to produce the highest amount of fuel using a minimum amount of methyl alcohol. To achieve the above aim, a test rig for fuel production was developed. To measure the JME burning velocity a constant volume bomb was developed. The bomb was fully instrumented with a piezoelectric pressure transducer, charge amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope, A/D converter and a personal computer. Several grades of fuel were produced but, two grades only were selected and tested as an economical alternative fuel. The chemical and physical properties of these grades of fuel are measured as well as the laminar burning velocity. It is found that JME liquid fuel exhibited lower burning velocities than iso-octane. The new fuel is found to be suitable for compression ignition engine particularly in the indirect-injection ones, while for direct-injection, and high-speed engines fuel modifications are required. The new fuel is safe, has no sulphur content and reduces the engine wear as well as lengthens the lifetime of lubricating oil. (author)

  11. The influence of natural and synthetic antioxidant on oxidation stability and emission of sapota oil methyl ester as fuel in CI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study oxidation stability of sapota oil methyl ester with synthetic and natural antioxidant additives using Rancimat test is investigate. The performance and emission characteristics of the B20 blend of sapota oil methyl ester with different antioxidant additive are evaluated in a Diesel engine. The natural antioxidants namely citric acid, rosemary extract and leaf extract and synthetic antioxidants namely pyrogallol, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxylanisole are selected. Addition of all the antioxidant additive found to have improved the oxidation stability of the biodiesel to the required level. Pyrogallol is found to be the best among the synthetic antioxidant, while leaf extract is the best among the natural antioxidant. From the emission test it is found that B20 has better emission characters compared to diesel except NOx. Further the addition of leaf extract slightly reduces the NOx emission of B20 and appreciably suppresses smoke emission.

  12. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  13. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  14. Properties of a new gasoline oxygenate blend component: 3-Hydroxybutyrate methyl ester produced from bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shen Yu.; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ming Ming; Zhang, Xiao Jun [Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Xu, Yu. [Oilcare Oil Test Laboratory of China National Analytical Center, 6th Floor, Building 34, No. 100, Xian Lie Zhong Road, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang [Dept Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    3-Hydroxybutyrate methyl ester (HBME) was prepared from hydrolysis of bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using methanol as an esterification agent in the presence of sulfuric acid. Physicochemical and fuel related properties of HBME were studied for the possibility of using HBME as a gasoline additive. When HBME was blended with 97 gasoline in volume ratios of 5%, 8.5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively, it was found that HBME had similar or better properties as a fuel additive compared with ethanol in terms of oxygen content, dynamic viscosity, flash point and boiling point. The blending of HBME and gasoline showed only little difference compared with the 97 gasoline in terms of octane number (RON) and distillation ranges, especially for the HBME 8.5% and 10% blends, which demonstrated an over 93% combustion heat of gasoline with less than 5% reduction in RON. (author)

  15. Crystal Structure of the N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-alanyl-phenylalanyl-methyl Ester: The Importance of the H-Bonding Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Alfonso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Large crystals of the methyl ester of the N-a-benzyloxycarbonyl protected Ala-Phe dipeptide (Z-AF-OMe were obtained after the very slow evaporation of a solution of the corresponding carboxylic acid (Z-AF-OH in methanol containing an excess of HCl. The structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 5.0655(6 Å, b = 8.4614(8 Å, c = 46.856(5 Å, V = 2008.3(4 Å3, Z = 4. In the crystal, the molecules form hydrogen bonded chains running along the a axis of the unit cell. Other secondary interactions are also discussed.

  16. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  17. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  18. Evaluation of salicylic acid fatty ester prodrugs for UV protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Seob; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jung Sun; Jeon, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and in vitro evaluation of fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid for ultraviolet (UV) protection. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, chemical stability and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with the following fatty ester prodrugs of salicylic acid: octanoyl (C8SA), nonanoyl (C9SA), decanoyl (C10SA), lauroyl (C12SA), myristoyl (C14SA) and palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA). Furthermore, their skin permeation and accumulation were evaluated using a combination of common permeation enhancing techniques such as the use of a lipophilic receptor solution, removal of stratum corneum and delipidization of skin. Their k' values were proportional to the degree of carbon-carbon saturation in the side chain. All these fatty esters were highly stable in 2-propanol, acetonitrile and glycerin, but unstable in methanol and ethanol. They were relatively unstable in liver and skin homogenates. In particular, C16SA was mostly hydrolyzed to its parent compound in hairless mouse liver and skin homogenates, suggesting that it might be converted to salicylic acid after its topical administration. In the skin permeation and accumulation study, C16SA showed the poorest permeation in all skins, suggesting that it could not be permeated in the skin. Furthermore, C14SA and C16SA were less accumulated in delipidized skin compared with normal skin or stripped skin, suggesting that these esters had relatively strong affinities for lipids compared with the other prodrugs in the skin. C16SA showed significantly higher dermal accumulation in all skins compared with its parent salicylic acid. Thus, the palmitoyl oxysalicylate (C16SA) might be a potential candidate for UV protection due to its absence of skin permeation, smaller uptake in the lipid phase and relatively lower skin accumulation.

  19. The Zinc Mediated Condensation of Amino Acid Esters with Imines to b-Lactams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.

    1993-01-01

    An experimentally attractive stereoselectie 'one pot' synthesis of beta-lactams is described. This route is based on the zinc mediated condensation of an alpha-amino acid ester with an imine via a zinc ester enolate. Making use of proper substituents in both the amino acid ester and the imine the st

  20. 40 CFR 721.10165 - Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10165 Section 721.10165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10165 Carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical... carbonotrithioic acid, bis(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN P-08-138; CAS No.26504-29-0) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 78 FR 46283 - Modification of Significant New Uses of Ethaneperoxoic Acid, 1,1-Dimethylpropyl Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...- Dimethylpropyl Ester AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Under the Toxic... chemical substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1- dimethylpropyl ester, which was the subject of... substance identified as ethaneperoxoic acid, 1,1-dimethylpropyl ester, (PMN P-85-680). Potentially...

  4. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1579 - 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1579 Section 721.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1579 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester. (a) Chemical substance...-benzenetricarboxylic acid, tris ester (PMN P-98-1165; CAS No. 196109-17-8) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester with pentaerythritol. 721.3680 Section 721.3680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester (PMN P-89-1058) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3450 - Esters of stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. 178.3450 Section 178.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3450 Esters of stearic and palmitic acids. The ester...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... esters. 721.9965 Section 721.9965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical... acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters (PMN P-97-482; CAS No. 184785-38-4) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic..., PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3780 Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids identified in...

  12. Study of TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of bovine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, J; Black, W D; Gentry, P A

    1978-07-01

    The TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of mature and immature bovine plasma was studied and compared with the activity of this enzyme in human plasma. Kaolin activation of 2 minutes was required to produce maximal activation in cattle, as compared with 1 minute activation in man. The kaolin-activated TAMe esterase values in bovine plasma were approximately one-half the values found in human plasma. The activity of this enzyme was statistically greater in immature than in mature cattle (P less than 0.05) at kaolin activation times of 1, 2, 15, and 20 minutes.

  13. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  14. How to identify and discriminate between the methyl quinates of chlorogenic acids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-03-01

    The methyl esters of chlorogenic acids, methyl quinates, are widely distributed in plant materials and frequently appear as extraction artifacts in plant samples. This is the first time when liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been used for the identification and characterization of the methyl quinates. For this purpose, methyl quinates of mono caffeoylquinic acids and mono feruloylquinic acids were synthesized as authentic standards. The methyl quinates of mono and diacyl chlorogenic acids have shown characteristic fragmentation pattern in their tandem mass spectra. MS(n + 1) spectra of the methyl quinates of diacyl chlorogenic acids were identical to MS(n) spectra of mono acyl derivatives. These quinates do not produce any methyl quinate peak at m/z 205 if compared with quinic acid peak at m/z 191 in negative ion mode. In the MS(n) spectra of these quinates, cinnamic acid part or cinnamoyl part was detected as a base peak in negative ion mode. The retention time, order of elution and fragmentation pattern were completely different if compared with LC-MS(n) methods developed for chlorogenic acids. These LC-MS(n) methods have been applied for the identification and regioisomeric characterization of the methyl quinates of chlorogenic acids in maté tea and woodruff (Galium odoratum). Two methyl caffeoylquinates (2 and 4) were identified as methyl 3-caffeoylquinate and methyl 5-caffeoylquinate.

  15. Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    CERN Document Server

    Bennadji, Hayet; Coniglio-Jaubert, Lucie; Billaud, Francis; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Autoignition delay times, ?, of methyl crotonate, methyl acrylate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl crotonate, and ethyl acrylate were studied in shock tube experiments. A series of mixtures diluted with argon, of varying fuel/oxygen equivalence ratios (?=0.25, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1280-1930 K, pressure range of 7-9.65 atm, during which the logarithm of ? varies linearly as a function of the inverse temperature for all equivalence ratios. The ignition delay time decreases as temperature rises. The dependence of ? on temperature, and reactant concentrations is given in an empirical correlation. The results provide a database for the validation of small saturated and unsaturated esters kinetic mechanisms at elevated temperatures and pressure combustion.

  16. Cu(I)-catalyzed (11)C carboxylation of boronic acid esters: a rapid and convenient entry to (11)C-labeled carboxylic acids, esters, and amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riss, Patrick J; Lu, Shuiyu; Telu, Sanjay; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Pike, Victor W

    2012-03-12

    Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl).

  17. Exploring unsaturated fatty acid cholesteryl esters as transdermal permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic protective barrier property of skin, one of the major challenges in the design of transdermal drug delivery systems, can be overcome through the use of chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs). Herein, we explore the potential of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) esters of cholesterol (Chol) viz., oleate, linoleate and linolenate, as transdermal CPEs using tenofovir (TNF) as a model drug. All Chol UFA esters at 1% w/w were found to be more effective enhancers when compared to their respective parent fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FA counterparts. Cholesteryl linolenate (Chol-LLA) showed the most superior performance (enhancement ratio (ER) = 3.71). The greatest ER for Chol-LLA (5.93) was achieved at a concentration of 2% w/w. The histomorphological and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) evaluations supported the results of the permeability studies. These findings showed no significant loss in the integrity of the epidermis, with drug and enhancer treatment having temporary effects on the barrier property of the epidermis. Chol UFA esters can therefore be considered as new CPEs for exploitation in topical formulations for various classes of drugs.

  18. Effect of Erythroxylum coca, cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester as dietary supplements on energy metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burczynski, F J; Boni, R L; Erickson, J; Vitti, T G

    1986-06-01

    The effects of dietary supplements of cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, a coca leaf extract and powdered coca leaves on body weight and overall body metabolism were studied in the rat. Respiratory quotient was measured to assess the relative utilization of fats, carbohydrates and protein. The effect of cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester on protein metabolism was also assessed in terms of changes in the relative state of nitrogen balance. Rats maintained on a low protein/high carbohydrate diet containing cocaine (1 mg/g) exhibited normal body weight gain on normal food intake. Rats on the same diet with 2 mg/g cocaine as the hydrochloride or as coca dextrin lost weight, which was apparently related to diminished food intake. In contrast, rats received the same high level of cocaine as coca leaf powder in the same diet had minimal weight gain in spite of a high food intake. In contrast, rats receiving the same high level of cocaine as ly, rats receiving the same high level of cocaine (2 mg/g) in a high protein diet had normal food intake and body weight gain. An adequate protein diet appears to compensate for whatever inhibiting effect is imposed on the body by the high levels of cocaine. Ecgonine methyl ester appears to have no significant effect on food intake or body weight. Rats fed the low protein/high carbohydrate diet containing either the low (1 mg/g) or the high (2 mg/g) cocaine level exhibited significantly depressed respiratory quotients (near 0.75) suggesting increased fat utilization. The magnitude of the reduction appeared to be dose-related. Yet, the respiratory quotient of the rats receiving the high level of cocaine in a high protein diet remained at normal control values. Also, in a separate nitrogen balance-type of experiment, rats receiving the low level of cocaine (1 mg/g low protein/high carbohydrate diet) exhibited a normal ability to accumulate body nitrogen, presumably protein. These results support the idea that under conditions of protein

  19. Chiral recognition of N-phthaloyl, N-tetrachlorophthaloyl, and N-naphthaloyl α-amino acids and their esters on polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Hyoun; Lee, Sang Uck; Moon, Dong Cheul

    2012-12-01

    Enantiomeric separations of N-phthaloyl (N-PHT), N-tetrachlorophthaloyl (N-TCPHT), and N-naphthaloyl (N-NPHT) α-amino acids and their esters were examined on several kinds of polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs). Resolution capability of CSPs was greater Chiralcel OF than the others for N-PHT and N-NPHT α-amino acids and their esters. In N-TCPHT α-amino acids and their esters, good enantioselectivities showed Chiralcel OG for N-TCPHT α-amino acids, Chiralpak AD for N-TCPHT α-amino acid methyl esters, and Chiralcel OD for N-TCPHT α-amino acid ethyl esters, respectively. From the results of liquid chromatography and computational chemistry, it is concluded that l-form is preferred and more retained with electrostatic interaction in case of interaction between N-PHT α-amino acid derivatives and Chiralcel OF, N-TCPHT α-amino acid derivatives and Chiralcel OD, and N-NPHT α-amino acid derivatives and Chiracel OF. On the other hand, d-form is preferred and more retained with van der Waals interaction in case of interaction between N-TCPHT α-amino acid ester derivatives and Chiralcel OG and Chiralpak AD.

  20. Application of lipase technology for transesterification of fatty acid ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO SULISTYO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the potency of microbial extracellular enzyme for synthesis of fatty acid ester. Further investigation was aimed to study capacity of the enzyme on bioprocess of crude palm oil by transesterification of saturated fatty acid to fatty acid ester. We have studied some lipases from culture filtrate of Candida rugosa FM-9301, Bacillus subtilis FM-9101 and Pseudomonas aerogenes FM-9201, which were preincubated in a medium containing olive oil as inducers, using a shaker under conditions that allowed for lipase production at pH 4.5-6.5 and room temperature for 5 days. Those strains shown different activities during the hydrolysis of substrates, which resulted in decreasing or increasing free fatty acids those, were liberated from media containing crude palm oil and organic solvents. The optimal transesterification condition was at temperature of 45-50C and at pH 4.5 for C. rugosa and pH 6.0 to 7.0 for P. aerogenes and B. subtilis. Under the enzyme concentration of 50% (v/v, the transesterification was rapidly occurred, while at the concentration of 20% (v/v the enzymatically biosynthesis required longer incubation period. The substrates incubated with C. rugosa lipase exhibited higher linoleic and linolenic acid (7.16 and 2.15%, respectively, than that of B. subtilis lipase (4.85% and 1.43%, respectively, while P. aerogenes lipase (3.73% and 1.11%, respectively.

  1. Effects of antioxidant additives on exhaust emissions reduction in compression ignition engine fueled with methyl ester of annona oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, biodiesel is a cleaner burning alternative fuel to the Neat diesel fuel. However, several studies are pointed out that increase in NOx emission for biodiesel when compared with the Neat diesel fuel. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of antioxidant (p-phenylenediamine on engine emissions of a Diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of annona oil. The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040% (w/w with methyl ester of annona oil. Result shows that antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+P200 is effective in control of NOx and HC emission of methyl ester of annona oil fuelled engine without doing any engine modification.

  2. Combustion and Vibration Analysis of Idi- Diesel Engine Fuelled With Neat Preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Ashok Kumar Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentation is conducted on an IDI diesel engine and the results of combustion and vibration on IDI -Diesel engine fueled with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME are presented. The Present research trend is to replace conventional diesel by renewable alternative fuels in view of fast depletion of petroleum reserves and to reduce the exhaust emissions from the engines without altering the basic design of the engine. Due to moderately higher viscosity effects, the direct use of biodiesel in C.I. engines is limited to 20% and the limitation is based on the NO emission also. In this work, the biodiesel is preheated using on line electronically controlled electrical preheating system before it enters into the injector. Experiments are conducted on a four stroke single cylinder IDI engine to find combustion and vibration characteristics of the engine with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME heated to temperatures viz. 60,70,80,90 and 1000C. Normally thin oils due to heating may trigger fast burning leading to either detonation or knocking of the engine. This can be predicted by recording vibration on the cylinder head in different directions. The cylinder vibrations in the form of FFT and time waves have been analyzed to estimate the combustion propensity. Experiments are done using diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel at different preheated temperatures and for different engine loading conditions keeping the speed constant at 1500 rpm. Biodiesel preheated to 600C proved encouraging in all respects.

  3. Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey); Bayindir, Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, performance and emissions of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine was experimentally investigated. For the study, cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was added to diesel fuel, numbered D2, by volume of 5%(B5), 20%(B20), 50%(B50) and 75%(B75) as well as pure CSOME (B100). Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled diesel engine. The effects of CSOME-diesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined at various engine speeds and full loaded engine. The effect of B5, B20, B50, B75, B100 and D2 on the engine power, engine torque, bsfc's and exhaust gasses temperature were clarified by the performance tests. The influences of blends on CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The experimental results showed that the use of the lower blends (B5) slightly increases the engine torque at medium and higher speeds in compression ignition engines. However, there were no significant differences in performance values of B5, B20 and diesel fuel. Also with the increase of the biodiesel in blends, the exhaust emissions were reduced. The experimental results showed that the lower contents of CSOME in the blends can partially be substituted for the diesel fuel without any modifications in diesel engines. (author)

  4. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-05-01

    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  5. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalakshmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO and its methyl ester (NOME on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at full load, peak cylinder pressure is higher for NOME; peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase is lower for neat NeO and NOME. Ignition delay is lower for neat NeO and NOME when compared with diesel at full load. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly lower for NeO at all engine loads, but in the case of NOME slightly higher at full load. It has been observed that there is a reduction in NOx emission for neem oil and its methyl ester along with an increase in CO, HC and smoke emissions.

  6. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  7. Synthesis, molecular modeling studies and anticonvulsant activity of certain (1-(benzyl (aryl) amino) cyclohexyl) methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Walaa Hamada; Aboutabl, Mona Elsayed; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed Nabil; El-Azzouny, Aida Abdel Sattar

    2017-04-01

    A series of (1-(benzyl (aryl) amino) cyclohexyl) methyl esters 7a-n were prepared and screened for their anticonvulsant profile. Screening of these esters 7a-n and their starting alcohols 6a and 6b revealed that compound 7k was the most potent one in the scPTZ screening test with an ED50 value of 0.0056mmol/kg being about 10- and 164-fold more potent than phenobarbital (ED50=0.056mmol/kg) and ethosuximide (ED50=0.92mmol/kg) as reference drugs, respectively. Meanwhile, in the MES test, compounds 7b and 7k at doses 0.0821mmol/kg and 0.0334mmol/kg, exerted 66% and 50% protection of the tested mice, respectively, compared with diphenylhydantoin, which exerted 100% protection at dose 0.16mmol/kg. In the neurotoxicity screen test, almost all esters 7a-n did not show any minimal motor impairment at the maximum administrated dose. The anticonvulsant effectiveness of esters 7a-n was higher than their corresponding alcohols 6a and 6b. Compounds 7b and 7k exhibited pronounced anticonvulsant activity devoid of neurotoxicity in minimal motor impairment test and hepatotoxicity in the serum enzyme activity assay. 3D pharmacophore model using Discovery Studio 2.5 programs showed high fit value. The obtained experimental results of sc-PTZ activity of compounds 7a-n was consistent with the molecular modeling study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Benzyl Ester Group of Amino Acid Monomers Enhances Substrate Affinity and Broadens the Substrate Specificity of the Enzyme Catalyst in Chemoenzymatic Copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Tateishi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-11

    The chemoenzymatic polymerization of amino acid monomers by proteases involves a two-step reaction: the formation of a covalent acyl-intermediate complex between the protease and the carboxyl ester group of the monomer and the subsequent deacylation of the complex by aminolysis to form a peptide bond. Although the initiation with the ester group of the monomer is an important step, the influence of the ester group on the polymerization has not been studied in detail. Herein, we studied the effect of the ester groups (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters) of alanine and glycine on the synthesis of peptides using papain as the catalyst. Alanine and glycine were selected as monomers because of their substantially different affinities toward papain. The efficiency of the polymerization of alanine and glycine benzyl esters was much greater than that of the other esters. The benzyl ester group therefore allowed papain to equally polymerize alanine and glycine, even though the affinity of alanine toward papain is substantially higher. The characterization of the copolymers of alanine and glycine in terms of the secondary structure and thermal properties revealed that the thermal stability of the peptides depends on the amino acid composition and resultant secondary structure. The current results indicate that the nature of the ester group drastically affects the polymerization efficiency and broadens the substrate specificity of the protease.

  9. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to st...

  10. Synthesis of 3-(1-Methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)propanoic Acid and (E)-3-(1-Methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)acrylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Christopher M; Shojaie, Jalil; Lau, Serrine S; Anders, M W

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of 3-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)acrylic acid and 3-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)propanoic acid, mitochondria-targeted prodrugs of the antioxidant methimazole, are described. The method of Fan et al. (Fan et al., Synthesis2006, 2286) for the reaction of phenols with propiolic acid and propiolate esters was modified to synthesize (E)-3-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)acrylic acid. The intermediate tert-butyl (E)-3-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)acrylate was prepared by the reaction of tert-butyl propiolate with methimazole; the use of tert-butyl propiolate rather than methyl propiolate gave tert-butyl (E)-3-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)acrylate as the predominant isomer. Acid hydrolysis of the intermediate ester afforded the target compound. 3-(1-Methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylthio)propanoic acid was synthesized from 3-bromopropanoic acid and methimazole under conditions that gave preferential substitution on sulfur and minimized substitution on nitrogen.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkanediyl ester (generic). 721.10142 Section 721.10142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6075 - Phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester. 721.6075 Section 721.6075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-methylethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphonic acid, 1,1-methylenebis-tetrakis(1-methylethyl) ester (PMN P-95-168)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to reporting...

  14. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  15. Effect of caffeic acid esters on carcinogen-induced mutagenicity and human colon adenocarcinoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Desai, D; Kaul, B; Amin, S; Reddy, B S

    1992-11-16

    Propolis, a honey bee hive product, is thought to exhibit a broad spectrum of activities including antibiotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and tumor growth inhibition; some of the observed biological activities may be due to caffeic acid (cinnamic acid) esters that are present in propolis. In the present study we synthesized three caffeic acid esters, namely methyl caffeate (MC), phenylethyl caffeate (PEC) and phenylethyl dimethylcaffeate (PEDMC) and tested them against the 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl, (DMAB, a colon and mammary carcinogen)-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Also, the effect of these agents on the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma, HT-29 cells and activities of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was studied. Mutagenicity was induced in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 plus S9 activation using 5 and 10 micrograms DMAB and antimutagenic activities of 0-150 microM MC, 0-60 microM PEC and 0-80 microM PEDMC were determined. The results indicate that MC, PEC and PEDMC were not mutagenic in the Salmonella tester system. DMAB-induced mutagenicity was significantly inhibited with 150 microM MC, 40-60 microM PEC and 40-80 microM PEDMC in both tester systems. Treatment of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells with > 150 microM MC, 30 microM PEC and 20 microM PEDMC significantly inhibited the cell growth and syntheses of RNA, DNA and protein. ODC and PTK activities were also inhibited in HT-29 cells treated with different concentrations of MC, PEC and PEDMC. These results demonstrate that caffeic acid esters which are present in Propolis possess chemopreventive properties when tested in short-term assay systems.

  16. Cytotoxicity of Endoperoxides from the Caribbean Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides towards Sensitive and Multidrug-Resistant Leukemia Cells: Acids vs. Esters Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Schirmeister

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 6-epimer of the plakortide H acid (1, along with the endoperoxides plakortide E (2, plakortin (3, and dihydroplakortin (4 have been isolated from a sample of the Caribbean sponge Plakortis halichondrioides. To perform a comparative study on the cytotoxicity towards the drug-sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line and its multi-drug resistant subline CEM/ADR5000, the acid of plakortin, namely plakortic acid (5, as well as the esters plakortide E methyl ester (6 and 6-epi-plakortide H (7 were synthesized by hydrolysis and Steglich esterification, respectively. The data obtained showed that the acids (1, 2, 5 exhibited potent cytotoxicity towards both cell lines, whereas the esters showed no activity (6, 7 or weaker activity (3, 4 compared to their corresponding acids. Plakortic acid (5 was the most promising derivative with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of ca. 0.20 µM for both cell lines.

  17. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  18. Effects of β-cyclodextrins on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yue-zhong; ZHOU Shan-shan; FANG Zhao-hua; LIU Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of β-cyclodextrins(β-CDs) on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester (DCPPM) was studied.Four kinds of β-cyclodextrins(β-cyclodextrin, Partly methylated-CD( PM-β-CD), hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin(HP-β-CD) and carboxymethylcyclodextrin(CM-β-CD) ) were used. Compared with 100% DCPPM in the absence of β-cyclodextrins, the activity of lipase decreased with the increase of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin. However, CM-β-cyclodextrin stimulated the lipase activity. The inhibition effect of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin on the hydrolysis of DCPPM is affected by many factors other than degree of the methylation blocking the active site of lipase. UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy studies of the complexation of aqueous DCPPM with β-CDs provide fresh insight into the molecular structure of the complex and explain the effects of β-CDs on enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral DCPPM. Data showed that inclusion complexes had formed by complexation of the CM-β-CD with DCPPM and the solubility of DCPPM was increased in water, which leaded to the increased lipase activity.

  19. Aliphatic fatty acids and esters: inhibition of growth and exoenzyme production of Candida, and their cytotoxicity in vitro: anti-Candida effect and cytotoxicity of fatty acids and esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Juliana L S; da Silva, Adriana F; Carvalho, Pedro H A; Pacheco, Bruna S; Pereira, Cláudio M P; Lund, Rafael G

    2014-09-01

    The secretion of extracellular phospholipases and proteinases of Candida has been described as a relevant virulence factor in human infections. Aliphatic fatty acids have antimicrobial properties, but the mechanism by which they affect the virulence factors of microorganisms, such as Candida, is still unclear, and there are a few reports about their toxicity. The current study investigated the in vitro antifungal activity, exoenzyme production and cytotoxicity of some aliphatic fatty acids and their ester derivatives against the Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentrations of aliphatic medium-chain fatty acids, methyl and ethyl esters were performed using the CLSI M27-A3 method and the cytotoxicity assay was performed according to ISO 10993-5. The influence of these compounds in the inhibition of the production of hydrolytic enzymes, phospholipases and proteinases by Candida was also investigated. Data analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA method (p≤0.05). In relation to the MIC against Candida species, the fatty acid with the best result was Lauric acid, although its ester derivatives showed no activity. The inhibition of phospholipase production was more significant than the inhibition of proteinase production by Candida. Tested fatty acids revealed more than 80% cell viability in their MIC concentrations. Additionally, a cell viability of 100% was reported at concentrations of anti-enzymatic effect. Therefore, the potential use of these fatty acids could be the basis for more antimicrobial tests.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately...

  1. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J. Blom

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects.

  2. Synthesis of N-(methoxycarbonyl or isopropylcarbamoyl- methoxyphosphonyl)-α-amino acid ester and their stereomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茹玉; 李慧英

    1996-01-01

    N-(methoxycarbonyl-methoxyphosphonyl)-α-amino add esters (I) were synthesized via the reaction of the corresponding phosphonyl chloride with amino acid ester hydrochlorides in the presence of a base. Compound I was aminated to yield N-(isopropylcarbainoyl-methoxyphosphonyl)-α-amino acid esters (II). With l-amino acids as starting materials, the isomers of products I and II were separated and their configurations were confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction of II.

  3. A Convenient, General Synthesis of 1,1-Dimethylallyl Esters as Protecting Groups for Carboxylic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Minoo; Lipton, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    Carboxylic acids were converted in high yield to their 1,1-dimethylallyl (DMA) esters in two steps. Palladium-catalyzed deprotection of DMA esters was shown to be compatible with tert-butyl, benzyl and Fmoc protecting groups, and Fmoc deprotection could be carried out selectively in the presence of DMA esters. DMA esters were also shown to be resistant to nucleophilic attack, suggesting that they will serve as alternatives to tert-butyl esters when acidic deprotection conditions need to be avoided. PMID:15816730

  4. A convenient, general synthesis of 1,1-dimethylallyl esters as protecting groups for carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Minoo; Lipton, Mark A

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] Carboxylic acids were converted in high yield to their 1,1-dimethylallyl (DMA) esters in two steps. Palladium-catalyzed deprotection of DMA esters was shown to be compatible with tert-butyl, benzyl, and Fmoc protecting groups, and Fmoc deprotection could be carried out selectively in the presence of DMA esters. DMA esters were also shown to be resistant to nucleophilic attack, suggesting that they will serve as alternatives to tert-butyl esters when acidic deprotection conditions need to be avoided.

  5. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  6. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  7. 2-Methyl­aspartic acid monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Greg; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Butcher, Ray J.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water mol­ecules while extensive N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into a ...

  8. Distinct Nrf2 Signaling Mechanisms of Fumaric Acid Esters and Their Role in Neuroprotection against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Experimental Parkinson's-Like Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Manuj; Ammal Kaidery, Navneet; Yang, Lichuan; Calingasan, Noel; Smirnova, Natalya; Gaisin, Arsen; Gaisina, Irina N; Gazaryan, Irina; Hushpulian, Dmitry M; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Bollag, Wendy B; Morgan, John C; Ratan, Rajiv R; Starkov, Anatoly A; Beal, M Flint; Thomas, Bobby

    2016-06-08

    A promising approach to neurotherapeutics involves activating the nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling, which regulates expression of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective genes. Tecfidera, a putative Nrf2 activator, is an oral formulation of dimethylfumarate (DMF) used to treat multiple sclerosis. We compared the effects of DMF and its bioactive metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF) on Nrf2 signaling and their ability to block 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced experimental Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that in vitro DMF and MMF activate the Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 and by causing nuclear exit of the Nrf2 repressor Bach1. Nrf2 activation by DMF but not MMF was associated with depletion of glutathione, decreased cell viability, and inhibition of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and glycolysis rates in a dose-dependent manner, whereas MMF increased these activities in vitro However, both DMF and MMF upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis in vitro in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Despite the in vitro differences, both DMF and MMF exerted similar neuroprotective effects and blocked MPTP neurotoxicity in wild-type but not in Nrf2 null mice. Our data suggest that DMF and MMF exhibit neuroprotective effects against MPTP neurotoxicity because of their distinct Nrf2-mediated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial functional/biogenetic effects, but MMF does so without depleting glutathione and inhibiting mitochondrial and glycolytic functions. Given that oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are all implicated in PD pathogenesis, our results provide preclinical evidence for the development of MMF rather than DMF as a novel PD therapeutic. Almost two centuries since its first description by James Parkinson, Parkinson's disease (PD) remains an incurable disease with limited symptomatic treatment. The current study provides

  9. Synergistic antiviral effect in vitro of azidothymidine and amphotericin B methyl ester in combination on HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Svenningsen, A;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue azidothymidine (AZT) and the methyl ester of amphotericin B (AME) were assayed for antiviral effect on HIV infection singly and in combination. Both compounds were effective in inhibiting HIV infection of MT-4 cells. At concentrations where either compound alone had...

  10. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa, E-mail: canakci@kocaeli.edu.t [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  11. Effects of Diary Scum Oil Methyl Ester on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Varghese Babu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME is produced in laboratory by tranestrification process. The properties of SOME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Experiments has been carried out to estimate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder; four stroke diesel engine fuelled with scum biodiesel and its blends with standard diesel. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1500 rpm, fixed compression ratio 17.5 and at different loading conditions. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

  12. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  13. Experimental Analysis and Energetic Evaluation for Mahua Oil Methyl Ester with Diethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap SINGH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical method based on various existing process models has been developed for the performance evaluation of a compression ignition engine by using diesel and Mahua oil as an input fuel. Experimental evaluations of Mahua oil methyl ester/diesel along with diethyl ether were tested on a single cylinder naturally-aspirated indirect-injection diesel engine. The purpose of using diethyl ether with diesel/biodiesel is to control the emission from the diesel engine and to improve its performance. The effect of test fuels at different volumetric proportion and loads are also analyzed on the engine performance and emission. The comparisons of theoretical and experimental results are discussed. Engine performance characteristics predicted by this model are in closer approximation to that of experimental results. Engineering equation solver has been used to validate the model with the experimental results.

  14. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  15. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  16. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glucose-Based Fatty Acid Esters in Bisolvent Systems Containing Ionic Liquids or Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar fatty acid esters (SFAEs are biocompatible nonionic surfactants with broad applications in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They can be synthesized enzymatically with many advantages over their chemical synthesis. In this study, SFAE synthesis was investigated by using two reactions: (1 transesterification of glucose with fatty acid vinyl esters and (2 esterification of methyl glucoside with fatty acids, catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM and Novozym 435 respectively. Fourteen ionic liquids (ILs and 14 deep eutectic solvents (DESs were screened as solvents, and the bisolvent system composed of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([HMIm][TfO] and 2-methyl-2-butanol (2M2B was the best for both reactions, yielding optimal productivities (769.6 and 397.5 µmol/h/g, respectively which are superior to those reported in the literature. Impacts of different reaction conditions were studied for both reactions. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the transesterification reaction. Results also demonstrated that as co-substrate, methyl glucoside yielded higher conversions than glucose, and that conversions increased with an increase in the chain length of the fatty acid moieties. DESs were poor solvents for the above reactions presumably due to their high viscosity and high polarity.

  17. Zeolite-catalysed preparation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids and esters thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst.......A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst....

  18. Comparative Studies on Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Neem Methyl Ester and Mahua Methyl Ester and Its Respective Blends with Diesel Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragit, S S; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, neem and mahua methyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst and tested in 4-stroke single cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Tests were carried out at constant speed of 1500 rev/min at different brake mean effective pressures. A series of tests were conducted which worked at different brake mean effective pressures, OkPa, 1kPa, 2kPa, 3kPa, 4kPa, 5kPa, 6kPa and 6.5kPa. The performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine were analyzed and compared with diesel fuel. Results showed that BTE of NME was comparable with diesel and it was noted that the BTE of N0100 is 63.11% higher than that of diesel at part load whereas it reduces 11.2% with diesel fuel at full load. In case of full load, NME showed decreasing trend with diesel fuel. BTE of diesel was 15.37% and 36.89% at part load and full load respectively. The observation indicated that BTE for MME 100 was slightly higher than diesel at part loads. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) was more for almost all blends at all loads, compared to diesel. At part load, the EGT of MME and its blends were showing similar trend to diesel fuel and at full load, the exhaust gas temperature of MME and blends were higher than diesel. Based on this study, NME could be a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine.

  19. Inhibition of cellular Shp2 activity by a methyl ester analog of SPI-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Pernazza, Daniele; Scott, Latanya M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Ren, Yuan; Luo, Yunting; Wu, Xin; Sung, Shen-Shu; Guida, Wayne C; Sebti, Said M; Lawrence, Nicholas J; Wu, Jie

    2010-09-15

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 (PTPN11) is an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it mediates growth factor signaling and its gain-of-function mutants are causally linked to leukemias. We previously synthesized SPI-112 from a lead compound of Shp2 inhibitor, NSC-117199. In this study, we demonstrated that SPI-112 bound to Shp2 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and displayed competitive inhibitor kinetics to Shp2. Like some other compounds in the PTP inhibitor discovery efforts, SPI-112 was not cell permeable, precluding its use in biological studies. To overcome the cell permeation issue, we prepared a methyl ester SPI-112 analog (SPI-112Me) that is predicted to be hydrolyzed to SPI-112 upon entry into cells. Fluorescence uptake assay and confocal imaging suggested that SPI-112Me was taken up by cells. Incubation of cells with SPI-112Me inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Shp2 PTP activity and Shp2-mediated paxillin dephosphorylation, Erk1/2 activation, and cell migration. SPI-112Me treatment also inhibited Erk1/2 activation by a Gab1-Shp2 chimera. Treatment of Shp2(E76K) mutant-transformed TF-1 myeloid cells with SPI-112Me resulted in inhibition of Shp2(E76K)-dependent cell survival, which is associated with inhibition of Shp2(E76K) PTP activity, Shp2(E76K)-induced Erk1/2 activation, and Bcl-XL expression. Furthermore, SPI-112Me enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, ISRE-luciferase reporter activity, p21 expression, and the anti-proliferative effect. Thus, the SPI-112 methyl ester analog was able to inhibit cellular Shp2 PTP activity.

  20. Maize plants sprayed with either jasmonic acid or its precursor, methyl linolenate, attract armyworm parasitoids, but the composition of attractants differs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozawa, R.; Shiojiri, K.; Sabelis, M.W.; Takabayashi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of both uninfested and armyworm-infested maize plants with jasmonic acid (JA) is known to attract the parasitic wasp, Cotesia kariyai Watanabe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we show that treatment with a methyl ester of a JA precursor, methyl linolenate (MeLin), also causes maize plants

  1. Contribution to the analysis of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don. Determination of ester bonded acids and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, Josip; Politeo, Olivera; Jerković, Igor

    2008-04-07

    The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don (everlasting or Immortelle essential oil) was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GCMS. Forty four compounds were identified. The main components were alpha-pinene(12.8%), 2-methyl-cyclohexyl pentanoate (11.1 %), neryl acetate (10.4%), 1,7-di-epi-alpha-cedrene (6.8%) and other compounds. The oil was fractionated and ester-containing fraction was hydrolysed with KOH/H(2)SO(4). The liberated volatiles were analysed by GC and GC-MS: three phenols and twenty seven volatile carboxylic acids were identified[70% low fatty acids (C(2)-C(5)), 15% C(10)-C(12) acids and 15% other acids]. The main acids were acetic acid (24.3%) propanoic acid (17.2%), 2-methylpropanoic acid (11.4%),dodecanoic acid (8.7%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (8.3%), (Z)-2-methylbutenoic acid(5.1%) and decanoic acid (4.6%). With respect to the identified bonded carboxylic acids,the minimal number of esters in the oil was twenty seven, but their overall quantity was probably larger due to different possible combinations of alcohols with acids to form esters. On the other hand, only six main esters were identified in the oil before fractionation and hydrolysis.

  2. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to ...

  3. Conversion of Oleum papaveris seminis oil into methyl esters via esterification process: Optimization and kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acid pre-treatment process and a kinetic study for the esterification reaction of Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of amberlite 120 as a solid catalyst to convert the oil into methyl esters. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction parameters, i.e. reaction time, percentage of the catalyst and volume ratio of methanol to oil. The results revealed that 0.87% w/w of catalyst concentration and 44.70% v/v of methanol to oil ratio provided final free fatty acid (FFA contents of 0.60% w/w at 102.40 min of reaction time. It proved that the contribution of Amberlite 120 in the esterification of FFA was highly significant. The kinetics of the esterification in Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of the amberlite 120 catalyst were also investigated to establish the reaction rate constant (k, reaction order, and activation energy. The study was performed under the optimized parameters at three reaction temperatures (50, 55, and 60 ºC. The value of k was in the range of 0.013 to 0.027 min-1. The first-order kinetics’ model was suitable for this irreversible FFA esterification with the activation energy of about 60.9 KJ·mol-1.En este artículo se presenta un proceso de pre-tratamiento con ácido, y un estudio cinético de la reacción de esterificación. Se utiliza Oleum papaveris seminis con metanol en presencia de Amberlite 120 como catalizador sólido para la formación de los ésteres metílicos. Se aplicó una metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM para optimizar los parámetros de la reacción; es decir, tiempo de reacción, porcentaje de la relación de catalizador y volumen de metanol - aceite. Los resultados mostraron que el 0,87% w/w de la concentración de catalizador y 44,70% v/v de metanol en relación al aceite dan lugar a un contenido final de ácidos grasos libres (FFA de 0,60% w/w en 102,40 min de tiempo de reacción. Se demostr

  4. Development and validation of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis methods to analyze boronic esters and acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Mindy B; Warner, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    Boronic esters and acids are potential intermediates in the manufacture of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Accurate quantitation of the intermediate is necessary to assure the stoichiometry of the reaction. The analysis of these compounds is challenging due to their labile nature. For example, the boronic ester can hydrolyze to the acid during storage, when exposed to moisture in the air, during sample preparation and analysis, and thus give erroneous ester results. Traditional analytical techniques like gas chromatography (GC), normal phase chromatography (NPLC), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) have been utilized but with noted limitations such as poor peak shape, variation in retention times, and evidence of hydrolysis. All of these limitations impact accurate quantitation needed for selected situations. For the proprietary boronic ester evaluated here, these traditional techniques were insufficient for the accurate determination of assay and residual boronic acid. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) is an accurate quantitative technique that can be used to analyze boronic esters and their corresponding acids without the limitations noted for traditional analytical techniques. The present study describes the development of methodology for the determination of the potency of a proprietary boronic ester as well as methodology for the determination of residual boronic acid in the ester. In addition, nine model boronic ester and acid pairs with a range in polarity, based on the electronic properties of the attached side group, were tested to evaluate and demonstrate the general applicability of these conditions. Under the conditions used for potency, all ten pairs had a resolution between the boronic ester and acid of greater than 1.5, acceptable peak shape for the boronic ester (tailing factor of less than 2.0), and a run time of less than 3 min. In addition, this work describes

  5. Uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Liu; Maofa Ge; Weigang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products,but the lack of kinetics data significantly limited the evaluation of this process in the atmosphere.Here we report the first measurement of the uptake of isoprene,methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.Isoprene cannot readily partition into the solution because of its high volatility and low solubility,which hinders its further liquid-phase oxidation.Both methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate can enter the solutions and be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide,and steady-state uptake was observed with the acidity of solution above 30 wt.% and 70 wt.%,respectively.The steady-state uptake coefficient of methacrylic acid is much larger than that of methyl methacrylate for a solution with same acidity.These observations can be explained by the different reactivity of these two compounds caused by the different electron-withdrawing conjugation between carboxyl and ester groups.The atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on the calculated steady-state uptake coefficients.These results demonstrate that the multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrylic acid plays a role in secondary organic aerosol formation,but for isoprene and methyl methacrylate,this process is not important in the troposphere.

  6. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  7. Hyperargininemia and renal oxidative stress: Prevention by antioxidants and N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Vieira, Cindy Laís Pett; Grola, Gislaine Maria Marestoni; Fischer, Débora Adriana; de Souza Wyse, Angela Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of arginine (Arg) on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and on the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissues of rats. We also studied the influence of antioxidants (α-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) on the effects elicited by Arg. Results showed that Arg in vitro (1.5 mM) decreased SOD activity and increased the levels of TBA-RS in the renal medulla. Acute administration of Arg [0.8 g/kg, intraperitoneal injection] decreased CAT activity, increased SOD activity and TBA-RS levels in the renal medulla, and decreased CAT activity in the renal cortex of rats. Most results were prevented by antioxidants and/or l-NAME. Data indicate that Arg causes an oxidative imbalance in the renal tissues studied; however, in the presence of antioxidants and l-NAME, some of these alterations in oxidative stress were prevented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chromatographic, Spectrometric and NMR Characterization of a New Set of Glucuronic Acid Esters Synthesized by Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Marlier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzymatic synthesis was developed on a new set of D-glucuronic acid esters and particularly the tetradecyl-D-glucopyranosiduronate also named tetradecyl D-glucuronate. Chromatographic analyses revealed the presence of the ester as a mixture of anomeric forms for carbon chain lengths superior to 12. TOF/MS and MS/MS studies confirmed the synthesis of glucuronic acid ester. The NMR study also confirmed the structure of glucuronic acid esters and clearly revealed an anomeric (α/β ratio equivalent to 3/2

  9. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwińska, Karolina; Gierczyk, Błażej; Jakubczyk, Michał; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O → B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  10. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  11. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF 4-[2’-(5’- NITRO] IMIDAZOLYL BENZOYL (N-METHYL AMINO ACIDS AND PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARAMITA DAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, a wide variety of bioactive peptides have been discovered. Condensation of heterocyclic moieties viz nicotinic acid, thiazole coumarin, quinolin, furan, imidazole etc. with amino acids and peptides resulted in compounds with potent biological activities. Many of the heterocyclic found to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, antineoplastic, insectisidal, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, tyrosinase inhibitory and melanin production inhibitory activities. Metronidazole, serconidazole, flucanazole are well known marketed drugs. Introduction of D-amino acids and N-methylation of amino acids like tyrosine, valine, alanine etc enhanced antimicrobial activity. Hence an attempt is made towards the synthesis of 5-nitroimidazolyl-benzoic acid derivative of N-methylamino acids and peptide using solution phase technique of peptide synthesis. The method includes the introduction of tert-butyloxy carboxyl group (Boc to amino acids to protect the amino group forming Boc-amino acids .The protection of carboxyl group was done by converting the amino acids into corresponding methyl ester. The protected amino acids were coupled using diisopropylcarbodimide and triethylamine to get protected dipeptides. N-methylation was done by treating with methyl iodide and sodium hydride. The ester group was then removed by lithium hydroxide. The Boc(N-methyldipetide were coupled to amino acids or Boc(Nmethyl dipeptide were coupled to 4-[2-(5-nitroimidazoly]benzoic acids.

  12. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  13. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation.

  14. Proteinuria with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, S; Lewis Jones, S; Dawe, R; Foerster, J

    2011-08-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) have been used in the treatment of psoriasis for many years. In general, they are regarded as relatively safe compared with other antipsoriatic systemic treatments, with the most notable adverse effects being gastrointestinal upset, lymphopenia and transient flushing. Renal toxicity has only rarely been reported, and was not found in two independent prospective trials nor in a large retrospective evaluation of almost 1000 patients treated for a median of 44 months. We report three patients developing reversible proteinuria during FAE treatment. One of these displayed the same pattern upon repeated drug administration, thereby clearly indicating FAE treatment to be the causal trigger. The presented cases highlight proteinuria as a clinical concern in FAE treatment. Furthermore, as the novel FAE agent dimethylfumaric (DMF) ester (contained in BG00012/Panaclar) has previously been shown to be effective in psoriasis in a phase III trial and not shown renal toxicity in a large trial for multiple sclerosis, the current report suggests that market introduction of DMF for psoriasis should be pursued.

  15. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  16. Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Harris, William S; Puder, Mark; Freedman, Steven D; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    2017-02-08

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing.

  17. Experimental Investigations on the Engine Performance and Characteristics of Compression Ignition (CI Engine Using Dual Bio – Fuel Methyl Ester As Alternate Fuel With Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inturi Vamsi,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum products and resources are limited and their consumption is increasing very fast with globalization and high technology development since last decade. The emissions from the petroleum products polluting the environment considerably. Bio-fuels can be produced from diverse sources, which are subject to local geography, topology and climatology. Hence, every nation will have its own choice of a source. Duel bio-fuel represents an untapped resource of energy easily available in India. This study investigates the potential substitution of duel bio-fuel methyl ester blends for diesel as fuel for automobiles and other industrial purposes. This study is concerned with the analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of the duel bio-fuel methyl esters and comparing with petroleum diesel. The fuels used were neat methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The tests were carried out on a 4.4 KW, single cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The fuels used were neat duel bio-fuel methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The experimental result shows that 20% of blend shows better performance with reduced pollution. This analysis shows that duel bio-fuel methyl ester and its blends are a potential substitute for diesel.

  18. Facile synthesis of 5β-cholane- sym-triazine conjugates starting from metformin and bile acid methyl esters: Liquid and solid state NMR characterization and single crystal structure of lithocholyl triazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Satu; Takala, Salla; Nonappa; Kolehmainen, Erkki

    2009-11-01

    Four bile acid-triazine conjugates: N2', N2'-dimethyl-6'-(3α-hydroxy-5β-24-norcholyl)-1',3',5'-triazine-2',4'-diamine (lithocholyl triazine, 4a), N2', N2'-dimethyl-6'-(3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-24-norcholyl)-1',3',5'-triazine-2',4'-diamine (chenodeoxycholyl triazine, 4b), N2', N2'-dimethyl-6'6'-(3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-24-norcholyl)-1',3',5'-triazine-2',4'-diamine (deoxycholyl triazine) ( 4c), and N2', N2'-dimethyl-6'-(3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-24-norcholyl)-1',3',5'-triazine-2',4'-diamine (cholyl triazine) ( 4d) have been prepared and characterized by liquid and solid state NMR. An improved synthetic method produced better yields and an easier purification procedure for 4d than reported in the literature. Single crystal structure of 4a is reported: empirical formula C 28H 47N 5O, monoclinic P2 1 space group with unit cell dimensions, a 18.7135(5) Å, b 7.4510(2) Å, c 19.3073(5) Å, β 95.7290(10)°, volume 2678.65(12) Å 3.

  19. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped...

  20. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, T.; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, X.; Heide, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outs

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acids are ester-linked directly to glucosyl moieties within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijs, Karin; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verhoef, René; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-03-01

    In flaxseed hulls, lignans are present in an oligomeric structure. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), ester-linked to hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA), forms the backbone of this lignan macromolecule. The hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) are also part of the lignan macromolecule. However, their position and type of linkage are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how CouAG and FeAG are linked within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls. Fragments of the lignan macromolecule were obtained by partial saponification. After isolation of the fragments by preparative RP-HPLC, several key structures were identified by MS and NMR. Within the lignan macromolecule, CouAG is attached to the C-6 position of a glucosyl moiety of SDG. FeA is linked to the C-2 position of a glucosyl moiety of SDG. FeAG is ester-linked within the lignan macromolecule with its carboxyl group, but it remains unclear whether FeAG links to the C-2 or C-6 position of SDG. Attachment of HMGA to the glucosyl moiety of CouAG or FeAG was not observed. The results clearly show that within the lignan macromolecule, the hydroxycinnamic acids are linked directly via an ester bond to the glucosyl moiety of SDG.

  2. Ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Ayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohshima, Kazusato; Fukuda, Shinji; Mine, Takara; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2016-09-02

    Three new ferulic acid esters of glucosylglucose, 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid A, 1), 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid B, 2), and 1-O-(E)-feruloyl-{β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-2)]}-[β- d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)]-β-d-glucopyranose (allimacronoid C, 3) were isolated together with tuberonoid A (4), from the leaves of Allium macrostemon Bunge. The chemical structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the spectroscopic and chemical data.

  3. Effect of variations in the fatty acid chain on functional properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, van S.E.H.J.; Schols, H.A.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Oligofructose fatty acid esters are surfactants that considerably lower the surface tension of an air/water interface, provide the interface with a high dilatational modulus and lead to a high foam stability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the molecular structure of oligofructose fatty

  4. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistent...

  5. Synthesis and properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Henning; Vorwerg, Waltraud; Wetzel, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Being completely bio-based, fatty acid starch esters (FASEs) are attractive materials that represent an alternative to crude oil-based plastics. In this study, two synthesis methods were compared in terms of their efficiency, toxicity and, especially, product solubility with starch laurate (C12) as model compound. Laurates (DS>2) were obtained through transesterification of fatty acid vinylesters in DMSO or reaction with fatty acid chlorides in pyridine. The latter lead to higher DS-values in a shorter reaction time. But due to the much better solubility of the products compared to lauroyl chloride esterified ones, vinylester-transesterification was preferred to optimize reaction parameters, where reaction time could be shortened to 2h. FASEs C6-C18 were also successfully prepared via transesterification. To determine the DS of the resulting starch laurates, the efficient ATR-IR method was compared with common methods (elementary analysis, (1)H NMR). Molar masses (Mw) of the highly soluble starch laurates were analyzed using SEC-MALLS (THF). High recovery rates (>80%) attest to the outstanding solubility of products obtained through transesterification, caused by a slight disintegration during synthesis. Particle size distributions (DLS) demonstrated stable dissolutions in CHCl3 of vinyl laurate esterified - contrary to lauroyl chloride esterified starch. For all highly soluble FASEs (C6-C18), formation of concentrated solutions (10 wt%) is feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatty acid steryl, stanyl, and steroid esters by esterification and transesterification in vacuo using Candida rugosa lipase as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N; Weitkamp, P; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-01-01

    Sterols (sitosterol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol, and 7-dehydrocholesterol) and sitostanol have been converted in high to near-quantitative yields to the corresponding long-chain acyl esters via esterification with fatty acids or transesterification with methyl esters of fatty acids or triacylglycerols using lipase from Candida rugosa as biocatalyst in vacuo (20-40 mbar) at 40 degrees C. Neither organic solvent nor water is added in these reactions. Under similar conditions, cholesterol has been converted to cholesteryl butyrate and steroids (5alpha-pregnan-3beta-ol-20-one or 5-pregnen-3beta-ol-20-one) have been converted to their propionic acid esters, both in moderate to high yields, via transesterification with tributyrin and tripropionin, respectively. Reaction parameters studied in esterification include the temperature and the molar ratio of the substrates as well as the amount and reuse properties of the C. rugosa lipase. Lipases from porcine pancreas, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Chromobacterium viscosum are quite ineffective as biocatalysts for the esterification of cholesterol with oleic acid under the above conditions.

  7. Lewis acid promoted ruthenium(II)-catalyzed etherifications by selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids/esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-04-20

    Ethers are of fundamental importance in organic chemistry and they are an integral part of valuable flavors, fragrances, and numerous bioactive compounds. In general, the reduction of esters constitutes the most straightforward preparation of ethers. Unfortunately, this transformation requires large amounts of metal hydrides. Presented herein is a bifunctional catalyst system, consisting of Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate, which allows selective synthesis of ethers by hydrogenation of esters or carboxylic acids. Different lactones were reduced in good yields to the desired products. Even challenging aromatic and aliphatic esters were reduced to the desired products. Notably, the in situ formed catalyst can be reused several times without any significant loss of activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  9. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations.

  10. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME ((R-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid, is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g were randomized into four groups (I–IV. Group I (control received 1 mL of distilled water, while animals in Groups II, III and IV received 6.75, 13.5 and 27 mg/kg body weight HPME, respectively, for 21 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in renal and hepatic function biomarkers (urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, AST in the plasma of treated animals compared to control. Levels of testicular antioxidants, ascorbic acid and glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly after 21 days of HPME administration in a dose-dependent manner. The testicular malondialdehyde level increased significantly in the HPME-treated rats relative to the control. A significant decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase was also observed in HPME-treated animals. Testicular histology revealed severe interstitial edema and sections of seminiferous tubules with necrotic and eroded germinal epithelium in the HPME-treated rats. Overall, data from this study suggest that HPME altered hepatic and renal function and induced oxidative stress and morphological changes in the testis of rats.

  11. Lubrication fluids from branched fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have invented a new method for the synthesis of lubrication fluids using natural vegetable oils. Ordinary vegetable oils are good lubricants, but in their native form, they lack the stability necessary for many applications. Materials made using this new technology display significantly increas...

  12. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a... phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a petition by the Joint Inserts Task Force,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  14. 75 FR 70254 - Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With...), concerning the Notice of Filing (NOF) for Pesticide Petition (PP) 0E7699 for polymerized fatty acid esters... Notice of Filing (NOF) for Pesticide Petition (PP) 0E7699 for polymerized fatty acid esters with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6100 Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction...

  17. Relative oral bioavailability of glycidol from glycidyl fatty acid esters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Klaus E; Abraham, Klaus; Berger-Preiss, Edith; Hansen, Tanja; Apel, Elisabeth; Schuchardt, Sven; Vogt, Carla; Bakhiya, Nadiya; Creutzenberg, Otto; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    In order to quantify the relative bioavailability of glycidol from glycidyl fatty acid esters in vivo, glycidyl palmitoyl ester and glycidol were orally applied to rats in equimolar doses. The time courses of the amounts of glycidol binding to hemoglobin as well as the excretion of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acids were determined. The results indicate that glycidol is released from the glycidyl ester by hydrolysis and rapidly distributed in the organism. In relation to glycidol, there was only a small timely delay in the binding to hemoglobin for the glycidol moiety released from the ester which may be certainly attributed to enzymatic hydrolysis. In both cases, however, an analogous plateau was observed representing similar amounts of hemoglobin binding. With regard to the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids, also similar amounts of dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acids could be detected. In an ADME test using a virtual double tag (³H, ¹⁴C) of glycidyl palmitoyl ester, a diverging isotope distribution was detected. The kinetics of the ¹⁴C-activity reflected the kinetics of free glycidol released after hydrolysis of the palmitoyl ester. In view of this experimental data obtained in rats, it is at present justified for the purpose of risk assessment to assume complete hydrolysis of the glycidyl ester in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, assessment of human exposure to glycidyl fatty acid ester should be regarded as an exposure to the same molar quantity of glycidol.

  18. Lasiojasmonates A-C, three jasmonic acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia sp., a grapevine pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Basso, Sara; Deidda, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a strain (BL 101) of a species of Lasiodiplodia, not yet formally described, which was isolated from declining grapevine plants showing wedge-shaped cankers, was investigated for its ability to produce in vitro bioactive secondary metabolites. From culture filtrates of this strain three jasmonic acid esters, named lasiojasmonates A-C and 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were isolated together with (1R,2R)-jasmonic acid, its methyl ester, botryosphaerilactone A, (3S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone and (3R,4S)-botryodiplodin. The structures of lasiojasmonates A-C were established by spectroscopic methods as (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone, (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'R*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*) and (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'S*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*)-4-(4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyltetrahydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanones jasmonates (1, 4 and 5). The structures of 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of the corresponding acetyl derivatives obtained by acetylation of botryosphaerilactone A. The metabolites isolated, except 4 and 5, were tested at 1mg/mL on leaves of grapevine cv. Cannonau and cork oak using the leaf puncture assay. They were also tested on detached grapevine leaves at 0.5mg/mL and tomato cuttings at 0.1mg/mL. In all phytotoxic assays only jasmonic acid was found to be active. All metabolites were inactive in the zootoxic assay at 50 μg/mL.

  19. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Serdar; Alhan, Etem; Ercin, Cengiz; Kural Vanizor, Birgul; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Topaloglu, Serdar

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. CAPE, an active component of honeybee propolis, has previously been determined to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups of 12. Group 1 animals received intraductal saline and intravenous saline infusion treatment. Group 2 was given intraductal saline and intraperitoneal CAPE infusion treatment. ANP was induced in the animals in group 3 (ANP with saline infusion), and group 4 had induced ANP plus CAPE infusion treatment (ANP with CAPE infusion). Sampling was performed 48 h after treatment. ANP induction significantly increased mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and bacterial infection in pancreatic and extrapancreatic organs. ANP also increased levels of amylase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, increased levels of urea and lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL LDH), increased the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in pancreas and lung tissue, and decreased the serum calcium levels. The use of CAPE did not significantly reduce the mortality rate but significantly reduced the ALT and BAL LDH levels, the activities of MPO and MDA in the pancreas, the activity of MDA in the lungs, and pancreatic damage. The administration of CAPE did not reduce the bacterial infection. These results indicate that CAPE had beneficial effects on the course of ANP in rats and suggest that CAPE shows promise as a treatment for ANP.

  20. Performance analysis of compression ignition engine using rubber seed oil methyl ester blend with the effect of various injection pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Kumar Srinivasan; Purushothaman Krishnan; Rajan Kuppusamy

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternate fuel for Diesel engine due to its properties is close to diesel fuel. Also it is biodegradable, non-toxic, and renewable in nature. In the present work, the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a Diesel engine using diesel and 25% rubber seed oil methyl ester diesel blend have been investigated with the effect of different injection pressures like 200 bar, 225 bar, and 250 bar with different load conditions. The...