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Sample records for acid metabolism plant

  1. Crassulacean acid metabolism in submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Sybesme, C.

    1984-01-01

    CO2-fixation in the dark is known to occur in various organs of many plants. However, only in species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) does dark CO2-fixation contribute substantially to the carbon economy of the plant. Until very recently CAM was known only from terrestrial species, largely drought adapted succulents. The discovery of CAM in the submerged aquatic fern ally Isoetes howellii (Isoetaceae)(Keeley 1981) adds a new dimension to our understanding of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this paper I will summarize 1) the evidence of CAM in Isoetes howellii, 2) the data on the distribution of CAM in aquatic species, and 3) the work to date on the functional significance of CAM in aquatic species.

  2. How to Do It. Plant Eco-Physiology: Experiments on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, Using Minimal Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Douglas J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Features of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants are presented. Investigations of a complex eco-physiological plant adaptation to the problems of growth in an arid environment are discussed. Materials and procedures for these investigations are described. (CW)

  3. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1991-01-01

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  4. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  5. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  6. New insights into the metabolism of aspartate-family amino acids in plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Guoping; Galili, Gad

    2018-02-05

    Aspartate-family amino acids. Aspartate (Asp)-family pathway, via several metabolic branches, leads to four key essential amino acids: Lys, Met, Thr, and Ile. Among these, Lys and Met have received the most attention, as they are the most limiting amino acid in cereals and legumes crops, respectively. The metabolic pathways of these four essential amino acids and their interactions with regulatory networks have been well characterized. Using this knowledge, extensive efforts have been devoted to augmenting the levels of these amino acids in various plant organs, especially seeds, which serve as the main source of human food and livestock feed. Seeds store a number of storage proteins, which are utilized as nutrient and energy resources. Storage proteins are composed of amino acids, to guarantee the continuation of plant progeny. Thus, understanding the seed metabolism, especially with respect to the accumulation of aspartate-derived amino acids Lys and Met, is a crucial factor for sustainable agriculture. In this review, we summarized the Asp-family pathway, with some new examples of accumulated Asp-family amino acids, particularly Lys and Met, in plant seeds. We also discuss the recent advances in understanding the roles of Asp-family amino acids during seed development.

  7. Diurnal Ion Fluctuations in the Mesophyll Tissue of the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J.

    1979-01-01

    Both laboratory- and field-grown Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants exhibited large scale diurnal ion fluctuations. In mesophyll tissue, potassium and sodium levels varied in conjunction with acid levels while chloride levels varied in opposition. Thus, dark CO2 fixation in this Crassulacean acid metabolism species seems analogous to the common plant process of malate synthesis to balance cation surplus. Sodium levels in the epidermis appeared to fluctuate in opposition to those in the mesophyll. It is proposed that inorganic cations cycle between mesophyll and epidermal tissue to balance malate accumulation and to produce stomatal opening in the dark. PMID:16661106

  8. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration......, it became negative in those low in malate. • CAM in aquatic plants enables higher rates of underwater net photosynthesis over large O2 and CO2 concentration ranges in floodwaters, via increased CO2 fixation and suppression of photorespiration....... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...

  9. Current progress towards the metabolic engineering of plant seed oil for hydroxy fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Chen, Grace Q; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids produced in plant seed oil are important industrial material. This review focuses on the use of metabolic engineering approaches for the production of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic plants. Vegetable oil is not only edible but can also be used for industrial purposes. The industrial demand for vegetable oil will increase with the continued depletion of fossil fuels and ensuing environmental issues such as climate change, caused by increased carbon dioxide in the air. Some plants accumulate high levels of unusual fatty acids in their seeds, and these fatty acids (FAs) have properties that make them suitable for industrial applications. Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are some of the most important of these industrial FAs. Castor oil is the conventional source of HFA. However, due to the presence of toxin ricin in its seeds, castor is not cultivated on a large scale. Lesquerella is another HFA accumulator and is currently being developed as a new crop for a safe source of HFAs. The mechanisms of HFA synthesis and accumulation have been extensively studied using castor genes and the model plant Arabidopsis. HFAs accumulated to 17% in the seed oil of Arabidopsis expressing a FA hydroxylase gene from castor (RcFAH12), but its seed oil content and plant growth decreased. When RcFAH12 gene was coexpressed with additional castor gene(s) in Arabidopsis, ~30% HFAs were accumulated and the seed oil content and plant growth was almost restored to the wild-type level. Further advancement of our understanding of pathways, genes and regulatory mechanisms underlying synthesis and accumulation of HFAs is essential to developing and implementing effective genetic approaches for enhancing HFA production in oilseeds.

  10. Isolation and characterization of mutants of common ice plant deficient in crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Agarie, Sakae; Albion, Rebecca L; Elliot, Stewart M; Taybi, Tahar; Borland, Anne M

    2008-05-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that improves water use efficiency by shifting part or all of net atmospheric CO2 uptake to the night. Genetic dissection of regulatory and metabolic attributes of CAM has been limited by the difficulty of identifying a reliable phenotype for mutant screening. We developed a novel and simple colorimetric assay to measure leaf pH to screen fast neutron-mutagenized populations of common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a facultative CAM species, to detect CAM-deficient mutants with limited nocturnal acidification. The isolated CAM-deficient mutants showed negligible net dark CO2 uptake compared with wild-type plants following the imposition of salinity stress. The mutants and wild-type plants accumulated nearly comparable levels of sodium in leaves, but the mutants grew more slowly than the wild-type plants. The mutants also had substantially reduced seed set and seed weight relative to wild type under salinity stress. Carbon-isotope ratios of seed collected from 4-month-old plants indicated that C3 photosynthesis made a greater contribution to seed production in mutants compared to wild type. The CAM-deficient mutants were deficient in leaf starch and lacked plastidic phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme critical for gluconeogenesis and starch formation, resulting in substrate limitation of nocturnal C4 acid formation. The restoration of nocturnal acidification by feeding detached leaves of salt-stressed mutants with glucose or sucrose supported this defect and served to illustrate the flexibility of CAM. The CAM-deficient mutants described here constitute important models for exploring regulatory features and metabolic consequences of CAM.

  11. Developmental Control of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Inducibility by Salt Stress in the Common Ice Plant 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C.; Michalowski, Christine B.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1990-01-01

    Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a facultative halophyte that responds to water stress in the form of drought or high salinity by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a physiological adaptation that increases water conservation. Although CAM is clearly environmentally controlled, and reversible upon removal of water stress, the competence to switch is developmentally determined. We have demonstrated this by measuring three parameters in the expression of a gene encoding a stress-specific isoform of a key enzyme of CAM, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase, Ppc1): (a) protein accumulation; (b) steady-state amounts of mRNA; and (3) transcriptional activity in isolated nuclei. Young plants (3 weeks of age) show little induction of PEPCase protein, mRNA, or transcription when stressed. In contrast, salt stress elicits a strong induction at all three levels of expression at 6 weeks of age. By 9 weeks of age, plants have already accumulated PEPCase protein and mRNA without being stressed. More importantly, transcriptional activation of Ppc1 by salt stress in 9-week-old plants is no longer observed despite an increase of both Ppc1 mRNA and protein. From these results we suggest that a developmental program exists that regulates PEPCase transcription and mRNA stability. This program appears to be synchronized with the climatic conditions in the plant's native environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667808

  12. Principal transcriptional regulation and genome-wide system interactions of the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid networks of amino acid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-10-01

    Amino acid metabolism is among the most important and best recognized networks within biological systems. In plants, amino acids serve multiple functions associated with growth. Besides their function in protein synthesis, the amino acids are also catabolized into energy-associated metabolites as well we into numerous secondary metabolites, which are essential for plant growth and response to various stresses. Despite the central importance of amino acids in plants growth, elucidation of the regulation of amino acid metabolism within the context of the entire system, particularly transcriptional regulation, is still in its infancy. The different amino acids are synthesized by a number of distinct metabolic networks, which are expected to possess regulatory cross interactions between them for proper coordination of their interactive functions, such as incorporation into proteins. Yet, individual amino acid metabolic networks are also expected to differentially cross interact with various genome-wide gene expression programs and metabolic networks, in respect to their functions as precursors for various metabolites with distinct functions. In the present review, we discuss our recent genomics, metabolic and bioinformatics studies, which were aimed at addressing these questions, focusing mainly on the Asp-family metabolic network as the main example and also comparing it to the aromatic amino acids metabolic network as a second example (Angelovici et al. in Plant Physiol 151:2058-2072, 2009; Less and Galili in BMC Syst Biol 3:14, 2009; Tzin et al. in Plant J 60:156-167, 2009). Our focus on these two networks is because of the followings: (i) both networks are central to plant metabolism and growth and are also precursors for a wide range of primary and secondary metabolites that are indispensable to plant growth; (ii) the amino acids produced by these two networks are also essential to the nutrition and health of human and farm animals; and (iii) both networks contain

  13. Plastidic metabolite transporters and their physiological functions in the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, R E; Baur, B; Scharte, J; Teichmann, T; Eicks, M; Fischer, K L; Flügge, U I; Schubert, S; Weber, A; Fischer, K

    2000-11-01

    The inducible crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum accumulates malic acid during the night and converts it to starch during the day via a pathway that, because it is located in different subcellular compartments, depends on specific metabolite transport across membranes. The chloroplast glucose transporter (pGlcT) and three members of the phosphate translocator (PT) family were isolated. After induction of CAM, transcript amounts of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) phosphate translocator (PPT) and the glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) phosphate translocator (GPT) genes were increased drastically, while triose phosphate (TP) phosphate translocator (TPT) and the pGlcT transcripts remained unchanged. PPT- and GPT-specific transcripts and transporter activities exhibited a pronounced diurnal variation, displaying the highest amplitude in the light. pGlcT transcripts were elevated towards the end of the light period and at the beginning of the dark period. These findings, combined with diurnal variations of enzyme activities and metabolite contents, helped to elucidate the roles of the PPT, GPT, TPT and pGlcT in CAM. The main function of the PPT is the daytime export from the stroma of PEP generated by pyruvate orthophosphate:dikinase (PPDK). The increased transport activity of GPT in the light suggests a higher requirement for Glc6P import for starch synthesis rather than starch mobilization. Most likely, Glc6P rather than 3-phosphoglycerate or triose phosphates is the main substrate for daytime starch biosynthesis in M. crystallinum plants in which CAM has been induced (CAM-induced), similar to non-green plastids. In the dark, starch is mobilized both phosphorylytically and amylolytically and the products are exported by the GPT, TPT and pGlcT. The transport activities of all three phosphate translocators and the transcript amounts of the pGlcT adapt to changing transport requirements in order to maintain high metabolic fluxes during the

  14. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    The abundance of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) has increased in many drylands worldwide. This is hypothesized to occur because CAM plants store water, take up CO2 at night, exhibit photosynthetic plasticity, and have high water use efficiency. The increased dominance of CAM plants, however, also depends on their competitive relationship with other functional groups, an aspect of CAM plant sensitivity to global environmental change that has remained largely understudied. Here, we investigated the response of CAM plants and their competitive relationships with C3 and C4 plants under global environmental change. We focused on two pairs of CAM and non-CAM species, namely Cylindropuntia imbricata (a constitutive CAM species) and Bouteloua eriopoda (C4 grass), which co-occur in desert grasslands in northern Mexico, and invasive Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a facultative CAM species) and Bromus mollis (a C3 invasive grass), which coexist in California's coastal grasslands. A set of growth chamber experiments under altered CO2 and water conditions show that C. imbricata outcompeted B. eriopoda under drought conditions, while in well-watered conditions B. eriopoda was a stronger competitor for soil water than C. imbricata. Under drought conditions a more positive response to CO2 enrichment by C. imbricata indirectly disfavored B. eriopoda, which suggests that interspecific competition can outweigh the favorable direct effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth. A set of greenhouse experiments under water, N, and soil salinity manipulations showed that drought, N deposition, and/or increased soil salinity served as important drivers for success of M. crystallinum invasion, while B. mollis exerted strong competitive effects on M. crystallinum for light and soil nutrients in well-watered conditions. M. crystallinum switched from C3 photosynthesis to CAM photosynthesis as an adaptive strategy in response to moderate intensity of competition from B. mollis, in

  15. Characterization of the plastidic phosphate translocators in the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore-eda, Shin; Nozawa, Akira; Okada, Yusuke; Takashi, Kazuki; Azad, Muhammad Abul Kalam; Ohnishi, Jun-ichi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    In plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which has the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), isoforms of plastidic phosphate translocators (pPTs) are categorized into three subfamilies: the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (McTPT1), the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (McPPT1), and the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (McGPT1 and McGPT2). In order to elucidate the physiological roles of these pPTs in M. crystallinum, we determined the substrate specificity of each pPT isoform. The substrate specificities of McTPT1, McPPT1, and McGPT1 showed overall similarities to those of orthologs that have been characterized. In contrast, for glucose 6-phosphate, McGPT2 showed higher selectivity than McGPT1 and other GPT orthologs. Because the expression of McGTP2 is specific to CAM while that of McGTP1 is constitutively expressed in both the C3- and the CAM-state in M. crystallinum, we propose that McGPT2 functions as a CAM system-specific GPT in this plant.

  16. Nocturnal Accumulation of Malic Acid Occurs in Mesophyll Tissue without Proton Transport to Epidermal Tissue in the Inducible Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Edwards, Gerald E.; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, accumulates malic acid, i.e. equivalent amounts of malate anions and protons in the mesophyll cells at night. Levels of malate and titratable acidity are low in the epidermal tissue and do not change significantly during the day/night cycle. This result is in contrast to a recent report (Bloom 1979 Plant Physiol 64: 919-923) that the synthesis of malic acid during dark CO2 fixation is associated with an equivalent exchange of inorganic cations from epidermal tissue with protons in the mesophyll cells. PMID:16661916

  17. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1990-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum contains D-erythroascorbic acid (EAA) and a closely related reducing acid, possibly the open-chain form of EAA. The organism cleaves one of these products or possibly both to yield OA and D-glyceric acid. The OA is rapidly secreted into the medium. An analogy can be made between AA-linked OA biosynthesis in higher plants and EAA-linked OA biosynthesis in fungi as exemplified by S. sclerotiorum.

  18. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  19. Nitro-fatty acids in plant signaling: New key mediators of nitric oxide metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capilla Mata-Pérez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in animal systems have shown that NO can interact with fatty acids to generate nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs. They are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species and unsaturated fatty acids, and are considered novel mediators of cell signaling based mainly on a proven anti-inflammatory response. Although these signaling mediators have been described widely in animal systems, NO2-FAs have scarcely been studied in plants. Preliminary data have revealed the endogenous presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FAs in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO, which appear to be contributing to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. Importantly, new findings have displayed the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development. Furthermore, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant-defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing the chaperone network and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Thus, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions, highlighting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the plant-protection mechanism. Finally, the potential of NO2-Ln as a NO donor has recently been described both in vitro and in vivo. Jointly, this ability gives NO2-Ln the potential to act as a signaling molecule by the direct release of NO, due to its capacity to induce different changes mediated by NO or NO-related molecules such as nitration and S-nitrosylation, or by the electrophilic capacity of these molecules through a nitroalkylation mechanism. Here, we describe the current state of the art regarding the advances performed in the field of NO2-FAs in plants and their

  20. Proteomic Insights on the Metabolism of Penicillium janczewskii during the Biotransformation of the Plant Terpenoid Labdanolic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel; Varela, Adélia; Frija, Luís M T; Estevão, Mónica A S; Planchon, Sébastien; Renaut, Jenny; Afonso, Carlos A M; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA)-terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer-producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%. Herein, combined analyses of mycelial and extracellular differential proteomes demonstrated that the plant terpenoid increased stress responses, especially against oxidative stress (e.g., accumulation of superoxide dismutase) and apparently altered mitochondria functioning. One putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase differentially accumulated in the secretome and the terpenoid bioconversion was inhibited in vivo in the presence of a P450 inhibitor. The stereo-selective hydroxylation of the plant terpenoid is likely mediated by P450 enzymes, yet its unequivocal identity remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that proteomics was used to investigate how a plant terpenoid impacts the metabolism of a filamentous fungus during its efficiently biotransformation. Our findings may encourage the development of new strategies for the valorization of plant natural resources through biotechnology.

  1. Proteomic Insights on the Metabolism of Penicillium janczewskii during the Biotransformation of the Plant Terpenoid Labdanolic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant terpenoids compose a natural source of chemodiversity of exceptional value. Many of these compounds own biological/pharmacological activity, others are regarded as unique chemical skeletons for the synthesis of derivatives with improved properties. Functional chemical modification of terpenoids through biotransformation frequently relies on the use of Ascomycota strains, but information on major cellular responses is still largely lacking. Penicillium janczewskii mediates a stereo-selective hydroxylation of labdanolic acid (LA—terpenoid found abundantly in Cistus ladanifer—producing 3β-hydroxy-labdanolic acid with yields >90%. Herein, combined analyses of mycelial and extracellular differential proteomes demonstrated that the plant terpenoid increased stress responses, especially against oxidative stress (e.g., accumulation of superoxide dismutase and apparently altered mitochondria functioning. One putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase differentially accumulated in the secretome and the terpenoid bioconversion was inhibited in vivo in the presence of a P450 inhibitor. The stereo-selective hydroxylation of the plant terpenoid is likely mediated by P450 enzymes, yet its unequivocal identity remains unclear. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that proteomics was used to investigate how a plant terpenoid impacts the metabolism of a filamentous fungus during its efficiently biotransformation. Our findings may encourage the development of new strategies for the valorization of plant natural resources through biotechnology.

  2. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0.......75 % of their body mass with a diet based on either (1) fish meal (FM), (2) pea protein concentrate (PPC), or (3) pea protein concentrate supplemented with histidine, lysine, methionine and threonine (PPC+) to mimic FM AA profile. The specific dynamic action and nitrogen quotient (NQ) were calculated for 48 h...

  3. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic engineering of medium-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaf lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kyle B.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C.; Blanchard, Christopher L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Various research groups are investigating the production of oil in non-seed biomass such as leaves. Recently, high levels of oil accumulation have been achieved in plant biomass using a combination of biotechnological approaches which also resulted in significant changes to the fatty acid composition of the leaf oil. In this study, we were interested to determine whether medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) could be accumulated in leaf oil. MCFA are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and a range of oleochemical products including lubricants, coatings, and detergents. In this study, we explore the synthesis, accumulation, and glycerolipid head-group distribution of MCFA in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana after transient transgenic expression of C12:0-, C14:0-, and C16:0-ACP thioesterase genes. We demonstrate that the production of these MCFA in leaf is increased by the co-expression of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor, with the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) from Cocos nucifera being required for the assembly of tri-MCFA TAG species. We also demonstrate that the newly-produced MCFA are incorporated into the triacylglycerol of leaves in which WRI1 + diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) genes are co-expressed for increased oil accumulation. PMID:25852716

  5. Crassulacean acid metabolism in the context of other carbon-concentrating mechanisms in freshwater plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavsen, Signe Koch; Madsen, Tom V; Maberly, Stephen C

    2011-09-01

    Inorganic carbon can be in short supply in freshwater relative to that needed by freshwater plants for photosynthesis because of a large external transport limitation coupled with frequent depleted concentrations of CO(2) and elevated concentrations of O(2). Freshwater plants have evolved a host of avoidance, exploitation and amelioration strategies to cope with the low and variable supply of inorganic carbon in water. Avoidance strategies rely on the spatial variation in CO(2) concentrations within and among lakes. Exploitation strategies involve anatomical and morphological features that take advantage of sources of CO(2) outside of the water column such as the atmosphere or sediment. Amelioration strategies involve carbon-concentrating mechanisms based on uptake of bicarbonate, which is widespread, C(4)-fixation, which is infrequent, and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which is of intermediate frequency. CAM enables aquatic plants to take up inorganic carbon in the night. Furthermore, daytime inorganic carbon uptake is generally not inhibited and therefore CAM is considered to be a carbon-conserving mechanism. CAM in aquatic plants is a plastic mechanism regulated by environmental variables and is generally downregulated when inorganic carbon does not limit photosynthesis. CAM is regulated in the long term (acclimation during growth), but is also affected by environmental conditions in the short term (response on a daily basis). In aquatic plants, CAM appears to be an ecologically important mechanism for increasing inorganic carbon uptake, because the in situ contribution from CAM to the C-budget generally is high (18-55%).

  6. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Bačkor, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Repčák, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2009), s. 135-143 ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chamomile * Oxidative stress * Phenolic metabolism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  8. cDNA sequence and expression of subunit E of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in the inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, K J; Arbinger, B

    1996-06-11

    A cDNA coding for subunit E of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase was cloned from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a plant which switches from C3-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism under saline growth conditions. Sequence homology between the three subunit E-polypeptides of different higher plant species varied between 77.6 and 73.3%; peptide length was between 226 and 230 amino acid residues, 43 of which are invariant in all seven subunit E-polypeptides known so far from animals, fungi and plants. The deduced relative molecular mass of subunit E in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is 26162 Da. Subunit E is present both in C3- and CAM-plants. mRNA levels increased severalfold in leaves of CAM-induced plants. This was accompanied by a less pronounced increase in subunit E protein. Obviously, expression is stimulated under conditions of increased requirement for tonoplast H(+)-pumping activity.

  9. Crassulacean acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Geydan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of Crassulacean acid metabolism is presented, characterized by showing the occurrence, activity and plasticity of these complex mechanism at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level, framed by the presence of the denominated four phases in CAM and its repercussion and expression due to different stresses in an ecological context. The basic enzymes, and metabolites necessary for the optional functioning of CAM are presented as well as their mode of action and cellular control. Finally, it is shown how environmental conditions and molecular signalling mediate the phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Oxygen-18 incorporation into malic acid during nocturnal carbon dioxide fixation in crassulacean acid metabolism plants: a new approach to estimating in vivo carbonic anhydrase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO2 fixation is conducted with TC YO2, then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO2 and cellular H2O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the ( TC) malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO3 compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  11. Metabolic engineering of chloroplasts for artemisinic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 1. Metabolic engineering of chloroplasts for artemisinic acid biosynthesis and impact on plant growth ... International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India; School of Science Engineering and Technology, ...

  12. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect a ...

  13. Plant Metabolic Modeling: Achieving New Insight into Metabolism and Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. PMID:25344492

  14. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  15. Comparative RNA-Sequence Transcriptome Analysis of Phenolic Acid Metabolism in Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Model Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiao Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In this study, two S. miltiorrhiza genotypes (BH18 and ZH23 with different phenolic acid concentrations were used for de novo RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. A total of 170,787 transcripts and 56,216 unigenes were obtained. There were 670 differentially expressed genes (DEGs identified between BH18 and ZH23, 250 of which were upregulated in ZH23, with genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway being the most upregulated genes. Nine genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in BH18 and thus result in higher lignin content in BH18. However, expression profiles of most genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were higher in ZH23 than that in BH18. These results indicated that genes involved in the core common upstream phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway might play an important role in downstream secondary metabolism and demonstrated that lignin biosynthesis was a putative partially competing pathway with phenolic acid biosynthesis. The results of this study expanded our understanding of the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza.

  16. Metabolic flux analysis: recent advances in carbon metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Alonso, Ana-Paula; Rolin, Dominique; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Raymond, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Isotopic tracers are used to both trace metabolic pathways and quantify fluxes through these pathways. The use of different labeling methods recently led to profound changes in our views of plant metabolism. Examples are taken from primary metabolism, with sugar interconversions, carbon partitioning between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, or metabolite inputs into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as well as from secondary metabolism with the relative contribution of the plastidial and cytosolic pathways to the biosynthesis of terpenoids. While labeling methods are often distinguished according to the instruments used for label detection, emphasis is put here on labeling duration. Short time labeling is adequate to study limited areas of the metabolic network. Long-term labeling, when designed to obtain metabolic and isotopic steady-state, allows to calculate various fluxes in large areas ofcentral metabolism. After longer labeling periods, large amounts of label accumulate in structural or storage compounds: their detailed study through the retrobiosynthetic method gives access to the biosynthetic pathways of otherwise undetectable precursors. This chapter presents the power and limits of the different methods, and illustrates how they can be associated with each other and with other methods of cell biology, to provide the information needed for a rational approach of metabolic engineering.

  17. Inositol Metabolism in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroh, M.; Miki-Hirosige, H.; Rosen, W.; Loewus, F.

    1970-01-01

    When detached flowers or isolated pistils of Lilium longiflorum are given myoinositol-U-14C or -2-3H as dilute solution through the severed pedicel, label is quickly distributed by the vascular system. In the case of pistils, a pattern of labeling in ovary, style, and stigma is obtained which indicates that products of myoinositol metabolism are utilized in the biosynthesis of exudate (secretion product) of the stigma and style as well as for components of pistil cell walls. Pollination had no discernible effect on labeling pattern. Images PMID:5436329

  18. The effects of salinity, crassulacean acid metabolism and plant age on the carbon isotope composition of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic C(3)-CAM species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2005-09-01

    The carbon isotope composition of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (Aizoaceae) changes when plants are exposed to environmental stress and when they shift from C(3) to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). We examined the coupling between carbon isotope composition and photosynthetic pathway by subjecting plants of different ages to salinity and humidity treatments. Whole shoot delta(13)C values became less negative in plants that were exposed to 400 mM NaCl in the hydroponic solution. The isotopic change had two components: a direct NaCl effect that was greatest in plants still operating in the C(3) mode and decreased proportionally with increasing levels of dark fixation, and a second component related to the degree of CAM expression. Ignoring the presumably diffusion-related NaCl effect on carbon isotope ratios results in an overestimation of nocturnal CO(2) gain in comparison to an isotope versus nocturnal CO(2) gain calibration established previously for C(3) and CAM species grown under well-watered conditions. It is widely taken for granted that the shift to CAM in M. crystallinum is partially under developmental control and that CAM is inevitably expressed in mature plants. Plants, cultivated under non-saline conditions and high relative humidity (RH) for up to 63 days, maintained diel CO(2) gas-exchange patterns and delta(13)C values typical of C(3) plants. However, a weak CAM gas-exchange pattern and an increase in delta(13)C value were observed in non-salt-treated plants grown at reduced RH. These observations are consistent with environmental control rather than developmental control of the induction of CAM in mature M. crystallinum under non-saline conditions.

  19. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  20. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  1. Induction of PEP carboxylase and crassulacean acid metabolism by gibberellic acid in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, L J; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E; Strand, D; Hockema, B; Earnest, J

    2001-02-01

    The induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism in M:esembryanthemum crystallinum was investigated in response to foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA). After 5 weeks of treatment, GA-treated plants showed 1.7- to almost a 4-fold increase of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) activity with a concomitant increase in acid metabolism when compared to control plants. Immunoblot analysis indicated an increase in the PEPcase protein similar to that of salt treatment while Rubisco did not show a similar rise. The results indicate that exogenously applied GA accelerates plant developmental expression of PEPcase and Crassulacean acid metabolism in M: crystallinum.

  2. Influence of natural and synthetic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on primary and secondary metabolites and associated metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants under water deficit regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aniqa; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-12-05

    Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V9) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC). After one month of water deficit treatments, various levels of ascorbic acid (150 mg L-1 AsA or 25% OJ) besides control [distilled water (DW) and no spray (NS)] were applied as a foliar spray. After 15 days of AsA application, different physio-biochemical attributes were measured. The results showed that water deficit markedly decreased plant growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, total carotenoids (CAR) and total flavonoids, while it increased relative membrane permeability (RMP), intrinsic AsA content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, total soluble proteins (TSP), total free amino acids, activities of key antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)], total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing (RS) and non-reducing sugars (NRS). Most obvious results of most of these parameters were observed at 40% and 20% FC. Foliar-applied pure 150 mg L-1 AsA and 25% OJ were found to be very effective in improving plant growth, RMP, photosynthetic rate, CAR, proline, AsA, MDA, GB, TSP, free amino acids, SOD, POD, TSS, RS, NRS and total flavonoids. It was noticed that 25% OJ enriched with AsA and other essential nutrients and biomolecules was as efficient as 150 mg L-1 AsA in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on quinoa plants. So, it was concluded that OJ, a

  3. Salicylic Acid Alters Antioxidant and Phenolics Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid ...

  4. Low n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratio Improves Lipid Metabolism, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function in Rats Using Plant Oils as n-3 Fatty Acid Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li Gang; Song, Zhi Xiu; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yan Yan; Shu, Guo Fang; Lu, Hui Xia; Wang, Shao Kang; Sun, Gui Ju

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial function play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be affected by an imbalance in the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on these cardiovascular risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet using plant oils as the main n-3 PUFA source. The 1:1 and 5:1 ratio groups had significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proinflammatory cytokines compared with the 20:1 group (p stress compared with the other groups (p stress effects, and improving endothelial function. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (20:1) had adverse effects. Our results indicated that low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios exerted beneficial cardiovascular effects, suggesting that plant oils could be used as a source of n-3 fatty acids to prevent CVD. They also suggested that we should be aware of possible adverse effects from excessive n-3 PUFA.

  5. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  6. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  7. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  8. CACODYLIC ACID (DMAV): METABOLISM AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic action (MOA) for DMAV including a consideration of the key events for bladder tumor formation in rats, other potential modes of action; and also considers the human relevance of the proposed animal MOA. As part of tolerance reassessment under the Food Quality Protection Act for the August 3, 2006 deadline, the hazard of cacodylic acid is being reassessed.

  9. Thiamine in plants: aspects of its metabolism and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Aymeric

    2010-10-01

    Thiamine diphosphate (vitamin B(1)) plays a fundamental role as an enzymatic cofactor in universal metabolic pathways including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, thiamine diphosphate has recently been shown to have functions other than as a cofactor in response to abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Recently, several steps of the plant thiamine biosynthetic pathway have been characterized, and a mechanism of feedback regulation of thiamine biosynthesis via riboswitch has been unraveled. This review focuses on these most recent advances made in our understanding of thiamine metabolism and functions in plants. Phenotypes of plant mutants affected in thiamine biosynthesis are described, and genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data that have increased further our knowledge of plant thiamine metabolic pathways and functions are summarized. Aspects of thiamine metabolism such as catabolism, salvage, and transport in plants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  11. Large-scale mRNA expression profiling in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, performing C3 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Tillett, Richard L; Wood, Joshua A; Branco, Joshua M; Schlauch, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    The common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) has emerged as a useful model for molecular genetic studies of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) because CAM can be induced in this species by water deficit or salinity stress. Non-redundant sequence information from expressed sequence tag data was used to fabricate a custom oligonucleotide microarray to compare large-scale mRNA expression patterns in M. crystallinum plants conducting C(3) photosynthesis versus CAM. Samples were collected every 4 h over a 24 h time period at the start of the subjective second day from plants grown under constant light and temperature conditions in order to capture variation in mRNA expression due to salinity stress and circadian clock control. Of 8455 genes, a total of 2343 genes (approximately 28%) showed a significant change as judged by analysis of variance (ANOVA) in steady-state mRNA abundance at one or more time points over the 24 h period. Of these, 858 (10%) and 599 (7%) exhibited a greater than two-fold ratio (TFR) increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Functional categorization of these TFR genes revealed that many genes encoding products that function in CAM-related C(4) acid carboxylation/decarboxylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, polysaccharide, polyol, and starch biosynthesis/degradation, protein degradation, transcriptional activation, signalling, stress response, and transport facilitation, and novel, unclassified proteins exhibited stress-induced increases in mRNA abundance. In contrast, salt stress resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance for genes encoding photosynthetic functions, protein synthesis, and cellular biogenesis functions. Many genes with CAM-related functions exhibited phase shifts in their putative circadian expression patterns following CAM induction. This report establishes an extensive catalogue of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at understanding the complex, transcriptional

  12. Unsaturated fatty acid: Metabolism, synthesis and gene regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both plants and animals, unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be essential membrane components. Also they play key roles in many cellular events. The synthesis and metabolism of unsaturated fatty acid are very complex processes, involving a variety of enzymes and regulated pathways. Most recently, research has ...

  13. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Second year [annual] report, [May 23, 1988--May 22, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

    1990-12-31

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum contains D-erythroascorbic acid (EAA) and a closely related reducing acid, possibly the open-chain form of EAA. The organism cleaves one of these products or possibly both to yield OA and D-glyceric acid. The OA is rapidly secreted into the medium. An analogy can be made between AA-linked OA biosynthesis in higher plants and EAA-linked OA biosynthesis in fungi as exemplified by S. sclerotiorum.

  14. CO[sub 2] exchange and growth of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant opuntia ficus-indica under elevated CO[sub 2] in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism species, were studied at CO[sub 2] concentrations of 370, 520, and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] in open-top chambers during a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 76 and 98% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Eight weeks after daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35 and 49% higher at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, than at 370 L L[sup [minus]1]. Daily water-use efficiency was 88% higher under elevated CO[sub 2] for basal cladodes and 57% higher for daughter cladodes. The daily net CO[sub 2] uptake capacity for basal cladodes increased for 4 weeks after planting and then remained fairly constant, whereas for daughter cladodes, it increased with cladode age, became maximal at 8 to 14 weeks, and then declined. The percentage enhancement in daily net CO[sub 2] uptake caused by elevated CO[sub 2] was greatest initially for basal cladodes and at 8 to 14 weeks for daughter cladodes. The chlorophyll content per unit fresh weight of chlorenchyma for daughter cladodes at 8 weeks was 19 and 62% lower in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, compared with 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Despite the reduced chlorophyll content, plant biomass production during 23 weeks in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 21 and 55% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. The root dry weight nearly tripled as the CO[sub 2] concentration was doubled, causing the root/shoot ratio to increase with CO[sub 2] concentration. During the 23-week period, elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production of O. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Engineering complex metabolic pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Gemma; Blancquaert, Dieter; Capell, Teresa; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering can be used to modulate endogenous metabolic pathways in plants or introduce new metabolic capabilities in order to increase the production of a desirable compound or reduce the accumulation of an undesirable one. In practice, there are several major challenges that need to be overcome, such as gaining enough knowledge about the endogenous pathways to understand the best intervention points, identifying and sourcing the most suitable metabolic genes, expressing those genes in such a way as to produce a functional enzyme in a heterologous background, and, finally, achieving the accumulation of target compounds without harming the host plant. This article discusses the strategies that have been developed to engineer complex metabolic pathways in plants, focusing on recent technological developments that allow the most significant bottlenecks to be overcome.

  16. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism in coffee plants

    OpenAIRE

    Carelli,Maria Luiza Carvalho; Fahl,Joel Irineu; Ramalho, José D. Cochicho

    2006-01-01

    Coffee plants are highly N-demanding plants. Despite the importance of N nutrition for the development, acclimation and yield of coffee plants, there are few reports concerning N metabolism in this species. In this review, our intention is to summarize the information available in the literature and to point out the influence of environmental conditions on N assimilation, as well as comment and discuss some apparently contradictory results and raise and enlighten queries about N assimilation ...

  17. Progress in plant metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a growing realization that metabolic pathways must be studied in the context of the whole cell rather than at the single pathway level, and that even the simplest modifications can send ripples throughout the entire system. Attention has therefore shifted away from reductionist, single-gene engineering strategies and towards more complex approaches involving the simultaneous overexpression and/or suppression of multiple genes. The use of regulatory factors to control the abundance or activity of several enzymes is also becoming more widespread. In combination with emerging methods to model metabolic pathways, this should facilitate the enhanced production of natural products and the synthesis of novel materials in a predictable and useful manner.

  18. Metabolic engineering of plants for artemisinin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, Moran; Kozin, Magali; Duchin, Shai; Vainstein, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin, a natural compound from Artemisia annua, is highly effective in treating drug-resistant malaria. Because chemical synthesis of this natural terpenoid is not economically feasible, its only source remains as the native plant which produces only small quantities of it, resulting in a supply that is far short of demand. Extensive efforts have been invested in metabolic engineering for the biosynthesis of artemisinin precursors in microbes. However, the production of artemisinin itself has only been achieved in plants. Since, A. annua possesses only poorly developed genetic resources for traditional breeders, molecular breeding is the best alternative. In this review, we describe the efforts taken to enhance artemisinin production in A. annua via transgenesis and advocate metabolic engineering of the complete functional artemisinin metabolic pathway in heterologous plants. In both cases, we emphasize the need to apply state-of-the-art synthetic biology approaches to ensure successful biosynthesis of the drug.

  19. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enser, M

    1965-08-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0.01-5.0mm showed a maximum at 0.1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0.5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0.01-5.0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0.5-0.6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0.8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0.01-2.5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0.01-0.4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0.4 and 1.0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2.5 and 5.0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa.

  20. The genetics of plant metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Fu, Jingyuan; Vos, C.H. Ric de; Lommen, Arjen; Hall, Robert D.; Bino, Raoul J.; Plas, Linus H.W. van der; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten; Hall, RD; Bino, RJ; van der Plas, LHW

    2006-01-01

    Variation for metabolite composition and content is often observed in plants. However, it is poorly understood to what extent this variation has a genetic basis. Here, we describe the genetic analysis of natural variation in the metabolite composition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Instead of focusing on

  1. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  2. Metabolic engineering of terpenoid biosynthesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Kim, T.Y.; Ri, M.B.; Giri, A.P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants is a fascinating research topic from two main perspectives. On the one hand, the various biological activities of these compounds make their engineering a new tool for improving a considerable number of traits in crops. These include for example enhanced

  3. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  4. Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field.

  5. Metabolic engineering of chloroplasts for artemisinic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biosynthesis and impact on plant growth. BHAWNA SAXENA, MAYAVAN SUBRAMANIYAN, KARAN ... Supplementary table 1. 13C NMR chemical shifts of artemisinic acid and structure of artemisinic acid. Atom num- bers are referred to figure 3A-B. Carbon number. Chemical shift (ppm). C1. 29. C2. 37. C3. 42. C4. 26.5. C5.

  6. Antibody-based metabolic engineering in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölke, Greta; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2006-06-25

    Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for the manipulation of cellular metabolism and the development of plant varieties with enhanced biological and nutrional functions. Several strategies are available for the in vivo modulation of enzymatic activities, allowing metabolic flux to be directed towards desired biochemical products. Such strategies include the simultaneous expression and/or suppression of multiple genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes, ectopic expression of transcription factors, and the RNA-based inhibition of catabolic enzymes. As an alternative approach, recombinant antibodies expressed in plants have been used to inactivate or sequestrate specific host proteins or compounds, resulting in significant changes to metabolic pathways. The impact of this approach depends on prudent selection of the target antigen, careful antibody design, appropriate subcellular targeting and stable accumulation of the recombinant antibodies in planta. Here, we describe the current status of antibody-based metabolic engineering in plants, discuss procedures for the optimisation of this technology and consider the remaining challenges to its widespread use.

  7. Modulating plant primary amino acid metabolism as a necrotrophic virulence strategy: the immune-regulatory role of asparagine synthetase in Botrytis cinerea-tomato interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hamed; De Vleesschauwer, David; Aziz, Aziz; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of the "gray mold" disease on a broad range of hosts. As an archetypal necrotroph, B. cinerea has evolved multiple virulence strategies for inducing cell death in its host. Moreover, progress of B. cinerea colonization is commonly associated with induction of senescence in the host tissue, even in non-invaded regions. In a recent study, we showed that abscisic acid deficiency in the sitiens tomato mutant culminates in an anti-senescence defense mechanism which effectively contributes to resistance against B. cinerea infection. Conversely, in susceptible wild-type tomato a strong induction of senescence could be observed following B. cinerea infection. Building upon this earlier work, we here discuss the immune-regulatory role of a key senescence-associated protein, asparagine synthetase. We found that infection of wild-type tomato leads to a strong transcriptional upregulation of asparagine synthetase, followed by a severe depletion of asparagine titers. In contrast, resistant sitiens plants displayed a strong induction of asparagine throughout the course of infection. We hypothesize that rapid activation of asparagine synthetase in susceptible tomato may play a dual role in promoting Botrytis cinerea pathogenesis by providing a rich source of N for the pathogen, on the one hand, and facilitating pathogen-induced host senescence, on the other.

  8. Combination of Plant Metabolic Modules Yields Synthetic Synergies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Rajabi; Ernst Heene; Jan Maisch; Peter Nick

    2017-01-01

    .... Using alkaloid metabolism of tobacco, we explore an alternative strategy, where the metabolic interactions of different cell types in a plant tissue are technically mimicked based on different plant...

  9. Research Progress of Amino Acid Metabolism PET Imaging in Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid metabolism PET imaging plays a very important role in metabolism molecular imaging. Amino acid PET tracers include [1-11C]amino acid, labeling α-C amino acid, labeling side-chain amino acid, and N-substituted labeling amino acid. Uptake mechanism of these amino acids in tumor mainly involves in amino acid transport and amino acid metabolism PET imaging has an advantage of differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases, brain cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, and other tumors. The research progress of amino acid metabolism PET imaging in tumor were summarized.

  10. Metabolism of alkaloids in coffee plants

    OpenAIRE

    ASHIHARA, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Coffee beans contain two types of alkaloids, caffeine and trigonelline, as major components. This review describes the distribution and metabolism of these compounds. Caffeine is synthesised from xanthosine derived from purine nucleotides. The major biosynthetic route is xanthosine -> 7-methylxanthosine -> 7-methylxanthine -> theobromine -> caffeine. Degradation activity of caffeine in coffee plants is very low, but catabolism of theophylline is always present. Theophylline is converted to xa...

  11. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  13. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  14. IDH1 mutations alter citric acid cycle metabolism and increase dependence on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grassian, Alexandra R; Parker, Seth J; Davidson, Shawn M; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Green, Courtney R; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Murphy, Anne N; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M

    2014-01-01

    .... We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells...

  15. Phase I xenobiotic metabolic systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Tamas; Gullner, Gábor

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation uses living higher plants for the removal and biochemical decomposition of environmental pollutants. In this paper Phase I metabolic pathways in the biotransformation reactions of organic pollutants in plants are reviewed. These reactions result in the introduction of functional groups in the xenobiotic molecule or the exposure of preexisting functional groups and lead to the formation of more polar, more water-soluble, chemically more reactive and sometimes biologically more active derivatives. Phase I type reactions are most important in the phytoremediation of hydrophobic, chemically stable organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and (poly)chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Although Phase I reactions involve a wide range of chemical transformations from hydrolysis to reduction, oxidative processes catalyzed by cytochrome P450 containing monooxygenases are the most important. Transgenic plants with tailored Phase I enzymatic activities may play major roles in the removal of environmentally stable organic pollutants from contaminated fields.

  16. Plant Signaling and Metabolic Pathways Enabling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M; Bravo, Armando; Harrison, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    Plants have lived in close association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for over 400 million years. Today, this endosymbiosis occurs broadly in the plant kingdom where it has a pronounced impact on plant mineral nutrition. The symbiosis develops deep within the root cortex with minimal alterations in the external appearance of the colonized root; however, the absence of macroscopic alterations belies the extensive signaling, cellular remodeling, and metabolic alterations that occur to enable accommodation of the fungal endosymbiont. Recent research has revealed the involvement of a novel N-acetyl glucosamine transporter and an alpha/beta-fold hydrolase receptor at the earliest stages of AM symbiosis. Calcium channels required for symbiosis signaling have been identified, and connections between the symbiosis signaling pathway and key transcriptional regulators that direct AM-specific gene expression have been established. Phylogenomics has revealed the existence of genes conserved for AM symbiosis, providing clues as to how plant cells fine-tune their biology to enable symbiosis, and an exciting coalescence of genome mining, lipid profiling, and tracer studies collectively has led to the conclusion that AM fungi are fatty acid auxotrophs and that plants provide their fungal endosymbionts with fatty acids. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular program for AM symbiosis and discuss these recent advances. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  18. Articulation of three core metabolic processes in Arabidopsis: Fatty acid biosynthesis, leucine catabolism and starch metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolau Basil J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating metabolic network structures and functions in multicellular organisms is an emerging goal of functional genomics. We describe the co-expression network of three core metabolic processes in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: fatty acid biosynthesis, starch metabolism and amino acid (leucine catabolism. Results These co-expression networks form modules populated by genes coding for enzymes that represent the reactions generally considered to define each pathway. However, the modules also incorporate a wider set of genes that encode transporters, cofactor biosynthetic enzymes, precursor-producing enzymes, and regulatory molecules. We tested experimentally the hypothesis that one of the genes tightly co-expressed with starch metabolism module, a putative kinase AtPERK10, will have a role in this process. Indeed, knockout lines of AtPERK10 have an altered starch accumulation. In addition, the co-expression data define a novel hierarchical transcript-level structure associated with catabolism, in which genes performing smaller, more specific tasks appear to be recruited into higher-order modules with a broader catabolic function. Conclusion Each of these core metabolic pathways is structured as a module of co-expressed transcripts that co-accumulate over a wide range of environmental and genetic perturbations and developmental stages, and represent an expanded set of macromolecules associated with the common task of supporting the functionality of each metabolic pathway. As experimentally demonstrated, co-expression analysis can provide a rich approach towards understanding gene function.

  19. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  20. Metabolic acid-base disorders in the critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Helio Autran; Bach, Jonathan F; DiBartola, Stephen P

    2008-05-01

    The recognition and management of acid-base disorders is a commonplace activity in the critical care unit, and the role of weak and strong acids in the genesis of metabolic acid-base disorders is reviewed. The clinical approach to patients with metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis is discussed in this article.

  1. Metabolic profiling reveals metabolic shifts in Arabidopsis plants grown under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänkänpää, Hanna Johansson; Mishra, Yogesh; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Jansson, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Plants have tremendous capacity to adjust their morphology, physiology and metabolism in response to changes in growing conditions. Thus, analysis solely of plants grown under constant conditions may give partial or misleading indications of their responses to the fluctuating natural conditions in which they evolved. To obtain data on growth condition-dependent differences in metabolite levels, we compared leaf metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana growing under three constant laboratory light conditions: 30 [low light (LL)], 300 [normal light (NL)] and 600 [high light (HL)]µmol photons m(-2) s(-1). We also shifted plants to the field and followed their metabolite composition for 3 d. Numerous compounds showed light intensity-dependent accumulation, including: many sugars and sugar derivatives (fructose, sucrose, glucose, galactose and raffinose); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates; and amino acids (ca. 30% of which were more abundant under HL and 60% under LL). However, the patterns differed after shifting NL plants to field conditions. Levels of most identified metabolites (mainly amino acids, sugars and TCA cycle intermediates) rose after 2 h and peaked after 73 h, indicative of a 'biphasic response' and 'circadian' effects. The results provide new insight into metabolomic level mechanisms of plant acclimation, and highlight the role of known protectants under natural conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Plant oils were associated with low prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in Japanese workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Kurotani

    Full Text Available Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18-69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/L or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (≥42 mmol/mol or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.12. Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03. No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults.

  3. Bile Acid Signaling in Liver Metabolism and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiangang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes are increasingly recognized as health concerns worldwide. Overnutrition and insulin resistance are the major causes of diabetic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in humans. Studies in the past decade provide evidence that bile acids are not just biological detergents facilitating gut nutrient absorption, but also important metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Pharmacological alteration of bile acid metabolism or bile acid signaling pathways such as using bile acid receptor agonists or bile acid binding resins may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. On the other hand, bile acid signaling is complex, and the molecular mechanisms mediating the bile acid effects are still not completely understood. This paper will summarize recent advances in our understanding of bile acid signaling in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, and the potentials of developing novel therapeutic strategies that target bile acid metabolism for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  4. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world. Moreover, evidence of the negative impacts of this practice on human health, at least for some vitamins, is accumulating. Biofortification of crop plants-the enhancement of vitamins and minerals through plant biotechnology-is a promising alternative or complement in the battle against micronutrient deficiencies. Owing to a growing knowledge about vitamin metabolism, as well as mineral uptake and reallocation in plants, it is today possible to enhance micronutrient levels in crop plants, offering a sustainable solution to populations with a suboptimal micronutrient intake. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Green pathways: Metabolic network analysis of plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Lisa Maria; Beckers, Veronique; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic engineering of plants with enhanced crop yield and value-added compositional traits is particularly challenging as they probably exhibit the highest metabolic network complexity of all living organisms. Therefore, approaches of plant metabolic network analysis, which can provide systems-level understanding of plant physiology, appear valuable as guidance for plant metabolic engineers. Strongly supported by the sequencing of plant genomes, a number of different experimental and computational methods have emerged in recent years to study plant systems at various levels: from heterotrophic cell cultures to autotrophic entire plants. The present review presents a state-of-the-art toolbox for plant metabolic network analysis. Among the described approaches are different in silico modeling techniques, including flux balance analysis, elementary flux mode analysis and kinetic flux profiling, as well as different variants of experiments with plant systems which use radioactive and stable isotopes to determine in vivo plant metabolic fluxes. The fundamental principles of these techniques, the required data input and the obtained flux information are enriched by technical advices, specific to plants. In addition, pioneering and high-impacting findings of plant metabolic network analysis highlight the potential of the field. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic Relations between Methylxanthines and Methyluric Acids in Coffea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, J B; Baumann, T W

    1983-12-01

    Metabolism of purine alkaloids in the leaves of Coffea dewevrei De Wild et Durand var excelsa Chev, Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern and Coffea abeokutae Cramer was studied by analyzing leaf discs collected during vegetative development and by feeding the following radioactive tracers: [(14)C]theobromine, [(14)C]caffeine, and [(14)C]theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid). Their principal metabolites were quantitatively and qualitatively determined. All three species convert the precursors to the same radioactive products, and proceed through the same four maturity stages characterized by the alkaloid accumulation pattern and by a particular transformation potency: (stage 1) young plant accumulating caffeine, transforms theobromine to caffeine; (stage 2) caffeine is gradually replaced by theacrine, theobromine and caffeine are converted to theacrine; (stage 3) theacrine disappears whereas liberine (O(2), 1,9-thrimethyluric acid) accumulates, theacrine is metabolized to liberine; (stage 4) branched-out plant containing liberine but no theacrine, caffeine is converted rapidly to liberine via theacrine. Methylliberine (O(2),1,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), presumably the direct precursor of liberine, is occasionally found in low concentrations at stage 3 and 4.The collective term ;liberio-excelsoid' introduced by geneticists for the numerous races or species of Pachycoffea is in accordance with the phytochemical equality found in this work.

  7. Disorders of branched chain amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, I; Venditti, C P

    2016-11-07

    The three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine, share the first enzymatic steps in their metabolic pathways, including a reversible transamination followed by an irreversible oxidative decarboxylation to coenzyme-A derivatives. The respective oxidative pathways subsequently diverge and at the final steps yield acetyl- and/or propionyl-CoA that enter the Krebs cycle. Many disorders in these pathways are diagnosed through expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the only disorder of the group that is associated with elevated body fluid levels of the BCAAs. Due to the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation step distal enzymatic blocks in the pathways do not result in the accumulation of amino acids, but rather to CoA-activated small carboxylic acids identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of urine and are therefore classified as organic acidurias. Disorders in these pathways can present with a neonatal onset severe-, or chronic intermittent- or progressive forms. Metabolic instability and increased morbidity and mortality are shared between inborn errors in the BCAA pathways, while treatment options remain limited, comprised mainly of dietary management and in some cases solid organ transplantation.

  8. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  9. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  10. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  11. Effect of metabolic enzyme on organic acids in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of metabolic enzyme on organic acids in developing 'Dangshansuli' pear leaf. S Sha, J Li, J Wu, S Zhang. Abstract. Changes in the content of citric and malic acids and the activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these two organic acids, including citrate synthase (CS), cytoplast aconitase (Cyt-ACO), ...

  12. Salt induction and the partial purification/characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein-serine kinase from an inducible crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Chollet, R

    1994-10-01

    Treatment of the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) with high salinity caused the well-documented increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein and a concomitant rise in the activity of a Ca(2+)-independent PEPC-kinase (PEPC-PK). When the plants were irrigated with 0.5 M NaCl, PEPC protein level and PEPC-PK activity started to increase after 2 days of treatment and continued to rise for the next 8 days, attaining about a 14- and 8-fold total increase, respectively. This salt-induced PEPC-kinase activity was detected only in leaves harvested from the stressed plants at night. This highly regulated protein kinase was partially purified about 3500-fold from these darkened, salt-stressed plants by sequential fast-protein liquid chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, blue dextran-agarose, and Superdex 75. The gel-filtration data indicated that the native PEPC-kinase has a molecular weight around 33,000. Complementary analysis by denaturing electrophoresis and subsequent in situ renaturation and assay of PEPC-kinase activity revealed two major PEPC-PK polypeptides with approximate molecular masses of 39 and 32 kDa. The partially purified M. crystallinum PEPC-kinase readily phosphorylated PEPCs purified from maize, M. crystallinum, and tobacco leaves and a recombinant sorghum enzyme. In contrast, this Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase phosphorylated neither a recombinant sorghum mutant PEPC in which the target residue (Ser-8) was changed by site-directed mutagenesis to Asp nor histone III-S, casein, and bovine serum albumin. The optimal pH for PEPC-PK activity was pH 8.0 and this activity was affected by both the substrate (phosphoenolpyruvate) and the negative allosteric effector (L-malate) of PEPC in a pH-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular properties of this highly regulated PEPC-kinase from M. crystallinum are strikingly similar to those reported recently by this laboratory for the reversibly light-activated C4 enzyme from maize (Arch

  13. Amino acids in the rhizosphere: from plants to microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Luke A

    2013-09-01

    Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

  14. Functions of autophagy in plant carbon and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia eRen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon and nitrogen are essential components for plant growth. Although models of plant carbon and nitrogen metabolisms have long been established, certain gaps remain unfilled, such as how plants are able to maintain a flexible nocturnal starch turnover capacity over various light cycles, or how nitrogen remobilization is achieved during the reproductive growth stage. Recent advances in plant autophagy have shed light on such questions. Not only does autophagy contribute to starch degradation at night, but it participates in the degradation of chloroplast proteins and even chloroplasts after prolonged carbon starvation, thus help maintain the free amino acid pool and provide substrate for respiration. The induction of autophagy under these conditions may involve transcriptional regulation. Large-scale transcriptome analyses revealed that ATG8e belongs to a core carbon signaling response shared by Arabidopsis accessions, and the transcription of Arabidopsis ATG7 is tightly co-regulated with genes functioning in chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. In the reproductive phase, autophagy is essential for bulk degradation of leaf proteins, thus contributes to Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE both under normal and low-nitrogen conditions.

  15. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  16. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-05-01

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  17. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  18. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and the genesis of uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Naim M

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid stones are significantly more common among nephrolithiasis patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and/or the metabolic syndrome. The principal metabolic feature responsible for this association is an overly acidic urine, which leads to the precipitation of sparingly soluble uric acid crystals in urine and subsequent development of stones. The unduly acidic urine in uric acid stone formers is caused by a combination of excessive dietary intake of animal proteins and a defect in renal ammoniagenesis and/or excretion that leads to impaired buffering and amplifies the acidic urine caused by an increased acid excretion. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Flux Analysis -application in plant metabolic modelling for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Hezard, Pauline; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Plants have an important role in providing food and fresh oxygen for humans in a closed environment during long duration missions to Mars or Moon. Also, plants play an important role for recycling water. Thus, plant modelling (crop composition, yield prediction and the responses to its environment within the closed loop) gets much attention in the development of closed ecological life support systems. In order to achieve this, metabolic flux computation methods accounting for reactions stoichiometry and chemical energy conservation obtained from metabolic pathways description of different plant parts are required. The basic ideas of metabolic modelling and their application to various plant parts will be discussed. Metabolic systems consist of a set of metabolites and reactions that consume or produce them. The metabolic pathways within a metabolic network for each plant part or sub level are characterised and the metabolic fluxes, defined as the amount of converted metabolite per unit time and per unit mass of tissue (or per plant part), can be calculated. MBA (Metabolic flux analysis) which is a constraint based approach is effective at calculating flux distributions through bio-chemical networks. This methodology can be applied to several plants' growth situations. In terms of space appli-cations, it is shown how this approach could bring valuable tools for assessing and quantifying the effects of the environment of a close system on growth rate and conversion yields.

  1. Understanding the control of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network of plant oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Philip D

    2016-09-01

    Plant oil biosynthesis involves a complex metabolic network with multiple subcellular compartments, parallel pathways, cycles, and pathways that have a dual function to produce essential membrane lipids and triacylglycerol. Modern molecular biology techniques provide tools to alter plant oil compositions through bioengineering, however with few exceptions the final composition of triacylglycerol cannot be predicted. One reason for limited success in oilseed bioengineering is the inadequate understanding of how to control the flux of fatty acids through various fatty acid modification, and triacylglycerol assembly pathways of the lipid metabolic network. This review focuses on the mechanisms of acyl flux through the lipid metabolic network, and highlights where uncertainty resides in our understanding of seed oil biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulfur containing air pollutants and their effects on plant metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Maas, F.M.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Mathy, P.

    1988-01-01

    H2S and SO2 affected plant yield at relative low levels without causing visible injury. In general H2S was more toxic than SO2. Short-term exposure (24 to 48 h) of plants to the pollutants affected sulfur, nitrogen and energy metabolism. Both exposure of plants to H2S and SO2 resulted in an

  3. Observability of plant metabolic networks is reflected in the correlation of metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwahn, Kevin; Küken, Anika; Kliebenstein, Daniel James

    2016-01-01

    -of-the-art genome-scale metabolic networks. By using metabolic data profiles from a set of seven environmental perturbations as well as from natural variability, we demonstrate that the data profiles of sensor metabolites are more correlated than those of nonsensor metabolites. This pattern was confirmed...... with in silico generated metabolic profiles from a medium-size kinetic model of plant central carbon metabolism. Altogether, due to the small number of identified sensors, our study implies that targeted metabolite analyses may provide the vast majority of relevant information about plant metabolic systems....

  4. Inborn errors of metabolism revealed by organic acid profile analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of inborn errors of amino acid or organic acid metabolism in a group of high risk Egyptian children with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of inherited metabolic diseases. Subjects and Methods: 117 (79 males ═ 67.5 % and 38 females ═ 32.5 %) high risk patients with ...

  5. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  6. Nitrogen metabolism in plants under low oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limami, Anis M; Diab, Houssein; Lothier, Jérémy

    2014-03-01

    More frequent flooding and waterlogging events due to more heavy precipitation are expected worldwide in the context of climate change. Accordingly, adaptation of plants to oxygen limitation at both cellular and whole plant levels should be investigated thoroughly, that derived knowledge could be taken into account in breeding programs and agronomical practices for saving plant fitness, growth and development even when oxygen availability is low. In the present review, we highlight current knowledge on essential aspects of low oxygen stress-induced changes in nitrogen metabolism. The involvement of two possible pathways for NO production either via the reaction catalyzed by nitrate reductase or at Complex III or IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thus contributing to ATP synthesis via the so-called nitrite-NO respiration, is discussed. NO is proposed to be scavenged by non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Hb) in a Hb/NO cycle, in which NAD(P)H is oxidized for the conversion of NO into NO3(-). The investigation of an additional adaptation to the decrease in oxygen availability via transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of amino acid synthesis pathways, using publicly available transcriptome and translatome data for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is also discussed.

  7. Protein and metabolic engineering for the production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Organic acids are natural metabolites of living organisms. They have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In recent years, biotechnological routes to organic acids production from renewable raw materials have been regarded as very promising approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of current developments in the production of organic acids using protein and metabolic engineering strategies. The organic acids include propionic acid, pyruvate, itaconic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and citric acid. We also expect that rapid developments in the fields of systems biology and synthetic biology will accelerate protein and metabolic engineering for microbial organic acid production in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Engineering central metabolism - a grand challenge for plant biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlove, Lee J; Nielsen, Jens; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2017-05-01

    The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However, as has been amply demonstrated in simpler systems such as microbes, central metabolism is extremely difficult to rationally engineer. This is because of multiple layers of regulation that operate to maintain metabolic steady state and because of the highly connected nature of central metabolism. In this review we discuss new approaches for metabolic engineering that have the potential to address these problems and dramatically improve the success with which we can rationally engineer central metabolism in plants. In particular, we advocate the adoption of an iterative 'design-build-test-learn' cycle using fast-to-transform model plants as test beds. This approach can be realised by coupling new molecular tools to incorporate multiple transgenes in nuclear and plastid genomes with computational modelling to design the engineering strategy and to understand the metabolic phenotype of the engineered organism. We also envisage that mutagenesis could be used to fine-tune the balance between the endogenous metabolic network and the introduced enzymes. Finally, we emphasise the importance of considering the plant as a whole system and not isolated organs: the greatest increase in crop productivity will be achieved if both source and sink metabolism are engineered. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High specificity in plant leaf metabolic responses to arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Rabea; Baier, Markus C; Persicke, Marcus; Müller, Caroline

    2014-05-22

    The chemical composition of plants (phytometabolome) is dynamic and modified by environmental factors. Understanding its modulation allows to improve crop quality and decode mechanisms underlying plant-pest interactions. Many studies that investigate metabolic responses to the environment focus on single model species and/or few target metabolites. However, comparative studies using environmental metabolomics are needed to evaluate commonalities of chemical responses to certain challenges. We assessed the specificity of foliar metabolic responses of five plant species to the widespread, ancient symbiosis with a generalist arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Here we show that plant species share a large 'core metabolome' but nevertheless the phytometabolomes are modulated highly species/taxon-specifically. Such a low conservation of responses across species highlights the importance to consider plant metabolic prerequisites and the long time of specific plant-fungus coevolution. Thus, the transferability of findings regarding phytometabolome modulation by an identical AM symbiont is severely limited even between closely related species.

  10. Plant biostimulants: physiological responses induced by protein hydrolyzed-based products and humic substances in plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenella Nardi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the use of biostimulants in sustainable agriculture has been growing. Biostimulants can be obtained from different organic materials and include humic substances (HS, complex organic materials, beneficial chemical elements, peptides and amino acids, inorganic salts, seaweed extracts, chitin and chitosan derivatives, antitranspirants, amino acids and other N-containing substances. The application of biostimulants to plants leads to higher content of nutrients in their tissue and positive metabolic changes. For these reasons, the development of new biostimulants has become a focus of scientific interest. Among their different functions, biostimulants influence plant growth and nitrogen metabolism, especially because of their content in hormones and other signalling molecules. A significant increase in root hair length and density is often observed in plants treated with biostimulants, suggesting that these substances induce a “nutrient acquisition response” that favors nutrient uptake in plants via an increase in the absorptive surface area. Furthermore, biostimulants positively influence the activity and gene expression of enzymes functioning in the primary and secondary plant metabolism. This article reviews the current literature on two main classes of biostimulants: humic substances and protein-based biostimulants. The characteristic of these biostimulants and their effects on plants are thoroughly described.

  11. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Dynamic metabolic responses of brown planthoppers towards susceptible and resistant rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Caixiang; Du, Ba; Hao, Fuhua; Lei, Hehua; Wan, Qianfen; He, Guangcun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2017-01-01

    Summary Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice‐growing regions, and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH‐resistant plants, we systematically analysed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC‐FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty ...

  13. Ionic Balance during Malic Acid Accumulation in Vacuoles of a CAM Plant, Graptopetalum paraguayense

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuko, Iwasaki; Hiroyuki, Arata; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology Faculty of Science, Kyushu University

    1988-01-01

    We studied the ionic balance during diurnal changes in the levels of accumulated malic acid and hydrogen ion in the vacuoles of Graptopetalum paraguayense, a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. There was a clear diurnal rhythm of the pH and the total malic acid content, but the amount of negative charges due to the unprotonated carboxyl groups of malic acid remained approximately constant. The negative charges were balanced by the positive charges of cations, which were also constant th...

  14. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  15. Correlation of uric acid levels and parameters of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibičková, Ľ; Langová, K; Vaverková, H; Kubíčková, V; Karásek, D

    2017-07-18

    Hyperuricemia has been described as associated with the risk of development metabolic syndrome; however the relationship between the uric acid level and particular parameters of metabolic syndrome remained unclear. We performed a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 833 dyslipidemic patients and correlated their levels of uric acid with parameters of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein, anthropometric parameters. We also defined patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and compered their uric acid levels with those without this phenotype. We found that levels of uric acid are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome. Specifically, dyslipidemia characteristic for metabolic syndrome (low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides) correlates better with uric acid levels than parameters of insulin resistance. Also waist circumference correlates better with uric acid levels than body mass index. Patients with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype had higher levels of uric acid when compared with patients without this phenotype. Serum uric acid levels are even in low levels linearly correlated with parameters of metabolic syndrome (better with typical lipid characteristics than with parameters of insulin resistance) and could be associated with higher cardiovascular risk.

  16. Gene expression in plant lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shan Hsiao

    Full Text Available Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, β-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1 and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6 in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  17. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  18. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meda Anderson R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.

  19. Auxin metabolism rates and implications for plant development

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    Eric M Kramer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auxin metabolism rarely express their results as a metabolic rate, although the data obtained would often permit such a calculation to be made. We analyze data from 31 previously published papers to quantify the rates of auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, conjugate hydrolysis, and catabolism in seed plants. Most metabolic pathways have rates in the range 10 nM/h to 1 μM/h, with the exception of auxin conjugation, which has rates as high as ~100 μM/h. The highest rates of auxin conjugation suggests that auxin metabolic sinks may be very small, perhaps as small as a single cell. By contrast, the relatively low rate of auxin biosynthesis requires plants to conserve and recycle auxin during long-distance transport. The consequences for plant development are discussed.

  20. Metabolomics, Standards, and Metabolic Modeling for Synthetic Biology in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla Beate; Czauderna, Tobias; Klapperstück, Matthias; Roessner, Ute; Schreiber, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Life on earth depends on dynamic chemical transformations that enable cellular functions, including electron transfer reactions, as well as synthesis and degradation of biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are coordinated in metabolic pathways that interact in a complex way to allow adequate regulation. Biotechnology, food, biofuel, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries are highly interested in metabolic engineering as an enabling technology of synthetic biology to exploit cells for the controlled production of metabolites of interest. These approaches have only recently been extended to plants due to their greater metabolic complexity (such as primary and secondary metabolism) and highly compartmentalized cellular structures and functions (including plant-specific organelles) compared with bacteria and other microorganisms. Technological advances in analytical instrumentation in combination with advances in data analysis and modeling have opened up new approaches to engineer plant metabolic pathways and allow the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale metabolic data, present an overview of current bioinformatics methods for the modeling and visualization of metabolic networks, and discuss approaches for interfacing bioinformatics approaches with metabolic models of cellular processes and flux distributions in order to predict phenotypes derived from specific genetic modifications or subjected to different environmental conditions.

  1. EFFECTS OF HYDRAZINES ON THE METABOLISM OF CERTAIN AMINES AND AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMINES, * AMINO ACIDS , *DIAMINE OXIDASE, TOXICITY, METABOLISM, METABOLISM, DIMETHYLHYDRAZINES, GLUTAMIC ACID, ENZYMES, PHARMACOLOGY, TRACER STUDIES, LABELED SUBSTANCES, RESPIRATION, GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM, RATS.

  2. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  3. Revealing metabolic phenotypes in plants: inputs from NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, R G; Shachar-Hill, Y

    2005-02-01

    Assessing the performance of the plant metabolic network, with its varied biosynthetic capacity and its characteristic subcellular compartmentation, remains a considerable challenge. The complexity of the network is such that it is not yet possible to build large-scale predictive models of the fluxes it supports, whether on the basis of genomic and gene expression analysis or on the basis of more traditional measurements of metabolites and their interconversions. This limits the agronomic and biotechnological exploitation of plant metabolism, and it undermines the important objective of establishing a rational metabolic engineering strategy. Metabolic analysis is central to removing this obstacle and currently there is particular interest in harnessing high-throughput and/or large-scale analyses to the task of defining metabolic phenotypes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy contributes to this objective by providing a versatile suite of analytical techniques for the detection of metabolites and the fluxes between them. The principles that underpin the analysis of plant metabolism by NMR are described, including a discussion of the measurement options for the detection of metabolites in vivo and in vitro, and a description of the stable isotope labelling experiments that provide the basis for metabolic flux analysis. Despite a relatively low sensitivity, NMR is suitable for high-throughput system-wide analyses of the metabolome, providing methods for both metabolite fingerprinting and metabolite profiling, and in these areas NMR can contribute to the definition of plant metabolic phenotypes that are based on metabolic composition. NMR can also be used to investigate the operation of plant metabolic networks. Labelling experiments provide information on the operation of specific pathways within the network, and the quantitative analysis of steady-state labelling experiments leads to the definition of large-scale flux maps for heterotrophic carbon

  4. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic compounds in plants reflect the plant's carbon metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M. A.; Kahmen, A.; Werner, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The main factors controlling δ2H of plant organic compounds are generally assumed to be the plant's source water and the evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water. Hydrogen isotope analyses of plant compounds from sediments or tree rings are therefore mainly applied to assess hydrological conditions at different spatial and temporal scales. However, the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of plant organic compounds (ɛbio) also accounts for a large part of the variability observed in the δ2H values. Nevertheless, only few studies have directly addressed the physiological basis of this variability and even fewer studies have thus explored possible applications of hydrogen isotope variability in plant organic compounds for plant physiological research. Here we show two datasets indicating that the plant's carbon metabolism can have a substantial influence on δ2H values of n-alkanes and cellulose. First, we performed a controlled experiment where we forced plants into heterotrophic and autotrophic C-metabolism by growing them under four different light treatments. Second, we assessed the δ2H values of different parasitic heterotrophic plants and their autotrophic host plants. Our two datasets show a systematic shift in ɛbio of up to 80 ‰ depending on the plant's carbon metabolism (heterotrophic or autotrophic). Differences in n-alkane and cellulose δ2H values in plants with autotrophic vs. heterotrophic metabolisms can be explained by different NADPH pools that are used by the plants to build their compounds either with assimilates that originate directly from photosynthesis or from stored carbohydrates. Our results have significant implications for the calibration and interpretation of geological records. More importantly, as the δ2H values reflect the plant's carbon metabolism involved during the tissue formation, our findings highlight the potential of δ2H values as new tool for studying plant and ecosystem carbon

  5. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  6. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Quanwei; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Li, Yanjun; Fan, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  7. Amino Acids as Metabolic Substrates during Cardiac Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kenneth J.; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Wasserman, David H.; Wikswo, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The heart is well known as a metabolic omnivore in that it is capable of consuming fatty acids, glucose, ketone bodies, pyruvate, lactate, amino acids and even its own constituent proteins, in order of decreasing preference. The energy from these substrates supports not only mechanical contraction, but also the various transmembrane pumps and transporters required for ionic homeostasis, electrical activity, metabolism and catabolism. Cardiac ischemia – for example, due to compromise of the coronary vasculature or end-stage heart failure – will alter both electrical and metabolic activity. While the effects of myocardial ischemia on electrical propagation and stability have been studied in depth, the effects of ischemia on metabolic substrate preference has not been fully appreciated: oxygen deprivation during ischemia will significantly alter the relative ability of the heart to utilize each of these substrates. Although changes in cardiac metabolism are understood to be an underlying component in almost all cardiac myopathies, the potential contribution of amino acids in maintaining cardiac electrical conductance and stability during ischemia is underappreciated. Despite clear evidence that amino acids exert cardioprotective effects in ischemia and other cardiac disorders, their role in the metabolism of the ischemic heart has yet to be fully elucidated. This review synthesizes the current literature of the metabolic contribution of amino acids during ischemia by analyzing relevant historical and recent research. PMID:23354395

  8. Dominant amino acids, organic acids and sugars in water-soluble root exudates of C4 plants: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this mini-review was to identify the dominant carbohydrates, organic acids and amino ­acids in water-soluble root exudates of plants which represent dominant compounds there. The study is focused on plants of C4-type of metabolism taking into account available literature. From group of carbohydrates, those dominant are represented glucose, fructose, arabinose and sucrose. Between dominant amino acids occurring in root exudates of C4-metabolism plants are alanine, se­rine, arginine, glutamine, glutamic and aspartic acid, glycine, proline, cystine, lysine and g-aminobutyric acid. Citric, malic, tartaric, succinic, trans-aconitic represent the dominant organic acids. This knowledge may be useful for planning analyses of these compounds in root exudates of C4 plants. Except for this preparation of synthetic root exudates to simulate rhizosphere of C4 plants may be performed based on these results.

  9. Ascorbic acid synthesis and metabolism in maize are subject to complex and genotype-dependent feedback regulation during endosperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Bassie, Ludovic; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant and electron donor whose metabolism in plants is under strict feedback control. The factors that influence L-ascorbic acid accumulation in staple crops are only partially understood. One way to gain insight into the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism is to investigate the endogenous pathways in various genetic backgrounds and characterize their interactions with transgenes encoding relevant enzymes. In an initial step, we investigated the developmental profile of L-ascorbic acid accumulation in the endosperm of three diverse maize genotypes and a transgenic line expressing rice dehydroascorbate reductase, which enhances L-ascorbic acid recycling. We determined the transcript levels of all the key genes in the L-ascorbic acid metabolic pathways as well as the specific levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate. L-ascorbic acid levels were high 20 days after pollination and declined thereafter. We found significant genotype-dependent variations in the transcript levels of some genes, with particular complexity in the ascorbic acid recycling pathway. Our data will help to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism in plants, particularly the impact of genetic background on the strict regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism in endosperm cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Culinary plants and their potential impact on metabolic overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary human behavior has led a large proportion of the population to metabolic overload and obesity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia evoke redox imbalance in the short term and lead to complex chronic disease in the long term with repeated occurrence. Complex diseases are best prevented with complex components of plants; thus, current nutrition research has begun to focus on the development of plant-based functional foods and dietary supplements for health and well-being. Furthermore, given the wide range of species, parts, and secondary metabolites, culinary plants can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. Although understanding the health benefits of culinary plants has been one of the great challenges in nutritional science due to their inherent complexity, it is an advantageous pursuit. This review will address the challenges and opportunities relating to studies of the health benefits of culinary plants, with an emphasis on obesity attributed to metabolic overload. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Metabolic stimulation of plant phenolics for food preservation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipayan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics as secondary metabolites are key to a plant's defense response against biotic and abiotic stresses. These phytochemicals are also increasingly relevant to food preservation and human health in terms of chronic disease management. Phenolic compounds from different food crops with different chemical structures and biological functions have the potential to act as natural antioxidants. Plant-based human foods are rich with these phenolic phytochemicals and can be used effectively for food preservation and bioactive enrichments through metabolic stimulation of key pathways. Phenolic metabolites protect against microbial degradation of plant-based foods during postharvest storage. Phenolics not only provide biotic protection but also help to counter biochemical and physical food deteriorations and to enhance shelf life and nutritional quality. This review summarizes the role of metabolically stimulated plant phenolics in food preservation and their impact on the prevention of oxidative stress-induced human diseases.

  12. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The Importance of the Circadian Clock in Regulating Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle. The circadian clock mechanism and processes of metabolism controlled by the circadian rhythm were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis and in the crops potato and rice. However, the translation of molecular mechanisms obtained from studies of model plants to crop plants is still difficult. Crop plants have specific organs such as edible seed and tuber that increase the size or accumulate valuable metabolites by harvestable metabolic components. Human consumers are interested in the regulation and promotion of these agriculturally significant crops. Circadian clock manipulation may suggest various strategies for the increased productivity of food crops through using environmental signal or overcoming environmental stress.

  14. Dynamic metabolic responses of brown planthoppers towards susceptible and resistant rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Du, Ba; Hao, Fuhua; Lei, Hehua; Wan, Qianfen; He, Guangcun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2017-10-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice-growing regions, and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH-resistant plants, we systematically analysed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC-FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty acids using real-time PCR. BPH metabonome was dominated by more than 60 metabolites including fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleosides/nucleotides and TCA cycle intermediates. After initial 12 h, BPHs feeding on the resistant plants had lower levels of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and TCA cycle intermediates than on the susceptible ones. The levels of these metabolites recovered after 24 h feeding. This accompanied with increased level in trehalose, choline metabolites and nucleosides/nucleotides compared with BPH feeding on the susceptible plants. Decreased levels of BPH metabolites at the early feeding probably resulted from less BPH uptakes of sap from resistant plants and recovery of BPH metabolites at the later stage probably resulted from their adaptation to the adverse environment with their increased hopping frequency to ingest more sap together with contributions from yeast-like symbionts in BPHs. Throughout 96 h, BPH feeding on the resistant plants showed significant up-regulation of chitin synthase catalysing biosynthesis of chitin for insect exoskeleton, peritrophic membrane lining gut and tracheae. These findings provided useful metabolic information for understanding the BPH-rice interactions and perhaps for developing new BPH-combating strategies. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Hye Min; Oh, Sun Min; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il

    2012-05-01

    Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. However, the direct association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in a community-based cohort study in Korea. We performed cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 889 males and 1491 females (aged 38 to 87) who participated in baseline examinations of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study: Kanghwa study. Blood samples were collected after at least an 8 hour fast. Uric acid quartiles were defined as follows: Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria with adjusted waist circumference cutoffs (90 cm for males; 80 cm for females). The association between serum uric acid quartiles and metabolic syndrome was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The odds ratio for having metabolic syndrome in the highest versus lowest quartiles of serum uric acid levels was 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 4.46) in males and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.50 to 3.05) in females after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, total cholesterol, HbA1c, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and log C-reactive protein. The number of metabolic abnormalities also increased gradually with increasing serum uric acid levels (adjusted p for trend uric acid levels are positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean males and females.

  16. [Advances in studies of absorption and utilization of amino acids by plants: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-chuang; Wu, Liang-huan; Ma, Qing-xu; Jin, Qian-yu

    2015-03-01

    Plant can directly take up the intact amino acids, thus bypass the microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen. As an excellent carbon and nitrogen source, there exists competition for amino acid absorption between plant roots.and soil microorganisms. And the total flux of amino acids in soil may be enormous due to the extensive sources and short half-life. Studies on amino acid nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant by the technique of nitrogen isotopic tracer, has become a research topic in recent years ,which will help us better understand the principle of soil fertility. This paper summarized the recent researches on amino acid morphological characteristics in soil and its metabolic mechanism and nitrogen nutritional contribution for plant in different ecosystems, and discussed the present status and development trend of the amino acid circulation mechanism in the plant-soil-microorganism ecosystem and its bioavailability for plant. Finally, the topics of environmental regulating mechanism of amino acid bioavailability, amino acid carbon-nitrogen metabolism, and how to improve the field organic nitrogen management were all the core issues to be resolved.

  17. Plant metabolic engineering strategies for the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Overexpressing terpenoids biosynthesis pathway genes in homologous and ectopic plants is an effective strategy to enhance the yield of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Another strategy is to suppress the expression of competitive metabolic pathways. In addition, global regulation which includes regulating the relative transcription factors, endogenous phytohormones and primary metabolism could also markedly increase their yield. All these strategies offer great opportunities to enhance the supply of scarce terpenoids drugs, reduce the price of expensive drugs and improve people's standards of living.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...... on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...

  19. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  1. Engineering metabolic highways in Lactococci and other lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in industrial food fermentations and are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Glycolytic conversion of sugars into lactic acid is the main metabolic highway in these Gram-positive

  2. Plant Metabolic Engineering Strategies for the Production of Pharmaceutical Terpenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xu; Tang, Kexuan; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies ho...

  3. Serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Wen; Chang, Tsui-Yen; Chen, Jong-Dar

    2010-06-01

    A positive association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome has been reported, but little information is available about the association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 2085 men and 1557 women. All of the participants underwent a health screening during the period from January 2005 to December 2005 at a health center of the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The results showed that hyperuricemia was significantly associated with increased risk for hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high blood pressure in men and women. The risk of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the fourth quartile than in the first quartile of uric acid level in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14) and women (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.39-3.93). In addition, uric acid level was inversely associated with hyperglycemia in men. The ORs of hyperglycemia for the second, third, and fourth quartile of uric acid were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.46-1.03), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile of uric acid. The results demonstrate that there is a positive association between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and an inverse association between uric acid and fasting plasma glucose in Taiwanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathophysiological aspect of metabolic acid-base disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešović-Ostojić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaing the arterial pH values (in normal range of 7,35-7,45 is one of the main principles of homeostasis. Regulatory responses, including chemical buffering (extracellular, intracellular, sceletal, the regulation of pCO2 by the respiratory system, and the regulation of [HCO3-] by the kidneys, act in concert to maintain normal arterial pH value. The main extracellular chemical buffer is bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system. The kidneys contribute to the regulation of hydrogen (and bicarbonate in body fluids in two ways. Proximal tubules are important in bicarbonate reabsorption and distal tubules excrete hydrogen ion (as ammonium ion or titratable acid. There are four simple acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids, loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea, or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure. Metabolic acidosis can also be with high and normal (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis anion gap. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a form of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which occurs when the renal damage primarily affects tubular function. The main problem in distal RTA is reduced H+ excretion in distal tubule. Type 2 RTA is also called proximal RTA because the main problem is greatly impaired reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal tubule. Impaired cation exchange in distal tubule is the main problem in RTA type 4. Metabolic alkalosis occurs as a result of net gain of [HCO3-] or loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluids. Metabolic alkalosis can be associated with reduced or increased extracellular volume.

  5. Lactococcus lactis metabolism and gene expression during growth on plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Benjamin L; Marco, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been isolated from living, harvested, and fermented plant materials; however, the adaptations these bacteria possess for growth on plant tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated plant habitat-specific traits of Lactococcus lactis during growth in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue lysate (ATL). L. lactis KF147, a strain originally isolated from plants, exhibited a higher growth rate and reached 7.9-fold-greater cell densities during growth in ATL than the dairy-associated strain L. lactis IL1403. Transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of KF147 identified 853 induced and 264 repressed genes during growth in ATL compared to that in GM17 laboratory culture medium. Genes induced in ATL included those involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and a total of 140 carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes, many of which are involved in xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, and hemicellulose metabolism. The induction of those genes corresponded with L. lactis KF147 nutrient consumption and production of metabolic end products in ATL as measured by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) untargeted metabolomic profiling. To assess the importance of specific plant-inducible genes for L. lactis growth in ATL, xylose metabolism was targeted for gene knockout mutagenesis. Wild-type L. lactis strain KF147 but not an xylA deletion mutant was able to grow using xylose as the sole carbon source. However, both strains grew to similarly high levels in ATL, indicating redundancy in L. lactis carbohydrate metabolism on plant tissues. These findings show that certain strains of L. lactis are well adapted for growth on plants and possess specific traits relevant for plant-based food, fuel, and feed fermentations. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.

    2002-01-01

    Monoterpenes are a large group of compounds that belong to the terpenoid family of natural compounds in plants. They are small, volatile, lipophilic substances of which around one thousand different structures have been

  7. Arsenomics: Omics of Arsenic Metabolism in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Deo eTripathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArsenic (As contamination of drinking water and groundwater used for irrigation can lead to contamination of the food chain and poses serious health risk to people worldwide. To reduce As intake through the consumption of contaminated food, identification of the mechanisms for As accumulation and detoxification in plant is a prerequisite to develop efficient phytoremediation methods and safer crops with reduced As levels. Transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis of any organism reflects the total biological activities at any given time which are responsible for the adaptation of the organism to the surrounding environmental conditions. As these approaches are very important in analyzing plant As transport and accumulation, we termed Arsenomics as approach which deals transcriptome, proteome and metabolome alterations during As exposure. Although, various studies have been performed to understand modulation in transcriptome in response to As, many important questions need to be addressed regarding the translated proteins of plants at proteomic and metabolomic level, resulting in various ecophysiological responses. In this review, the comprehensive knowledge generated in this area has been compiled and analyzed. There is a need to strengthen Arsenomics which will lead to develop of tools to develop As-free plants for safe consumption.

  8. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  9. Trehalose-6-Phosphate: connecting plant metabolism and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathish ePonnu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond their metabolic roles, sugars can also act as messengers in signal transduction. Trehalose, a sugar found in many species of plants and animals, is a non-reducing disaccharide composed of two glucose moieties. Its synthesis in plants is a two-step process, involving the production of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P catalyzed by TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS and its consecutive dephosphorylation to trehalose, catalyzed by TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE (TPP. T6P has recently emerged as an important signaling metabolite, regulating carbon assimilation and sugar status in plants. In addition, T6P has also been demonstrated to play an essential role in plant development. This review recapitulates the recent advances in our understanding the role of T6P in coordinating diverse metabolic and developmental processes.

  10. Effect of some medicinal plant preparations of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambhole, V D

    1988-10-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity.

  11. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia. We evaluated 103 patients less than 40 years of age, from a low-income population, and without history of cardiovascular disease, in all of them the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. In all patients, fasting serum uric acid levels were measured; hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid values 6.5 mg/dl in men and 5.1 mg/dl in women. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratio. 83 of our patients (80.5%) suffered metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hyperuricaemia was 5.1 (p=0.002, I.C 1.8- 14.5). When patients were evaluated by gender a significantly association between hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome was found in women (odds ratio 3.6, p=0.048, C.I. 1.0-12.9), and men (odds ratio 10.2, p= 0.015, IC 1.5-13.2). When uric acid was correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome, we only found a positive correlation with waist circumference (r=0.483). Our results showed a significant association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults in Mexico. DR is associated with estimated risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki

    2017-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enz......Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity...... of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity......, but their limited availability prevents further evaluation. Reconstructing carnosic acid biosynthesis in yeast achieved significant titers of the main compound but could not specifically yield the minor products. Specific production of pisiferic acid and salviol was achieved by restricting the promiscuity of a key...

  13. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlotti, Andrea; Vigani, Gianpiero; Zocchi, Graziano

    2012-10-11

    Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.

  14. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  15. Metabolic effects of glyphosate change the capacity of maize culture to regenerate plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanov, Alexander; Lygin, Anatoliy; Duncan, David; Widholm, Jack; Lozovaya, Vera

    2009-06-01

    Since the presence of glyphosate in maize tissue cultures of proprietary line L2 was very detrimental to plant regeneration, we determined metabolic changes associated with the glyphosate effects on plant regeneration in maize cultures. The polar fraction composition and soluble and cell-wall-bound phenolics were analyzed in the regenerable (R) and non-regenerable (NR) calluses of maize line L2. The tissues with high regeneration capacity had low sugar and 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations and increased concentrations of most amino acids, polyamines and indole-3-butenol in the soluble polar fraction and higher ferulic acid/coumaric acid and ferulic acid/diferulic acid ratios and higher levels of the predominant G (guaiacyl) units in the cell wall fraction compared with NR calluses as was found before with H99 and HiII maize R and NR tissues, indicating an association of these metabolites with the capacity of maize cultured tissue to regenerate plants. We also found that di-coumaroyl spermidine and coumaroyl-feruoyl spermidine are present in the soluble fraction of L2 R tissues and are practically absent in NR tissues. However, we did not see such differences in HiII and H99 samples, which indicate that these are genotypic features not related to the capacity to regenerate plants in maize tissue cultures. Glyphosate treatment caused the accumulation of shikimic and quinic acids (not detected in untreated samples) in R and NR calluses (with higher levels found in R tissues) and also decreased the FA/diFA ratio in cell wall phenolics, polyamine and amino acid levels, and increased sugar concentrations in the R L2 tissues, indicating a metabolic shift of R callus to NR tissues.

  16. Metabolic modeling of Rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Deepak K

    2010-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyllacticacid. It is commonly found in Coleus blumei, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis. The biosynthesis of RA starts with precursor molecules L‐phenylalanine and L‐tyrosine. Simulation of RA biosynthetic pathway was done using Gepasi Software, includes the reaction kinetics of each step of the pathway and different integration methods such as Euler's method. Optimization of the significant...

  17. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  18. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  19. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Levin, Susan; Barnard, Neal

    2017-08-09

    Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan) diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  20. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  1. Understanding Plant Nitrogen Metabolism through Metabolomics and Computational Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin H. Beatty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of plant metabolism could provide a direct mechanism for improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in crops. One of the major barriers to achieving this outcome is our poor understanding of the complex metabolic networks, physiological factors, and signaling mechanisms that affect NUE in agricultural settings. However, an exciting collection of computational and experimental approaches has begun to elucidate whole-plant nitrogen usage and provides an avenue for connecting nitrogen-related phenotypes to genes. Herein, we describe how metabolomics, computational models of metabolism, and flux balance analysis have been harnessed to advance our understanding of plant nitrogen metabolism. We introduce a model describing the complex flow of nitrogen through crops in a real-world agricultural setting and describe how experimental metabolomics data, such as isotope labeling rates and analyses of nutrient uptake, can be used to refine these models. In summary, the metabolomics/computational approach offers an exciting mechanism for understanding NUE that may ultimately lead to more effective crop management and engineered plants with higher yields.

  2. Volatile science? Metabolic engineering of terpenoids in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Terpenoids are important for plant survival and also possess biological properties that are beneficial to humans. Here, we describe the state of the art in terpenoid metabolic engineering, showing that significant progress has been made over the past few years. Subcellular targeting of enzymes has

  3. Fatty acids from diet and microbiota regulate energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Alcock; Lin, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    A high-fat diet and elevated levels of free fatty acids are known risk factors for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and visceral obesity. Although these disease associations are well established, it is unclear how different dietary fats change the risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Here, we review emerging evidence that insulin resistance and fat storage are linked to changes in the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, in turn, are highly ...

  4. Nucleotide Metabolism and its Control in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Hammer, Karin; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    Most metabolic reactions are connected through either their utilization of nucleotides or their utilization of nucleotides or their regulation by these metabolites. In this review the biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine and purine metabolism in lactic acid bacteria are described including...... the interconversion pathways, the formation of deoxyribonucleotides and the salvage pathways for use of exogenous precursors. The data for the enzymatic and the genetic regulation of these pathways are reviewed, as well as the gene organizations in different lactic acid bacteria. Mutant phenotypes and methods...... for manipulation of nucleotide pools are also discussed. Our aim is to provide an overview of the physiology and genetics of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation that will facilitate the interpretation of data arising from genetics, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in lactic acid bacteria....

  5. Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for itaconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazeck, John; Hill, Andrew; Jamoussi, Mariam; Pan, Anny; Miller, Jarrett; Alper, Hal S

    2015-11-01

    Itaconic acid is a naturally produced organic acid with diverse applications as a replacement for petroleum derived products. However, its industrial viability as a bio-replacement has been restricted due to limitations with native producers. In this light, Yarrowia lipolytica is an excellent potential candidate for itaconic acid production due to its innate capacity to accumulate citric acid cycle intermediates and tolerance to lower pH. Here, we demonstrate the capacity to produce itaconic acid in Y. lipolytica through heterologous expression of the itaconic acid synthesis enzyme, resulting in an initial titer of 33 mg/L. Further optimizations of this strain via metabolic pathway engineering, enzyme localization, and media optimization strategies enabled 4.6g/L of itaconic acid to be produced in bioreactors, representing a 140-fold improvement over initial titer. Moreover, these fermentation conditions did not require additional nutrient supplementation and utilized a low pH condition that enabled the acid form of itaconic acid to be produced. Overall yields (0.058 g/g yield from glucose) and maximum productivity of 0.045 g/L/h still provide areas for future strain improvement. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that Y. lipolytica has the potential to serve as an industrially relevant platform for itaconic acid production. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab M. Hafez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  7. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Rehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; Naguib, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  8. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  9. Metabolic versatility in full-scale wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2013-12-01

    This study analysed the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microbial community and metabolic performance of five full-scale EBPR systems by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with off-line batch tests fed with acetate under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in all systems were stable and showed little variability between each plant, while glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were present in two of the plants. The metabolic activity of each sludge showed the frequent involvement of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in PAO metabolism for the anaerobic generation of reducing equivalents, in addition to the more frequently reported glycolysis pathway. Metabolic variability in the use of the two pathways was also observed, between different systems and in the same system over time. The metabolic dynamics was linked to the availability of glycogen, where a higher utilisation of the glycolysis pathway was observed in the two systems employing side-stream hydrolysis, and the TCA cycle was more active in the A(2)O systems. Full-scale plants that showed higher glycolysis activity also exhibited superior P removal performance, suggesting that promotion of the glycolysis pathway over the TCA cycle could be beneficial towards the optimisation of EBPR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of metabolic engineering to produce fatty acid-derived biofuel and chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Liwei Chen; Jaslyn Lee; Wei Ning Chen

    2016-01-01

    Production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals have garnered attention in recent years owing to their potential to replace petroleum and plant oil-derived products. Through the metabolic engineering of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, advanced fuels and chemicals such as free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, biodiesel, fatty alcohols, alkanes/alkene, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and flavonoids have been produced. The robustness, high tolerance to organic solvent, good...

  11. Can valproic acid be an inducer of clozapine metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Eap, Chin B.; Ansermot, Nicolas; Crettol, Severine; Spina, Edoardo; de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prior clozapine studies indicated no effects, mild inhibition or induction of valproic acid (VPA) on clozapine metabolism. The hypotheses that 1) VPA is a net inducer of clozapine metabolism, and 2) smoking modifies this inductive effect were tested in a therapeutic drug monitoring study. Methods After excluding strong inhibitors and inducers, 353 steady-state total clozapine (clozapine plus norclozapine) concentrations provided by 151 patients were analyzed using a random intercept linear model. Results VPA appeared to be an inducer of clozapine metabolism since total plasma clozapine concentrations in subjects taking VPA were significantly lower (27% lower; 95% confidence interval, 14% to 39%) after controlling for confounding variables including smoking (35% lower, 28% to 56%). Discussion Prospective studies are needed to definitively establish that VPA may 1) be an inducer of clozapine metabolism when induction prevails over competitive inhibition, and 2) be an inducer even in smokers who are under the influence of smoking inductive effects on clozapine metabolism. PMID:24764199

  12. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome

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    Soukup Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000, diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007, waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003, BMI ( r=.269, p=.018, fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002, triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000, HDL ( r=.237, p=.036 and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023. Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

  13. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Maria; Biesiada, Izabela; Henderson, Aaron; Idowu, Benmichael; Rodeback, Derek; Ridpath, Lance; Bridges, Edward G; Nazar, Andrea M; Bridges, Kristie Grove

    2012-04-19

    Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA) concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002). The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000), diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007), waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003), BMI ( r=.269, p=.018), fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002), triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000), HDL ( r=.237, p=.036) and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023). These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach.

  14. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

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    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  15. Metabolic modeling of Rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Deepak K

    2010-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an ester of caffeic acid and 3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyllacticacid. It is commonly found in Coleus blumei, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis. The biosynthesis of RA starts with precursor molecules L‐phenylalanine and L‐tyrosine. Simulation of RA biosynthetic pathway was done using Gepasi Software, includes the reaction kinetics of each step of the pathway and different integration methods such as Euler's method. Optimization of the significant parameters responsible for RA biosynthesis was carried out. As the goal of the work was to increase the productivity of i.e. to maximize the concentration of the RA, the final concentration of RA ([RA]t) was selected as an objective function and selected initial concentration of the Caffeoyl‐3’‐4’hydroxyphenyllactic acid (3’C4HPLA) as parameter constraint and varied its initial concentration as: 0≤ [3’C4HPLA]i ≤ 0.025. Several optimization methods such as Simulated annealing, Evolutionary algorithms and Genetic algorithms were used to optimize the objective function. After optimization the final concentration of RA was slightly higher (4.566132e‐002 mM) than before optimization (4.047119e‐ 002 mM). On the basis of results obtained, it is clear that 4‐hydroxyphenyllactic acid and 3’C4HPLA play major role in the high productivity of the RA. PMID:21364781

  16. Plant metabolic clusters – from genetics to genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Huang, Ancheng; Osbourn, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Summary Plant natural products are of great value for agriculture, medicine and a wide range of other industrial applications. The discovery of new plant natural product pathways is currently being revolutionized by two key developments. First, breakthroughs in sequencing technology and reduced cost of sequencing are accelerating the ability to find enzymes and pathways for the biosynthesis of new natural products by identifying the underlying genes. Second, there are now multiple examples in which the genes encoding certain natural product pathways have been found to be grouped together in biosynthetic gene clusters within plant genomes. These advances are now making it possible to develop strategies for systematically mining multiple plant genomes for the discovery of new enzymes, pathways and chemistries. Increased knowledge of the features of plant metabolic gene clusters – architecture, regulation and assembly – will be instrumental in expediting natural product discovery. This review summarizes progress in this area. PMID:27112429

  17. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, Natalia; Klempien, Antje; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. The use of metabolic engineering to produce fatty acid-derived biofuel and chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals have garnered attention in recent years owing to their potential to replace petroleum and plant oil-derived products. Through the metabolic engineering of the fatty acid metabolism pathway, advanced fuels and chemicals such as free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, biodiesel, fatty alcohols, alkanes/alkene, R-3-hydroxybutyric acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates and flavonoids have been produced. The robustness, high tolerance to organic solvent, good reputation in industrial fermentations and excellent availability of genetic tools make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable cell factory for fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals production. This review will describe the successful metabolic engineering strategies employed to produce the fatty acid-derived bio-products in S. cerevisiae, including the enhancement of precursors and co-factors supply, promotion of the enzyme expression and activity, elimination of competing pathways, and the improvement of strain tolerance.

  19. Metabolic engineering of the fungal D-galacturonate pathway for L-ascorbic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Synthetic L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is widely used as a preservative and nutrient in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the current production method, D-glucose is converted to L-ascorbic acid via several biochemical and chemical steps. The main source of L-ascorbic acid in human nutrition is plants. Several alternative metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis are known in plants. In one of them, D-galacturonic acid is the precursor. D-Galacturonic acid is also the main monomer in pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide. Pectin is abundant in biomass and is readily available from several waste streams from fruit and sugar processing industries. In the present work, we engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger for the conversion of D-galacturonic acid to L-ascorbic acid. In the generated pathway, the native D-galacturonate reductase activity was utilized while the gene coding for the second enzyme in the fungal D-galacturonic acid pathway, an L-galactonate consuming dehydratase, was deleted. Two heterologous genes coding for enzymes from the plant L-ascorbic acid pathway--L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase from Euglena gracilis (EgALase) and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase from Malpighia glabra (MgGALDH)--were introduced into the A. niger strain. Alternatively, an unspecific L-gulono-1,4-lactone lactonase (smp30) from the animal L-ascorbic acid pathway was introduced in the fungal strain instead of the plant L-galactono-1,4-lactone lactonase. In addition, a strain with the production pathway inducible with D-galacturonic acid was generated by using a bidirectional and D-galacturonic acid inducible promoter from the fungus. Even though, the lactonase enzyme activity was not observed in the resulting strains, they were capable of producing L-ascorbic acid from pure D-galacturonic acid or pectin-rich biomass in a consolidated bioprocess. Product titers up to 170 mg/l were achieved. In the current study, an L-ascorbic acid pathway using

  20. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

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    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Engineering metabolic pathways in plants by multigene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Arjó, Gemma; Bai, Chao; Banakar, Raviraj; Bassie, Ludovic; Berman, Judit; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Sabalza, Maite; Sanahuja, Georgina; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering in plants can be used to increase the abundance of specific valuable metabolites, but single-point interventions generally do not improve the yields of target metabolites unless that product is immediately downstream of the intervention point and there is a plentiful supply of precursors. In many cases, an intervention is necessary at an early bottleneck, sometimes the first committed step in the pathway, but is often only successful in shifting the bottleneck downstream, sometimes also causing the accumulation of an undesirable metabolic intermediate. Occasionally it has been possible to induce multiple genes in a pathway by controlling the expression of a key regulator, such as a transcription factor, but this strategy is only possible if such master regulators exist and can be identified. A more robust approach is the simultaneous expression of multiple genes in the pathway, preferably representing every critical enzymatic step, therefore removing all bottlenecks and ensuring completely unrestricted metabolic flux. This approach requires the transfer of multiple enzyme-encoding genes to the recipient plant, which is achieved most efficiently if all genes are transferred at the same time. Here we review the state of the art in multigene transformation as applied to metabolic engineering in plants, highlighting some of the most significant recent advances in the field.

  2. Effects of light quantity and quality on the decarboxylation of malic Acid in crassulacean Acid metabolism photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, S R; Cockburn, W

    1982-03-01

    The rate of malic acid consumption in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier was found to be more rapid than the rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution under all levels of irradiation by white light. This accounts for the accumulation of carbon dioxide in CAM tissues in the light.Action spectra of malate consumption and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in Kalanchoë were similar. Experiments using monochromatic photosynthetically active light in addition to a range of narrow waveband irradiations demonstrated that malic acid consumption in the experiments from which the action spectrum of acid consumption was constructed was not limited by the rate of photosynthesis. These data indicate that light involved in the promotion of malate consumption in CAM is absorbed by the same pigments that absorb the light which powers photosynthesis.

  3. Specific plasma amino acid disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Siomkajło, Marta; Rybka, Jacek; Mierzchała-Pasierb, Magdalena; Gamian, Andrzej; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. Methods Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(−): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were pe...

  4. Comparative analysis of metabolic networks provides insight into the evolution of plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Aziz; Hein, Jotun; Preston, Gail M

    2011-01-01

    Plant pathogenic pseudomonads such as Pseudomonas syringae colonize plant surfaces and tissues and have been reported to be nutritionally specialized relative to nonpathogenic pseudomonads. We performed comparative analyses of metabolic networks reconstructed from genome sequence data in order to investigate the hypothesis that P. syringae has evolved to be metabolically specialized for a plant pathogenic lifestyle. We used the metabolic network comparison tool Rahnuma and complementary bioinformatic analyses to compare the distribution of 1,299 metabolic reactions across nine genome-sequenced strains of Pseudomonas, including three strains of P. syringae. The two pathogenic Pseudomonas species analyzed, P. syringae and the opportunistic human pathogen P. aeruginosa, each displayed a high level of intraspecies metabolic similarity compared with nonpathogenic Pseudomonas. The three P. syringae strains lacked a significant number of reactions predicted to be present in all other Pseudomonas strains analyzed, which is consistent with the hypothesis that P. syringae is adapted for growth in a nutritionally constrained environment. Pathway predictions demonstrated that some of the differences detected in metabolic network comparisons could account for differences in amino acid assimilation ability reported in experimental analyses. Parsimony analysis and reaction neighborhood approaches were used to model the evolution of metabolic networks and amino acid assimilation pathways in pseudomonads. Both methods supported a model of Pseudomonas evolution in which the common ancestor of P. syringae had experienced a significant number of deletion events relative to other nonpathogenic pseudomonads. We discuss how the characteristic metabolic features of P. syringae could reflect adaptation to a pathogenic lifestyle.

  5. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

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    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  6. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  7. Uric Acid as a Cause of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jensen, Thomas; Tolan, Dean R; Sánchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. For many years, hyperuricemia was attributed to the effects of insulin resistance to reduce urinary excretion of uric acid, and it was believed that uric acid may not have any causal role in the metabolic syndrome. However, in recent years, hyperuricemia has been found to independently predict the development of diabetes. Experimental studies have also shown that hyperuricemia may mediate insulin resistance, fatty liver, and dyslipidemia in both fructose-dependent and fructose-independent models of metabolic syndrome. The mechanism for uric acid-induced insulin resistance appears to be mediated by the development of mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of insulin-dependent stimulation of nitric oxide in endothelial cells. Pilot studies in humans have reported a potential benefit of lowering serum uric acid on insulin resistance. Large clinical trials are recommended. If uric acid is shown to be a mediator of incident type 2 diabetes in humans, then lowering serum uric acid would represent a simple and inexpensive way to help prevent the development of diabetes and to slow the epidemic. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Engineering central metabolism – a grand challenge for plant biologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweetlove, Lee J.; Nielsen, Jens; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However...... organism. We also envisage that mutagenesis could be used to fine-tune the balance between the endogenous metabolic network and the introduced enzymes. Finally, we emphasise the importance of considering the plant as a whole system and not isolated organs: the greatest increase in crop productivity...

  9. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  10. Dynamic modeling of lactic acid fermentation metabolism with Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Euhlim; Lu, Mingshou; Park, Changhun; Park, Changhun; Oh, Han Bin; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-02-01

    A dynamic model of lactic acid fermentation using Lactococcus lactis was constructed, and a metabolic flux analysis (MFA) and metabolic control analysis (MCA) were performed to reveal an intensive metabolic understanding of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The parameter estimation was conducted with COPASI software to construct a more accurate metabolic model. The experimental data used in the parameter estimation were obtained from an LC-MS/ MS analysis and time-course simulation study. The MFA results were a reasonable explanation of the experimental data. Through the parameter estimation, the metabolic system of lactic acid bacteria can be thoroughly understood through comparisons with the original parameters. The coefficients derived from the MCA indicated that the reaction rate of L-lactate dehydrogenase was activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and pyruvate, and pyruvate appeared to be a stronger activator of L-lactate dehydrogenase than fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Additionally, pyruvate acted as an inhibitor to pyruvate kinase and the phosphotransferase system. Glucose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate showed activation effects on pyruvate kinase. Hexose transporter was the strongest effector on the flux through L-lactate dehydrogenase. The concentration control coefficient (CCC) showed similar results to the flux control coefficient (FCC).

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves metabolic switching in human myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Fredriksson, Katarina; Boekschoten, Mark; Fjorkenstad, Anne; Koster, Gerbrand; Hesselink, Matthijs K.; Kersten, Sander; Kase, Eili T.; Rustan, Arild C.; Thoresen, Hege

    2010-01-01

    Metabolically healthy skeletal muscle is characterized by the ability to switch easily between glucose and fat oxidation, whereas loss of this ability seems to be related to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fatty acids (FAs) and the LXR ligand T0901317

  12. Metabolic and endocrine effects of valproic acid chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; D'Egidio, Claudia; Striano, Pasquale; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of epileptic patients with valproic acid (VPA) may be associated with substantial weight changes that may increase morbidity and impair adherence to the treatment regimen. VPA-induced weight gain seems to be associated with many metabolic disturbances; the most frequent are hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance. Patients who gain weight during VPA therapy can develop dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome that are associated with long-term vascular complications such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Moreover, an elevation in the levels of uric acid and homocysteine, together with oxidative stress, may contribute to atherosclerotic risk in patients under long-term therapy with VPA. The aim of this review is to discuss the metabolic and endocrine effects of VPA chronic treatment in patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Promiscuity, impersonation and accommodation: evolution of plant specialized metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Bryan J; Last, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Specialized metabolic enzymes and metabolite diversity evolve through a variety of mechanisms including promiscuity, changes in substrate specificity, modifications of gene expression and gene duplication. For example, gene duplication and substrate binding site changes led to the evolution of the glucosinolate biosynthetic enzyme, AtIPMDH1, from a Leu biosynthetic enzyme. BAHD acyltransferases illustrate how enzymatic promiscuity leads to metabolite diversity. The examples 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and aromatic acid methyltransferases illustrate how promiscuity can potentiate the evolution of these specialized metabolic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigation into the Metabolism of Phenyllactic Acid in Datura Stramonium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ansarin

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of phenyllactic acid (l,3-C to Datura.stramonium plants"nyielded labelled Hyoscyamin and hyoscine. proton noise decoupled CNMR spectra of"n13 13 these alkaloids revealed the presence of satellite peaks, due to C-C spin-spin"ncoupling, symmetrically located about the singlet peaks arising from C. and C of the tropic acid moiety of these alkaloids. This result indicated that the rearr¬angement of phenyllactic acid to tropic acid involves an intramolecular migration of the carboxyl group.

  16. Pathway elucidation and metabolic engineering of specialized plant metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Bo

    A worldwide need to liberate ourselves from unsustainable petrochemicals has led to numerous metabolic engineering projects, mostly carried out in microbial hosts. Using systems biology for predicting and altering the metabolism of microorganisms towards production of a desired metabolite......, these projects have increased revenues on fermentative production of several biochemicals. The use of systems biology is, however, not limited to microorganisms. Recent advances in biotechnology methods have provided a wealth of data within functional genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics...... and fluxomics for a considerable number of organisms. Unfortunately, transferring the wealth of data to valuable information for metabolic engineering purposes is a non-obvious task. This PhD thesis describes a palate of tools used in generation of cell factories for production of specialized plant metabolites...

  17. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  18. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  19. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. by Cytokinin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jürgen M.; Piepenbrock, Mechtild

    1992-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), the key enzyme of Crassulacean acid metabolism, is induced by water stress in leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. In water-stressed plants or excised leaves, exogenous cytokinin suppresses PEPCase transcript accumulation in the leaves. Cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) used in concentrations from 5 to 500 micromolar (a) inhibits the upregulation of PEPCase transcripts, enzyme activity, and Crassulacean acid metabolism induction in salt-stressed intact plants when sprayed once daily during the stress period, (b) inhibits the accumulation of PEPCase mRNA in leaves from well-watered plants, (c) down-regulates PEPCase transcripts within 8 hours in prestressed, intact plants after a single spraying of an individual leaf, (d) inhibits accumulation of PEPCase transcripts in excised, wilting leaves, and (e) accelerates the net decrease of PEPCase transcripts in excised leaves from prestressed plants under rehydration conditions. When roots, the main site of cytokinin biosynthesis, are excised, PEPCase induction under drought stress is intensified. We propose that roots, acting as sensors of soil water status, may regulate PEPCase gene expression in the leaves with cytokinin as a signal transducer. ImagesFigure 2Figure 7 PMID:16669088

  20. Proteomic Contributions to Medicinal Plant Research: From Plant Metabolism to Pharmacological Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals. This review article focuses on the existing proteomics-based medicinal plant research and discusses the following topics: (i plant metabolic pathways that synthesize an array of bioactive compounds; (ii pharmacological action of plants tested using in vivo and in vitro studies; and (iii the application of proteomic approaches to indigenous plants with scarce sequence information. The accumulation of proteomic information in a biological or medicinal context may help in formulating the effective use of medicinal plants.

  1. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Further Observations on the Relationship between Aconitic Acid Contents and Aphid Densities on Some Cereal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    A.Rustamani, Maqsood; Kanehisa, Katsuo; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Shiraga, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Plant-feeding arthropods, in the course of evolution have adapted differentially to their plant host and thereby gained access to the available resource. Plants responded by developing chemicals and morphological defense to arthropods. Some secondary metabolic substances in plants have been assumed to be toxic or deter feeding. Aconitic acid in the barnyard-grass subspecies, Echinochloa oryzycola Vasing has been reported to be an active component against brown rice planthopper Nilapalvata lug...

  3. Comparative functional genomics of amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastink, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The amino acid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria used as starters in industrial fermentations has profound effects on the quality of the fermented foods. The work described in this PhD thesis was initiated to use genomics technologies and a comparative approach to link the gene content of some

  4. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  5. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  6. Cross-Regulation between N Metabolism and Nitric Oxide (NO) Signaling during Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalineau, Elise; Truong, Hoai-Nam; Berger, Antoine; Fournier, Carine; Boscari, Alexandre; Wendehenne, David; Jeandroz, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved a complex immune system which helps them cope with pathogen attacks. However, the capacity of a plant to mobilize different defense responses is strongly affected by its physiological status. Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient that can play an important role in plant immunity by increasing or decreasing plant resistance to pathogens. Although no general rule can be drawn about the effect of N availability and quality on the fate of plant/pathogen interactions, plants' capacity to acquire, assimilate, allocate N, and maintain amino acid homeostasis appears to partly mediate the effects of N on plant defense. Nitric oxide (NO), one of the products of N metabolism, plays an important role in plant immunity signaling. NO is generated in part through Nitrate Reductase (NR), a key enzyme involved in nitrate assimilation, and its production depends on levels of nitrate/nitrite, NR substrate/product, as well as on L-arginine and polyamine levels. Cross-regulation between NO signaling and N supply/metabolism has been evidenced. NO production can be affected by N supply, and conversely NO appears to regulate nitrate transport and assimilation. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that N availability partly controls plant resistance to pathogens by controlling NO homeostasis. Using the Medicago truncatula/Aphanomyces euteiches pathosystem, we showed that NO homeostasis is important for resistance to this oomycete and that N availability impacts NO homeostasis by affecting S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase activity in roots. These results could therefore explain the increased resistance we noted in N-deprived as compared to N-replete M. truncatula seedlings. They open onto new perspectives for the studies of N/plant defense interactions.

  7. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. © 2012 CSIRO Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Tanycytes and a differential fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristina; Lamberz, Christian; Piotrowitz, Kira; Offermann, Nina; But, Diana; Scheller, Anja; Al-Amoudi, Ashraf; Kuerschner, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Although the brain controls all main metabolic pathways in the whole organism, its lipid metabolism is partially separated from the rest of the body. Circulating lipids and other metabolites are taken up into brain areas like the hypothalamus and are locally metabolized and sensed involving several hypothalamic cell types. In this study we show that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are differentially processed in the murine hypothalamus. The observed differences involve both lipid distribution and metabolism. Key findings were: (i) hypothalamic astrocytes are targeted by unsaturated, but not saturated lipids in lean mice; (ii) in obese mice labeling of these astrocytes by unsaturated oleic acid cannot be detected unless β-oxidation or ketogenesis is inhibited; (iii) the hypothalamus of obese animals increases ketone body and neutral lipid synthesis while tanycytes, hypothalamic cells facing the ventricle, increase their lipid droplet content; and (iv) tanycytes show different labeling for saturated or unsaturated lipids. Our data support a metabolic connection between tanycytes and astrocytes likely to impact hypothalamic lipid sensing. GLIA 2017;65:231-249. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Heart and bile acids - Clinical consequences of altered bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavan, Tharni; Ferraro, Elisa; Ibrahim, Effendi; Dixon, Peter; Gorelik, Julia; Williamson, Catherine

    2018-01-06

    Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart. Elevated maternal serum bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, a disorder which causes an impaired feto-maternal bile acid gradient, have been associated with fatal fetal arrhythmias. The hydrophobicity of individual bile acids in the serum bile acid pool is of relevance, with relatively lipophilic bile acids having a more harmful effect on the heart. Ursodeoxycholic acid can reverse or protect against these detrimental cardiac effects of elevated bile acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  11. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Felipe; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; Meldau, Dorothea; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ischebeck, Till; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4) and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  12. Biosynthesis of plant-specific stilbene polyketides in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Dannert Claudia

    2006-03-01

    -coumaric acid and caffeic acid, can be efficiently converted to stilbene compounds by recombinant E. coli cells expressing plant biosynthetic genes. Optimization of precursor conversion and cyclization of the bulky ferulic acid precursor by host metabolic engineering and protein engineering may afford the synthesis of even more structurally diverse stilbene compounds.

  13. Engineering Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Alter Plant Metabolism and Improve Crop Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Creating sustainable bioeconomies for the 21st century relies on optimizing the use of biological resources to improve agricultural productivity and create new products. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (phylum Glomeromycota) form symbiotic relationships with over 80% of vascular plants. In return for carbon, these fungi improve plant health and tolerance to environmental stress. This symbiosis is over 400 million years old and there are currently over 200 known arbuscular mycorrhizae, with dozens of new species described annually. Metagenomic sequencing of native soil communities, from species-rich meadows to mangroves, suggests biologically diverse habitats support a variety of mycorrhizal species with potential agricultural, medical, and biotechnological applications. This review looks at the effect of mycorrhizae on plant metabolism and how we can harness this symbiosis to improve crop health. I will first describe the mechanisms that underlie this symbiosis and what physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors trigger these plant-fungal relationships. These include mycorrhizal manipulation of host genetic expression, host mitochondrial and plastid proliferation, and increased production of terpenoids and jasmonic acid by the host plant. I will then discuss the effects of mycorrhizae on plant root and foliar secondary metabolism. I subsequently outline how mycorrhizae induce three key benefits in crops: defense against pathogen and herbivore attack, drought resistance, and heavy metal tolerance. I conclude with an overview of current efforts to harness mycorrhizal diversity to improve crop health through customized inoculum. I argue future research should embrace synthetic biology to create mycorrhizal chasses with improved symbiotic abilities and potentially novel functions to improve plant health. As the effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance increase, the global diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi should be monitored and protected to

  14. Engineering Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Alter Plant Metabolism and Improve Crop Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. French

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creating sustainable bioeconomies for the 21st century relies on optimizing the use of biological resources to improve agricultural productivity and create new products. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (phylum Glomeromycota form symbiotic relationships with over 80% of vascular plants. In return for carbon, these fungi improve plant health and tolerance to environmental stress. This symbiosis is over 400 million years old and there are currently over 200 known arbuscular mycorrhizae, with dozens of new species described annually. Metagenomic sequencing of native soil communities, from species-rich meadows to mangroves, suggests biologically diverse habitats support a variety of mycorrhizal species with potential agricultural, medical, and biotechnological applications. This review looks at the effect of mycorrhizae on plant metabolism and how we can harness this symbiosis to improve crop health. I will first describe the mechanisms that underlie this symbiosis and what physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors trigger these plant-fungal relationships. These include mycorrhizal manipulation of host genetic expression, host mitochondrial and plastid proliferation, and increased production of terpenoids and jasmonic acid by the host plant. I will then discuss the effects of mycorrhizae on plant root and foliar secondary metabolism. I subsequently outline how mycorrhizae induce three key benefits in crops: defense against pathogen and herbivore attack, drought resistance, and heavy metal tolerance. I conclude with an overview of current efforts to harness mycorrhizal diversity to improve crop health through customized inoculum. I argue future research should embrace synthetic biology to create mycorrhizal chasses with improved symbiotic abilities and potentially novel functions to improve plant health. As the effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance increase, the global diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi should be monitored

  15. Engineering Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Alter Plant Metabolism and Improve Crop Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine E

    2017-01-01

    Creating sustainable bioeconomies for the 21st century relies on optimizing the use of biological resources to improve agricultural productivity and create new products. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (phylum Glomeromycota) form symbiotic relationships with over 80% of vascular plants. In return for carbon, these fungi improve plant health and tolerance to environmental stress. This symbiosis is over 400 million years old and there are currently over 200 known arbuscular mycorrhizae, with dozens of new species described annually. Metagenomic sequencing of native soil communities, from species-rich meadows to mangroves, suggests biologically diverse habitats support a variety of mycorrhizal species with potential agricultural, medical, and biotechnological applications. This review looks at the effect of mycorrhizae on plant metabolism and how we can harness this symbiosis to improve crop health. I will first describe the mechanisms that underlie this symbiosis and what physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors trigger these plant-fungal relationships. These include mycorrhizal manipulation of host genetic expression, host mitochondrial and plastid proliferation, and increased production of terpenoids and jasmonic acid by the host plant. I will then discuss the effects of mycorrhizae on plant root and foliar secondary metabolism. I subsequently outline how mycorrhizae induce three key benefits in crops: defense against pathogen and herbivore attack, drought resistance, and heavy metal tolerance. I conclude with an overview of current efforts to harness mycorrhizal diversity to improve crop health through customized inoculum. I argue future research should embrace synthetic biology to create mycorrhizal chasses with improved symbiotic abilities and potentially novel functions to improve plant health. As the effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance increase, the global diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi should be monitored and protected to

  16. Metabolic analyses elucidate non-trivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ashish; Conway, Matthew F.; Johnnie, Joseph; Qureshi, Tabish M.; Lige, Bao; Derrick, Anne M.; Agbo, Eddy C.; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA) in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway (ExPa) analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing ExPas to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo 13C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C) or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C) are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W) and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W), and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple non-trivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast. PMID:23898325

  17. Metabolic analyses elucidate nontrivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eMisra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing extreme pathways to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo 13C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W, and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple nontrivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast.

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism and photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan S [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  19. Cross-regulations between N-metabolism and Nitric Oxide (NO signaling during plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eThalineau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved a complex immune system which helps them cope with pathogen attacks. However, the capacity of a plant to mobilize different defense responses is strongly affected by its physiological status. Nitrogen (N is a major nutrient that can play an important role in plant immunity by increasing or decreasing plant resistance to pathogens. Although no general rule can be drawn about the effect of N availability and quality on the fate of plant/pathogen interactions, plants’ capacity to acquire, assimilate, allocate N, and maintain amino acid homeostasis appears to partly mediate the effects of N on plant defense. Nitric oxide (NO, one of the products of N metabolism, plays an important role in plant immunity signaling. NO is generated in part through Nitrate Reductase (NR, a key enzyme involved in nitrate assimilation, and its production depends on levels of nitrate/nitrite, NR substrate/product, as well as on L-arginine and polyamine levels. Cross-regulation between NO signaling and N supply/metabolism has been evidenced. NO production can be affected by N supply, and conversely NO appears to regulate nitrate transport and assimilation. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that N availability partly controls plant resistance to pathogens by controlling NO homeostasis. Using the Medicago truncatula/Aphanomyces euteiches pathosystem, we showed that NO homeostasis is important for resistance to this oomycete and that N availability impacts NO homeostasis by affecting S-nitrosothiol (SNO levels and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase activity in roots. These results could therefore explain the increased resistance we noted in N-deprived as compared to N-replete M. truncatula seedlings. They open onto new perspectives for the studies of N/plant defense interactions.

  20. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  1. Abscisic acid as a factor in regulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Faltynowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abscisic acid (ABA on carbon metabolism and the activity of ribulosebisphosphate (RuBP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylases in 8-day-old pea seedlings was investigated. It was endeavoured to correlate the changes observed in metabolic processes with the endogenous ABA level. In plants treated with ABA incorporation of labeled carbon into sucrose, glucose, fructose and sugar phosphates was depressed, while 14C incorporation into starch, ribulose and malic acid was enhanced. The activity of RuBP carboxylase was considerably lowered, whereas that of PEP carboxylase was slightly increased. It is considered that inhibition of photosynthesis due to the action of ABA is caused to a great extent by the obstruction of the C-3 pathway and reduced activity of RuBP carboxylase, whereas (β-carboxylation was not blocked.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Corey S; Sherp, Ashley M; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M

    2016-11-29

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the potential SA precursor benzoic acid (BA). Residues that determine IAA versus BA substrate preference were identified. The dual functionality of AtGH3.5 is unique to this enzyme although multiple IAA-conjugating GH3 proteins share nearly identical acyl acid binding sites. In planta analysis of IAA, PAA, SA, and BA and their respective aspartyl conjugates were determined in wild-type and overexpressing lines of A thaliana This study suggests that AtGH3.5 conjugates auxins (i.e., IAA and PAA) and benzoates (i.e., SA and BA) to mediate crosstalk between different metabolic pathways, broadening the potential roles for GH3 acyl acid amido synthetases in plants.

  3. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  4. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes.

  5. Dietary Acid Load and Metabolic Acidosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberink, Mariëlle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Joosten, Michel M.; Gans, Reinold O.B.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Acidosis is prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and adversely affects cardiometabolic processes. Factors contributing to acidosis are graft dysfunction and immunosuppressive drugs. Little is known about the potential influence of diet on acidosis in RTRs. This study examined the association of metabolic acid load with acidosis and with cardiovascular risk factors in RTRs and aimed to identify dietary factors associated with acidosis. Design, participants, setting, & measurements 707 RTRs were included. Metabolic acid load was assessed by measuring 24-hour urinary net acid excretion (NAE; i.e., titratable acid + ammonium − bicarbonate). Acidosis was defined as serum [HCO3−] acidosis and between dietary factors and acidosis. Results Mean age ± SD was 53±13 years; 57% of patients were male. Acidosis was present in 31% of RTRs. NAE was associated with acidosis (serum HCO3−: β=−0.61; serum pH: β=−0.010; both Pacidosis, diet might influence acid-base homeostasis in RTRs. Higher intake of fruits and vegetables and lower animal protein intake is associated with less acidosis in RTRs. PMID:22935845

  6. Fatty Acids in Energy Metabolism of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we analyze the current hypotheses regarding energy metabolism in the neurons and astroglia. Recently, it was shown that up to 20% of the total brain’s energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. However, the existing hypotheses consider glucose, or its derivative lactate, as the only main energy substrate for the brain. Astroglia metabolically supports the neurons by providing lactate as a substrate for neuronal mitochondria. In addition, a significant amount of neuromediators, glutamate and GABA, is transported into neurons and also serves as substrates for mitochondria. Thus, neuronal mitochondria may simultaneously oxidize several substrates. Astrocytes have to replenish the pool of neuromediators by synthesis de novo, which requires large amounts of energy. In this review, we made an attempt to reconcile β-oxidation of fatty acids by astrocytic mitochondria with the existing hypothesis on regulation of aerobic glycolysis. We suggest that, under condition of neuronal excitation, both metabolic pathways may exist simultaneously. We provide experimental evidence that isolated neuronal mitochondria may oxidize palmitoyl carnitine in the presence of other mitochondrial substrates. We also suggest that variations in the brain mitochondrial metabolic phenotype may be associated with different mtDNA haplogroups.

  7. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  8. Functions of rol genes in plant secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, Victor P

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolA, rolB and rolC oncogenes have been considered to be modulators of plant growth and cell differentiation. A new function of the rol genes in plant-Agrobacterium interaction became apparent with the discovery that these genes are potential activators of secondary metabolism in transformed cells from the Solanaceae, Araliaceae, Rubiaceae, Vitaceae and Rosaceae families. In some cases, the activator effect of individual rol genes is sufficient to overcome the inability of cultured plant cells to produce large amounts of secondary metabolites. Here, I summarize the available evidence that shows that genetic transformation by single Agrobacterium rol genes may be used as a powerful tool to manipulate secondary metabolites in cultured plant cells. Although it is known that the rol genes act via transcriptional activation of defense genes, the mechanism of activation is unclear. In this review, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the rol genes mediate uncommon signal transduction pathways in plants.

  9. Valproic Acid related metabolic syndrome in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, M; Kasradze, S; Okujava, N

    2011-05-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug for the long-term treatment. It is established that VPA has number of side effects affecting metabolic and endocrine system, like weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, changes in sex hormones, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and etc. But the data are not sufficient to judge if VPA treatment can induce metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to investigate metabolic syndrome frequency in VPA-treated (n=11) and CBZ-treated (n=13) patients with epilepsy and in drug-free healthy subjects (n=11). We diagnosed metabolic syndrome according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (ATP III). We took blood samples for analysing triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting glucose. Waist circumference and blood pressure was measured as well. Our data revealed that metabolic syndrome is relatively frequent in VPA-treated patients group (45,5%) compared with CBZ group and controls (15.4% and 27.3% respectively) (pmetabolic syndrome in patients with epilepsy, but BMI did not differ between VPA monotherapy study group, CBZ monotherapy study group and controls.

  10. Enhancing the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana via iterative metabolic engineering and genetic crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Li, Tianbi; Bauer, Joerg; Napier, Johnathan A; Sayanova, Olga

    2012-12-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid has previously been demonstrated in the seeds of transgenic plants. However, the obtained levels are relatively low, indicating the need for further studies and the better definition of the interplay between endogenous lipid synthesis and the non-native transgene-encoded activities. In this study we have systematically compared three different transgenic configurations of the biosynthetic pathway for eicosapentaenoic acid, using lipidomic profiling to identify metabolic bottlenecks. We have also used genetic crossing to stack up to ten transgenes in Arabidopsis. These studies indicate several potential approaches to optimize the accumulation of target fatty acids in transgenic plants. Our data show the unexpected channeling of heterologous C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids into minor phospholipid species, and also the apparent negative metabolic regulation of phospholipid-dependent Δ6-desaturases. Collectively, this study confirms the benefits of iterative approaches to metabolic engineering of plant lipid synthesis.

  11. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, E.E.; Kertcher, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Tepper, B.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of /sup 14/CO2 produced through oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum /sup 14/CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, /sup 14/CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium.

  12. Different Narrow-Band Light Ranges Alter Plant Secondary Metabolism and Plant Defense Response to Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light of different wavelengths affects various physiological processes in plants. Short-wavelength radiation (like UV) can activate defense pathways in plants and enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and glucosinolates) responsible for resistance against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown for 4 weeks in a climate chamber under conventional fluorescent tubes and were additionally treated with UV-B (310 nm), UV-A (365 or 385 nm), or violet (420 nm) light generated with UV-B tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The objective was to determine the influence of narrow bandwidths of light (from UV-B to violet) on plant secondary metabolism and on the performance of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (a generalist). Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides increased markedly under UV-B, while among glucosinolates only 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl showed a 2-fold increase in plants exposed to UV-B and UV-A. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in broccoli plants increased with UV-B treatment. Brevicoryne brassicae adult weights and fecundity were lower on UV-B treated plants compared to UV-A or violet light-treated plants. Adult weights and fecundity of M. persicae were increased under UV-B and UV-A treatments. When specific light wavelengths are used to induce metabolic changes in plants, the specificity of the induced effects on herbivores should be considered.

  13. Biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation during biosynthesis in higher plants reflects carbon metabolism of the plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Marc-André; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Compound-specific isotope analyses of plant material are frequently applied to understand the response of plants to the environmental changes. As it is generally assume that the main factors controlling δ2H values in plants are the plant's source water and evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water, hydrogen isotope analyses of plant material are mainly applied regarding hydrological conditions at different time scales. However, only few studies have directly addressed the variability of the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of organic compounds (ɛbio), accounting also for a large part in the δ2H values of plants but generally assumed to be constant. Here we present the results from a climate-controlled growth chambers experiment where tested the sensitivity of ɛbio to different light treatments. The different light treatments were applied to induce different metabolic status (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic) in 9 different plant species that we grew from large storage organs (e.g. tubers or roots). The results show a systematic ɛbio shift (up to 80 ) between the different light treatments for different compounds (i.e. long chain n-alkanes and cellulose). We suggest that this shift is due to the different NADPH pools used by the plants to build up the compounds from stored carbohydrates in heterotrophic or autotrophic conditions. Our results have important implications for the calibration and interpretation of sedimentary and tree rings records in geological studies. In addition, as the δ2H values reflect also strongly the carbon metabolism of the plant, our findings support the idea of δ2H values as an interesting proxy for plant physiological studies.

  14. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yue; Berger, Uta; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic scaling theory (MST) is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of 24/3 between mean individual biomass and density during densitydependent mortality (self-thinning). Empirical tests have...... produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms’ internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model...

  15. EFFECTS OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SEEDLING GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM IN CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is involved in the regulation of metabolic activity and defense mechanism in plants under various stress conditions. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid (10 to 500 μM on seedling growth, development and nitrogen use efficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants with or without nitrogen nutrient. Salicylic acid increased contents of chlorophyll, total non-structural carbohydrate and total nitrogen, as well as nitrate assimilation through the induction of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1 activity in isolated cucumber cotyledons. Accumulation of salicylic acid was two-fold higher in cotyledons without nitrate supply in comparison to that with nitrate supply. Further 50 μM of SA induced enhancement in seed germination and growth characteristics. However higher salicylic acid concentrations inhibited above physiological characteristics. Results show that, field application of salicylic acid need optimum physiological concentration (e.g., 50 μM to increase nitrogen use efficiency particularly during germination and seedling growth.

  16. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  17. Amino acid metabolic signaling influences Aedes aegypti midgut microbiome variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Short

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81-92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae. We conducted transcriptomic analysis on the two mosquito strains that showed the greatest difference in bacterial load, and found that they differ in transcript abundance of many genes implicated in amino acid metabolism, in particular the branched chain amino acid degradation pathway. We then silenced this pathway by targeting multiple genes using RNA interference, which resulted in strain-specific bacterial proliferation, thereby eliminating the difference in midgut bacterial load between the strains. This suggests that the branched chain amino acid (BCAA degradation pathway controls midgut bacterial load, though the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Overall, our results indicate that amino acid metabolism can act to influence the midgut microbiota. Moreover, they suggest that genetic or physiological variation in BCAA degradation pathway activity may in part explain midgut microbiota variation in the field.

  18. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), plant uptake and effects on metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.R.; Lytle, C.M.; Stone, R.L.; Smith, B.N [Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Hansen, L.D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In the USA and Canada, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT) is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive. Manganese concentrations in roadside soil and plants are increasing and correlated with distance from the roadway, traffic volume, plant type, and microhabitat. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were treated for either five or thirty-five days with different levels of manganous chloride (0-1000ppm). Metabolic heat rates (q) and respiration rates (R{sub CO{sub 2}}), measured calorimetrically, indicated severe stress at Mn concentrations between 10 and 100ppm and at temperatures above 20C. Predicted growth rates (R{sub SG}) also decreased in these circumstances.

  19. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  20. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-02-08

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  1. Uric acid metabolism in pre-hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Obradovic, Milan; Labudovic-Borovic, Milica; Nikolic, Dragana; Montalto, Giuseppe; Rizvi, Ali A; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Isenovic, Esma R

    2014-01-01

    In humans uric acid (UA) is the end product of degradation of purines. The handling of UA by the renal system is a complex process which is not fully understood. To date, several urate transporters in the renal proximal tubule have been identified. Among them, urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and a glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) are considered of greater importance, as potential targets for treatment of hyperuricemia and the potential associated cardio-metabolic risk. Therefore, the recognition of the metabolic pathway of UA and elucidation of occurrence of hyperuricemia may provide important insights about the relationship between UA, pre-hypertension (preHT) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We also review the available clinical studies in this field, including experimental studies dealing with the mechanisms of UA transport via different transporters, as well as current treatment options for hyperuricemia in patients with MetS, preHT or cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Ophthalmic acid is a marker of oxidative stress in plants as in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Cautela, Domenico; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Ophthalmic acid (OPH), γ-glutamyl-L-2-aminobutyryl-glycine, a tripeptide analogue of glutathione (GSH), has recently captured considerable attention as a biomarker of oxidative stress in animals. The OPH and GSH biosynthesis, as well as some biochemical behaviors, are very similar. Here, we sought to investigate the presence of OPH in plants and its possible relationship with GSH, known to possess multiple functions in the plant development, growth and response to environmental changes. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was used to examine the occurrence of OPH in leaves from various plant species, and flours from several plant seeds. Different types of oxidative stress, i.e., water, dark, paraquat, and cadmium stress, were induced in rye, barley, oat, and winter wheat leaves to evaluate the effects on the levels of OPH and its metabolic precursors. OPH and its dipeptide precursor, γ-glutamyl-2-aminobutyric acid, were found to occur in phylogenetically distant plants. Interestingly, the levels of OPH were tightly associated with the oxidative stress tested. Levels of OPH precursors, γ-glutamyl-2-aminobutyric acid and 2-aminobutyric acid, the latter efficiently formed in plants via biosynthetic pathways absent in the animal kingdom, were also found to increase during oxidative stress. OPH occurs in plants and its levels are tightly associated with oxidative stress. OPH behaves as an oxidative stress marker and its biogenesis might occur through a biochemical pathway common to many living organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P citrus pulp in the diets. Furthermore, the SA/(SA + VA) ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.10) in the ruminal fluid from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with that of the CON group. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that replacing barley with citrus pulp in the diet of growing lambs improves intramuscular fatty acid composition and underline the need for specific studies to clarify the mechanisms by which feeding citrus pulp affects the fatty acid metabolism in ruminants.

  4. Plasticity of crassulacean acid metabolism at subtropical latitudes: a pineapple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainha, Nuno; Medeiros, Violante P; Câmara, Mariana; Faustino, Hélder; Leite, João P; Barreto, Maria do Carmo; Cruz, Cristina; Pacheco, Carlos A; Ponte, Duarte; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    Plants with the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) express high-metabolic plasticity, to adjust to environmental stresses. This article hypothesizes that irradiance and nocturnal temperatures are the major limitations for CAM at higher latitudes such as the Azores (37°45'N). Circadian CAM expression in Ananas comosus L. Merr. (pineapple) was assessed by the diurnal pattern of leaf carbon fixation into l-malate at the solstices and equinoxes, and confirmed by determining maximal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity in plant material. Metabolic adjustments to environmental conditions were confirmed by gas exchange measurements, and integrated with environmental data to determine CAM's limiting factors: light and temperature. CAM plasticity was observed at the equinoxes, under similar photoperiods, but different environmental conditions. In spring, CAM expression was similar between vegetative and flowering plants, while in autumn, flowering (before anthesis) and fructifying (with fully developed fruit before ripening) plants accumulated more l-malate. Below 100 µmol m(-2) s(-1) , CAM phase I was extended, reducing CAM phase III during the day. Carbon fixation inhibition may occur by two major pathways: nocturnal temperature (<15°C) inhibiting PEPC activity and l-malate accumulation; and low irradiance influencing the interplay between CAM phase I and III, affecting carboxylation and decarboxylation. Both have important consequences for plant development in autumn and winter. Observations were confirmed by flowering time prediction using environmental data, emphasizing that CAM expression had a strong seasonal regulation due to a complex network response to light and temperature, allowing pineapple to survive in environments not suitable for high productivity. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Villalobos

    Full Text Available The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II, arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP, suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  6. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jose A; Yi, Bo R; Wallace, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc) is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc) analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  7. Jacaric acid is rapidly metabolized to conjugated linoleic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Ryo; Honma, Taro; Ito, Junya; Yamasaki, Masao; Ikezaki, Aya; Motonaga, Chihiro; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that jacaric acid (JA; 8c,10t,12c-18:3), which has a conjugated triene system, has a strong anti-tumor effect. However, the characteristics of absorption and metabolism of JA have yet to be determined in vivo, and the details of absorption and metabolism of JA in the small intestine are particularly unclear. This information is required for effective use of JA in humans. Therefore, in this study we examined absorption and metabolism of JA using cannulation of the thoracic duct in rats. Emulsions of two test oils, jacaranda seed oil and tung oil, which contain JA and α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3), respectively, were administered to rats and lymph from the thoracic duct was collected over 24 h. We examined the rate of absorption of JA and possible conversion to a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)containing a conjugated diene system. The positional isomerism of the CLA produced by JA metabolism was determined using gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry. The rate of absorption and percentage conversion of JA were compared with those of α-ESA. We found that JA is rapidly absorbed and converted to a CLA in rats and that the percentage conversion of JA was lower than that of α-ESA. This is the first report on the absorption and metabolism of JA and this information may be important for application of JA as a functional food.

  8. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  9. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves. [Hordeum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L.P.; Tsonev, T.D.; Vaklinova, S.G.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while /sup 14/C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO/sup -6/ molar while the CO/sub 2/-compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants.

  10. Metabolic Relations between Methylxanthines and Methyluric Acids in Coffea L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Joseph B.; Baumann, Thomas W.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolism of purine alkaloids in the leaves of Coffea dewevrei De Wild et Durand var excelsa Chev, Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern and Coffea abeokutae Cramer was studied by analyzing leaf discs collected during vegetative development and by feeding the following radioactive tracers: [14C]theobromine, [14C]caffeine, and [14C]theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid). Their principal metabolites were quantitatively and qualitatively determined. All three species convert the precursors to the same radioactive products, and proceed through the same four maturity stages characterized by the alkaloid accumulation pattern and by a particular transformation potency: (stage 1) young plant accumulating caffeine, transforms theobromine to caffeine; (stage 2) caffeine is gradually replaced by theacrine, theobromine and caffeine are converted to theacrine; (stage 3) theacrine disappears whereas liberine (O(2), 1,9-thrimethyluric acid) accumulates, theacrine is metabolized to liberine; (stage 4) branched-out plant containing liberine but no theacrine, caffeine is converted rapidly to liberine via theacrine. Methylliberine (O(2),1,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), presumably the direct precursor of liberine, is occasionally found in low concentrations at stage 3 and 4. The collective term `liberio-excelsoid' introduced by geneticists for the numerous races or species of Pachycoffea is in accordance with the phytochemical equality found in this work. PMID:16663351

  11. A combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis on sulfur metabolism pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingwu; Chen, Juan A; Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B; Zheng, Hailei

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress.

  12. A Plant Bacterial Pathogen Manipulates Its Insect Vector's Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj; Ebert, Timothy A; Rogers, Michael E

    2017-03-01

    Insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. Because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The genome of CLas revealed the presence of an ATP translocase that mediates the uptake of ATP and other nucleotides from medium to achieve its biological processes, such as growth and multiplication. Here, we showed that the levels of ATP and many other nucleotides were significantly higher in CLas-infected than healthy psyllids. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation for ATP synthase subunits, while ATPase enzyme activity showed a decrease in ATPase activity. These results indicated that CLas stimulated Diaphorina citri to produce more ATP and many other energetic nucleotides, while it may inhibit their consumption by the insect. As a result of ATP accumulation, the adenylated energy charge (AEC) increased and the AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP ratios decreased in CLas-infected D. citri psyllids. Survival analysis confirmed a shorter life span for CLas-infected D. citri psyllids. In addition, electropenetrography showed a significant reduction in total nonprobing time, salivation time, and time from the last E2 (phloem ingestion) to the end of recording, indicating that CLas-infected psyllids were at a higher hunger level and they tended to forage more often. This increased feeding activity reflects the CLas-induced energetic stress. In conclusion, CLas alters the energy metabolism of its psyllid vector, D. citri, in order to secure its need for energetic nucleotides.IMPORTANCE Insect transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria involves propagation and circulation of the bacteria within their vectors. The transmission process is complex and requires specific interactions at the molecular and biochemical

  13. Perturbations in the Primary Metabolism of Tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Infected with the Soil-Borne Fungus Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Buhtz

    Full Text Available The hemibiotrophic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is a major pathogen of a number of economically important crop species. Here, the metabolic response of both tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana to V. dahliae infection was analysed by first using non-targeted GC-MS profiling. The leaf content of both major cell wall components glucuronic acid and xylose was reduced in the presence of the pathogen in tomato but enhanced in A. thaliana. The leaf content of the two tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates fumaric acid and succinic acid was increased in the leaf of both species, reflecting a likely higher demand for reducing equivalents required for defence responses. A prominent group of affected compounds was amino acids and based on the targeted analysis in the root, it was shown that the level of 12 and four free amino acids was enhanced by the infection in, respectively, tomato and A. thaliana, with leucine and histidine being represented in both host species. The leaf content of six free amino acids was reduced in the leaf tissue of diseased A. thaliana plants, while that of two free amino acids was raised in the tomato plants. This study emphasizes the role of primary plant metabolites in adaptive responses when the fungus has colonized the plant.

  14. Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatinamini, Sara; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Qorbani, Mostafa; Nikoohemat, Shideh; Kelishadi, Roya; Asayesh, Hamid; Hosseini, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Serum uric acid levels is reported to be associated with a variety of cardiometabolic risk factors; however, its direct association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains controversial. Thus, we examined the association of serum uric acid concentrations with the MetS components. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. This case-control study comprised 101 non-smoking individuals (41 in the MetS group and 60 in the non-MetS group). Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, uric acid, and anthropometric measures were determined, and body composition was assessed by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). After adjustment for confounding factors, serum uric acid was significantly higher in MetS group than non-MetS group (5.70 ± 1.62 vs 4.97 ± 1.30 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.001). After controlling for age, sex and body mass index in partial correlation analysis, uric acid was positively correlated with triglycerides, and negatively with HDL-C. In multiple logistic regression analysis, every 1 mg/dl elevation in the serum uric acid level increased the risk of MetS approximately by 2-folds (OR: 2.11, 95 % CI: 1.30-3.41). This study showed that those individuals with MetS have higher uric acid levels; the association of uric acid and MetS components supports that it might be an additional components of MetS.

  15. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids: role in metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    The inverse association of cardiovascular risk with intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was suspected early in populations that are known to have a high consumption of fish and fish oil. Subsequent cohort studies confirmed such associations in other populations. Further evidence of possible beneficial effects on metabolism and cardiovascular health was provided by many studies that were able to show specific mechanisms that may underlie these observations. These include improvement of the function of tissues involved in the alterations occurring during the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscle. Direct action on the cardiovascular system was not only shown regarding vascular function and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, but also by providing antiarrhythmic effects on the heart. Data on these effects come from in vitro as well as in vivo studies that were conducted in animal models of disease, in healthy humans and in humans suffering from cardiovascular disease. To define prophylactic as well as treatment options in primary and secondary prevention, large clinical trial assessed the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on end points as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, so far these trials provided ambiguous data that do allow recommendations regarding the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in higher dosages and beyond the dietary advice of regular fish intake only in few clinical situations, such as severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS PLANT SOURCES IN THE CRIMEA

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Paliy; F. M. Melikov; O. A. Grebennikova; V. D. Rabotyagov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the content of phenolics and rosmarinic acid in 32 species of aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, native to the South Coast of the Crimea. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied species was 490.3 – 18511.0 mg/100g of plant raw materials. Rosmarinic acid was found in 15 species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families. Rosmarinic acid was not noticed in the studied plants from Apiaceae family. The concentrat...

  18. Serum uric acid and appropriate cutoff value for prediction of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mei-lin; Gao, Yu-xia; Wang, Xuan; Chang, Hong; Huang, Guo-wei

    2012-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current ?normal? range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or pre...

  19. Nitrogen metabolism and translocation in soybean plants subjected to root oxygen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley C; Freschi, Luciano; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2013-05-01

    Although nitrate (NO3(-)) but not ammonium (NH4(+)) improves plant tolerance to oxygen deficiency, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are just beginning to be understood. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolic fate of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) in soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merril cv. IAC-23) subjected to root hypoxia. This stress reduced the uptake of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) from the medium and decreased the overall assimilation of these nitrogen sources into amino acids in roots and leaves. Root (15)NO3(-) assimilation was more affected by hypoxia than that of (15)NH4(+), resulting in enhanced nitrite and nitric oxide release in the solution. However, (15)NO3(-) was translocated in substantial amounts by xylem sap and considerable (15)NO3(-) assimilation into amino acids also occurred in the leaves, both under hypoxia and normoxia. By contrast, (15)NH4(+) assimilation occurred predominantly in roots, resulting in accumulation of mainly (15)N-alanine in this tissue during hypoxia. Analysis of lactate levels suggested higher fermentation in roots from NH4(+)-treated plants compared to the NO3(-) treatment. Thus, foliar NO3(-) assimilation may be relevant to plant tolerance to oxygen deficiency, since it would economize energy expenditure by hypoxic roots. Additionally, the involvement of nitric oxide synthesis from nitrite in the beneficial effect of NO3(-) is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan S. Naughton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR are a current research focus in the area of obesity due to the system’s role in food intake and glucose and lipid metabolism. Importantly, overweight and obese individuals often have higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG and an altered pattern of receptor expression. Consequently, this leads to an increase in orexigenic stimuli, changes in fatty acid synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose utilisation, with preferential energy storage in adipose tissue. As endocannabinoids are products of dietary fats, modification of dietary intake may modulate their levels, with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid based endocannabinoids being able to displace arachidonic acid from cell membranes, reducing AEA and 2-AG production. Similarly, oleoyl ethanolamide, a product of oleic acid, induces satiety, decreases circulating fatty acid concentrations, increases the capacity for β-oxidation, and is capable of inhibiting the action of AEA and 2-AG in adipose tissue. Thus, understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.

  1. Cytochalasins inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    OpenAIRE

    Siess, W; Lapetina, E G; Cuatrecasas, P

    1982-01-01

    Low concentrations (0.5-1 microM) of cytochalasins inhibit the thrombin-stimulated polymerization of monomeric actin to filamentous actin in platelets. Similar concentrations of cytochalasin B inhibit the formation and metabolism of arachidonic acid in horse platelets stimulated by low concentrations of thrombin (0.1-0.5 unit/ml). However, the release of serotonin is not inhibited by cytochalasin B. Cytochalasins B and D (0.5-1 microM) markedly reduce, in thrombin-stimulated human or horse pl...

  2. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of nutraceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, J.; Sybesma, W.; Groot, M.N.; Wisselink, W.; Ladero, V.; Burgess, K.; Sinderen, van D.; Piard, J.C.; Eggink, G.; Smid, E.J.; Savoy, G.; Sesma, F.; Jansen, T.; Hols, P.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria display a relatively simple and well-described metabolism where the sugar source is converted mainly to lactic acid. Here we will shortly describe metabolic engineering strategies on the level of sugar metabolism, that lead to either the efficient re-routing of the lactococcal

  3. Uptake of chromium by Salvinia minima: effect on plant growth, leaf respiration and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carolina; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa; González, Juan A; Pagano, Eduardo A; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2010-05-15

    Metabolic responses to chromium (Cr) exposure and metal uptake were investigated using Salvinia minima plants. Cr treatment reduced the dry weight of floating and submerged leaves, while photosynthetic pigments were not affected. Measurements of respiratory oxygen uptake with and without inhibitors (KCN and SHAM) demonstrated that total respiration, alternative oxidase capacity and residual respiration were higher in Cr-treated than in Cr-untreated leaves, but the highest values were observed in floating leaves. Cr affected the soluble sugar content. Sucrose concentration was, in general, higher in Cr-treated than in Cr-untreated leaves, while the glucose concentration showed an inverse pattern. Cr also affected soluble acid invertase activity, but affectation trend was different between both leaves. Highest values of invertase activity were observed in Cr-treated floating leaves. According to our data soluble acid invertase and sucrose seem to be related to alternative oxidase capacity and residual respiration in floating and submerged leaves exposed to Cr. Thereby, this study constitutes an important contribution to understand metabolic relationships between mitochondrial respiration, alternative respiratory pathway and soluble carbohydrates in plants exposed to heavy metals. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Interactions between Vitamin A and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca Carta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4. However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A.

  5. Absorption and metabolism of benzoic acid in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, N B; Nørgaard, J V; Wamberg, S

    2009-01-01

    Dietary benzoic acid (BA) supplementation causes a pronounced reduction in urinary pH but only small changes in blood pH. The present study aimed to investigate the portal absorption profile, hepatic metabolism of BA, and renal excretion of hippuric acid (HA) underlying the relatively small impact......) or BA supplementation (B; control diet + 1% BA top-dressed). Feed intake was restricted to 3.6% of BW and the ration divided into 3 equally sized meals offered at 8-h intervals. Blood pH (7.465 and 7.486 ± 0.004) and urinary pH (4.99 and 7.01 ± 0.09) were less (P = 0.03 and P

  6. A new synthetic biology approach allows transfer of an entire metabolic pathway from a medicinal plant to a biomass crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Paulina; Zhou, Fei; Erban, Alexander; Karcher, Daniel; Kopka, Joachim; Bock, Ralph

    2016-06-14

    Artemisinin-based therapies are the only effective treatment for malaria, the most devastating disease in human history. To meet the growing demand for artemisinin and make it accessible to the poorest, an inexpensive and rapidly scalable production platform is urgently needed. Here we have developed a new synthetic biology approach, combinatorial supertransformation of transplastomic recipient lines (COSTREL), and applied it to introduce the complete pathway for artemisinic acid, the precursor of artemisinin, into the high-biomass crop tobacco. We first introduced the core pathway of artemisinic acid biosynthesis into the chloroplast genome. The transplastomic plants were then combinatorially supertransformed with cassettes for all additional enzymes known to affect flux through the artemisinin pathway. By screening large populations of COSTREL lines, we isolated plants that produce more than 120 milligram artemisinic acid per kilogram biomass. Our work provides an efficient strategy for engineering complex biochemical pathways into plants and optimizing the metabolic output.

  7. Salt Requirement for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Annual Succulent, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments with the facultative Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, only plants which received high levels of inorganic salts fixed substantial amounts of CO2 by the CAM pathway. Equivalent osmolarities of polyethylene glycol 6000 did not yield any CAM fixation. Plant water potential and turgor pressure had no detectable influence on the amount of CAM fixation. These observations rule out the possibility that the inorganic ions were acting as osmotic agents. Carbon dioxide and water exchange analysis showed that when water supply was not limiting, salt-deprived plants sustained higher reductive pentose phosphate cycle carbon fixation rates than salt-treated plants. Under water stress conditions, salt-deprived plants using only the reductive pentose phosphate cycle pathway assimilated less carbon and were less efficient in their water use than salt-treated plants using predominately the CAM pathway. These results support the hypothesis that the ability to use the CAM pathway reduces the capacity for reductive pentose phosphate cycle fixation but permits higher productivity in water-limited environments. PMID:16660805

  8. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki

    2017-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enz...

  9. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  10. Genome-Wide Prediction of Metabolic Enzymes, Pathways, and Gene Clusters in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläpfer, Pascal; Zhang, Peifen; Wang, Chuan; Kim, Taehyong; Banf, Michael; Chae, Lee; Dreher, Kate; Chavali, Arvind K; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Bernard, Thomas; Kahn, Daniel; Rhee, Seung Y

    2017-04-01

    Plant metabolism underpins many traits of ecological and agronomic importance. Plants produce numerous compounds to cope with their environments but the biosynthetic pathways for most of these compounds have not yet been elucidated. To engineer and improve metabolic traits, we need comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the organization and regulation of plant metabolism at the genome scale. Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify metabolic enzymes, pathways, and gene clusters from a sequenced genome. Using this pipeline, we generated metabolic pathway databases for 22 species and identified metabolic gene clusters from 18 species. This unified resource can be used to conduct a wide array of comparative studies of plant metabolism. Using the resource, we discovered a widespread occurrence of metabolic gene clusters in plants: 11,969 clusters from 18 species. The prevalence of metabolic gene clusters offers an intriguing possibility of an untapped source for uncovering new metabolite biosynthesis pathways. For example, more than 1,700 clusters contain enzymes that could generate a specialized metabolite scaffold (signature enzymes) and enzymes that modify the scaffold (tailoring enzymes). In four species with sufficient gene expression data, we identified 43 highly coexpressed clusters that contain signature and tailoring enzymes, of which eight were characterized previously to be functional pathways. Finally, we identified patterns of genome organization that implicate local gene duplication and, to a lesser extent, single gene transposition as having played roles in the evolution of plant metabolic gene clusters. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Metabolism within the specialized guard cells of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloso, Danilo M; Medeiros, David B; Dos Anjos, Letícia; Yoshida, Takuya; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2017-12-01

    Contents 1018 I. 1018 II. 1019 III. 1022 IV. 1025 V. 1026 VI. 1029 1030 References 1030 SUMMARY: Stomata are leaf epidermal structures consisting of two guard cells surrounding a pore. Changes in the aperture of this pore regulate plant water-use efficiency, defined as gain of C by photosynthesis per leaf water transpired. Stomatal aperture is actively regulated by reversible changes in guard cell osmolyte content. Despite the fact that guard cells can photosynthesize on their own, the accumulation of mesophyll-derived metabolites can seemingly act as signals which contribute to the regulation of stomatal movement. It has been shown that malate can act as a signalling molecule and a counter-ion of potassium, a well-established osmolyte that accumulates in the vacuole of guard cells during stomatal opening. By contrast, their efflux from guard cells is an important mechanism during stomatal closure. It has been hypothesized that the breakdown of starch, sucrose and lipids is an important mechanism during stomatal opening, which may be related to ATP production through glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism, and/or accumulation of osmolytes such as sugars and malate. However, experimental evidence supporting this theory is lacking. Here we highlight the particularities of guard cell metabolism and discuss this in the context of the guard cells themselves and their interaction with the mesophyll cells. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eva Stoltz; Maria Greger [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Botany

    2006-11-15

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approximately} 3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  14. Phosphatidic acid: a multifunctional stress-signalling lipid in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, C.; Munnik, T.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in both plants and animals. Nonetheless, it already promises to rival the importance of the classic second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP. In plants, its formation is triggered in response to various biotic and

  15. Determination of Amino Acids in Medicinal Plants from Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the amino acid contents of some plants used in traditional medicine in Southern Sonora, Mexico by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The plant samples (Jutuki, Zizyphus obtusifolia A.Gray; Jito, Forchammeria watsonii Rose; Barchata, Lycium berlandieri Dunal; Citabaro, ...

  16. Response of nitrogen metabolism to boron toxicity in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervilla, L M; Blasco, B; Ríos, J J; Rosales, M A; Rubio-Wilhelmi, M M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2009-09-01

    Boron (B) toxicity has become important in areas close to the Mediterranean Sea where intensive agriculture has been developed. The objective of this research was to study the effects of B toxicity (0.5 mM and 2.0 mM B) on nitrogen (N) assimilation of two tomato cultivars that are often used in these areas. Leaf biomass, relative leaf growth rate (RGR(L)), concentration of B, nitrate (NO(3) (-)), ammonium (NH(4) (+)), organic N, amino acids and soluble proteins, as well as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthase (GS), glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities were analysed in leaves. Boron toxicity significantly decreased leaf biomass, RGR(L), organic N, soluble proteins, and NR and NiR activities. The lowest NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+) concentration in leaves was recorded when plants were supplied with 2.0 mM B in the root medium. Total B, amino acids, activities of GS, GOGAT and GDH increased under B toxicity. Data from the present study prove that B toxicity causes inhibition of NO(3) (-) reduction and increases NH(4) (+) assimilation in tomato plants.

  17. Sex-Dependent Programming of Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mouse Offspring by Maternal Protein Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Esther M. E.; Bloks, Vincent W.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Baller, Julius F. W.; Huijkman, Nicolette C. A.; Kuipers, Irma; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Plosch, Torsten

    Background: Nutritional conditions during fetal life influence the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in adult life (metabolic programming). Impaired glucose tolerance and dysregulated fatty acid metabolism are hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We

  18. Isolation and identification of phosphatidic acid targets from plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, C.; Dekker, H.L.; Lim, Z.-Y.; Johns, M.K.; Holmes, A.B.; de Koster, C.G.; Ktisakis, N.T.; Munnik, T.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is emerging as an important lipid signalling molecule. In plants, it is implicated in various stress-signalling pathways and is formed in response to wounding, osmotic stress, cold stress, pathogen elicitors, Nod factors, ethylene and abscisic acid. How PA exerts its effects

  19. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinic acid, an important phenolic compound, is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, ...

  20. Adipose Tissue Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Metabolism Modulates Circulating BCAA Levels*

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent obse...

  1. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  2. Regulation of PEP-Carboxylase by Biological Clock in a CAM Plant : ENVIRONMENTAL AND STRESS RESPONSES : PROTEINS, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke, Kusumi; Hiroyuki, Arata; Ikuko, Iwasaki; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University

    1994-01-01

    The endogenous circadian rhythm in a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Graptopetalum paraguayense was investigated. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C) takes two forms: the malate-sensitive day form and the malate-insensitive night form. We monitored the state of PEP-C by measuring the sensitivity to malate as a parameter of the circadian rhythm. We also measured vacuolar pH and malate concentration, and contents of oxaloacetate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). A free-runni...

  3. Plant 9-lox oxylipin metabolism in response to arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Morcillo, Rafael Jorge; Ocampo, Juan A; García Garrido, José M

    2012-12-01

    The establishment of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal symbiotic interaction (MA) is a successful strategy to substantially promote plant growth, development and fitness. Numerous studies have supported the hypothesis that plant hormones play an important role in the recognition and establishment of symbiosis. Particular attention has been devoted to jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivates, the jasmonates, which are believed to play a major role in AM symbiosis. Jasmonates belong to a diverse class of lipid metabolites known as oxylipins that include other biologically active molecules. Recent transcriptional analyses revealed upregulation of the oxylipin pathway during AM symbiosis in mycorrhizal tomato roots and point a key regulatory feature for oxylipins during AM symbiosis in tomato, particularly these derived from the action of 9-lipoxygenases (9-LOX). In this mini-review we highlight recent progress understanding the function of oxylipins in the establishment of the AM symbiosis and hypothesize that the activation of the 9-LOX pathway might be part of the activation of host defense responses which will then contribute to both, the control of AM fungal spread and the increased resistance to fungal pathogens in mycorrhizal plants.

  4. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  5. [Metabolic syndrome reversion by polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Mondragón, Martha Gabriela; Oliart Ros, Rosa María; Martínez Martinez, Angélica; Méndez Machado, Gustavo Francisco; Angulo Guerrero, Jesús Ofelia

    2013-12-21

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) frequency is growing and diet has an important influence on its evolution. Our objective was to study the effect of 3 sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids on MS parameters in humans. The MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three groups of individuals (n=15/group) were quasi-randomly assigned to one of the following treatments during 6 weeks: a) 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08g eicosapentoaenoic acid+0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid); b) 2.0 g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11, trans10:cis12), and c) 40 g/d walnut. The clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the essay. In the group with n-3 the triglycerides level decreased from 183.9 ± 35.2mg/dl to 149.6 ± 29.0mg/dl (P=.007). In the group with walnut the HDL level rose from 41.7 ± 5.2mg/dl to 47.8 ± 5.4 mg/dl (P=.004) and the Castelli index (total cholesterol/HDL) decreased from 4.86 ± 0.97 to 3.82 ± 0.81 (P=.004). There were not significant changes in the CLA group. At the end of the essay, 46.7% of walnut group patients, 46.7% of n-3 group and 20% of CLA group, had no MS. The groups that consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and those in walnut in moderate daily doses during 6 weeks had an improvement of the dyslipidemia component of MS, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis.

  7. Genome-Wide Prediction of Metabolic Enzymes, Pathways, and Gene Clusters in Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peifen; Kim, Taehyong; Banf, Michael; Chavali, Arvind K.; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Bernard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant metabolism underpins many traits of ecological and agronomic importance. Plants produce numerous compounds to cope with their environments but the biosynthetic pathways for most of these compounds have not yet been elucidated. To engineer and improve metabolic traits, we need comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the organization and regulation of plant metabolism at the genome scale. Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify metabolic enzymes, pathways, and gene clusters from a sequenced genome. Using this pipeline, we generated metabolic pathway databases for 22 species and identified metabolic gene clusters from 18 species. This unified resource can be used to conduct a wide array of comparative studies of plant metabolism. Using the resource, we discovered a widespread occurrence of metabolic gene clusters in plants: 11,969 clusters from 18 species. The prevalence of metabolic gene clusters offers an intriguing possibility of an untapped source for uncovering new metabolite biosynthesis pathways. For example, more than 1,700 clusters contain enzymes that could generate a specialized metabolite scaffold (signature enzymes) and enzymes that modify the scaffold (tailoring enzymes). In four species with sufficient gene expression data, we identified 43 highly coexpressed clusters that contain signature and tailoring enzymes, of which eight were characterized previously to be functional pathways. Finally, we identified patterns of genome organization that implicate local gene duplication and, to a lesser extent, single gene transposition as having played roles in the evolution of plant metabolic gene clusters. PMID:28228535

  8. Metabolic engineering of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to produce punicic acid, a conjugated fatty acid with nutraceutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaiova, Martina; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J; Holic, Roman

    2017-09-16

    Punicic acid (PuA) is a conjugated linolenic acid (C18:3Δ(9c,11t,13c)) with a wide range of nutraceutic effects with the potential to reduce the incidence of a number of health disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. It is the main component of seed oil from Punica granatum and Trichosanthes kirilowii. Previously, production of relatively high levels of this unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant was accomplished by the use of A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant high in linoleic acid (18:2∆(9c,12c)) and by co-expression of P. granatum FATTY ACID CONJUGASE (PgFADX) with Δ12-DESATURASE (FAD2). In the current study, P. granatum cDNAs governing PuA production were introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Expression of PgFADX alone resulted in production of PuA at the level of 19.6% of total fatty acids. Co-expression PgFADX with PgFAD2, however, further enhanced PuA content to 25.1% of total fatty acids, the highest level reported to date for heterologous expression. Therefore, microbial systems can be considered as a potential alternative to plant sources for a source of PuA for nutraceutic applications.

  9. PROTEIN METABOLISM IN REGENERATING WOUND TISSUE: FUNCTION OF THE SULFUR AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROTEINS, *TISSUES(BIOLOGY), METABOLISM, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), REGENERATION(ENGINEERING), WOUNDS AND INJURIES, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TRACER STUDIES, METHIONINE, COLLAGEN, TYROSINE, BIOSYNTHESIS, AMINO ACIDS .

  10. Accumulation of gentisic acid as associated with systemic infections but not with the hypersensitive response in plant-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés, José M; Garro, Rafael; Pallás, Vicente; Fayos, Joaquín; Rodrigo, Ismael; Conejero, Vicente

    2006-02-01

    In the present work we have studied the accumulation of gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, a metabolic derivative of salicylic acid, SA) in the plant-pathogen systems, Cucumis sativus and Gynura aurantiaca, infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or the exocortis viroid (CEVd), respectively. Both pathogens produced systemic infections and accumulated large amounts of the intermediary signal molecule gentisic acid as ascertained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled on line with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compound was found mostly in a conjugated (beta-glucoside) form. Gentisic acid has also been found to accumulate (although at lower levels) in cucumber inoculated with low doses of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, producing a nonnecrotic reaction. In contrast, when cucumber was inoculated with high doses of this pathogen, a hypersensitive reaction occurred, but no gentisic-acid signal was induced. This is consistent with our results supporting the idea that gentisic-acid signaling may be restricted to nonnecrotizing reactions of the host plant (Bellés et al. in Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 12:227-235, 1999). In cucumber and Gynura plants, the activity of gentisic acid as inducing signal was different to that of SA, thus confirming the data found for tomato. Exogenously supplied gentisic acid was able to induce peroxidase activity in both Gynura and cucumber plants in a similar way as SA or pathogens. However, gentisic-acid treatments strongly induced polyphenol oxidase activity in cucumber, whereas pathogen infection or SA treatment resulted in a lower induction of this enzyme. Nevertheless, gentisic acid did not induce other defensive proteins which are induced by SA in these plants. This indicates that gentisic acid could act as an additional signal to SA for the activation of plant defenses in cucumber and Gynura plants.

  11. The effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption on cerebral amino acid metabolism and oxidative metabolism during acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Hauerberg, John; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with acute liver failure have a disturbed amino acid metabolism and a compromised oxidative metabolism in the brain. A limited number of clinically neuroprotective interventions are available. This study aimed at assessing the effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA...

  12. Uric acid metabolism in patients with primary gout and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, J M; Puig, J G; Torres, Rosa J; de Miguel, Eugenio; Martínez, Pedro; Vázquez, J J

    2010-06-01

    Forty-four patients (40 males) with a mean age of 58 years were included in this pilot study. Mean serum urate concentration in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS) was 8.8 mg/dL and 8.1 mg/dL, respectively. Urinary uric acid excretion was 543 mg/day/1.73 m(2) in the former and 609 mg/day/1.73 m(2) in the latter. Uric acid to creatinine ratio was 0.37 mg/mg in patients with the MS and 0.42 mg/mg in those without the MS. Mean serum urate increased from 8.6 mg/dL in subjects with three or more MS components to 10.3 mg/dL in those with five MS components. Serum urate was markedly lower in patients with mild MS (9 patients, 8.6 mg/dL) as compared to severe MS (10 patients, 9.2 mg/dL). In contrast, urinary uric acid to creatinine ratio was 0.42 mg/mg in patients with gout and mild MS and 0.33 mg/mg in gout patients with severe MS. Uric acid underexcretion appears to be more severe in gout patients with the MS. This disturbance appears to be related to the severity of the MS.

  13. Good and bad protons: genetic aspects of acidity stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aspects of acidity stress in plants (synonymous with H(+) rhizotoxicity or low-pH stress) have long been a focus of research, in particular with respect to acidic soils where aluminium and H(+) rhizotoxicities often co-occur. However, toxic H(+) and Al(3+) elicit different response mechanisms in plants, and it is important to consider their effects separately. The primary aim of this review was to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of the specific reactions to low-pH stress in growing plants. A comparison of the results gleaned from quantitative trait loci analysis and global transcriptome profiling of plants in response to high proton concentrations revealed a two-stage genetic response: (i) in the short-term, proton pump H(+)-ATPases present the first barrier in root cells, allocating an excess of H(+) into either the apoplast or vacuole; the ensuing defence signaling system involves auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate, which subsequently initiate expression of STOP and DREB transcription factors as well as chaperone ROF; (2) the long-term response includes other genes, such as alternative oxidase and type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, which act to detoxify dangerous reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, and help plants better manage the stress. A range of transporter genes including those for nitrate (NTR1), malate (ALMT1), and heavy metals are often up-regulated by H(+) rhizotoxicity. Expansins, cell-wall-related genes, the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt and biochemical pH-stat genes also reflect changes in cell metabolism and biochemistry in acidic conditions. However, the genetics underlying the acidity stress response of plants is complicated and only fragmentally understood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Citric Acid Metabolism in Resistant Hypertension: Underlying Mechanisms and Metabolic Prediction of Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Martinez, Paula J; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Prado, Jose Carlos; Segura, Julian; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) affects 9% to 12% of hypertensive adults. Prolonged exposure to suboptimal blood pressure control results in end-organ damage and cardiovascular risk. Spironolactone is the most effective drug for treatment, but not all patients respond and side effects are not negligible. Little is known on the mechanisms responsible for RH. We aimed to identify metabolic alterations in urine. In addition, a potential capacity of metabolites to predict response to spironolactone was investigated. Urine was collected from 29 patients with RH and from a group of 13 subjects with pseudo-RH. For patients, samples were collected before and after spironolactone administration and were classified in responders (n=19) and nonresponders (n=10). Nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to identify altered metabolites and pathways. Metabolites were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Citric acid cycle was the pathway most significantly altered (Pcitric acid cycle and deregulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis control continue its activation after hypertension was developed. A metabolic panel showing alteration before spironolactone treatment and predicting future response of patients is shown. These molecular indicators will contribute optimizing the rate of control of RH patients with spironolactone. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  16. Integrating diel starch metabolism with the circadian and environmental regulation of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Griffiths, Howard; Taybi, Tahar; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M

    2003-03-01

    The diel (24-h) Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) cycle in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (L.) requires rhythmic patterns of transitory starch degradation to produce carbon skeletons for phospho enolpyruvate (PEP) synthesis during the nocturnal Phase I, when PEP carboxylase (PEPc) mediates CO(2) fixation. Under a normal light-dark cycle, nocturnal malate accumulation and nocturnal CO(2) uptake were observed for CAM-induced, but not C(3), M. crystallinum. In both C(3) and CAM plants, transcripts encoding beta-amylase and starch phosphorylase accumulated during the afternoon and declined nocturnally. Under a continuous light regime, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity remained co-ordinated with the CAM phases, and circadian abundance patterns were observed for transcripts encoding starch degradative enzymes. Despite circadian PEPc kinase expression, the accumulation of vacuolar malate ceased under continuous light. Exposure to CO(2)-free air for 24 h inhibited starch accumulation over the photoperiod, but re-fixation of respiratory CO(2) resulted in the overnight accumulation of malate to levels comparable to those of control plants. Upon return to normal air, the depleted starch concentration led to stoichiometric decreases in Phase-I CO(2) uptake and malate accumulation. The up-regulation of PEPc kinase transcripts under these conditions was ineffective at sustaining Phase-I CO(2) uptake under starch-limited conditions. We conclude that starch turnover regulates and limits carbon flux through the diel CAM cycle.

  17. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernandez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers.

  18. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid and cobalamin are B-group vitamins that play an essential role in many cellular processes. Deficiency in one or both of these vitamins causes megaloblastic anaemia, a disease characterized by the presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts occur when inhibition of DNA synthesis causes asynchronous maturation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Clinical manifestations are similar to those of other types of anaemia, with the exception of cobalamin deficiency megaloblastic anaemia, which presents distinctive neurological symptoms. An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly of administering supplements to restore body reserves.

  19. Specific plasma amino acid disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomkajło, Marta; Rybka, Jacek; Mierzchała-Pasierb, Magdalena; Gamian, Andrzej; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(-): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were performed. The ability of the BCAA and AAA to discriminate subjects with MS and insulin resistance was tested. Based on logistic discrimination, a multivariate early MS diagnostic model was built, and its discrimination properties were evaluated. Two functionally independent amino acid clusters were identified. BCAA and phenylalanine differed significantly between MS(+) and MS(-) participants (P = 0.003). These factors were also found to be indicators of MS(+) individuals (AUC: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.5757-0.7469), and correlated with cardiometabolic factors. No statistically significant differences in amino acid concentrations between those with and without insulin resistance were noted, and none of the amino groups were indicators of insulin resistance. The proposed MS multivariate diagnostic model consisted of phenylalanine, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and had good discrimination properties [AUC 0.79; 95% CI: 0.7239-0.8646]. MS is associated with selective BCAA and AAA profile disturbances, which could be part of cardiometabolic disease pathogenesis and derive neither directly from insulin sensitivity impairment, nor obesity or muscle mass. The MS diagnostic model developed and described herein should be validated in future studies.

  20. Protein and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoyao.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated chick extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles and, in some experiments, rat skeletal muscles were used to study a number of aspects of protein and amino acid metabolism. (1) Chick EDC muscles synthesize and release large amounts of alanine and glutamine, which indirectly obtain their amino groups from branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). (2) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) decrease (P < 0.01) alanine synthesis and BCAA transamination in EDC muscles from 24-h fasted chicks by decreasing (P < 0.01) intracellular concentrations of pyruvate due to inhibition of glycolysis. (3) Glutamine is extensively degraded in skeletal muscles from both chicks and rats, thus challenging the traditional view that glutamine oxidation is negligible in skeletal muscle. The cytosolic glutamine aminotransferases L and K in the rat and the mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase in the chick play important roles in the conversion of glutamine to {alpha}-ketoglutarate for further oxidation. (4) Although methionine has been reported to be extensively transaminated in rat skeletal muscle preparations in the absence of other amino acids, transamination of methionine is absent or negligible in chick and rat skeletal muscles in the presence of physiological concentrations of amino acids. (5) Glutamine at 1.0-15 mM increases (P < 0.01) protein synthesis ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine incorporation), and at 10.0-15.0 mM decreases (P < 0.05) protein degradation ({sup 3}H-phenylalanine release from prelabelled protein in vivo) in EDC muscles from fed chicks as compared to muscles incubated in the absence of glutamine. (6) Acetoacetate or DL-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (4 mM) has a small but significant inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on the rate of protein synthesis, but has no effect (P > 0.05) on the rate of protein degradation in EDC muscles from fed chicks.

  1. Research and Application of Lipoic Acid in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Renjie; Wang, Xiran; Jiang, Leiyu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-01-01

    Lipoic acid is a kind of small molecular compound with strong oxidizing properties. It has been widely used in medicine and has achieved good results since its discovery. However, it is less used in plants, and the biosynthetic pathway is not clear. The content in the plant is mainly measured by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). At present, it is mainly used as an additive to the culture medium for plant tissue culture and Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation, in order to reduce the browning rate of explants, improve Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation efficiency.

  2. Metabolic capabilities of Actinobacillus succinogenes for succinic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rafieenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention has been focused on microbial succinic acid production as an alternative for conventional chemical synthesis that is associated with environmental pollution. A metabolic model for Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was developed with a mixture of glucose and xylose as substrate. The metabolic fluxes during succinicate production were determined using flux balance analysis by linear programming optimization in the MATLAB environment. Different glucose ratios (0.3, 0.4 and 0.7 mol.mol-1substrate were used as model assumptions to calculate optimal fluxes, maximum growth and succinate production. The model revealed that higher growth rates and product yields were correlated with higher glucose content in the substrate mixture. When glucose constituted 0.5 mol.mol-1 substrate, a lower succinate yield (0.64 mol.mol-1 substrate was obtained, compared to 0.73 mol.mol-1 substrate when glucose was used individually. Deletion of different unessential reactions in the model showed that a knockout of the acetate formation pathway would increase the succinate yield by 21% when glucose and xylose were used in equal molar ratios.

  3. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  4. Light regulation of pyruvate allocation into primary and secondary carbon metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Werner, C.; Wegener, F.; Meyers, K.; Abrell, L.

    2012-12-01

    While plant metabolic processes are known to exert a large influence on climate and air quality through the emission of CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), controls over the allocation of assimilated carbon to these important components of the global carbon cycle are poorly understood. In plants, pyruvate lies at the heart of carbon metabolism by acting as a key product of photosynthesis and glycolysis and as a substrate used in respiratory and secondary biosynthetic pathways (e.g. VOCs). It is now well recognized that light has a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial respiration and recent studies have shown this contributes to an accumulation of pyruvate. However, little is known about the impact(s) this has on biosynthetic processes including VOCs and how the different carbon atoms within pyruvate are utilized. In this study, we quantified diurnal VOC and CO2 fluxes from intact branches of a Mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) under controlled light conditions. In addition, we utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding together with stable isotope analysis to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs and CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. In addition, elevated 13C-VOC emissions were stimulated by pyruvate-2-13C and pyruvate-2,3-13C but not pyruvate-1-13C while the opposite was the case for 13CO2 emissions (respiration). Moreover, we found that in the dark, 13C-VOC emissions dramatically declined while 13CO2 emissions were strongly stimulated. Our observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high pyruvate flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and fatty acid pathways, which are

  5. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated metabolic engineering of γ-aminobutyric acid levels in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Ran; Li, Xindi; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2017-06-22

    In recent years, the type II CRISPR system has become a widely used and robust technique to implement site-directed mutagenesis in a variety of species including model and crop plants. However, few studies manipulated metabolic pathways in plants using the CRISPR system. Here, we introduced the pYLCRISPR/Cas9 system with one or two single-site guide RNAs to target the tomato phytoene desaturase gene. An obvious albino phenotype was observed in T0 regenerated plants, and more than 61% of the desired target sites were edited. Furthermore, we manipulated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in tomatoes using a multiplex pYLCRISPR/Cas9 system that targeted five key genes. Fifty-three genome-edited plants were obtained following single plant transformation, and these samples represented single to quadruple mutants. The GABA accumulation in both the leaves and fruits of genomically edited lines was significantly enhanced, and the GABA content in the leaves of quadruple mutants was 19-fold higher than that in wild-type plants. Our data demonstrate that the multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system can be exploited to precisely edit tomato genomic sequences and effectively create multisite knockout mutations, which could shed new light on plant metabolic engineering regulations. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS PLANT SOURCES IN THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the content of phenolics and rosmarinic acid in 32 species of aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, native to the South Coast of the Crimea. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied species was 490.3 – 18511.0 mg/100g of plant raw materials. Rosmarinic acid was found in 15 species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families. Rosmarinic acid was not noticed in the studied plants from Apiaceae family. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in the studied plants amounted to 40.6 – 2535.5 mg/100g of plant raw materials. On the basis of the obtained results such species as Origanum vulgare L., Majorana hortensis Moench., Mentha longifolia L., Thymus vulgaris L. (thymol type can be considered as a promising source of rosmarinic acid.

  7. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Jensen, Thomas; Solak, Yalcin; Le, Myphuong; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Uric acid, once viewed as an inert metabolic end-product of purine metabolism, has been recently incriminated in a number of chronic disease states, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. Several experimental and clinical studies support a role for uric acid as a contributory causal factor in these conditions. Here we discuss some of the major mechanisms linking uric acid to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. At this time the key to understanding the importance of uric acid in these diseases will be the conduct of large clinical trials in which the effect of lowering uric acid on hard clinical outcomes is assessed. Elevated uric acid may turn out to be one of the more important remediable risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Jensen, Thomas; Solak, Yalcin; Le, Myphuong; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid, once viewed as an inert metabolic end-product of purine metabolism, has been recently incriminated in a number of chronic disease states, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. Several experimental and clinical studies support a role for uric acid as a contributory causal factor in these conditions. Here we discuss some of the major mechanisms linking uric acid to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. At this time the key to understanding the importance of uric acid in these diseases will be the conduct of large clinical trials in which the effect of lowering uric acid on hard clinical outcomes is assessed. Elevated uric acid may turn out to be one of the more important remediable risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26703429

  9. A functional genomics approach toward the understanding of secondary metabolism in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Alain; Häkkinen, Suvi T.; Laakso, Into; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Biondi, Stefania; De Sutter, Valerie; Lammertyn, Freya; Nuutila, Anna Maria; Söderlund, Hans; Zabeau, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2003-01-01

    Despite the tremendous importance of secondary metabolites for humans as for the plant itself, plant secondary metabolism remains poorly characterized. Here, we present an experimental approach, based on functional genomics, to facilitate gene discovery in plant secondary metabolism. Targeted metabolite analysis was combined with cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism-based transcript profiling of jasmonate-elicited tobacco Bright yellow 2 cells. Transcriptome ana...

  10. Acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase influences fertility by regulating lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biogenesis in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenfeng; Shen, Ying; Hao, Juan; Wu, Jianyong; Ke, Liping; Wu, Caiyun; Huang, Kai; Luo, Binglun; Xu, Mingfeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xueping; Sun, Jie; Xing, Chaozhu; Sun, Yuqiang

    2015-07-02

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important economic crop and there is obvious heterosis in cotton, fertility has played an important role in this heterosis. However, the genes that exhibit critical roles in anther development and fertility are not well understood. Here, we report an acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase (EC2.3; GhACNAT) that plays a key role in anther development and fertility. Suppression of GhACNAT by virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic cotton (G. hirsutum L. cv. C312) resulted in indehiscent anthers that were full of pollen, diminished filaments and stamens, and plant sterility. We found GhACNAT was involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The genes differentially expressed in GhACNAT-silenced plants and C312 were mainly involved in catalytic activity and transcription regulator activity in lipid metabolism. In GhACNAT-silenced plants, the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism and jasmonic acid biosynthesis were significantly changed, the amount of JA in leaves and reproductive organs was significantly decreased compared with the amounts in C312. Treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate rescued anther dehiscence and pollen release in GhACNAT-silenced plants and caused self-fertility. The GhACNAT gene may play an important role in controlling cotton fertility by regulating the pathways of lipid synthesis and JA biogenesis.

  11. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Eva [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: eva.stoltz@botan.su.se; Greger, Maria [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativaegen 5, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: maria.greger@botan.su.se

    2006-11-15

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH {approx}3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. - Wetland plant establishment on acidic mine tailings may contribute to a reduced metal release and a stabilisation of pH.

  12. Cadmium-induced changes in the growth and oxidative metabolism of pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalio, L M; Dalurzo, H C; Gómez, M; Romero-Puertas, M C; del Río, L A

    2001-11-01

    The effect of growing pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants with CdCl(2) (0-50 microM) on different plant physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes of leaves was studied in order to know the possible involvement of this metal in the generation of oxidative stress. In roots and leaves of pea plants Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth as well as a reduction in the transpiration and photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content of leaves, and an alteration in the nutrient status in both roots and leaves. The ultrastructural analysis of leaves from plants grown with 50 microM CdCl(2), showed cell disturbances characterized by an increase of mesophyll cell size, and a reduction of intercellular spaces, as well as severe disturbances in chloroplast structure. Alterations in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected, as evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and carbonyl-groups content, as well as a decrease in catalase, SOD and, to a lesser extent, guaiacol peroxidase activities. Glutathione reductase activity did not show significant changes as a result of Cd treatment. A strong reduction of chloroplastic and cytosolic Cu,Zn-SODs by Cd was found, and to a lesser extent of Fe-SOD, while Mn-SOD was only affected by the highest Cd concentrations. Catalase isoenzymes responded differentially, the most acidic isoforms being the most sensitive to Cd treatment. Results obtained suggest that growth of pea plants with CdCl(2) can induce a concentration-dependent oxidative stress situation in leaves, characterized by an accumulation of lipid peroxides and oxidized proteins as a result of the inhibition of the antioxidant systems. These results, together with the ultrastructural data, point to a possible induction of leaf senescence by cadmium.

  13. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum uric acid and appropriate cutoff value for prediction of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Lin; Gao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Xuan; Chang, Hong; Huang, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current "normal" range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or prediction of metabolic syndrome. A total of 7399 Chinese adults (2957 men and 4442 women; ≥20 years) free of metabolic syndrome were followed for 3 years. During the 3-year follow-up, 1190 normouricemic individuals developed metabolic syndrome (16.1%). After adjusting the associated variables, the top quartile of serum uric acid levels was associated with higher metabolic syndrome development compared with the bottom quartile in men (hazard ratio (HR), 1.29; puric acid to identify metabolic syndrome were 6.3 mg/dl in men and 4.9 mg/dl in women. Our results suggested that high baseline serum uric acid levels within the normal range predict future development of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up.

  15. Fatty Acids and NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammation in Metabolic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Jessica C; Lyons, Claire L; Kennedy, Elaine B; Kirwan, Anna M; Roche, Helen M

    2017-08-21

    Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas) through lipotoxicity and inflammatory signaling networks. Importantly, although numerous signaling pathways are known to integrate metabolic and inflammatory processes, the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is now noted to be a key regulator of metabolic inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome can be influenced by various metabolites, including fatty acids. Specifically, although saturated fatty acids may promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have recently been shown to impede NLRP3 activity. Therefore, the NLRP3 inflammasome and associated metabolic inflammation have key roles in the relationships among fatty acids, metabolites, and metabolic disease. This review focuses on the ability of fatty acids to influence inflammation and the NLRP3 inflammasome across numerous metabolic tissues in the body. In addition, we explore some perspectives for the future, wherein recent work in the immunology field clearly demonstrates that metabolic reprogramming defines immune cell functionality. Although there is a paucity of information about how diet and fatty acids modulate this process, it is possible that this will open up a new avenue of research relating to nutrient-sensitive metabolic inflammation.

  16. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Seher; Lee, Lisa S.; Schreuder, Mark; Hoy, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression. PMID:25866768

  17. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Balaban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression.

  18. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Lerin

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D.

  19. Alteration of fatty acid metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, and testis of male mice conceived through assisted reproductive technologies: fatty acid metabolism in ART mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid metabolism plays important roles in the whole process of pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormalities of lipid metabolism in the placentas of pregnancies obtained by assisted reproductive technology (ART. Therefore, we hypothesized that ART micromanipulation may affect lipid metabolism in offspring, and focused on the fatty acid metabolism in ART male offspring in this study. Methods The fatty acid metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue and testis was detected. The comparison between naturally conceived (NC, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI mice was made to analyze the effect of ART on offspring. The mice models in this study included two age groups: adult group and old group. The fatty acid composition and the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were analyzed by GC-MS and qRT-PCR. Results The fatty acid composition in the liver and adipose tissue were significantly altered in ART mice, but no significant difference was found in the testis. In adipose tissue, ART mice showed decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in both adult and old mice, while the alteration of saturated fatty acids (SFAs in the adult disappeared in the old. In liver, the changes were much complex in adult mice, while increased MUFAs and decreased PUFAs were found in ART old mice. The activities of fatty acid metabolism-related enzymes and the expression of lipogenic and lipolytic proteins changed in ART groups, with the adult mice and old mice showing inconsistent alterations. Further analysis indicated that SFAs was closely associated with the alterations of fatty acid metabolism-related enzyme activities and the expression of lipogenic and lipolytic proteins. Furthermore, we also found that the effect of separated ART treatments on fatty acid metabolism varied with different ages and

  20. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher

  1. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Jørgensen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    with induction of genes involved in energy metabolism and uncoupling, Dio2, Pgc-1, and Ucp1, in interscapular brown adipose tissue. Interestingly, the same transcriptional pattern was found in white adipose tissue depots of both abdominal and subcutaneous origin. Accordingly, rats fed SPH-based diet exhibited...... increased whole body energy expenditure and heat dissipation. In skeletal muscle, expressions of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor / target genes (Cpt-1b, Angptl4, Adrp, and Ucp3) were induced. Pharmacological removal of BAs by inclusion of 0.5 weight % cholestyramine to the high fat SPH diet...... attenuated the reduction in abdominal obesity, the reduction in liver TAG, and the decrease in nonfasted plasma TAG and glucose levels. Induction of Ucp3 gene expression in muscle by SPH treatment was completely abolished by cholestyramine inclusion. Taken together, our data provide evidence that bile acid...

  2. 'Trophic' and 'source' amino acids in trophic estimation: a likely metabolic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, T C

    2017-06-01

    Amino acid nitrogen isotopic analysis is a relatively new method for estimating trophic position. It uses the isotopic difference between an individual's 'trophic' and 'source' amino acids to determine its trophic position. So far, there is no accepted explanation for the mechanism by which the isotopic signals in 'trophic' and 'source' amino acids arise. Yet without a metabolic understanding, the utility of nitrogen isotopic analyses as a method for probing trophic relations, at either bulk tissue or amino acid level, is limited. I draw on isotopic tracer studies of protein metabolism, together with a consideration of amino acid metabolic pathways, to suggest that the 'trophic'/'source' groupings have a fundamental metabolic origin, to do with the cycling of amino-nitrogen between amino acids. 'Trophic' amino acids are those whose amino-nitrogens are interchangeable, part of a metabolic amino-nitrogen pool, and 'source' amino acids are those whose amino-nitrogens are not interchangeable with the metabolic pool. Nitrogen isotopic values of 'trophic' amino acids will reflect an averaged isotopic signal of all such dietary amino acids, offset by the integrated effect of isotopic fractionation from nitrogen cycling, and modulated by metabolic and physiological effects. Isotopic values of 'source' amino acids will be more closely linked to those of equivalent dietary amino acids, but also modulated by metabolism and physiology. The complexity of nitrogen cycling suggests that a single identifiable value for 'trophic discrimination factors' is unlikely to exist. Greater consideration of physiology and metabolism should help in better understanding observed patterns in nitrogen isotopic values.

  3. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses...

  4. Metabolic Effects of a Succinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Shakh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses promises for clinical use of substrate antihypoxants.Objective: to investigate the efficacy of succinate containing  substrate  antihypoxants  on  systemic  oxygen  consumption,  blood  buffer  capacity,  and  changes  in  the  mixed venous blood level of lactate when they are used in gravely sick patients and victims with marked metabolic posthypoxic disorders.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 30 patients and victims who had sustained an episode of severe hypoxia of mixed genesis, the severity of which was evaluated by the APACHE II scale and amounted to 23 to 30 scores with a 46 to 70.3% risk of death. The standard infusion program in this group involved the succinate-containing drug 1.5% reamberin solution  in  a  total  dose  of  800  ml.  A  comparison  group  included  15  patients  who  had  undergone  emergency  extensive surgery for abdominal diseases. 400 ml of 10% glucose solution was used as an infusion medium. Oxygen consumption (VO2ml/min and carbon dioxide production (VCO2ml/min were measured before infusion and monitored for 2 hours. Arterial blood gases and acid-base balance (ABB parameters and mixed venous blood lactate levels were examined. Measurements were made before and 30 minutes after the infusion of reamberin or glucose solution.Results. Infusion of 1.5% reamberin solution was followed by a significant increase in minute oxygen consumption from 281.5±21.2 to 310.4±24.4 ml/min. CO2 production declined (on average, from 223.3±6.5 to 206.5±7.59 ml/min. During infusion of 10% glucose solution, all the patients of the comparison group showed a rise in oxygen consumption from 303.6±33.86 to 443.13±32.1 ml/min, i.e. about 1.5-fold. VCO2 changed similarly. The intravenous infusion of 800 ml of 1.5% reamberin solution raised arterial blood buffer capacity, which was reflected by changes in pH, BE, and HCO3. There was a clear trend for lactate values to drop in the

  5. 2009 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function Gordon Research Conference - February 1- 6 ,2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent D. Chapman

    2009-02-06

    The Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism and Function' has been instituted to accelerate research productivity in the field of plant lipids. This conference will facilitate wide dissemination of research breakthroughs, support recruitment of young scientists to the field of plant lipid metabolism and encourage broad participation of the plant lipid community in guiding future directions for research in plant lipids. This conference will build upon the strengths of the successful, previous biannual meetings of the National Plant Lipid Cooperative (www.plantlipids.org) that began in 1993, but will reflect a broader scope of topics to include the biochemistry, cell biology, metabolic regulation, and signaling functions of plant acyl lipids. Most importantly, this conference also will serve as a physical focal point for the interaction of the plant lipid research community. Applications to attend this conference will be open to all researchers interested in plant lipids and will provide a venue for the presentation of the latest research results, networking opportunities for young scientists, and a forum for the development and exchange of useful lipid resources and new ideas. By bringing together senior- and junior-level scientists involved in plant lipid metabolism, a broad range of insights will be shared and the community of plant lipid researchers will function more as a network of vested partners. This is important for the vitality of the research community and for the perceived value that will encourage conference attendance into the future.

  6. 4-Coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids inhibit 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligases and modulate metabolic flux for 3-hydroxylation in monolignol biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Jack P; Li, Quanzi; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Liu, Jie; Loziuk, Philip; Song, Jina; Williams, Cranos; Muddiman, David C; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) can reduce lignin content in a number of plant species. In lignin precursor (monolignol) biosynthesis during stem wood formation in Populus trichocarpa, two enzymes, Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5, catalyze the coenzyme A (CoA) ligation of 4-coumaric acid to 4-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeic acid to caffeoyl-CoA. CoA ligation of 4-coumaric acid is essential for the 3-hydroxylation of 4-coumaroyl shikimic acid. This hydroxylation results from sequential reactions of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimic acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (PtrHCT1 and PtrHCT6) and 4-coumaric acid 3-hydroxylase 3 (PtrC3H3). Alternatively, 3-hydroxylation of 4-coumaric acid to caffeic acid may occur through an enzyme complex of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase 1 and 2 (PtrC4H1 and PtrC4H2) and PtrC3H3. We found that 4-coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids are inhibitors of Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5. 4-Coumaroyl shikimic acid strongly inhibits the formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA. Caffeoyl shikimic acid inhibits only the formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA. 4-Coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids both act as competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors. Metabolic flux in wild-type and PtrC3H3 downregulated P. trichocarpa transgenics has been estimated by absolute protein and metabolite quantification based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, mass action kinetics, and inhibition equations. Inhibition by 4-coumaroyl and caffeoyl shikimic acids may play significant regulatory roles when these inhibitors accumulate. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii) the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii) selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C), SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A) and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A). A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables. The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations. Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Metabolic syndrome, alcohol consumption and genetic factors are associated with serum uric acid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Stibůrková

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals.The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18-65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i demographic, anthropometric and other variables previously reported to be associated with serum uric acid concentrations; (ii the presence of metabolic syndrome and the levels of metabolic syndrome components; and (iii selected genetic variants of the MTHFR (c.665C>T, c.1286A>C, SLC2A9 (c.844G>A, c.881G>A and ABCG2 genes (c.421C>A. A backward model selection procedure was used to build two multiple linear regression models; in the second model, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met replaced the metabolic syndrome-related variables.The models had coefficients of determination of 0.59 and 0.53. The serum uric acid concentration strongly correlated with conventional determinants including male sex, and with metabolic syndrome-related variables. In the simplified second model, the serum uric acid concentration positively correlated with the number of metabolic syndrome criteria that were met, and this model retained the explanatory power of the first model. Moderate wine drinking did not increase serum uric acid concentrations, and the urate transporter ABCG2, unlike MTHFR, was a genetic determinant of serum uric acid concentrations.Metabolic syndrome, moderate wine drinking and the c.421C>A variant in the ABCG gene are independently associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Our model indicates that uric acid should be clinically monitored in persons with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a chlorophyll-deficient tea plant cultivar reveal multiple metabolic pathway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Hongli; Chen, Changsong; Yue, Chuan; Hao, Xinyuan; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2016-01-01

    To uncover the mechanisms that underlie the chlorina phenotype of the tea plant, this study employs morphological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses to compare the green tea cultivar LJ43 and the yellow-leaf tea cultivar ZH1. ZH1 exhibited the chlorina phenotype, with significantly decreased chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast development compared with LJ43. ZH1 also displayed higher theanine and free amino acid content and lower carotenoid and catechin content. Microarray and iTRAQ analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes and proteins could be mapped to the following pathways: 'phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,' 'glutathione metabolism,' 'phenylalanine metabolism,' 'photosynthesis,' and 'flavonoid biosynthesis.' Altered gene and protein levels in these pathways may account for the increased amino acid content and reduced chlorophyll and flavonoid content of ZH1. Altogether, this study combines transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the chlorina phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-09

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops.

  11. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  12. Adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eric S; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2007-08-01

    Arachidonic acid, a precursor to a series of inflammatory mediators, may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We examined the association between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica, a country in which the metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent. The 484 study participants each provided a fasting blood sample and an adipose tissue biopsy that was analyzed for fatty acid composition. Criteria for the metabolic syndrome were those established in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. The data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Subjects with greater adipose tissue arachidonic acid content had an increasing risk of the metabolic syndrome across quintiles: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.00; 1.51 (0.78-2.91); 2.40 (1.26-4.55); 3.50 (1.84-6.66); and 6.01 (3.11-11.61); test for trend, P<0.0001, after adjustment for age, gender and area of residence. Further adjustment for metabolic risk factors, including adipose fatty acids and body mass index, did not significantly modify the result. Adipose tissue arachidonic acid was also independently associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated fasting glucose, and high blood pressure. This study identifies arachidonic acid as an important independent marker of metabolic dysregulation. A better understanding of the role of this fatty acid in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is warranted.

  13. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  14. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  15. Metabolic solutions to the biosynthesis of some diaminomonocarboxylic acids in nature: Formation in cyanobacteria of the neurotoxins 3-N-methyl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (2,4-DAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Peter B; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2017-12-01

    The non-encoded diaminomonocarboxylic acids, 3-N-methyl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (syn: α-amino-β-methylaminopropionic acid, MeDAP; β-N-methylaminoalanine, BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (2,4-DAB), are distributed widely in cyanobacterial species in free and bound forms. Both amino acids are neurotoxic in whole animal and cell-based bioassays. The biosynthetic pathway to 2,4-DAB is well documented in bacteria and in one higher plant species, but has not been confirmed in cyanobacteria. The biosynthetic pathway to BMAA is unknown. This review considers possible metabolic routes, by analogy with reactions used in other species, by which these amino acids might be biosynthesised by cyanobacteria, which are a widespread potential environmental source of these neurotoxins. Where possible, the gene expression that might be implicated in these biosyntheses is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... the medicinal plants like thyme, oregano, savory, peppermint, sage (Lu and Foo, 1999; Kochan et al.,. 1999; Zheng and Wang, 2001). Rosmarinic acid (RA) exhibits various pharmacological activities including prevention of oxidation of low density lipoprotein, inhibition of murine cell proliferative activity and ...

  17. Relationship between plant growth and organic acid exudates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant–mycorrhizal interaction is an important association in the ecosystem with significant impacts on the physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil. In the present study, potential relationships that exist between organic acid production by ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings and plant parameters in the absence of ...

  18. Next-Generation Plant Metabolic Engineering, Inspired by an Ancient Chinese Irrigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rao; Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-08

    Specialized secondary metabolites serve not only to protect plants against abiotic and biotic challenges, but have also been used extensively by humans to combat diseases. Due to the great importance of medicinal plants for health, we need to find new and sustainable ways to improve the production of the specialized metabolites. In addition to direct extraction, recent progress in metabolic engineering of plants offers an alternative supply option. We argue that metabolic engineering for producing the secondary metabolites in plants may have distinct advantages over microbial production platforms, and thus propose new approaches of plant metabolic engineering, which are inspired by an ancient Chinese irrigation system. Metabolic engineering strategies work at three levels: introducing biosynthetic genes, using transcription factors, and improving metabolic flux including increasing the supply of precursors, energy, and reducing power. In addition, recent progress in biotechnology contributes markedly to better engineering, such as the use of specific promoters and the deletion of competing branch pathways. We propose that next-generation plant metabolic engineering will improve current engineering strategies, for the purpose of producing valuable metabolites in plants on industrial scales. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Solak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis patients have increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is a metabolic marker associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Uric acid levels increase in psoriasis as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Chronic plaque psoriasis patients who presented to the dermatology outpatient clinics in a university-affiliated training and research hospital and age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were included in the study. Waist circumference, height and weight measurements in both groups were recorded, and body mass index was calculated. Serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels were determined. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance status were evaluated. The findings were compared statistically. Results: Seventy patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (37 females, 33 males and 60 healthy individuals (31 females, 29 males were included in the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and uric acid levels were found to be higher in the psoriasis group than in control group (p=0.003 and p=0.008, respectively. Serum uric acid levels and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores were higher in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without metabolic syndrome when psoriasis patients were evaluated separately (p=0.041, p=0.024, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between abdominal circumference and serum uric acid levels in psoriasis patients (p=0.003, r=0.350 Conclusion: The results of this study show that uric acid levels are elevated in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was also significantly higher. Hence, patients should be followed up for development

  1. Regulation of lipid metabolism by obeticholic acid in hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Young, Mark; Liu, Xueqing; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2017-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays critical roles in plasma cholesterol metabolism, in particular HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) homeostasis. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a FXR agonist being developed for treating various chronic liver diseases. Previous studies reported inconsistent effects of OCA on regulating plasma cholesterol levels in different animal models and in different patient populations. The mechanisms underlying its divergent effects have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a FXR-modulated gene and the major receptor for HDL-C. We investigated the effects of OCA on hepatic SR-BI expression and correlated such effects with plasma HDL-C levels and hepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters. We demonstrated that OCA induced a time-dependent reduction in serum HDL-C levels after 14 days of treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of liver cholesterol content and increases in fecal cholesterol in OCA-treated hamsters. Importantly, hepatic SR-BI mRNA and protein levels in hamsters were increased to 1.9- and 1.8-fold of control by OCA treatment. Further investigations in normolipidemic hamsters did not reveal OCA-induced changes in serum HDL-C levels or hepatic SR-BI expression. We conclude that OCA reduces plasma HDL-C levels and promotes transhepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters via a mechanism involving upregulation of hepatic SR-BI.

  2. Disturbances of water, electrolyte and acid-base metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    hyperkalaemia. Brain metabolism and the regulation of its volume are impaired, resulting in progressive cen- tral nervous system depression and coma. The anion gap can be calculated as follows:2 .... ing metabolic acidosis, especially in children. Metabolic acidosis ... breathing room air a rise in PaCO2 will cause a fall in ...

  3. The aspartate-family pathway of plants: linking production of essential amino acids with energy and stress regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Gad

    2011-02-01

    The Asp family pathway of plants is highly important from a nutritional standpoint because it leads to the synthesis of the four essential amino acids Lys, Thr, Met and Ile. These amino acids are not synthesized by human and its monogastric livestock and should be supplemented in their diets. Among the Asp-family amino acids, Lys is considered as the nutritionally most important essential amino acid because its level is most limiting in cereal grains, representing the largest source of plant foods and feeds worldwide. Metabolic engineering approaches led to significant increase in Lys level in seeds by enhancing its synthesis and reducing its catabolism. However, results from the model plant Arabidopsis showed that this approach may retard seed germination due to a major negative effect on the levels of a number of TCA cycle metabolites that associate with cellular energy. In the present review, we discuss the regulatory metabolic link of the Asp-family pathway with the TCA cycle and its biological significance upon exposure to stress conditions that cause energy deprivation. In addition, we also discuss how deep understanding of the regulatory metabolic link of the Asp-family pathway with energy and stress regulation can be used to improve Lys level in seeds of important crop species, minimizing the interference with the cellular energy status and plant-stress interaction. This review thus provides an example showing how deep understanding the inter-regulation of metabolism with plant stress physiology can lead to successful nutritional improvements with minimal negative effect on plant growth and response to stressful environments.

  4. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Quantification of Bone Fatty Acid Metabolism and Its Regulation by Adipocyte Lipoprotein Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Koehne, Till; Tödter, Klaus; Reimer, Rudolph; Müller, Brigitte; Behler-Janbeck, Friederike; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger; Niemeier, Andreas

    2017-06-13

    Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance. We show that there are considerable site-specific variations in bone marrow fatty acid composition throughout the skeleton and that, especially in the tibia, marrow fatty acid profiles resemble classical BAT and WAT. Using a mouse model lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a master regulator of plasma lipid turnover specifically in adipocytes, we show that impaired fatty acid flux leads to reduced amounts of dietary essential fatty acids while there was a profound increase in de novo produced fatty acids in both bone marrow and cortical bone. Notably, these changes in fatty acid profiles were not associated with any gross skeletal phenotype. These results identify LPL as an important regulator of fatty acid transport to skeletal compartments and demonstrate an intricate functional link between systemic and skeletal fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  6. Quantification of Bone Fatty Acid Metabolism and Its Regulation by Adipocyte Lipoprotein Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bartelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance. We show that there are considerable site-specific variations in bone marrow fatty acid composition throughout the skeleton and that, especially in the tibia, marrow fatty acid profiles resemble classical BAT and WAT. Using a mouse model lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a master regulator of plasma lipid turnover specifically in adipocytes, we show that impaired fatty acid flux leads to reduced amounts of dietary essential fatty acids while there was a profound increase in de novo produced fatty acids in both bone marrow and cortical bone. Notably, these changes in fatty acid profiles were not associated with any gross skeletal phenotype. These results identify LPL as an important regulator of fatty acid transport to skeletal compartments and demonstrate an intricate functional link between systemic and skeletal fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  7. Intestinal Crosstalk between Bile Acids and Microbiota and Its Impact on Host Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Sayin, Sama I; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids, is pr...... by altered microbiota composition.......The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids......, is produced in the liver from cholesterol and metabolized in the intestine by the gut microbiota. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate numerous metabolic pathways in the host...

  8. Isolation of lactic acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jelena; Yüksel-Dadak, Aytül; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2017-02-20

    Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related. A qualitative multiplex system and a real-time quantitative PCR could be developed for most isolates, realized by the selection of specific primers. Their role in biogas plants was discussed on the basis of the quantitative results and on physiological data of the isolates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Engineering plant metabolism into microbes: from systems biology to synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Bhan, Namita; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2013-04-01

    Plant metabolism represents an enormous repository of compounds that are of pharmaceutical and biotechnological importance. Engineering plant metabolism into microbes will provide sustainable solutions to produce pharmaceutical and fuel molecules that could one day replace substantial portions of the current fossil-fuel based economy. Metabolic engineering entails targeted manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to maximize yields of desired products. Recent advances in Systems Biology and the emergence of Synthetic Biology have accelerated our ability to design, construct and optimize cell factories for metabolic engineering applications. Progress in predicting and modeling genome-scale metabolic networks, versatile gene assembly platforms and delicate synthetic pathway optimization strategies has provided us exciting opportunities to exploit the full potential of cell metabolism. In this review, we will discuss how systems and synthetic biology tools can be integrated to create tailor-made cell factories for efficient production of natural products and fuel molecules in microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

  12. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize plants under low-temperature stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xian-Can; Song, Feng-Bin; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus tortuosum on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism of Zea mays L. grown under low-temperature stress was investigated. Maize plants inoculated or not inoculated with AM fungus were grown in a growth chamber at 258C for 4 weeks...... temperature regimes. AM symbiosis modulated C metabolic enzymes, thereby inducing an accumulation of soluble sugars, which may have contributed to an increased tolerance to low temperature, and therefore higher Pn in maize plants....

  13. An expanding role for purine uptake permease-like transporters in plant secondary metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Jelesko, John G.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, our understanding of the plant purine uptake permease (PUP) transporter family was primarily oriented on purine nucleobase substrates and their tissue-specific expression patterns in Arabidopsis. However, a tobacco PUP-like homolog demonstrating nicotine uptake permease activity was recently shown to affect both nicotine metabolism and root cell growth. These new findings expand the physiological role for PUP-like transporters to include plant secondary metabolism. Molecu...

  14. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: JLiu@kumc.edu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Lu, Yuan-Fu [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003 (China); Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Fan, Fang [Cytopathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  15. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and metabolism of ascorbic acid in pear fruits (Pyrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 1

    2013-04-17

    4048 ... Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway and uronic acid pathway whereas the flesh and core had lower capability for ascorbate synthesis. .... assay is based on the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by ascorbic acid in acidic solution.

  17. Clinical relevance of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nierop, F Samuel; Scheltema, Matthijs J; Eggink, Hannah M

    2017-01-01

    The bile acid receptor TGR5 (also known as GPBAR1) is a promising target for the development of pharmacological interventions in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. TGR5 is expressed in many metabolically active tissues, but complex...... such as weight loss, glucose metabolism, energy expenditure, and suppression of inflammation. However, clinical studies are scarce. We give a summary of key concepts in bile acid metabolism; outline different downstream effects of TGR5 activation; and review available data on TGR5 activation, with a focus...

  18. Uric acid, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis: the chicken or the egg, which comes first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pergola, Giovanni; Cortese, Francesca; Termine, Gaetano; Meliota, Giovanni; Masiello, Michele; Cortese, Anna Maria; Silvestris, Francesco; Caccavo, Domenico; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2018-02-11

    A great debate in literature exists nowadays on the role of uric acid as a marker of cardiovascular and metabolic organ damage or a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. to determine the relationship among serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, by mean of carotid intima media-thickness, in a cohort of 811 otherwise healthy overweight/obese subjects, without overt atherosclerosis not using any kind of drug. Uric acid levels were positively related to male gender, waist circumference, BMI, systolic and diastolic pressure levels, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, the presence of metabolic syndrome and the number of the components of metabolic syndrome and negative related to HDL cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between uric acid and carotid intima media thickness. At the multiple regression analysis, only triglycerides (positively) and HDL-cholesterol (negatively) maintained an independent association with uric acid, while age, female gender and uric acid showed a significant independent association with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the analysis of the odd ratios showed that the risk of developing metabolic syndrome was consistent with uric acid levels ranging from 3 mg/dl to 8 mg/dl. the presence of metabolic syndrome does not seem to provide hyperuricemia. By contrast, higher serum uric acid level may predict the risk of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, our results suggest that uric acid cannot be considered a risk factor for early atherosclerosis, at least when assessed using carotid ultrasound. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Genome-Scale Model of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 for Metabolic Comparison of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastink, M.I.; Teusink, B.; Hols, P.; Visser, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we describe amino acid-metabolism and amino acid-dependency of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 and compare that with two other characterized lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Through the construction of a genome-scale

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was determined using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Results Omega 3 significantly induced metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption, glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification, and metabolic rate compared with control. Both treatments significantly increased mitochondrial content. Conclusion Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment significantly increase mitochondrial content compared with control.

  1. Effects of host plants on digestive enzymatic activities and some components involved in intermediary metabolism of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardani-Talaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper is a serious pest that causes devastating damages in infested areas to many fruits, vegetables, ornamental crops and weeds. In the current study, effects of three host plants including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; corn (Zea mays L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. were determined on digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism of C. chalcites larvae. The highest activities of α-amylase, glucosidases and specific proteases were observed in the larvae fed on dill. Our results showed that C. chalcites larvae had the highest TAG-lipase activity on corn in comparison with other host plants. Significant differences were found among enzymatic activities of acid (ACP and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the haemolymph of C. chalcites larvae reared on lemon balm, corn and dill, respectively, although activity of alanine aminotransferase showed no statistically significant differences among different host plants. The enzymatic activity of ACP significantly decreased on dill in comparison with lemon balm and corn. The activity of LDH significantly increased on dill compared with other host plants. These results revealed that dill (A. graveolens is the most appropriate host plant for larvae of C. chalcites as evidenced by the highest digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Mannheimia succiniciproducens for succinic acid production based on elementary mode analysis with clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Jun; Ahn, Jung Ho; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-02-01

    Mannheimia succiniciproducens, a capnophilic gram-negative rumen bacterium, has been employed for the efficient production of succinic acid. Although M. succiniciproducens metabolism was previously studied using a genome-scale metabolic model, more metabolic characteristics are to be understood. To this end, elementary mode analysis accompanied with clustering ('EMC' analysis) is used to gain further insights on metabolic characteristics of M. succiniciproducens allowing efficient succinic acid production. Elementary modes (EMs) generated from the central carbon metabolic network of M. succiniciproducens are clustered to systematically analyze succinic acid production routes. Based on the results of EMC analysis, zwf gene is identified as a novel overexpression target for the improved succinic acid production. This gene is overexpressed in a previously constructed succinic acid-overproducing M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain. Heterologous NADPH-dependent mdh is later intuitively selected for overexpression to synergistically improve succinic acid production by utilizing abundant NADPH pool mediated by the overexpressed zwf. The LPK7 strains co-expressing mdh alone and both zwf and mdh genes are subjected to fed-batch fermentation to better examine their succinic acid production performances. Strategies of EMC analysis will be useful for further metabolic engineering of M. succiniciproducens and other microorganisms to improve production of succinic acid and other chemicals of interest. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes of children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, H.; Hornstra, G.; de Koning, T. J.; Smeitink, J. A. M.; Bakker, H. D.; de Klerk, H. B. C.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs), and their longer-chain more-unsaturated derivatives (LCPUFAs) in particular, are essential for normal growth and cognitive development during childhood. Children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism represent a risk population for a reduced LCPUFA status because

  4. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes of children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, H.; Hornstra, G.; Koning, T.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Bakker, H.D.; Klerk, H. de; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs), and their longer-chain more-unsaturated derivatives (LCPUFAs) in particular, are essential for normal growth and cognitive development during childhood. Children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism represent a risk population for a reduced LCPUFA status because

  5. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes of children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, H; Hornstra, G; de Koning, T J; Smeitink, J A M; Bakker, H D; de Klerk, H B C; Rubio-Gozalbo, M E

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs), and their longer-chain more-unsaturated derivatives (LCPUFAs) in particular, are essential for normal growth and cognitive development during childhood. Children with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism represent a risk population for a reduced LCPUFA status because

  6. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Engineering of hyaluronic acid (HA) biosynthetic pathway in recombinant Escherichia coli as production host is reported in this work. A hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) gene, sphasA, from Sreptococcus pyogenes with the start codon gtg to atg mutant, was expressed in recombinant E. coli with or without the genes ugd, galF and glmU, which are analogs of hasB, hasC and hasD from Streptococcus, respectively, encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehygrogenase, Glucose-1-P uridyltransferase, and N-acetyl glucosamine uridyltransferase enzymes in the HA biosynthetic pathway. The single, double and triple organized artificial operons of sphasA, ugd, galF and glmU were designed and constructed using the inducible plasmid backbone of pMBAD. Only the triple expression recombinant, Top10/pMBAD-spABC, generated a relatively high titer of HA (approximately 48 mg/l at 48 h), indicating that both of the enzymes encoded by ugd and galF are essential for HA biosynthesis. A new gene of ssehasA with identical protein sequence of seHAS from Streptococcus equisimilis, was artificially synthesized after substituting all of the rare codons in the natural sehasA. The HA titer at 24 h flask culture increased to approximately 190 mg/l in sseAB and 160 mg/l in sseABC, respectively. Sorbitol could be used as another carbon source for HA accumulation, and the metabolic pathway for HA synthesis in a recombinant E. coli was presented. The concentration of Mg(2+) cofactor of HA synthase was optimized and a cell growth inhibition phenomenon was observed during HA accumulation. Molecular weight (MW) measurements revealed that the mean MW of HA produced from the recombinant E. coli under different conditions ranges from approximately 3.5x10(5) to 1.9x10(6)Da, indicating that the recombinant E. coli can be used as a potential host candidate for industrial production of HA.

  7. Detection and formation scenario of citric acid, pyruvic acid, and other possible metabolism precursors in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Reed, Chris; Nguyen, Dang; Carter, Malika; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites deliver a variety of organic compounds to Earth that may have played a role in the origin and/or evolution of biochemical pathways. Some apparently ancient and critical metabolic processes require several compounds, some of which are relatively labile such as keto acids. Therefore, a prebiotic setting for any such individual process would have required either a continuous distant source for the entire suite of intact precursor molecules and/or an energetic and compact local synthesis, particularly of the more fragile members. To date, compounds such as pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid (all members of the citric acid cycle) have not been identified in extraterrestrial sources or, as a group, as part of a “one pot” suite of compounds synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. We have identified these compounds and others in carbonaceous meteorites and/or as low temperature (laboratory) reaction products of pyruvic acid. In meteorites, we observe many as part of three newly reported classes of compounds: keto acids (pyruvic acid and homologs), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (citric acid and homologs), and tricarboxylic acids. Laboratory syntheses using 13C-labeled reactants demonstrate that one compound alone, pyruvic acid, can produce several (nonenzymatic) members of the citric acid cycle including oxaloacetic acid. The isotopic composition of some of the meteoritic keto acids points to interstellar or presolar origins, indicating that such compounds might also exist in other planetary systems. PMID:21825143

  8. Metabolic profiling of a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome discovery cohort reveals disturbances in fatty acid and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Arnaud; Ruppert, David; Levine, Susan M; Hanson, Maureen R

    2017-01-31

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) remains a continuum spectrum disease without biomarkers or simple objective tests, and therefore relies on a diagnosis from a set of symptoms to link the assortment of brain and body disorders to ME/CFS. Although recent studies show various affected pathways, the underlying basis of ME/CFS has yet to be established. In this pilot study, we compare plasma metabolic signatures in a discovery cohort, 17 patients and 15 matched controls, and explore potential metabolic perturbations as the aftermath of the complex interactions between genes, transcripts and proteins. This approach to examine the complex array of symptoms and underlying foundation of ME/CFS revealed 74 differentially accumulating metabolites, out of 361 (P < 0.05), and 35 significantly altered after statistical correction (Q < 0.15). The latter list includes several essential energy-related compounds which could theoretically be linked to the general lack of energy observed in ME/CFS patients. Pathway analysis points to a few pathways with high impact and therefore potential disturbances in patients, mainly taurine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism, combined with primary bile acid metabolism, as well as glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and a few other pathways, all involved broadly in fatty acid metabolism. Purines, including ADP and ATP, pyrimidines and several amino acid metabolic pathways were found to be significantly disturbed. Finally, glucose and oxaloacetate were two main metabolites affected that have a major effect on sugar and energy levels. Our work provides a prospective path for diagnosis and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ME/CFS.

  9. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco; C.O. Ramos-Peñafiel; A. Santoyo-Sánchez; J. Collazo-Jaloma; C. Martínez-Murillo; E. Montaño-Figueroa; A. Sinco-Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    .... An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly...

  10. Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Lipoprotein Metabolism: A Comprehensive Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M.M. Ooi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids.

  11. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-06-09

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability.

  12. Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPARα-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPARα activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPARα activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.

  13. Effects of water turbulence on variations in cell ultrastructure and metabolism of amino acids in the submersed macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapaththu, K S S; Miyagi, A; Atsuzawa, K; Kaneko, Y; Kawai-Yamada, M; Asaeda, T

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between macrophytes and water movement are not yet fully understood, and the causes responsible for the metabolic and ultrastructural variations in plant cells as a consequence of turbulence are largely unknown. In the present study, growth, metabolism and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in the aquatic macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, after exposure to turbulence for 30 days. The turbulence was generated with a vertically oscillating horizontal grid. The turbulence reduced plant growth, plasmolysed leaf cells and strengthened cell walls, and plants exposed to turbulence accumulated starch granules in stem chloroplasts. The size of the starch granules increased with the magnitude of the turbulence. Using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), analysis of the metabolome found metabolite accumulation in response to the turbulence. Asparagine was the dominant amino acid that was concentrated in stressed plants, and organic acids such as citrate, ascorbate, oxalate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) also accumulated in response to turbulence. These results indicate that turbulence caused severe stress that affected plant growth, cell ultrastructure and some metabolic functions of E. nuttallii. Our findings offer insights to explain the effects of water movement on the functions of aquatic plants. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Significance of Microbiota in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases and the Modulatory Potential by Medicinal Plant and Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hoda M.; Wright, Michelle L.; Anil Kumar, N. V.; Qawasmeh, Abdel; Hassan, Sherif T. S.; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Rastrelli, Luca; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term “diabesity.” Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Several mechanisms have been proposed including altered glucose and fatty acid metabolism, hepatic fatty acid storage, and modulation of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Importantly, the relationship between unhealthy diet and a modified gut microbiota composition observed in diabetic or obese subjects has been recognized. Similarly, the role of diet rich in polyphenols and plant polysaccharides in modulating gut bacteria and its impact on diabetes and obesity have been the subject of investigation by several research groups. Gut microbiota are also responsible for the extensive metabolism of polyphenols thus modulating their biological activities. The aim of this review is to shed light on the composition of gut microbes, their health importance and how they can contribute to diseases as well as their modulation by polyphenols and polysaccharides to control obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of microbiota in improving the oral bioavailability of polyphenols and hence in shaping their antidiabetic and antiobesity activities will be discussed. PMID:28713266

  15. Significance of Microbiota in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases and the Modulatory Potential by Medicinal Plant and Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hoda M; Wright, Michelle L; Anil Kumar, N V; Qawasmeh, Abdel; Hassan, Sherif T S; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed M; Rastrelli, Luca; Atanasov, Atanas G; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Several mechanisms have been proposed including altered glucose and fatty acid metabolism, hepatic fatty acid storage, and modulation of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Importantly, the relationship between unhealthy diet and a modified gut microbiota composition observed in diabetic or obese subjects has been recognized. Similarly, the role of diet rich in polyphenols and plant polysaccharides in modulating gut bacteria and its impact on diabetes and obesity have been the subject of investigation by several research groups. Gut microbiota are also responsible for the extensive metabolism of polyphenols thus modulating their biological activities. The aim of this review is to shed light on the composition of gut microbes, their health importance and how they can contribute to diseases as well as their modulation by polyphenols and polysaccharides to control obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of microbiota in improving the oral bioavailability of polyphenols and hence in shaping their antidiabetic and antiobesity activities will be discussed.

  16. Significance of Microbiota in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases and the Modulatory Potential by Medicinal Plant and Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda M. Eid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term “diabesity.” Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Several mechanisms have been proposed including altered glucose and fatty acid metabolism, hepatic fatty acid storage, and modulation of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1. Importantly, the relationship between unhealthy diet and a modified gut microbiota composition observed in diabetic or obese subjects has been recognized. Similarly, the role of diet rich in polyphenols and plant polysaccharides in modulating gut bacteria and its impact on diabetes and obesity have been the subject of investigation by several research groups. Gut microbiota are also responsible for the extensive metabolism of polyphenols thus modulating their biological activities. The aim of this review is to shed light on the composition of gut microbes, their health importance and how they can contribute to diseases as well as their modulation by polyphenols and polysaccharides to control obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of microbiota in improving the oral bioavailability of polyphenols and hence in shaping their antidiabetic and antiobesity activities will be discussed.

  17. Branched chain amino acids requirements and metabolism in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    by increasing SID Leu:Lys in the diet were plasma Phe, α-ketoisovaleric acid, creatine, Ile, 3-methyl-oxovaleric acid, Trp and urinary Ile, glutamate, choline, cytosine, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-[S-(R,R)]-butanoic acid, acetyl-DL-valine, L-2-aminoadipic acid, 2-methylbutyrylglycine, Tyr, and L-ascorbic acid. Among...... the identified metabolites, those that could be linked to the animal growth performance were plasma glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid which were concluded as biomarkers of the optimum dietary Ile level. Plasma creatine, urinary 2-aminoadipic acid, ascorbic acid, and choline were identified as biomarkers......There is an interest to reduce the dietary crude protein (CP) level to promote the gut health of piglets, eliminate the environmental nitrogen load from intensive pig farming, and to reduce diet costs. This is possible by estimating individual amino acid (AA) requirements and by optimizing the diet...

  18. Analysis of cytokinin mutants and regulation of cytokinin metabolic genes reveals important regulatory roles of cytokinins in drought, salt and abscisic acid responses, and abscisic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Fujita, Yasunari; Le, Dung Tien; Kojima, Mikiko; Werner, Tomás; Vankova, Radomira; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Schmülling, Thomas; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2011-06-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant growth and development via a complex network of CK signaling. Here, we perform functional analyses with CK-deficient plants to provide direct evidence that CKs negatively regulate salt and drought stress signaling. All CK-deficient plants with reduced levels of various CKs exhibited a strong stress-tolerant phenotype that was associated with increased cell membrane integrity and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity rather than stomatal density and ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ISOPENTENYL-TRANSFERASE genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive CKs and the majority of the Arabidopsis CYTOKININ OXIDASES/DEHYDROGENASES genes was repressed by stress and ABA treatments, leading to a decrease in biologically active CK contents. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for survival under abiotic stress conditions via the homeostatic regulation of steady state CK levels. Additionally, under normal conditions, although CK deficiency increased the sensitivity of plants to exogenous ABA, it caused a downregulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes, leading to a significant reduction in endogenous ABA levels in CK-deficient plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, this study provides direct evidence that mutual regulation mechanisms exist between the CK and ABA metabolism and signals underlying different processes regulating plant adaptation to stressors as well as plant growth and development.

  19. [Percentage of uric acid calculus and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hong-Heng; An, Geng

    2009-02-15

    To study the percentage of uric acid calculus in uroliths and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley. To analyze the chemical composition of 290 urinary stones by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and study the ratio changes of uric acid calculus. Uric acid calculus patients and healthy people were studied. Personal characteristics, dietary habits were collected. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis and studied the dietary risk factors of uric acid calculus. Patients with uric acid calculus, calcium oxalate and those without urinary calculus were undergone metabolic evaluation analysis. The results of uric acid calculus patients compared to another two groups to analysis the relations between the formation of uric acid calculus and metabolism factors. Uric acid calculi were found in 53 cases (18.3%). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that low daily water intake, eating more salted and animal food, less vegetable were very closely associated with uric acid calculus. Comparing to calcium oxalate patients, the urine volume, the value of pH, urine calcium, urine oxalic acid were lower, but uric acid was higher than it. The value of pH, urine oxalic acid and citric acid were lower than them, but uric acid and urine calcium were higher than none urinary calculus peoples. Blood potassium and magnesium were lower than them. The percentage of uric acid stones had obvious advanced. Less daily water intake, eating salted food, eating more animal food, less vegetables and daily orange juice intake, eating sea food are the mainly dietary risk factors to the formation of uric acid calculus. Urine volume, the value of pH, citric acid, urine calcium, urine uric acid and the blood natrium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, uric acid have significant influence to the information of uric acid stones.

  20. Metabolic engineering to enhance the value of plants as green factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ling; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The promise of plants to serve as the green factories of the future is ever increasing. Plants have been used traditionally for construction, energy, food and feed. Bioactive compounds primarily derived from specialized plant metabolism continue to serve as important scaffold molecules for pharmaceutical drug production. Yet, the past few years have witnessed a growing interest on plants as the ultimate harvesters of carbon and energy from the sun, providing carbohydrate and lipid biofuels that would contribute to balancing atmospheric carbon. How can the metabolic output from plants be increased even further, and what are the bottlenecks? Here, we present what we perceive to be the main opportunities and challenges associated with increasing the efficiency of plants as chemical factories. We offer some perspectives on when it makes sense to use plants as production systems because the amount of biomass needed makes any other system unfeasible. However, there are other instances in which plants serve as great sources of biological catalysts, yet are not necessarily the best-suited systems for production. We also present emerging opportunities for manipulating plant genomes to make plant synthetic biology a reality. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva Figueiredo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism.

  2. Metabolic Profiling with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Carbon-Nitrogen Status of Tobacco Leaves Across Different Planting Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Hu, Chunxiu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Zeng, Jun; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-05

    The interaction between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism can reflect plant growth status and environmental factors. Little is known regarding the connections between C-N metabolism and growing regions under field conditions. To comprehensively investigate the relationship in mature tobacco leaves, we established metabolomics approaches based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). Approximately 240 polar metabolites were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the growing region greatly influenced the metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves. A metabolic correlation network and related pathway maps were used to reveal the global overview of the alteration of C-N metabolism across three typical regions. In Yunnan, sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were closely correlated with amino acid pools. Henan tobacco leaves showed positive correlation between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates and C-rich secondary metabolism. In Guizhou, the proline and asparagine had significant links with TCA cycle intermediates and urea cycle, and antioxidant accumulation was observed in response to drought. These results demonstrate that combined analytical approaches have great potential to detect polar metabolites and provide information on C-N metabolism related to planting regional characteristics.

  3. Knowledge-driven approaches for engineering complex metabolic pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Gemma; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-04-01

    Plant metabolic pathways are complex and often feature multiple levels of regulation. Until recently, metabolic engineering in plants relied on the laborious testing of ad hoc modifications to achieve desirable changes in the metabolic profile. However, technological advances in data mining, modeling, multigene engineering and genome editing are now taking away much of the guesswork by allowing the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this review we discuss recent developments in knowledge-based metabolic engineering strategies, that is the gathering and mining of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data to generate models of metabolic pathways that help to define and refine optimal intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). We created a generic mouse metabolic reaction (MMR) GEM, reconstructed 28 tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data, and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon......, liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism....... Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice....

  6. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  7. Bimodal electricity generation and aromatic compounds removal from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Kamran Foad; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2013-02-01

    Wastewater of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) from a petrochemical plant was examined in a membrane-less single chamber microbial fuel cell for the first time. Time course of voltage during the cell operation cycle had two steady phases, which refers to the fact that metabolism of microorganisms was shifted from highly to less biodegradable carbon sources. The produced power density was 31.8 mW m(-2) (normalized per cathode area) and the calculated coulombic efficiency was 2.05 % for a COD removal of 74 % during 21 days. The total removal rate of different pollutants in the PTA wastewater was observed in the following order: (acetic acid) > (benzoic acid) > (phthalic acid) > (terephthalic acid) > (p-toluic acid). The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the electron transfer mechanism was dominated by mediators which were produced by bacteria.

  8. Interpreting expression data with metabolic flux models: predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Colijn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is central to cell physiology, and metabolic disturbances play a role in numerous disease states. Despite its importance, the ability to study metabolism at a global scale using genomic technologies is limited. In principle, complete genome sequences describe the range of metabolic reactions that are possible for an organism, but cannot quantitatively describe the behaviour of these reactions. We present a novel method for modeling metabolic states using whole cell measurements of gene expression. Our method, which we call E-Flux (as a combination of flux and expression, extends the technique of Flux Balance Analysis by modeling maximum flux constraints as a function of measured gene expression. In contrast to previous methods for metabolically interpreting gene expression data, E-Flux utilizes a model of the underlying metabolic network to directly predict changes in metabolic flux capacity. We applied E-Flux to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB. Key components of mycobacterial cell walls are mycolic acids which are targets for several first-line TB drugs. We used E-Flux to predict the impact of 75 different drugs, drug combinations, and nutrient conditions on mycolic acid biosynthesis capacity in M. tuberculosis, using a public compendium of over 400 expression arrays. We tested our method using a model of mycolic acid biosynthesis as well as on a genome-scale model of M. tuberculosis metabolism. Our method correctly predicts seven of the eight known fatty acid inhibitors in this compendium and makes accurate predictions regarding the specificity of these compounds for fatty acid biosynthesis. Our method also predicts a number of additional potential modulators of TB mycolic acid biosynthesis. E-Flux thus provides a promising new approach for algorithmically predicting metabolic state from gene expression data.

  9. Tissue-based metabolic labeling of polysialic acids in living primary hippocampal neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyungtae Kang; Sunghoon Joo; Ji Yu Choi; Sujeong Geum; Seok-Pyo Hong; Seung-Yeul Lee; Yong Ho Kim; Seong-Min Kim; Myung-Han Yoon; Yoonkey Nam; Kyung-Bok Lee; Hee-Yoon Lee; Insung S. Choi

    2015-01-01

    ... to present N-azidoacetyl sialic acid to PSA-NCAM. Although significant neurotoxicity was observed in the conventional metabolic labeling that used the dissociated neuron cells, neurotoxicity disappeared in this modified strategy, allowing...

  10. Metabolic engineering of Ustilago trichophora TZ1 for improved malic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiemo Zambanini

    2017-06-01

    These results open up a wide range of possibilities for further optimization, especially combinatorial metabolic engineering to increase the flux from pyruvate to malic acid and to reduce by-product formation.

  11. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  12. Oxygen Sensing via the Ethylene Response Transcription Factor RAP2.12 Affects Plant Metabolism and Performance under Both Normoxia and Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Melanie Verena; Iyer, Srignanakshi; Amerhauser, Carmen; Lehmann, Martin; van Dongen, Joost T; Geigenberger, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Subgroup-VII-ethylene-response-factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of hypoxic gene expression and regulated by proteasome-mediated proteolysis via the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway. While research into ERF-VII mainly focused on their role to regulate anoxic gene expression, little is known on the impact of this oxygen-sensing system in regulating plant metabolism and growth. By comparing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing N-end-rule-sensitive and insensitive forms of the ERF-VII-factor RAP2.12, we provide evidence that oxygen-dependent RAP2.12 stability regulates central metabolic processes to sustain growth, development, and anoxic resistance of plants. (1) Under normoxia, overexpression of N-end-rule-insensitive Δ13RAP2.12 led to increased activities of fermentative enzymes and increased accumulation of fermentation products, which were accompanied by decreased adenylate energy states and starch levels, and impaired plant growth and development, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 degradation to prevent aerobic fermentation. (2) In Δ13RAP2.12-overexpressing plants, decreased carbohydrate reserves also led to a decrease in anoxic resistance, which was prevented by external Suc supply. (3) Overexpression of Δ13RAP2.12 led to decreased respiration rates, changes in the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and accumulation of a large number of amino acids, including Ala and γ-amino butyric acid, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 abundance in controlling the flux-modus of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (4) The increase in amino acids was accompanied by increased levels of immune-regulatory metabolites. These results show that oxygen-sensing, mediating RAP2.12 degradation is indispensable to optimize metabolic performance, plant growth, and development under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights

  13. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Edgar P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome, Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Factors Are Associated with Serum Uric Acid Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stibůrková, Blanka; Pavlíková, Markéta; Sokolová, Jitka; Kožich, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, and increased serum uric acid concentrations lead to gout. The objective of the current study was to identify factors that are independently associated with serum uric acid concentrations in a cohort of Czech control individuals. Methods The cohort consisted of 589 healthy subjects aged 18–65 years. We studied the associations between the serum uric acid concentration and the following: (i) demographic, anthropometric and ...

  15. Dietary fatty acids affecting hepatic metabolism and atherosclerosis - mechanisms unravelled using a proteomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, G.; Roos, B. de

    2009-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids play an important role in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. The effects of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism are well described, but additional or alternative mechanisms relating to potential influence on coronary heart disease are not known. This review describes how proteomics techniques have been used to identify proteins that are differentially regulated by dietary fatty acids. Such proteins may reveal pathways by which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hsiu-Ching

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97 higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile. Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03, compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat. For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05. Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan.

  17. [Metabolic pathway and metabolites of total diterpene acid isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Hong-Zhu; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Xu, Man; Guo, Hui; Sun, Shi-Feng; Guo, De-An

    2014-08-01

    The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.

  18. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve, while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve. This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium.

  20. Metabolic changes in Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing chalcone synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dao, Thi Thanh Hien

    2010-01-01

    The study has shown that it is possible to introduce the heterologous CHS gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and common multicopies of transgenes containing plants were obtained. Analysis of the change in metabolome of CHS transgenic plants, high expression transgenic lines can be identified by markers

  1. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for improved fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, N.A.L.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have long been used in industrial dairy and other food fermentations that make use of their metabolic activities leading to products with specific organoleptic properties. Metabolic engineering is a rational approach to steer fermentations toward the production of desired

  2. The role of energy & fatty acid metabolism in obesity and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Mattijs Maria

    2015-01-01

    In today’s world, more people die from complications of overweight than from underweight. But not all individuals are equally prone to develop metabolic complications, such as obesity and insulin resistance. This thesis focuses on the differences in the energy and fatty acid metabolism that play a

  3. Circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, juvenile obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Patryn, Eliza; Bednarz-Misa, Iwona; Mierzchala, Magdalena; Hotowy, Katarzyna; Czapinska, Elzbieta; Kustrzeba-Wojcicka, Irena; Gamian, Andrzej; Noczynska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) links obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and might be targeted in future therapies. Its utility as a MetS biomarker has been suggested in adults but has not been examined in children/adolescents. Our objectives were to identify metabolic parameters

  4. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and ...

  5. Metabolism of Fructophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Apis mellifera L. Bee Gut: Phenolic Acids as External Electron Acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Addante, Rocco; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are strongly associated with the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of Apis mellifera L. worker bees due to the consumption of fructose as a major carbohydrate. Seventy-seven presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from GITs of healthy A. mellifera L. adults, which were collected from 5 different geographical locations of the Apulia region of Italy. Almost all of the isolates showed fructophilic tendencies: these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei (69%) or Fructobacillus fructosus (31%). A high-throughput phenotypic microarray targeting 190 carbon sources was used to determine that 83 compounds were differentially consumed. Phenotyping grouped the strains into two clusters, reflecting growth performance. The utilization of phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, syringic, or gallic acids, as electron acceptors was investigated in fructose-based medium. Almost all FLAB strains showed tolerance to high phenolic acid concentrations. p-Coumaric acid and caffeic acid were consumed by all FLAB strains through reductases or decarboxylases. Syringic and gallic acids were partially metabolized. The data collected suggest that FLAB require external electron acceptors to regenerate NADH. The use of phenolic acids as external electron acceptors by the 4 FLAB showing the highest phenolic acid reductase activity was investigated in glucose-based medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid. Metabolic responses observed through a phenotypic microarray suggested that FLAB may use p-coumaric acid as an external electron acceptor, enhancing glucose dissimilation but less efficiently than other external acceptors such as fructose or pyruvic acid. IMPORTANCE Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) remain to be fully explored. This study intends to link unique biochemical features of FLAB with their habitat. The quite unique FLAB phenome within the group lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may have practical relevance

  6. Physiological and molecular implications of plant polyamine metabolism during biotic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Jiménez Bremont

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During ontogeny, plants interact with a wide variety of microorganisms. The association with mutualistic microbes results in benefits for the plant. By contrast, pathogens may cause a remarkable impairment of plant growth and development. Both types of plant-microbe interactions provoke notable changes in the polyamine (PA metabolism of the host and/or the microbe, being each interaction a complex and dynamic process. It has been well documented that the levels of free and conjugated PAs undergo profound changes in plant tissues during the interaction with microorganisms. In general, this is correlated with a precise and coordinated regulation of PA biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. Interestingly, some evidence suggests that the relative importance of these metabolic pathways may depend on the nature of the microorganism, a concept that stems from the fact that these amines mediate the activation of plant defense mechanisms. This effect is mediated mostly through PA oxidation, even though part of the response is activated by non-oxidized PAs. In the last years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to profile plant gene expression following microorganism recognition. In addition, the phenotypes of transgenic and mutant plants in PA metabolism genes have been assessed. In this review, we integrated the current knowledge on this field and analyze the possible roles of these amines during the interaction of plants with microbes.

  7. Genomic and metabolic disposition of non-obese type 2 diabetic rats to increased myocardial fatty acid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Devanathan

    Full Text Available Lipotoxicity of the heart has been implicated as a leading cause of morbidity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. While numerous reports have demonstrated increased myocardial fatty acid (FA utilization in obese T2DM animal models, this diabetic phenotype has yet to be demonstrated in non-obese animal models of T2DM. Therefore, the present study investigates functional, metabolic, and genomic differences in myocardial FA metabolism in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. The study utilized Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats at the age of 24 weeks. Each rat was imaged with small animal positron emission tomography (PET to estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF and myocardial FA metabolism. Echocardiograms (ECHOs were performed to assess cardiac function. Levels of triglycerides (TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA were measured in both plasma and cardiac tissues. Finally, expression profiles for 168 genes that have been implicated in diabetes and FA metabolism were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR arrays. GK rats exhibited increased NEFA and TG in both plasma and cardiac tissue. Quantitative PET imaging suggests that GK rats have increased FA metabolism. ECHO data indicates that GK rats have a significant increase in left ventricle mass index (LVMI and decrease in peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' compared to Wistar rats, suggesting structural remodeling and impaired diastolic function. Of the 84 genes in each the diabetes and FA metabolism arrays, 17 genes in the diabetes array and 41 genes in the FA metabolism array were significantly up-regulated in GK rats. Our data suggest that GK rats' exhibit increased genomic disposition to FA and TG metabolism independent of obesity.

  8. Chemodiversity in Selaginella: a reference system for parallel and convergent metabolic evolution in terrestrial plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ke eWeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early plants began colonizing the terrestrial earth approximately 450 million years ago. Their success on land has been partially attributed to the evolution of specialized metabolic systems from core metabolic pathways, the former yielding structurally and functionally diverse chemicals to cope with a myriad of biotic and abiotic pressures. Over the past two decades, functional genomics, primarily focused on flowering plants, has begun cataloging the biosynthetic players underpinning assorted classes of plant specialized metabolites. However, the molecular mechanisms enriching specialized metabolic pathways during land plant evolution remain largely unexplored. Selaginella is an extant lycopodiophyte genus representative of an ancient lineage of tracheophytes. Notably, the lycopodiophytes diverged from euphyllophytes over 400 million years ago. The recent completion of the whole-genome sequence of an extant lycopodiophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, provides new genomic and biochemical resources for studying metabolic evolution in vascular plants. 400 million years of independent evolution of lycopodiophytes and euphyllophytes resulted in numerous metabolic traits confined to each lineage. Surprisingly, a cadre of specialized metabolites, generally accepted to be restricted to seed plants, have been identified in Selaginella. Initial work suggested that Selaginella lacks obvious catalytic homologues known to be involved in the biosynthesis of well-studied specialized metabolites in seed plants. Therefore, these initial functional analyses suggest that the same chemical phenotypes arose independently more commonly than anticipated from our conventional understanding of divergent evolution of metabolism. Notably, the emergence of analogous and homologous catalytic machineries through convergent and parallel evolution, respectively, seems to have occurred repeatedly in different plant lineages.

  9. Eucalypt plants are physiologically and metabolically affected by infection with Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Costa; de Oliveira Silva, Franklin Magnum; Milagre, Jocimar Caiafa; Omena-Garcia, Rebeca Patricia; Abreu, Mário Castro; Mafia, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2018-02-01

    Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is currently one of the most important disease in eucalypt plantations. Plants infected by C. fimbriata have lower volumetric growth, lower pulp yields and reduced timber values. The physiological bases of infection induced by this pathogen in eucalypt plant are not known. Therefore, this study aims to assess the physiological and metabolic changes in eucalypt clones that are resistant and susceptible to C. fimbriata. Once, we evaluated in detail their leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, water potential, metabolite profiling and growth-related parameters. When inoculated, the susceptible clone displayed reduced water potential, CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, photochemical quenching coefficient, electron transport rate, and root biomass. Inoculated resistant and susceptible clones both presented higher respiration rates than healthy plants. Many compounds of primary and secondary metabolism were significantly altered after fungal infection in both clones. These results suggest that, C. fimbriata interferes in the primary and secondary metabolism of plants that may be linked to the induction of defense mechanisms and that, due to water restrictions caused by the fungus in susceptible plants, there is a partial closure of the stomata to prevent water loss and a consequent reduction in photosynthesis and the transpiration rate, which in turn, leads to a decrease in the plant's growth-related. These results combined, allowed for a better understanding of the physiological and metabolic changes following the infectious process of C. fimbriata, which limit eucalypt plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between uric acid and metabolic syndrome according to menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Park, Hyun Tae; Cho, Geum Joon; Yi, Kyung Wook; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak; Kim, Young Tae; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2011-06-01

    Uric acid, the levels of which have been shown to increase after menopause, has been associated with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has also been determined to increase after menopause. Therefore, we surmised that menopausal status-specific analyses for the characterisation of the relationship between uric acid and the metabolic syndrome were warranted. We included 1644 patients: 1018 premenopausal women and 626 postmenopausal women, all of whom participated in annual health examinations at Anam Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from January 2008 through December 2008. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, uric acid was identified as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Uric acid levels had different relationships with blood pressure based on menopausal status, however, no such relationships with fasting glucose or age were found. Increased uric acid levels were associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In studies regarding uric acid and metabolic syndrome in women, the effects of menopausal status should be considered.

  11. Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaihua Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented.

  12. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Wang

    Full Text Available Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA. Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development.

  13. Maslinic acid modulates glycogen metabolism by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway and inhibiting glycogen phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xue; Chen, Yu-Peng; Mao, Li-Fei; Shang, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the molecular signaling mechanism by which the plant-derived, pentacyclic triterpene maslinic acid (MA) exerts anti-diabetic effects. HepG2 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of MA. The effects of MA on glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) activity and the cellular glycogen content were measured. Western blot analyses were performed with anti-insulin receptor β (IRβ), protein kinase B (also known as Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) antibodies. Activation status of the insulin pathway was investigated using phospho-IRβ, as well as phospho-Akt, and phospho-GSK3β antibodies. The specific PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin was added to the cells to analyze the Akt expression. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the effect of MA on IRβ auto-phosphorylation. Furthermore, the effect of MA on glycogen metabolism was investigated in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that MA exerts anti-diabetic effects by increasing glycogen content and inhibiting glycogen phosphorylase activity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, MA was shown to induce the phosphorylation level of IRβ-subunit, Akt, and GSK3β. The MA-induced activation of Akt appeared to be specific, since it could be blocked by wortmannin. Finally, MA treatment of mice fed with a high-fat diet reduced the model-associated adiposity and insulin resistance, and increased the accumulated hepatic glycogen content. The results suggested that maslinic acid modulates glycogen metabolism by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway and inhibiting glycogen phosphorylase. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development.

  15. Aristolochic acid-induced destruction of organic ion transporters and fatty acid metabolic disorder in the kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yujie; Li, Jianmei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Xing; Jiao, Ruiqing; Wang, Shuijuan; Kong, Lingdong

    2011-02-25

    Aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy exhibits early proximal tubular injury and fatty acid metabolic disorder. In order to study the unrecognized abnormalities of organic ion transporters and fatty acid metabolism indicators in AA nephropathy, Wistar rats were orally administrated with vehicle, 10 and 20mg/kg AA once daily for 7 days, respectively. At day 8, significant reduction of body weight and right kidney weight, as well as elevation of plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, renal long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) contents were observed in AA-treated rats, accompanying with down-regulation of renal rOAT1/3, rOCT1/2 and rOCTN1/2 expressions. OCTN2 particularly transports l-carnitine through cell membrane. AA treatment also induced a significant decrease of L-carnitine levels in renal cortex of rats. Down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (rPPARα) and carnitine acyltransferase 1 (rCPT1), and up-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1/2 (rACC1/2) in renal cortex were detected in AA-treated rats. These results indicate that alterations of organic ion transportation and fatty acid metabolism are part of AA-induced nephropathy (AAN), contribute to the altered urinary metabolic profile and may lead to further proximal tubule injury in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyaluronic acid metabolism is increased in unstable plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Pieter T.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Goumans, Marie-José; Strijder, Chaylendra; Moll, Frans L.; de Vries, Jean-Paul; Pals, Steven T.; de Kleijn, Dominique P.; Piek, Jan J.; Hoefer, Imo E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Hyaluronic acid is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, but its exact role in atherosclerotic disease remains unknown. As degradation of hyaluronic acid by hyaluronidase into low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) is associated with inflammation and Matrix Metalloproteinase

  17. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism in the eucalyptus globulus-pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza during glucose utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin; Boiffin; Pfeffer

    1998-10-01

    The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose in Pisolithus tinctorius cv Coker & Couch, in uninoculated seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus bicostata ex Maiden cv Kirkp., and in the E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhiza was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In roots of uninoculated seedlings, the 13C label was mainly incorporated into sucrose and glutamine. The ratio (13C3 + 13C2)/13C4 of glutamine was approximately 1.0 during the time-course experiment, indicating equivalent contributions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase to the production of alpha-ketoglutarate used for synthesis of this amino acid. In free-living P. tinctorius, most of the 13C label was incorporated into mannitol, trehalose, glutamine, and alanine, whereas arabitol, erythritol, and glutamate were weakly labeled. Amino acid biosynthesis was an important sink of assimilated 13C (43%), and anaplerotic CO2 fixation contributed 42% of the C flux entering the Krebs cycle. In ectomycorrhizae, sucrose accumulation was decreased in the colonized roots compared with uninoculated control plants, whereas 13C incorporation into arabitol and erythritol was nearly 4-fold higher in the symbiotic mycelium than in the free-living fungus. It appears that fungal utilization of glucose in the symbiotic state is altered and oriented toward the synthesis of short-chain polyols.

  18. Starch degradation in chloroplasts isolated from C3 or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H E; Schulte, N

    1996-09-15

    C3 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants perform nocturnal starch degradation which is linear with time. To analyse the composition of metabolites released by isolated leaf chloroplasts during starch degradation we developed a protocol for the purification of starch-containing plastids. Isolated chloroplasts from C3 or CAM-induced M. crystallinum plants are also able to degrade starch. With respect to the endogenous starch content of isolated plastids the rate of starch degradation in intact leaves. The combined presence of Pi, ATP, and oxaloacetate is identified to be the most positive effector combination to induce starch mobilization. The metabolic flux through the oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway in chloroplasts isolated from CAM-induced M. crystallinum is less than 3.5% compared with other metabolic routes of starch degradation. Here we report that starch-degrading chloroplasts isolated from CAM-induced M. crystallinum plants use exogenously supplied oxaloacetate for the synthesis of malate. The main products of starch degradation exported into the incubation medium by these chloroplasts are glucose 6-phosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glucose. The identification of glucose 6-phosphate as an important metabolite released during starch degradation is in contrast to the observations made on all other types of plastids analysed so far, including chloroplasts isolated from M. crystallinum in the C3 state. Therefore, we analysed the transport properties of isolated chloroplasts from M. crystallinum. Surprisingly, both types of chloroplasts, isolated from either C3 or CAM-induced plants, are able to transport glucose 6-phosphate in counter exchange with endogenous Pi, indicating the presence of a glucose 6-phosphate translocator as recently demonstrated to occur in other types of plastids. The composition of metabolites released and the stimulatory effect of oxaloacetate on the rate of

  19. Lipidomics analysis unravels the effect of nitrogen fertilization on lipid metabolism in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Ya; Burgos, Asdrubal; Ma, Lifeng; Zhang, Qunfeng; Tang, Dandan; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-10-16

    Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in the formation of tea quality-related compounds, like amino acids and flavor/aroma origin compounds. Lipids, which have been reported to be affected by N deficiency, are precursors to the generation of flavor/aroma origin compounds in tea plant. However, there is no literature about the lipid profiles of tea plant affected by N fertilization. Hence, we hypothesize that the biosynthesis of flavor-related compounds in tea was affected by N through its regulation of lipid metabolism. In this study, mature leaves and new shoots of tea plant grown under three N levels at the rates of 0, 285 and 474 kg/ha were applied for ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) based lipidomic analysis. Totally, 178 lipid species were identified. The results showed that the composition of lipid compounds in mature leaves and new shoots varied dramatically, which was also affected by N levels. The higher content of the storage lipid TAG and higher carbon (C)/N ratio in mature leaves than that of new shoots in tea plants grown under low N level (0 kg/ha) suggested that tea plants could remobilize the C stored in TAG to maintain their C/N balance and help to improve the quality of tea. N fertilization resulted in a higher content of the compounds 36:6 MGDG and 36:6 DGDG. Since these compounds contain linolenic acid (18:3), a precursor to the formation of aroma origin compounds, we suggested their increase could contribute to the quality of tea. Taken together, the present work indicated that appropriate application of N fertilizer could balance the lipid metabolism and the formation of flavor/aroma origin compounds, which help to improve the quality of tea. Moreover, excess N fertilization might deteriorate the aroma quality of made tea due to increases of precursors leading to grassy odor.

  20. Branched short-chain fatty acids modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in primary adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Pålbrink, Ann-Ki; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Degerman, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, generated through colonic fermentation of dietary fibers, have been shown to reach the systemic circulation at micromolar concentrations. Moreover, SCFAs have been conferred anti-obesity properties in both animal models and human subjects. Branched SCFAs (BSCFAs), e.g., isobutyric and isovaleric acid, are generated by fermentation of branched amino acids, generated from undigested protein reaching colon. However, BSCFAs have been sparsely investigated when referring to effects on energy metabolism. Here we primarily investigate the effects of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid on glucose and lipid metabolism in primary rat and human adipocytes. BSCFAs inhibited both cAMP-mediated lipolysis and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis at 10 mM, whereas isobutyric acid potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by all concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mM) in rat adipocytes. For human adipocytes, only SCFAs inhibited lipolysis at 10 mM. In both in vitro models, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, a rate limiting enzyme in lipolysis. In addition, BSCFAs and SCFAs, in contrast to insulin, inhibited lipolysis in the presence of wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor and OPC3911, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor in rat adipocytes. Furthermore, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. To conclude, BSCFAs have effects on adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism that can contribute to improved insulin sensitivity in individuals with disturbed metabolism.

  1. Metabolic and intestinal effects of short-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Kripke, S A

    1990-01-01

    Current research has identified the metabolic and intestinal effects of SCFA in experimental models and humans. Ample physiologic rationale has come forth to justify controlled studies of the administration of SCFA in selected patients with intestinal dysfunction.

  2. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  3. Phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D promotes RNA replication of a plant RNA virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu Hyodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids, but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV. We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate.

  4. Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Klessig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs, as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, High Mobility Group Box protein (HMGB and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions, but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms.

  5. 2005 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference - July 10-15, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleanore T. Wurtzel

    2006-06-30

    The post-genomic era presents new opportunities for manipulating plant chemistry for improvement of plant traits such as disease and stress resistance and nutritional qualities. This conference will provide a setting for developing multidisciplinary collaborations needed to unravel the dynamic complexity of plant metabolic networks and advance basic and applied research in plant metabolic engineering. The conference will integrate recent advances in genomics, with metabolite and gene expression analyses. Research discussions will explore how biosynthetic pathways interact with regard to substrate competition and channeling, plasticity of biosynthetic enzymes, and investigate the localization, structure, and assembly of biosynthetic metabolons in native and nonnative environments. The meeting will develop new perspectives for plant transgenic research with regard to how transgene expression may influence cellular metabolism. Incorporation of spectroscopic approaches for metabolic profiling and flux analysis combined with mathematical modeling will contribute to the development of rational metabolic engineering strategies and lead to the development of new tools to assess temporal and subcellular changes in metabolite pools. The conference will also highlight new technologies for pathway engineering, including use of heterologous systems, directed enzyme evolution, engineering of transcription factors and application of molecular/genetic techniques for controlling biosynthetic pathways.

  6. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of humic acids and their complexes with iron on the functional status of plants grown under iron deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abros'kin, D. P.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia-Mina, J. M.; Klyain, O. I.; Senik, S. V.; Volkov, D. S.; Perminova, I. V.; Kulikova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of humic acids (HAs) and their iron complexes (Fe-HAs) on the input of the main mineral elements into wheat seedlings, as well as on the efficiency of photosynthesis and the lipid profile of plants, under iron deficiency has been studied. The input of iron from Fe-HA complexes and its predominant accumulation in roots are demonstrated. It is found that HAs increase the efficiency of photosynthesis due to enhanced electron transport in photosystem II. It is shown that the application of HAs and Fe-HAs is accompanied by an enhanced input of Zn into plants, which could increase the antioxidant status of plants under iron deficiency conditions. In addition, a pronounced increase in the content of lipids in plants is revealed, which is indicative of the effect of HAs on plant metabolism. The obtained results suggest that the positive effect of Fe-HAs and HAs on plants under iron deficiency conditions is due to a combination of factors, among which the effect of HAs on the antioxidant status of plants and the plant lipid metabolism predominates.

  8. The effect of fluid mechanical stress on cellular arachidonic acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Rhee, B. G.; Eskin, S. G.; Hall, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of sublytic levels of mechanical perturations of cells on cell metabolism were investigated by analyzing the products of arachidonic acid (used as a marker metabolite) in blood platelets, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and cultured umbilical-vein endothelial cells after the suspensions of these cells were subjected to a shear stress in a modified viscometer. It is shown that the sublytic levels of mechanical stress stimulated the arachidonic acid metabolism in all these cell types. Possible biological implications of this stress-metabolism coupling are discussed.

  9. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Hellen Abreu; Carraro, J?lia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), a...

  10. Gibberellic acid in plant: still a mystery unresolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

    2013-09-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant's growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production.

  11. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Aspects of astrocyte energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitter homoeostasis and metabolic compartmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreft, Marko; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are key players in brain function; they are intimately involved in neuronal signalling processes and their metabolism is tightly coupled to that of neurons. In the present review, we will be concerned with a discussion of aspects of astrocyte metabolism, including energy...

  13. Zonation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the liver : Mechanism and metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, Brenda S.; Greffiorst, Aldo; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Groen, Albert K.

    The liver is generally considered as a relatively homogeneous organ containing four different cell types. It is however well-known that the liver is not homogeneous and consists of clearly demarcated metabolic zones. Hepatocytes from different zones show phenotypical heterogeneity in metabolic

  14. Fatty acid metabolism and metabolic inflammation : two important players in the development of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene Olga Cornelia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a multi-component condition that includes obesity hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising world-wide and is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the

  15. Characterization of the metabolic interaction between trihalomethanes and chloroacetic acids using rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Annie; Krishnan, Kannan; Tardif, Robert

    2005-02-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloracetic acid (DCA), monochloroacetic acid (MCA), and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) using liver microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using the vial equilibration technique, initial experiments were carried out with starting concentrations of approximately 40 ppm THMs and 12-22 mM chloroacetic acids. The results indicated a mutual metabolic inhibition between THMs present as binary or quaternary mixtures. Although DCA and MCA had no influence on THMs, TCA produced a marked inhibition of the metabolism of all THMs: chloroform (CHCl3) (55%), bromodichloromethane (BDCM) (34%), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) (30%), and bromoform (TBM) (23%). The presence of 4-MP also reduced THM metabolism, the importance of which decreased in the following order: CHCl3 > BDCM > DBCM = TBM. In further vial equilibration experiments, using 9-140 ppm as starting concentrations of THMs, enzyme kinetic parameters (i.e., Michaelis constant, K(m), and maximum velocity, V(max)) were determined both in the absence and in the presence of TCA (12.2 mM). Results are consistent with a competitive inhibition between TCA and CHCl3, whereas the metabolic inhibition of BDCM and TMB by TCA was non-competitive. As for DBCM, results suggest a more complex pattern of inhibition. These results suggest that CYP2E1 is involved in the metabolism of THMs as well as in the metabolic interaction between THMs and TCA.

  16. Taximin, a conserved plant-specific peptide is involved in the modulation of plant-specialized metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onrubia, Miriam; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Goethals, Marc; Gevaert, Kris; Moyano, Elisabet; Vidal-Limon, Heriberto; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazón, Javier; Goossens, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Small peptides play important roles in the signalling cascades that steer plant growth, development and defence, and often crosstalk with hormonal signalling. Thereby, they also modulate metabolism, including the production of bioactive molecules that are of high interest for human applications. Yew species (Taxus spp.) produce diterpenes such as the powerful anticancer agent paclitaxel, the biosynthesis of which can be stimulated by the hormone jasmonate, both in whole plants and cell suspension cultures. Here, we identified Taximin, as a gene encoding a hitherto unreported, plant-specific, small, cysteine-rich signalling peptide, through a transcriptome survey of jasmonate-elicited T. baccata suspension cells grown in two-media cultures. Taximin expression increased in a coordinated manner with that of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes. Tagged Taximin peptides were shown to enter the secretory system and localize to the plasma membrane. In agreement with this, the exogenous application of synthetic Taximin peptide variants could transiently modulate the biosynthesis of taxanes in T. baccata cell suspension cultures. Importantly, the Taximin peptide is widely conserved in the higher plant kingdom with a high degree of sequence conservation. Accordingly, Taximin overexpression could stimulate the production of nicotinic alkaloids in Nicotiana tabacum hairy root cultures in a synergistic manner with jasmonates. In contrast, no pronounced effects of Taximin overexpression on the specialized metabolism in Medicago truncatula roots were observed. This study increases our understanding of the regulation of Taxus diterpene biosynthesis in particular and plant metabolism in general. Ultimately, Taximin might increase the practical potential of metabolic engineering of medicinal plants. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  18. Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fontana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein-restricted (PR, high-carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Furthermore, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderate PR diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet.

  19. Metabolic fate of oleic acid derived from lysosomal degradation of cholesteryl oleate in human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, J. E.; Bax, W.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein cholesteryl [14C]oleate (LDL-[14C]CO) was used as a tool to label lysosomes with cholesteryl [14C]oleate (CO) and to follow subsequently the metabolic processing of oleic acid released by acid lipase. Liberated [14C]oleate was incorporated into glycerolipids, mainly into

  20. Impact of metabolism and growth phase on the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, S.M.; Villanueva, Laura; Sinke-Schoen, Daniëlle; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07401370X; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Van der Meer, Marcel T J

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in all elemental cycles and therefore it is important to study their metabolism in the natural environment. A recent technique to investigate this is the hydrogen isotopic composition of microbial fatty acids, i.e., heterotrophic microorganisms produce fatty acids

  1. Bile acids modulate glucocorticoid metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obstructive jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Macfarlane, David P; O'Flaherty, Emmett

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5bet...

  2. Metabolic switching of human myotubes is improved by n-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessvik, N.P.; Bakke, S.S.; Fredriksson, K.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fjorkenstad, A.; Koster, G.; Hesselink, M.K.; Kersten, A.H.; Kase, E.T.; Rustan, A.C.; Thoresen, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether pretreatment with different fatty acids, as well as the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317, could modify metabolic switching of human myotubes. The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased suppressibility, the ability of glucose to

  3. Role of Scalar Protons in Metabolic Energy Generation in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, J.S.; Poolman, B.; Konings, W.N.

    Lactic acid bacteria are able to generate a protonmotive force across the cytoplasmic membrane by various metabolic conversions without involvement of substrate level phosphorylation or proton pump activity. Weak acids like malate and citrate are taken up in an electrogenic process in which net

  4. Metabolic Effects of Bile Acids in the Gut in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesjes, Marije; Brufau Dones, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, it became clear that bile acids, in addition to their role in intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, are major regulators of metabolism. They activate signal transduction pathways through binding to the specific bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Indirectly,

  5. Weight loss is associated with plasma free amino acid alterations in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, O; Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Yoshida, H; Kageyama, N; Miyano, H

    2016-02-29

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, especially in Asian populations. Early detection and effective intervention are vital. Plasma free amino acid profile is a potential biomarker for the early detection for lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about whether the altered plasma free amino acid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome are related to the effectiveness of dietary and exercise interventions. Eighty-five Japanese subjects who fulfilled the Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were enrolled in a 3-month diet and exercise intervention. The plasma free amino acid concentrations and metabolic variables were measured, and the relationships between plasma free amino acid profiles, metabolic variables and the extent of body weight reduction were investigated. Those who lost more than 3% of body weight were compared with those who lost less than 3%. Baseline levels of most amino acids in the subset that went on to lose weight were markedly lower compared with the counterpart, although both groups showed similar proportional pattern of plasma amino acid profiles. The weight loss induced by the diet and exercise intervention normalized plasma free amino acid profiles. For those with a high degree of weight loss, those changes were also associated with improvement in blood pressure, triglyceride and hemoglobin A1c levels. These data suggest that among Japanese adults meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome, baseline plasma free amino acid profiles may differ in ways that predict who will be more vs less beneficially responsive to a standard diet and exercise program. Plasma free amino acid profiles may also be useful as markers for monitoring the risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases and measuring improvement in physiological states.

  6. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  7. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on plasma oxysterols and fatty acids in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Zerbinati, Chiara; Pacelli, Antonio; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Lubrano, Carla; Ducheix, Simon; Guillou, Hervé; Iuliano, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and the related entity metabolic syndrome are characterized by altered lipid metabolism and associated with increased morbidity risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxysterols belong to a large family of cholesterol-derived molecules known to play crucial role in many signaling pathways underlying several diseases. Little is known on the potential effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on oxysterols in human. In this work, we questioned whether circulating oxysterols might be significantly altered in obese patients and in patients with metabolic syndrome. We also tested the potential correlation between circulating oxysterols and fatty acids. 60 obese patients and 75 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study along with 210 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, used as control group. Plasma oxysterols were analyzed by isotope dilution GC/MS, and plasma fatty acids profiling was assessed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection. We found considerable differences in oxysterols profiling in the two disease groups that were gender-related. Compared to controls, males showed significant differences only in 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol levels in obese and metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, females showed consistent differences in 7-oxocholesterol, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and triol. Concerning fatty acids, we found minor differences in the levels of these variables in males of the three groups. Significant changes were observed in plasma fatty acid profile of female patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We found significant correlations between various oxysterols and fatty acids. In particular, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, which is reduced in obesity and metabolic syndrome, correlated with a number of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are end-products of de novo lipogenesis. Our data provide the first evidence that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with

  8. Salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in Catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neelam; Misra, Rahul; Mariam, Ajiboye; Yusuf, Kafayat; Yusuf, Lateefat

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed Catharanthus roseus were investigated. Catharanthus roseus seeds were grown for two months in a glass house at 27-30°C in sunlight, and then divided into four different groups and transplanted with each group with the following solutions for one month: group I (non-saline control), group II, 100 mM NaCl, group III, 0.05 mM SA, group IV, 100 mM NaCl+0.05 mM SA and to determine the physiological parameters (DW, FW, WC), chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, lipid peroxidation, phenolics, lignin, alkaloid and enzymatic assays in each leaf pairs and roots. SA exhibited growth-promoting property, which correlated with the increase of dry weight, water content, photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. SA has additive effect on the significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics and lignin contents in all leaf pairs and root of C. roseus. SA enhances malondialdehyde content in all leaf pairs and root. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-tranferase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) as well as alkaloid accumulation increased in all treatments over that of non-saline control but the magnitude of increase was found more in root. Further, the magnitude of increase of alkaloid accumulation was significantly higher in 100 mM NaCl, but highly significant was found in presence of 0.05 mM SA and intermediate in presence of both 0.05 mM SA+100 mM NaCl. We concluded that applied SA to salt stress, antioxidant and phenolic metabolism, and alkaloid accumulation were significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied

  9. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  10. Beyond intestinal soap-bile acids in metabolic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Folkert; Bloks, Vincent W.; Groen, Albert K.

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that bile acids are involved in a host of activities beyond their classic functions in bile formation and fat absorption. The identification of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a nuclear receptor directly activated by bile acids and the discovery that

  11. Physiological and biochemical studies of bacterial amino acid amide metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Hubertus Franciscus Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids represent a class of versatile chiral building blocks for a whole range of fine chemicals, used in the pharmaceutical and agro-chemical industry. Considerable experience currently is available with a wide variety of chemo-enzymatic processes for the synthesis of amino acids, which is

  12. Polymorphisms in fatty acid metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeft, B.; Linseisen, J.; Beckmann, L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes...... as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred...... variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk....

  13. Organochloride pesticides modulated gut microbiota and influenced bile acid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Qihan; Liu, Hui; Sun, Haidong; Jiang, Zhaoyan; Gu, Aihua

    2017-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can persistently accumulate in body and threaten human health. Bile acids and intestinal microbial metabolism have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host. However, knowledge on which intestinal microbiota and bile acids are modified by OCPs remains unclear. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE) and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) for 8 weeks. The relative abundance and composition of various bacterial species were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bile acid composition was analyzed by metabolomic analysis using UPLC-MS. The expression of genes involved in hepatic and enteric bile acids metabolism was measured by real-time PCR. Expression of genes in bile acids synthesis and transportation were measured in HepG2 cells incubated with p, p'-DDE and β-HCH. Our findings showed OCPs changed relative abundance and composition of intestinal microbiota, especially in enhanced Lactobacillus with bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. OCPs affected bile acid composition, enhanced hydrophobicity, decreased expression of genes on bile acid reabsorption in the terminal ileum and compensatory increased expression of genes on synthesis of bile acids in the liver. We demonstrated that chronic exposure of OCPs could impair intestinal microbiota; as a result, hepatic and enteric bile acid profiles and metabolism were influenced. The findings in this study draw our attention to the hazards of chronic OCPs exposure in modulating bile acid metabolism that might cause metabolic disorders and their potential to cause related diseases in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavonoids: a metabolic network mediating plants adaptation to their real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradov, Aidyn; Spangenberg, German

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth's terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  15. Flavonoids: A Metabolic Network Mediating Plants Adaptation to Their Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidyn eMouradov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From an evolutionary perspective, the emergence of the sophisticated chemical scaffolds of flavonoid molecules represents a key step in the colonization of Earth’s terrestrial environment by vascular plants nearly 500 million years ago. The subsequent evolution of flavonoids through recruitment and modification of ancestors involved in primary metabolism has allowed vascular plants to cope with pathogen invasion and damaging UV light. The functional properties of flavonoids as a unique combination of different classes of compounds vary significantly depending on the demands of their local real estate. Apart from geographical location, the composition of flavonoids is largely dependent on the plant species, their developmental stage, tissue type, subcellular localization, and key ecological influences of both biotic and abiotic origin. Molecular and metabolic cross-talk between flavonoid and other pathways as a result of the re-direction of intermediate molecules have been well investigated. This metabolic plasticity is a key factor in plant adaptive strength and is of paramount importance for early land plants adaptation to their local ecosystems. In human and animal health the biological and pharmacological activities of flavonoids have been investigated in great depth and have shown a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. In this paper we review the application of advanced gene technologies for targeted reprogramming of the flavonoid pathway in plants to understand its molecular functions and explore opportunities for major improvements in forage plants enhancing animal health and production.

  16. Regulation of genes related to cholesterol metabolism in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfei; Corraze, Geneviève; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    When compared with fish meal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in their protein content and amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1 g body wt for 6 mo with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M), and a marine-restricted diet (MR), with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, esterification, excretion, bile acid synthesis, and cholesterol efflux was measured in liver. Results showed that genes involved in cholesterol synthesis were upregulated in trout fed the V diet, whereas expression of genes related to bile acid synthesis ( cyp7a1) and cholesterol elimination ( abcg8) were reduced. Feeding trout the V diet also enhanced the expression of srebp-2 while reducing that of lxrα and miR-223. Overall, these data suggested that rainbow trout coped with the altered nutritional characteristics and absence of dietary cholesterol supply by increasing cholesterol synthesis and limiting cholesterol efflux through molecular mechanisms involving at least srebp-2, lxrα, and miR-223. However, plasma and body cholesterol levels in trout fed the V diet were lower than in fish fed the M diet, raising the question of the role of cholesterol in the negative effect of plant-based diet on growth.

  17. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catecholase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and oth...

  18. Influence of valine deprivation and its reversal on fatty acid metabolism in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, J R; Campbell, I M; Vaughan, M H

    1976-05-27

    The effects that amino acid starvation and re-supplementation have on fatty acid metabolism in HeLa cells have been studied using radio gas chromatographic techniques. Deprivation of valine for 13.5 h caused fatty acid de novo biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation to cease. This effect was reversed within 5 h by adding valine back to the culture. During deprivation accumulation of triacylglycerol occurred. The return of valine to the culture caused compositional changes in the triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines.

  19. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Lassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Metabollic Engineering of Saccharomyces Cereviae a,omi acid metabolism for production of products of industrial interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in microbial production of chemicals, metabolites and proteins, mainly because genetic manipulation of S. cerevisiae is relatively easy and experiences from its wide application in the existing industrial fermentations directly benefit new S. cerevisiae......, by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in S. cerevisiae, the isobutanol yield was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose in anaerobic fermentation in mineral medium. Isobutanol yield was further improved by two times by the additional overexpression......-based processes. This study has focused on metabolic engineering of the amino acid metabolism in S. cerevisiae for production of two types of chemicals of industrial interest. The first chemical is δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)–L-cysteinyl–D-valine (LLD-ACV). ACV belongs to non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), which...

  2. Dietary protein, physiological condition and metabolic amino acid utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigated effects of the level of dietary protein intake and the physiological condition of the animal on the percental oxidation of leucine. This measure reflects which part of the free leucine pool was used for protein and energy metabolism. The employed

  3. Combined Metabolomic and Correlation Networks Analyses Reveal Fumarase Insufficiency Altered Amino Acids Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Entai; Li, Xian; Liu, Zerong; Zhang, Fuchang; Tian, Zhongmin

    2017-11-11

    Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and L-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased level of fumarate and decreased level of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles that induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC-MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient HUVEC cells and negative controls. A total of 24 altered metabolites involved in 7 metabolic pathways were identified as significantly altered, and enriched for the biological module of amino acids metabolism. In addition, Pearson correlation network analysis revealed that fumaric acid, L-malic acid, L-aspartic acid, glycine and L-glutamic acid were hub metabolites according to Pagerank based on their three centrality indices. ALT and GDH activities increased significantly in fumarase deficiency HUVEC cells. These results confirmed that fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism. The combination of metabolomics and network methods would provide another perspective on expounding the molecular mechanism at metabolomics level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lun Sun

    Full Text Available The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively, a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05. However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05. The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  5. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; puric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; puric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  6. Conservation of the basic pattern of cellular amino acid composition during biological evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, K; Okayasu, T; Akimoto, K; Niwa, A

    2000-01-01

    The cellular amino acid composition of plant cells was analyzed. The callus of carrot (Daucus carota), leaves of Torenia fournieri and protocomb-like body of Cymbidium, s.p. were examined as examples of plant cells. The cellular amino acid compositions differed in the plant cells, but their basic patterns were quite similar. It is concluded that the basic pattern of the cellular amino acid composition is conserved in all terrestrial organisms, including plants.

  7. Engineering microbial fatty acid metabolism for biofuels and biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marella, Eko Roy; Holkenbrink, Carina; Siewers, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Traditional oleochemical industry chemically processes animal fats and plant oils to produce detergents, lubricants, biodiesel, plastics, coatings, and other products. Biotechnology offers an alternative process, where the same oleochemicals can be produced from abundant biomass feedstocks using ...

  8. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  9. Effects of humic acids from landfill leachate on plants: An integrated approach using chemical, biochemical and cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina Marques; Souza, Iara da Costa; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Duarte, Ian Drumond; Martins, Ian Oliveira; Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Carneiro, Maria Tereza Weitzel Dias; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie

    2017-10-01

    Biological process treatment of landfill leachate produces a significant amount of sludge, characterized by high levels of organic matter from which humic acids are known to activate several enzymes of energy metabolism, stimulating plant growth. This study aimed to characterize humic acids extracted from landfill sludge and assess the effects on plants exposed to different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM C L-1) by chemical and biological analysis, to elucidate the influence of such organic material and minimize potential risks of using sludge in natura. Landfill humic acids showed high carbon and nitrogen levels, which may represent an important source of nutrients for plants. Biochemical analysis demonstrated an increase of enzyme activity, especially H+-ATPase in 2 mM C L-1 landfill humic acid. Additionally, cytogenetic alterations were observed in meristematic and F1 cells, through nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei. Multivariate statistical analysis provided integration of physical, chemical and biological data. Despite all the nutritional benefits of humic acids and their activation of plant antioxidant systems, the observed biological effects showed concerning levels of mutagenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive association between metabolic syndrome and serum uric acid in Wuhan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine whether serum uric acid concentrations were associated with metabolic syndrome in a population from Wuhan. 5,628 subjects (2,838 men, 2,790 women) aged 18-80 years were recruited in Wuhan, China. Biochemical parameters of venous blood were measured by standard methods and metabolic syndrome was defined by Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression. 8.2% of the included subjects were confirmed as having metabolic syndrome and 14.4% were confirmed as having hyperuricemia. After multivariable adjustment, logistic regression showed the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentration was 2.84 (95% CI: 2.09-3.86) compared with those in the lowest quartile and no gender difference was found. For each component of metabolic syndrome, subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentrations had increased multivariable odds ratios for high BMI (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.71-3.98), for hypertension (OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.93-3.86), for dyslipidemia (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.98-3.14), but not for hyperglycemia (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.87-1.67). Odd ratio of metabolic syndrome was significantly positively associated with serum uric acid concentration among the present sample of 5,628 subjects in Wuhan.

  11. PREVALENCE OF HYPERURICAEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SERUM URIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakassh Sreedharan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to International Diabetes Federation, the risk factor associated with metabolic syndrome are central obesity, hypertension, increased fasting glucose, triglyceride level and decreased HDL. Recent studies also found that hyperuricaemia is also associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease related morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences with an objective to find the prevalence of hyperuricaemia among patients with metabolic syndrome and also to find the association of risk factor of metabolic syndrome with serum uric acid level. MATERIALS AND METHODS 103 patients (49 males and 54 females who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Detailed medical history and physical examination including height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were recorded. Five millilitre of fasting blood sample was taken for lipid profile, serum uric acid and fasting blood glucose. Chi-square test was done to find out the association between metabolic syndrome and risk factors of hyperuricaemia with ‘p’ value of 0.05. Exercise had negative influence on uric acid level in both gender, 41% less in males and 14% less in females. Diet also had positive influence on uric acid levels in both male and female. CONCLUSION The prevalence of hyperuricaemia among males is higher than females. The risk factors of metabolic syndrome like obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol level are associated with hyperuricaemia.

  12. Systematic analysis of stability patterns in plant primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Girbig

    Full Text Available Metabolic networks are characterized by complex interactions and regulatory mechanisms between many individual components. These interactions determine whether a steady state is stable to perturbations. Structural kinetic modeling (SKM is a framework to analyze the stability of metabolic steady states that allows the study of the system Jacobian without requiring detailed knowledge about individual rate equations. Stability criteria can be derived by generating a large number of structural kinetic models (SK-models with randomly sampled parameter sets and evaluating the resulting Jacobian matrices. Until now, SKM experiments applied univariate tests to detect the network components with the largest influence on stability. In this work, we present an extended SKM approach relying on supervised machine learning to detect patterns of enzyme-metabolite interactions that act together in an orchestrated manner to ensure stability. We demonstrate its application on a detailed SK-model of the Calvin-Benson cycle and connected pathways. The identified stability patterns are highly complex reflecting that changes in dynamic properties depend on concerted interactions between several network components. In total, we find more patterns that reliably ensure stability than patterns ensuring instability. This shows that the design of this system is strongly targeted towards maintaining stability. We also investigate the effect of allosteric regulators revealing that the tendency to stability is significantly increased by including experimentally determined regulatory mechanisms that have not yet been integrated into existing kinetic models.

  13. Bioengineering of plant (tri)terpenoids: from metabolic engineering of plants to synthetic biology in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Thevelein, Johan M; Goossens, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Terpenoids constitute a large and diverse class of natural products that serve many functions in nature. Most of the tens of thousands of the discovered terpenoids are synthesized by plants, where they function as primary metabolites involved in growth and development, or as secondary metabolites that optimize the interaction between the plant and its environment. Several plant terpenoids are economically important molecules that serve many applications as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Major challenges for the commercialization of plant-derived terpenoids include their low production levels in planta and the continuous demand of industry for novel molecules with new or superior biological activities. Here, we highlight several synthetic biology methods to enhance and diversify the production of plant terpenoids, with a foresight towards triterpenoid engineering, the least engineered class of bioactive terpenoids. Increased or cheaper production of valuable triterpenoids may be obtained by 'classic' metabolic engineering of plants or by heterologous production of the compounds in other plants or microbes. Novel triterpenoid structures can be generated through combinatorial biosynthesis or directed enzyme evolution approaches. In its ultimate form, synthetic biology may lead to the production of large amounts of plant triterpenoids in in vitro systems or custom-designed artificial biological systems. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sola, Srikanth; Mir, Muhammad Q S; Cheema, Faiz A; Khan-Merchant, Nadya; Menon, Rekha G; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Khan, Bobby V

    2005-01-01

    .... We evaluated the ability of irbesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, and lipoic acid, an antioxidant, to affect endothelial function and inflammation in patients with the metabolic syndrome...

  15. Shikimic acid production in Escherichia coli: From classical metabolic engineering strategies to omics applied to improve its production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shikimic acid (SA is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF, an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp., yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content. The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several intuitive metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc, in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement

  16. Plant-like traits associated with metabolism of Trypanosoma parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Hannaert, Véronique; Saavedra, Emma; Duffieux, Francis; Szikora, Jean-Pierre; Rigden, Daniel J.; Michels, Paul A. M.; Opperdoes, Fred R.

    2003-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites cause serious diseases among humans, livestock, and plants. They belong to the order of the Kinetoplastida and form, together with the Euglenida, the phylum Euglenozoa. Euglenoid algae possess plastids capable of photosynthesis, but plastids are unknown in trypanosomatids. Here we present molecular evidence that trypanosomatids possessed a plastid at some point in their evolutionary history. Extant trypanosomatid parasites, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, contain ...

  17. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of un