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Sample records for acid levels contribute

  1. "ALTERED PLASMA ZINC LEVEL CONTRIBUTES TO THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF VALPROIC ACID IN SKELETAL SYSTEM OF RAT"

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    M.Akbari1

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is one of the main antiepileptic drugs. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects and axial skeletal malformations among infants born to women who had received valproic acid. There is a hypothesis that one biochemical abnormality underlying the teratogenicity of valproic acid is a drug-induced reduction in maternal plasma zinc .In the present experimental study mated rats were divided into four groups of 8 animals each [control, valproic acid (VPA, valproic acid + zinc (VPA+ Zn and zinc (Zn groups]. The VPA group received 300 mg/kg valproic acid, daily.The control group received an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl. The VPA+ Zn group received 300 mg/kg VPA and 30 mg/kg zinc sulfate and the Zn group received 30 mg/kg zinc sulfate, daily. Valproic acid, NaCl, and Zn were administered intraperitonealy from day 6 through day 15 of gestation. On day 16, six rats of each group were authanized and the other rats were scarified on gestational day (GD 20 to evaluate the skeletal system among the elder fetuses. Blood was drawn to determine plasma zinc. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (Kruskal -Wallis test. The zinc concentration in the plasma of rats treated with valproic acid was significantly lower than those of the other groups on 16 GD (P=0.004. Some anomalies such as hydrocephaly, spina bifida, hemivertebrate, and rib malformations were seen in VPA treated group. Low percentage of rib anomalies and spina bifida were observed in the VPA+ Zn treated group while no skeletal anomalies were seen in Zn and control groups. The results from the present experiment support the hypothesis that one of the biochemical abnormalities causing the teratogenicity of VPA is a drug–induced maternal plasma zinc deficiency, and possibly, it may also result in reduction of embryonic Zn.

  2. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis mutant early in short days 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Elrouby, Nabil; Nordström, Karl; Griebel, Thomas; Bachmair, Andreas; Coupland, George

    2014-07-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is essential for plant growth and development. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. We performed a suppressor mutagenesis screen of esd4 and identified a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Genetic mapping and genome sequencing indicated that one of these mutations (sed111) is in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE I, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA). Analyses showed that compared with wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more SA, whereas sed111 contains lower SA levels. Other sed mutants also contain lower SA levels but are not mutant for SID2, although most reduce SID2 mRNA levels. Therefore, higher SA levels contribute to the small size, early flowering and elevated SUMO conjugate levels of esd4. Our results support previous data indicating that SUMO homeostasis influences SA biosynthesis in wild-type plants, and also demonstrate that elevated levels of SA strongly increase the abundance of SUMO conjugates.

  3. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  4. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  5. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition.

  6. Duration perception: assessing contributions of lower and higher level processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Katrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Although time perception in the milliseconds to seconds range is crucial for human perception and performance, it is known that time perception is prone to distortions. In current models of duration perception, effects of arousal and attention are stressed. In the present work, the contributions of lower level sensory and higher level cognitive processes are assessed, and methods are developed helping to disentangle these influences. In a first series of experiments, effects of the retinal...

  7. Sulphuric acid closure and contribution to nucleation mode particle growth

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    M. Boy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid concentrations were measured and calculated based on pseudo steady state model with corresponding measurements of CO, NOx, O3, SO2, methane and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC concentrations as well as solar spectral irradiance and particle number concentrations with size distributions. The measurements were performed as a part of the EU project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary layer during an intensive field campaign, which was conducted in Hyytiälä, Finland in March–April 2003. In this paper, the closure between measured and calculated H2SO4 concentrations is investigated. Besides that, also the contribution of sulphuric acid to nucleation mode particle growth rates is studied. Hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radical concentrations were determined using a pseudo steady state box model including photo stationary states. The maximum midday OH concentrations ranged between 4.1×105 to 1.8×106 molecules cm-3 and the corresponding values for HO2 were 1.0×107 to 1.5×108 molecules cm-3. The dominant source term for hydroxyl radicals is the reaction of NO with HO2 (56% and the reaction of CO with OH covers around 41% of the sinks. The sulphuric acid source term is the reaction SO2 with OH and the sink term is condensation of sulphuric acid. The closure between measured and calculated sulphuric acid concentrations is achieved with a high agreement to the measured values. In sensitivity studies, we used different values for the non-methane hydrocarbons, the peroxy radicals and nitrogen dioxide. The best fits between calculated and measured values were found by decreasing the NO2 concentration when it exceeded values of 1.5 ppb and doubling the non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations. The ratio, standard deviation and correlation coefficient between measured and calculated sulphuric acid concentrations are 0.99, 0.412 and 0.645, respectively. The maximum midday sulphuric acid concentrations varied between

  8. Sulphuric acid closure and contribution to nucleation mode particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid concentrations were measured and calculated based on pseudo steady state model with corresponding measurements of CO, NOx, O3, SO2, methane and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC concentrations as well as solar spectral irradiance and particle number concentrations with size distributions. The measurements were performed as a part of the EU project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary layer during an intensive field campaign, which was conducted in Hyytiälä, Finland in March–April 2003. In this paper, the closure between measured and calculated H2SO4 concentrations is investigated. Besides that, also the contribution of sulphuric acid to nucleation mode particle growth rates is studied. Hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radical concentrations were determined using a pseudo steady state box model including photo stationary states. The maximum midday OH concentrations ranged between 4.1×105 to 1.8×106molecules cm−3 and the corresponding values for HO2 were 1.0×107 to 1.5×108molecules cm−3. The dominant source term for hydroxyl radicals is the reaction of NO with HO2 (56% and the reaction of CO with OH covers around 41% of the sinks. The sulphuric acid source term is the reaction SO2 with OH and the sink term is condensation of sulphuric acid. The closure between measured and calculated sulphuric acid concentrations is achieved with a high agreement to the measured values. In sensitivity studies, we used different values for the non-methane hydrocarbons, the peroxy radicals and nitrogen dioxide. The best fits between calculated and measured values were found by decreasing the NO2 concentration when it exceeded values of 1.5 ppb and doubling the non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations. The ratio, standard deviation and correlation coefficient

  9. Sound-driven enhancement of vision: disentangling detection-level from decision-level contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; López-Moliner, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-modal enhancement can be mediated both by higher-order effects due to attention and decision making and by detection-level stimulus-driven interactions. However, the contribution of each of these sources to behavioral improvements has not been conclusively determined and quantified separately. Here, we apply psychophysical analysis based on Piéron functions in order to separate stimulus-dependent changes from those accounted by decision-level contributions. Participants performed a simp...

  10. Contribution of small glaciers to global sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Observed long-term changes in glacier volume and hydrometeorological mass balance models yield data on the transfer of water from glaciers, excluding those in Greenland and Antarctica, to the oceans, The average observed volume change for the period 1900 to 1961 is scaled to a global average by use of the seasonal amplitude of the mass balance. These data are used to calibrate the models to estimate the changing contribution of glaciers to sea level for the period 1884 to 1975. Although the error band is large, these glaciers appear to accountfor a third to half of observed rise in sea level, approximately that fraction not explained by thermal expansion of the ocean.

  11. Modeling today's sea-level contribution of glacial Antarctica

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    Albrecht, Torsten; Levermann, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The present dynamic state of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is mainly a product of past climate evolution, namely the history of advance and retreat during the last four glacial cycles. To this end, we need to account for this internal memory in order to better understand present changes and to project future contributions to sea-level rise, particularly with regard to anthropogenic climate change. This requires a fully dynamic model including ice-shelf dynamics as well as a continental scale treatment of the transition zone and a proper coupling to oceanic and atmospheric forcing data, all of this is included in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). Instead of aiming at a best-guess simulation, we provide an ensemble of model simulations for 15km resolution that incorporates uncertainties from climate boundary conditions, internal process-modeling and ice parameter choices. With this approach we produce a broad ensemble of model-representations of the present day Antarctic ice sheet, that is at the same time well constrained by paleoclimatic data (e.g. LGM configuation) and present-day observations.

  12. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to interglacial sea-level rise

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    Naish, T.; Mckay, R. M.; Barrett, P. J.; Levy, R. H.; Golledge, N. R.; Deconto, R. M.; Horgan, H. J.; Dunbar, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1- 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  13. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene

  14. Hypohalous acids contribute to renal extracellular matrix damage in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle L; Darris, Carl; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; Sanchez, Otto A; Madu, Hartman; Avance, Josh; Brooks, Nickolas; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Fogo, Agnes; Harris, Raymond; Hudson, Billy G; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-06-01

    In diabetes, toxic oxidative pathways are triggered by persistent hyperglycemia and contribute to diabetes complications. A major proposed pathogenic mechanism is the accumulation of protein modifications that are called advanced glycation end products. However, other nonenzymatic post-translational modifications may also contribute to pathogenic protein damage in diabetes. We demonstrate that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are significantly elevated in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, diabetic renal ECM shows diminished binding of α1β1 integrin consistent with the modification of collagen IV by hypochlorous (HOCl) and hypobromous acids. Noncollagenous (NC1) hexamers, key connection modules of collagen IV networks, are modified via oxidation and chlorination of tryptophan and bromination of tyrosine residues. Chlorotryptophan, a relatively minor modification, has not been previously found in proteins. In the NC1 hexamers isolated from diabetic kidneys, levels of HOCl-derived oxidized and chlorinated tryptophan residues W(28) and W(192) are significantly elevated compared with nondiabetic controls. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted a more relaxed NC1 hexamer tertiary structure and diminished assembly competence in diabetes; this was confirmed using limited proteolysis and denaturation/refolding. Our results suggest that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal ECM, and specifically collagen IV networks, contribute to functional protein damage in diabetes.

  15. Sound-driven enhancement of vision: disentangling detection-level from decision-level contributions.

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    Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; López-Moliner, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Cross-modal enhancement can be mediated both by higher-order effects due to attention and decision making and by detection-level stimulus-driven interactions. However, the contribution of each of these sources to behavioral improvements has not been conclusively determined and quantified separately. Here, we apply psychophysical analysis based on Piéron functions in order to separate stimulus-dependent changes from those accounted by decision-level contributions. Participants performed a simple visual speeded detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrast values, presented with and without accompanying sounds. On one hand, we identified an additive cross-modal improvement in mean reaction times across all types of visual stimuli that would be well explained by interactions not strictly based on stimulus-driven modulations (e.g., due to reduction of temporal uncertainty and motor times). On the other hand, we singled out an audio-visual benefit that strongly depended on stimulus features such as frequency and contrast. This particular enhancement was selective to low-visual spatial frequency stimuli, optimized for magnocellular sensitivity. We therefore conclude that interactions at detection stages and at decisional processes in response selection that contribute to audio-visual enhancement can be separated online and express on partly different aspects of visual processing.

  16. Protecting Cell Walls from Binding Aluminum by Organic Acids Contributes to Aluminum Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ying Li; Yue-Jiao Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jian-Li Yang; Shao-Jian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids from the root apex has been demonstrated to be one major AI resistance mechanism in plants. However, whether the organic acid concentration is high enough to detoxify AI in the growth medium is frequently questioned. The genotypes of Al-resistant wheat, Cassia tora L. and buckwheat secrete malate, citrate and oxalate, respectively. In the present study we found that at a 35% inhibition of root elongation, the AI activities in the solution were 10, 20, and 50 μM with the corresponding malate, citrate, and oxalate exudation at the rates of 15, 20 and 21 nmol/cm2 per 12 h, respectively, for the above three plant species. When exogenous organic acids were added to ameliorate Al toxicity, twofold and eightfold higher oxalate and malate concentrations were required to produce the equal effect by citrate. After the root apical cell walls were isolated and preincubated in 1 mM malate, oxalate or citrate solution overnight, the total amount of AI adsorbed to the cell walls all decreased significantly to a similar level, implying that these organic acids own an equal ability to protect the cell walls from binding AI. These findings suggest that protection of cell walls from binding Al by organic acids may contribute significantly to AI resistance.

  17. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerin, Carles; Goldfine, Allison B; Boes, Tanner;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. METHODS: To identify pathways related t...... catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D....... methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate...... fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA...

  18. A Better Insight Into IT Contribution by Process Level Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahim, Nazli; Møller, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Creation of IT business value through its impact on value chain processes made the objective of this research to compare and differentiate IT role at both process and firm levels. A discussion about IT’s impact at both levels are made through previous theoretical and empirical studies. The discus...

  19. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand w...

  20. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  1. Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pavani Bandaru; Anoop Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Serum uric acid has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in previous studies. However, few studies have examined the association between serum uric acid and diabetes mellitus and their findings are not consistent. Therefore, we examined the association between serum uric acid levels and diabetes mellitus in participants from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( = 1 8 , 8 2 5 , 52.5% women). Serum uric acid ...

  2. NCLT Contributions to Nanoscience Education at the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Robert

    2008-03-01

    The National Center for Learning and Teaching in Nanoscale Science and Engineering (NCLT) has a mission to build national capacity in Nanoscale Science and Engineering Education (NSEE) by reaching to millions of learners. This mission calls for the development of a globally competitive national nano workforce and national cadre of leaders in NSEE. Part of the NCLT's integrated program focuses on higher education initiatives and the development of undergraduate resources in NSE. The Center has developed an online educational resource repository for the NSEE community, the NanoEd Resource Portal at http://www.nclt.us. This talk involves a description of the applications and context for integrating NSE into undergraduate courses. It will provide research and development examples on new degree programs and concentrations in NSE. The following are a few highlights of NCLT's contributions in undergraduate education: *Example of several short introductory units on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Nanopatterning Techniques *Simulations that can be incorporated into undergrad courses on Information Storage Technology (i.e. Nanomagnetism simulations and accompanying introductory material) *Archive of seminars on various topics on NSE concepts *Working prototype of Nanoconcentration in Physics *Database of Degree Programs highlighted on the NCLT NanoEd Resource Portal *Rubric for course development criteria *Potential venue for professors to post their courses, degree programs, etc. for national and global dissemination

  3. Level and temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhai Long

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 1982–2006 in ringed seals and polar bears. However, until now, no data have been reported for PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. This study assesses the level and temporal trend of serum PFAAs in Greenlandic Inuit. Study design: Cross-section and temporal time trend survey. Methods: Serum PFAA levels were determined in 284 Inuit from different Greenlandic districts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The temporal time trend of serum PFAAs in Nuuk Inuit during 1998–2005 and the correlation between serum PFAAs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs were explored. Results: Serum PFAA levels were higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 1998–2005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs and legacy POPs was observed for Nuuk Inuit while for non-Nuuk Inuit this correlation was significant. No correlation between PFAAs and legacy POPs was found for male Inuit, whereas significant correlation was observed both for pooled female Inuit and for non-Nuuk Inuit females. Conclusions: We suggest that sources other than seafood intake might contribute to the observed higher PFAA levels in Nuuk Inuit compared to the pooled non-Nuuk Inuit.

  4. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues.

  5. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  6. Serum Uric Acid Level among Acute Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, M; Das, S N; Haque, M F; Shikha, S S; Bhuiyan, A S; Saha, P L; Das, B R; Chowdhury, M; Jahan, M K; Rahman, M M

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed as well as developing countries like Bangladesh. Elevated serum uric acid levels may predict an increased risk for cerebro-vascular (CV) events including stroke. Aim of the study was to measure the serum uric acid level among stroke patients and determine the relationship between serum uric acid level and stroke. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to measure serum uric acid level among 102 stroke patients in a period of one year by using non-probability sampling procedure. Finally, collected data were analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.0. It was observed that the mean age of patients was 60.87±8.05 years, of them 80(78.43%) patients were male and the rest 22(21.57%) were female. About 66(64.70%) of respondents were in age group 60 years and above, while 36(35.30%) were in age group 59 years and below. At least 23(22.55%) of stroke patients had elevated serum uric acid with a mean serum uric acid level of 5.18mg/dl and standard deviation 1.26mg/dl. About 23(27.38%) patients in ischemic stroke had elevated serum uric acid whereas 18(100%) patients in hemorrhagic stroke had normal uric acid level. Uric acid level was elevated in ischemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). High uric acid level may be considered as a risk factor in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27277350

  7. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Lerin

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D.

  8. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  9. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (Pacids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (Pacid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (Pfolic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  10. Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Bandaru

    2011-01-01

    in participants from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (=18,825, 52.5% women. Serum uric acid levels were categorized into quartiles. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, nonfasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or use of oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin (=395. In multivariable logistic regression models, we found that higher serum uric acid levels were inversely associated with diabetes mellitus after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of serum uric acid, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of diabetes mellitus was 0.48 (0.35–0.66; trend <0.0001. The results were consistent in subgroup analysis by gender and hypertension status. Higher serum uric acid levels were inversely associated with diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of US adults.

  11. The contribution of SNAT1 to system A amino acid transporter activity in human placental trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, M., E-mail: michelle.desforges@manchester.ac.uk [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Greenwood, S.L.; Glazier, J.D.; Westwood, M.; Sibley, C.P. [Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Developmental Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, St. Mary' s Hospital, Level 5-Research, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} mRNA levels for SNAT1 are higher than other system A subtype mRNAs in primary human cytotrophoblast. {yields} SNAT1 knockdown in cytotrophoblast cells significantly reduces system A activity. {yields} SNAT1 is a key contributor to system A-mediated amino acid transport in human placenta. -- Abstract: System A-mediated amino acid transport across the placenta is important for the supply of neutral amino acids needed for fetal growth. All three system A subtypes (SNAT1, 2, and 4) are expressed in human placental trophoblast suggesting there is an important biological role for each. Placental system A activity increases as pregnancy progresses, coinciding with increased fetal nutrient demands. We have previously shown SNAT4-mediated system A activity is higher in first trimester than at term, suggesting that SNAT1 and/or SNAT2 are responsible for the increased system A activity later in gestation. However, the relative contribution of each subtype to transporter activity in trophoblast at term has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant subtype of system A in cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placenta, maintained in culture for 66 h, by: (1) measuring mRNA expression of the three subtypes and determining the Michaelis-Menten constants for uptake of the system A-specific substrate, {sup 14}C-MeAIB, (2) investigating the contribution of SNAT1 to total system A activity using siRNA. Results: mRNA expression was highest for the SNAT1 subtype of system A. Kinetic analysis of {sup 14}C-MeAIB uptake revealed two distinct transport systems; system 1: K{sub m} = 0.38 {+-} 0.12 mM, V{sub max} = 27.8 {+-} 9.0 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which resembles that reported for SNAT1 and SNAT2 in other cell types, and system 2: K{sub m} = 45.4 {+-} 25.0 mM, V{sub max} = 1190 {+-} 291 pmol/mg protein/20 min, which potentially represents SNAT4. Successful knockdown of SNAT1 mRNA using target-specific si

  12. Patients with fibromyalgia have normal serum levels of hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Møller, H J; Schaadt, M;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in Danish patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Serum levels of HA were determined in 53 patients with established FM and 55 control samples using a radiometric assay. Values were correlated to clinical disease severity variables...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associa...

  14. The short-chain fatty acid receptor, FFA2, contributes to gestational glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Miles; Priyadarshini, Medha; Gibbons, Sean M; Angueira, Anthony R; Brodsky, Michael; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Gilbert, Jack A; Lowe, William L; Layden, Brian T

    2015-11-15

    The structure of the human gastrointestinal microbiota can change during pregnancy, which may influence gestational metabolism; however, a mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we observed that in wild-type (WT) mice the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased during pregnancy. Along with these changes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are mainly produced through gut microbiota fermentation, significantly changed in both the cecum and peripheral blood throughout gestation in these mice. SCFAs are recognized by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as free fatty acid receptor-2 (FFA2), and we have previously demonstrated that the fatty acid receptor-2 gene (Ffar2) expression is higher in pancreatic islets during pregnancy. Using female Ffar2-/- mice, we explored the physiological relevance of signaling through this GPCR and found that Ffar2-deficient female mice developed fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the setting of impaired insulin secretion compared with WT mice during, but not before, pregnancy. Insulin tolerance tests were similar in Ffar2-/- and WT mice before and during pregnancy. Next, we examined the role of FFA2 in gestational β-cell mass, observing that Ffar2-/- mice had diminished gestational expansion of β-cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, mouse genotype had no significant impact on the composition of the gut microbiome, but did affect the observed SCFA profiles, suggesting a functional difference in the microbiota. Together, these results suggest a potential link between increased Ffar2 expression in islets and the alteration of circulating SCFA levels, possibly explaining how changes in the gut microbiome contribute to gestational glucose homeostasis. PMID:26394664

  15. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  16. Alterations in Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavara Narasimhamurthy Girish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Dietary proteins and amino acids can modulate pancreatic function. Objective Our aim was to estimate the levels of plasma amino acids in chronic pancreatitis patients and study their relationship with disease characteristics as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Patients One hundred and seventy-five consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis: 84 patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and 91 patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis. One hundred and thirteen healthy controls were also studied. Design Prospective study. Main outcome measures Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Plasma-free amino acid levels were estimated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Polyclonal antibody ELISA was used to assess pancreatic fecal elastase-1. Results The majority of the plasma free amino acid levels decreased in chronic pancreatitis patients whereas glutamate, glycine, proline and lysine were elevated as compared to the controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the decrease in branched chain amino acid concentration was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes and low fecal elastase-1. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between branched chain amino acids and pancreatic elastase-1 (rs=0.724, P

  17. Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Intrarenal Hemodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uedono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia has been reported to affect renal hemodynamics in rat models. We evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in humans, utilizing the plasma clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH and inulin (Cin. Methods: Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were assessed by simultaneous measurement of CPAH and Cin in 58 subjects. Of these, 19 subjects were planned to provide a kidney for transplantation; 26 had diabetes without proteinuria; and 13 had mild proteinuria. Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were calculated using Gomez`s formulae. Results: Cin was more than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 in all subjects. Serum uric acid levels correlated significantly with vascular resistance at the afferent arteriole (Ra (r = 0.354, p = 0.006 but not with that of the efferent arteriole (Re. Serum uric acid levels (β = 0.581, p = a after adjustment for several confounders (R2 = 0.518, p = Conclusions: These findings suggest, for the first time in humans, that higher serum uric acid levels are associated significantly with Ra in subjects with Cin > 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The increase in Ra in subjects with higher uric acid levels may be related to dysfunction of glomerular perfusion.

  18. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  19. The low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in rat brain phospholipids are maintained via multiple redundant mechanisms[S

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuck T; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Liu, Zhen; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Brain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels are 250- to 300-fold lower than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at least partly, because EPA is rapidly β-oxidized and lost from brain phospholipids. Therefore, we examined if β-oxidation was necessary for maintaining low EPA levels by inhibiting β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP). Furthermore, because other metabolic differences between DHA and EPA may also contribute to their vastly different levels, this study aimed to quantify the incorporation ...

  20. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M; de Walle, Hermien E K; de Rover, Carolien M; Jeeninga, Wendy; Cornel, Martina C; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Buitendijk, Simone E; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2003-07-01

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of outcome criteria, defined as awareness knowledge, perceived safety, attitudes and subjective norms, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the two local campaigns. Data were gathered by means of two cross-sectional studies conducted just before and 1 year after the campaigns took place. Before the campaigns were conducted, there were already differences in all effect criteria and folic acid use between women of different educational levels, mostly in favour of women with a high level of education. Although both educational campaigns appeared to have a positive impact on all outcome criteria, they failed to reduce the existing differences in these outcome criteria between women of different educational levels. Folic acid use can be promoted effectively by mass media campaigns, certainly in a large group of women with no prior knowledge of the health benefits associated with periconceptional folic acid use. However, in order to achieve more equal health outcomes among women of low and high SES, it seems that more tailored interventions for women of low SES are needed.

  1. Reduced Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acid Levels and the Advent of an Acute Lung Injury in Mice after Intravenous or Enteral Oleic Acid Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exerting valuable functions in living organisms, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs can be toxic to cells. Increased blood concentration of oleic acid (OLA and other fatty acids is detected in many pathological conditions. In sepsis and leptospirosis, high plasma levels of NEFA and low albumin concentrations are correlated to the disease severity. Surprisingly, 24 h after intravenous or intragastric administration of OLA, main NEFA levels (OLA inclusive were dose dependently decreased. However, lung injury was detected in intravenously treated mice, and highest dose killed all mice. When administered by the enteral route, OLA was not toxic in any tested conditions. Results indicate that OLA has important regulatory properties on fatty acid metabolism, possibly lowering circulating fatty acid through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The significant reduction in blood NEFA levels detected after OLA enteral administration can contribute to the already known health benefits brought about by unsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched diets.

  2. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to formation and to the early growth of nucleated particles, respectively. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a Condensation Particle Counter battery and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is dominated by organic compounds already at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particles growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. The size resolved growth analysis finally indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to

  3. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  4. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  5. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  6. Fate of water pumped from underground and contributions to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model simulation, we show that only 80% of GWD ends up in the ocean. An increase in runoff to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/-0.004) mm yr-1 in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1 in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1, suggesting that the net terrestrial water contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  7. Circulating docosahexaenoic acid levels are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3 are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally "programming" this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24 vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01. Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = -0.37, P <0.0001. The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Low circulating DHA levels are associated with

  8. The contribution of mediated oxidation mechanisms in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid using diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Nasr; Dbira, Sondos; Bedoui, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of mediated oxidation mechanisms in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes was investigated in different electrolytes. A complete mineralization of cyanuric acid was obtained in NaCl; however lower degrees of mineralization of 70% and 40% were obtained in Na2SO4 and NaClO4, respectively. This can be explained by the nature of the oxidants electrogenerated in each electrolyte. It is clear that the contribution of active chlorine (Cl2, HClO, ClO(-)) electrogenerated from oxidation of chlorides on BDD is much more important in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid than the persulfate and hydroxyl radicals produced by electro-oxidation of sulfate and water on BDD anodes. This could be explained by the high affinity of active chlorine towards nitrogen compounds. No organic intermediates were detected during the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid in any the electrolytes, which can be explained by their immediate depletion by hydroxyl radicals produced on the BDD surface. Nitrates and ammonium were the final products of electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid on BDD anodes in all electrolytes. In addition, small amounts of chloramines were formed in the chloride medium. Low current density (≤10mA/cm(2)) and neutral medium (pH in the range 6-9) should be used for high efficiency electrolytic degradation and negligible formation of hazardous chlorate and perchlorate. PMID:27372125

  9. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  10. Contributions to the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) has been analysed using monthly maps of sea level anomalies from gridded multi-mission altimeter data, along with monthly means of sea level heights from three tide gauge stations. Moreover, the contribution to the sea level seasonal cycle of atmospheric pressure and wind and the steric effect were evaluated using maps of sea level residuals from the VANI2-ERA hindcast, and a combination of satellite Sea Surface Temperature maps with a very high resolution Temperature and Salinity climatology for the region. The atmospheric contribution accounted for 55-58% of the sea level variance offshore, with this percentage diminishing toward the coast, where the effect of wind stress might be underestimated, especially over regions of complex bathymetry. The steric contribution was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. Results obtained highlighted the oceanographic complexity of the GoC at regional scales. In this sense, the open ocean steric contribution explained the largest percentage of atmospheric-corrected sea level variance at the offshore part of the basin (50-67%) and over the eastern shelf (42-48%), suggesting that the sea level seasonal cycle within the eastern shelf is connected to the large scale circulation system. West of Cape Santa Maria, both over the continental shelf and offshore, the best results were obtained with the local steric contribution, suggesting a decoupling of deep and shallow water sea level variations at the seasonal scale in that region.

  11. Level and Temporal Trend of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bossi, Rossana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    Objectives: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 19822006 in ringed seals and polar...... higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 19982005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs...

  12. Level and temporal trend of perfluoroalkyl acids in Greenlandic Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bossi, Rossana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in human blood, breast milk and umbilical cord blood across the globe. PFAAs do accumulate in the marine food chain in Arctic regions. In Greenland, increasing PFAA concentrations were observed during 19822006 in ringed seals and polar...... higher in Nuuk Inuit than in non-Nuuk Inuit. Within the same district, higher PFAA levels were observed for males. An age-dependent, increasing trend of serum PFAA levels in the period from 19982005 was observed for Nuuk Inuit. For the pooled gender data, no significant association between PFAAs...

  13. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  14. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  15. Heterogeneous catalysis contribution for the denitration of aqueous nuclear radioactive waste with formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical denitration aims to reduce the nitric acid concentration in nuclear fuel reprocessing aqueous wastes by adding formic acid as a reducing agent. The denitration reaction exhibits an induction period, which duration is related to the time needed by the key intermediate of the reaction, i.e. nitrous acid, to reach a threshold concentration in the reaction medium. The addition of a Pt/SiO2 catalyst in the reaction mixture suppresses the induction period of the chemical denitration. The aim of the present work is to identify the role of Pt/SiO2 in the catalytic denitration mechanism. The experimental work is based on the comparison of catalytic tests performed with various catalysts, in order to identify the intrinsic characteristics of Pt/SiO2 that might influence its activity for the reaction. Catalytic denitration results show that Pt/SiO2 acts only by speeding up the nitrous acid generation in the solution until its concentration reaches the threshold level of 0,01 mol L-1 in the experimental conditions. Catalysts activity is evaluated by quantifying the nitrous acid generated on the platinum surface during the induction period of the homogeneous denitration reaction. The large platinum aggregates reactivity is greater than the one of nano-sized particles. The study of the key step of the catalytic denitration reaction, the catalytic generation of nitrous acid, clarifies the role of Pt/SiO2. The homogeneous denitration is initiated thanks to a redox cycle on the catalyst surface: an initial oxidation of Pt0 by nitric acid, which is reduced into nitrous acid, followed by the reduction of the passivated 'Ptox' by formic acid. Furthermore, a platinum reduction by formic acid prior to the catalytic test prevents any platinum leaching from the catalyst into the nitric solution, being all the more significant as platinum dispersion is high. (author)

  16. Groundwater contribution to an acid upland lake (Loch Fleet, Scotland) and the possibilities for amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. M.; Edmunds, W. M.; Robins, N. S.

    1991-06-01

    The Loch Fleet catchment lies in an upland region in the centre of the outcrop of the Cairnsmore of Fleet granite. It is a recently acidified lake (pH = 4.4) which has been the subject of a liming experiment to restore fisheries. In the present study, hydrogeological and geochemical techniques were used to determine the contribution of ground water to the loch and its role in buffering the lake water chemistry. Diffuse groundwater seepage was detected by infrared linescan survey, and overflowing ground water (2 m above the level of the loch) was encountered in a shallow borehole. This ground water has an alkaline geochemistry (pH = 7.2, HCO 3- = 142 mg l -1) determined by secondary vein calcite and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. The net gains or losses of various constituents in the ground water and in the loch outflow have been determined relative to rainfall inputs. Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO 3, SO 4, Cl, Si, Sr, Fe, Mn, Li and F all show net gain in the ground water; NO 3, Al, Zn and B show a net loss. In the acidic loch outflow, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Li show a net gain over rainfall inputs; most of these elements derive from ground water, enhanced by evapotranspiration by a factor of 1.8. The chemical results have been used to determine that ground water contributes around 3.5 l s -1 to the loch, compared with an estimated 3-4 l s -1 derived from hydrograph analysis. This constitutes 5% of the mean loch outflow, which was sufficient to buffer the loch at around pH = 6.0 until the late 1960s. Titrations of ground water with loch water show that as little as 0.06 l s -1 (1656 m 3 year -1) of additional ground water would be required to restore the loch to conditions suitable for a self-sustaining fish population. Twice this flux (3310 m 3 year -1) would restore the loch to the conditions pertaining in the pre-industrial era. These targets could be achieved at an economic cost, it is suggested, by induced abstraction of ground water in the upper reaches

  17. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  18. Estimating the glacier contribution to sea-level rise for the period 1800-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.; Oerlemans, J.; Cogley, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new estimate of the contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea-level rise over the period 1800-2005 is presented. We exploit the available information on changes in glacier length. Length records form the only direct evidence of glacier change that has potential global coverag

  19. Reconstructing the glacier contribution to sea-level rise back to 1850

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Dyurgerov, M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method to estimate the glacier contribution to sea-level rise from glacier length records. These records form the only direct evidence of glacier changes prior to 1946, when the first systematic mass-balance observations began. A globally rep- resentative length signal is calculated fro

  20. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Uric Acid Levels in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Zhi-Chao; Lu, Tao-Sheng; You, Shou-Jiang; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The importance and function of serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with cardiovascular disease or stroke are unclear. We sought to evaluate the appropriate UA levels for stroke patients and the association between endogenous UA levels and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, particularly regarding the possible interaction between gender and UA levels with respect to AIS prognosis. We examined 303 patients who had an onset of ischemic stroke within 48 h. Of those, 101 patients received thrombolytic treatment. Serum UA (μmol/L) levels were measured the second morning after admission. Patient prognosis was evaluated 90 days after clinical onset by modified Rankin Scale. Patients were divided into four groups according to serum UA quartiles. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess clinical relevance in regard to functional outcome and endogenous UA levels. Analysis of subgroups by gender and normal glomerular filtration rate were also been done. Poor functional outcome was associated with older age, history of atrial fibrillation, or higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with higher UA levels (>380 μmol/L) or lower UA levels (≤250 μmol/L) were 2-3 times more likely to have a poor outcome (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.14-7.61; OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02-7.58, respectively) compared to the baseline group (UA level 316-380 μmol/L). The same results were observed in thrombolyzed patients. Patients with high and low UA levels were 9-18 times more likely to having poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 316-380 μmol/L; OR 18.50, 95% CI: 2.041-167.67; OR 9.66, 95% CI 1.42-65.88, respectively). In men, patients with high UA levels were 6 times more likely to have poor outcomes compared to the baseline group (UA level: 279-334 μmol/L; OR 6.10, 95% CI 1.62-22.93). However, female patients with UA level 271-337 μmol/L were seven times more

  2. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  3. Polar ice-sheet contributions to sea level during past warm periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent sea-level rise has been dominated by thermal expansion and glacier loss, but the contribution from mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is expected to exceed other contributions under future sustained warming. Due to limitations of existing ice sheet models and the lack of relevant analogues in the historical record, projecting the timing and magnitude of polar ice sheet mass loss in the future remains challenging. One approach to improving our understanding of how polar ice-sheet retreat will unfold is to integrate observations and models of sea level, ice sheets, and climate during past intervals of warmth when the polar ice sheets contributed to higher sea levels. A recent review evaluated the evidence of polar ice sheet mass loss during several warm periods, including interglacials during the mid-Pliocene warm period, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, 5e (Last Interglacial), and 1 (Holocene). Sea-level benchmarks of ice-sheet retreat during the first of these three periods, when global mean climate was ~1 to 3 deg. C warmer than preindustrial, are useful for understanding the long-term potential for future sea-level rise. Despite existing uncertainties in these reconstructions, it is clear that our present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past, resulting in a conservative estimate for a global mean sea-level rise of 6 meters above present (or more). This presentation will focus on identifying the approaches that have yielded significant advances in terms of past sea level and ice sheet reconstruction as well as outstanding challenges. A key element of recent advances in sea-level reconstructions is the ability to recognize and quantify the imprint of geophysical processes, such as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and dynamic topography, that lead to significant spatial variability in sea level reconstructions. Identifying specific ice-sheet sources that contributed to higher sea levels

  4. Sea-level projections representing deeply uncertain ice-sheet contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Alexander M R; Ruckert, Kelsey L; Keller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Future sea-level rise poses nontrivial risks for many coastal communities. Managing these risks often relies on consensus projections like those provided by the IPCC. Yet, there is a growing awareness that the surrounding uncertainties may be much larger than typically perceived. Recently published sea-level projections appear widely divergent and highly sensitive to non-trivial model choices and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may be much less stable than previously believed, enabling a rapid disintegration. In response, some agencies have already announced to update their projections accordingly. Here, we present a set of probabilistic sea-level projections that approximate deeply uncertain WAIS contributions. The projections aim to inform robust decisions by clarifying the sensitivity to non-trivial or controversial assumptions. We show that the deeply uncertain WAIS contribution can dominate other uncertainties within decades. These deep uncertainties call for the development of robust adaptive strate...

  5. R-parity violating two-loop level rainbowlike contribution to the fermion electric dipole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the two-loop level R-parity violating supersymmetric contribution to the electric and chromoelectric dipole moments of the fermion with neutrino and gaugino in the intermediate state. It is found that this contribution can be sufficiently enhanced with large tan {\\beta} and that it can have comparable size with the currently known R-parity violating Barr-Zee type process in the TeV scale supersymmetry breaking. We also give new limits on the R-parity violating couplings from the experimental data of the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron.

  6. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Mortensen, P B; Bendtsen, F

    1991-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids cause reversible coma in animals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the hepatic coma in humans. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in peripheral venous blood were significantly elevated in 15 patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by cirrhosis (362 +/- 83 mumol/L; mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 17 cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy (178 +/- 57 mumol/L) and 11 normal individuals (60 +/- 8 mumol/L). However, no correlation between the depth of coma and the level of short-chain fatty acids was found after repetitive measurements in the coma group. Compared with normal individuals, all short-chain fatty acids, except valerate, were elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, whereas only the concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in 21 nonencephalopathic cirrhotic patients who underwent catheterization were equally distributed in the aorta (187 +/- 56 mumol/L), the hepatic vein (212 +/- 75 mumol/L), the azygos vein (140 +/- 37 mumol/L) and the renal vein (135 +/- 43 mumol/L) compared with peripheral venous blood (178 +/- 57 mumol/L). This study does not support the idea that short-chain fatty acids are of major importance in the pathogenesis of hepatic coma in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:1959851

  7. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs.

  8. Contributions of a Position Amino Acid Residues to the Conformational Stability of GCN4 Leucine Zipper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiang; ZENG Xian'gang; ZHOU Haimeng

    2006-01-01

    The stability of GCN4 leucine zipper and its four mutants in guanidine hydrochloride was detected to verify the contributions of different a position amino acid residues in polypeptide sequences to the forming and stability of parallel coiled coils. The changes of the circular dichroism spectra show that the displacement of the a position polar asparagine and the increase of asparagine in the GCN4 leucine zipper can reduce the α-helix content of the coiled coil structure. The mutants are less stable than the natural peptide in guanidine hydrochloride. The results show that the interaction between the polar asparagine contributes to the conformational stability of the coiled coil. Both the conformation and the number of polar residues in the coiled coil also affect the α-helix content and its resistance to the denaturant. The conclusions provide evidence describing the folding process of proteins including coiled coils in vivo.

  9. Contribution of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production to the Epiphytic Fitness of Erwinia herbicola

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.; Lindow, S E

    1998-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola 299R produces large quantities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in culture media supplemented with l-tryptophan. To assess the contribution of IAA production to epiphytic fitness, the population dynamics of the wild-type strain and an IAA-deficient mutant of this strain on leaves were studied. Strain 299XYLE, an isogenic IAA-deficient mutant of strain 299R, was constructed by insertional interruption of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase gene of strain 299R with the xylE gene, wh...

  10. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  11. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative.

  12. nC60 deposition kinetics: the complex contribution of humic acid, ion concentration, and valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2016-07-01

    The demonstrated toxicity coupled with inevitable environmental release of nC60 raise serious concerns about its environmental fate and transport, therefore it is crucial to understand how nC60 will interact with subsurface materials including attached phase soil and sediment organic matter (AP-SOM). This study investigated the attachment of nC60 onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) coated silica surface under various solution conditions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The HHA coating greatly enhanced nC60 attachment at low ion concentrations while hindering attachment at high ion concentrations in the presence of both mono and divalent cations. At low ion concentrations, the HHA greatly reduced the surface potential of the silica, enhancing nC60 deposition through reduction in the electrostatic repulsion. At high ion concentrations however, the reduced surface potential became less important due to the near zero energy barrier to deposition and therefore non-DLVO forces dominated, induced by compaction of the HHA layer, and leading to hindered attachment. In this manner, observed contributions from the HHA layer were more complex than previously reported and by monitoring surface charge and calculated DLVO interaction energy alongside attachment experiments, this study advances the mechanistic understanding of the variable attachment contributions from the humic acid layer. PMID:27061365

  13. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  14. Contribution of global groundwater depletion since 1900 to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Removal of water from terrestrial subsurface storage is a natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals, but global depletion is not well characterized. Cumulative groundwater depletion represents a transfer of mass from land to the oceans that contributes to sea-level rise. Depletion is directly calculated using calibrated groundwater models, analytical approaches, or volumetric budget analyses for multiple aquifer systems. Estimated global groundwater depletion during 1900–2008 totals ~4,500 km3, equivalent to a sea-level rise of 12.6 mm (>6% of the total). Furthermore, the rate of groundwater depletion has increased markedly since about 1950, with maximum rates occurring during the most recent period (2000–2008), when it averaged ~145 km3/yr (equivalent to 0.40 mm/yr of sea-level rise, or 13% of the reported rate of 3.1 mm/yr during this recent period).

  15. Sea-level variation/change and thermal contribution in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2005-01-01

    The long-term sea-level trend in the Bering Sea is obtained by the analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data, including the data of two tide gauges. The averaged sea-level in the Bering Sea rises at a rate of 2.47 mm/a from 1992 to 2002. The mean sea-level is falling in the most part of the Bering Sea, especially in its central basin, and it is rising in the northeastern part of the Bering Sea. During the 1998/99 change, the sea-level anomaly differences exhibit a significant sea-level anomaly fall in the deep basin of the Bering Sea,which is roughly in the same position where a prominent SST fall exists. The maximal fall of sea-level is about 10 cm in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea, and the maximal fall of about 2℃ in the SST also appeared in the same region as the sea level did.The steric sea-level change due to temperature variations is discussed. The results are compared with the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data at the different spatial scales. It is indicated that the seasonal amplitude of the steric height is about 35% of the observed TOPEX/Poseidon amplitude, which is much smaller than the 83% in the mid-latitudes area. The systematic difference between the TOPEX/Poseidon data with the range of about 7.5 cm and the thermal contribution with the range of about 2.5 cm is about 5 cm. This indicates that the thermal effect on the sea level is not as important as the case in the mid-latitudes area. In the Bering Sea, the phase of the steric height leads the observed sea level by about three months.

  16. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  17. Serum Creatinine and Uric Acid Levels in Hypothyroid Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Md Aminul Haque Khan; Md. Ishaque Majumder; Md Mozammel Hoque; Md Fariduddin; Forhadul Hoque Mollah; Iqbal Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is associated with many biochemical abnormalities including increased serum creatinine and uric acid levels. Many studies were done abroad regarding serum creatinine and uric acid levels in hypothyroid patients. We designed this study in our population for evaluation of serum creatinine and uric acid levels in hypothyroid patients.Objective: To assess serum creatinine and uric acid levels in hypothyroid patients and to find out relationship of creatinine and uric ac...

  18. Intestinal FXR-mediated FGF15 production contributes to diurnal control of hepatic bile acid synthesis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, Johanna H. M.; Brufau, Gemma; Stellaard, Frans; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Staels, Bart; Kuipers, Folkert

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic bile acid synthesis is subject to complex modes of transcriptional control, in which the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in liver and intestine-derived, FXR-controlled fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) are involved. The Fgf15 pathway is assumed to contribute

  19. Wheat kernel dimensions: how do they contribute to kernel weight at an individual QTL level?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fa Cui; Anming Ding; Jun Li; Chunhua Zhao; Xingfeng Li; Deshun Feng; Xiuqin Wang; Lin Wang; Jurong Gao; Honggang Wang

    2011-12-01

    Kernel dimensions (KD) contribute greatly to thousand-kernel weight (TKW) in wheat. In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TKW, kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW) and kernel diameter ratio (KDR) were detected by both conditional and unconditional QTL mapping methods. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, comprising 485 and 229 lines, respectively, were used in this study, and the trait phenotypes were evaluated in four environments. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected 77 additive QTL for four traits in two populations. Of these, 24 QTL were verified in at least three trials, and five of them were major QTL, thus being of great value for marker assisted selection in breeding programmes. Conditional QTL mapping analysis, compared with unconditional QTL mapping analysis, resulted in reduction in the number of QTL for TKW due to the elimination of TKW variations caused by its conditional traits; based on which we first dissected genetic control system involved in the synthetic process between TKW and KD at an individual QTL level. Results indicated that, at the QTL level, KW had the strongest influence on TKW, followed by KL, and KDR had the lowest level contribution to TKW. In addition, the present study proved that it is not all-inclusive to determine genetic relationships of a pairwise QTL for two related/causal traits based on whether they were co-located. Thus, conditional QTL mapping method should be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships of two related/causal traits.

  20. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease. PMID:26082469

  1. Estimating the glacier contribution to sea-level rise for the period 1800-2005

    OpenAIRE

    P. W. Leclercq; Oerlemans, J.; Cogley, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new estimate of the contribution of glaciers and ice caps to the sea-level rise over the period 1800-2005 is presented. We exploit the available information on changes in glacier length. Length records form the only direct evidence of glacier change that has potential global coverage before 1950. We calculate a globally representative signal from 349 glacier length records. By means of scaling, we deduce a global glacier volume signal, that is calibrated on the mass-balance a...

  2. Two-loop level rainbow-like supersymmetric contribution to the fermion EDM

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop level electric and chromo-electric dipole moments of the fermion involving fermion-sfermion inner loop, gaugino, and higgsino in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and analyze the chromo-electric dipole moment with the top-stop inner loop. It is found that this contribution is comparable with, and even dominates in some situation over the Barr-Zee type diagram generated from the CP-violation of the top squark sector in TeV scale supersymmetry breaking.

  3. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, H.; Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.;

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ~90 000 km2) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR....... Glacier extent and surface elevation are modified during the mass balance model runs according to a glacier retreat parameterization. Mass balance and glacier surface change are both calculated on a 250 m resolution digital elevation model yielding a high level of detail and ensuring that important...... of Greenland is dominated by steadily decreasing summer mass balances. In addition we observe glaciers in the north-eastern part of Greenland changing their characteristics towards greater activity and mass turnover....

  4. A reconciled estimate of glacier contributions to sea level rise: 2003 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Cogley, J Graham; Wouters, Bert; Arendt, Anthony A; Wahr, John; Berthier, Etienne; Hock, Regine; Pfeffer, W Tad; Kaser, Georg; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Bolch, Tobias; Sharp, Martin J; Hagen, Jon Ove; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Paul, Frank

    2013-05-17

    Glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets are losing large amounts of water to the world's oceans. However, estimates of their contribution to sea level rise disagree. We provide a consensus estimate by standardizing existing, and creating new, mass-budget estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry and from local glaciological records. In many regions, local measurements are more negative than satellite-based estimates. All regions lost mass during 2003-2009, with the largest losses from Arctic Canada, Alaska, coastal Greenland, the southern Andes, and high-mountain Asia, but there was little loss from glaciers in Antarctica. Over this period, the global mass budget was -259 ± 28 gigatons per year, equivalent to the combined loss from both ice sheets and accounting for 29 ± 13% of the observed sea level rise. PMID:23687045

  5. Phylogenomic evidence for a myxococcal contribution to the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Schlüter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The origin of eukaryotes remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Although it is clear that eukaryotic genomes are a chimeric combination of genes of eubacterial and archaebacterial ancestry, the specific ancestry of most eubacterial genes is still unknown. The growing availability of microbial genomes offers the possibility of analyzing the ancestry of eukaryotic genomes and testing previous hypotheses on their origins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have applied a phylogenomic analysis to investigate a possible contribution of the Myxococcales to the first eukaryotes. We conducted a conservative pipeline with homologous sequence searches against a genomic sampling of 40 eukaryotic and 357 prokaryotic genomes. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that several eukaryotic proteins traced to Myxococcales. Most of these proteins were associated with mitochondrial lipid intermediate pathways, particularly enzymes generating reducing equivalents with pivotal roles in fatty acid β-oxidation metabolism. Our data suggest that myxococcal species with the ability to oxidize fatty acids transferred several genes to eubacteria that eventually gave rise to the mitochondrial ancestor. Later, the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic lineage acquired those metabolic genes through endosymbiotic gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a prokaryotic origin, different from α-proteobacteria, for several mitochondrial genes. Our data reinforce a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model in which the mitochondrion appears to be an important entry point for myxococcal genes to enter eukaryotes.

  6. The Contribution of Moss to Plot-Based Spectral Signals in Moist Acidic Low Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. L.; Beamish, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    To determine the contribution of moss to peak season normalized difference index (NDVI) field measurement of intact vegetation communities were compared to communities with individual species and litter successively removed until only the moss layer remained. Spectral measurements (n=3) were collected using a field radiometer in five upland and five lowland plots in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem at the Imnaviat Creek Watershed, North Slope Alaska. After spectral measurements were taken individual species were removed in the same order in each plot by clipping them at the moss layer. As individual species were removed NDVI values decreased. Decreases were greatest when dwarf shrub species Salix richardsonii sb. pulchra and Betula nana were removed. Notable increases in NDVI were observed once standing litter was removed. The NDVI values of the moss layer were comparable to intact vegetation communities depending on the bryophyte species composition. This suggests that the NDVI signal of moss is largely masked by vascular species but represents a significant factor missing from overall, large-scale NDVI signals. The results of this study corroborate recent data that points to the mismatch between ground based NDVI and aerial and satellite derived NDVI. This preliminary case study provides a strong basis for better characterization of the contribution of moss to NDVI for improved correction of air and space borne imagery.

  7. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  8. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  9. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  10. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  11. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins.

  12. Antarctic contribution to global sea level in a high CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, Nicholas R.; Levy, Richard H.; Naish, Timothy R.; McKay, Robert M.; Gasson, Edward G. W.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Fogwill, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    In 2014 atmospheric CO2 levels exceeded 400 ppm for the first time since the early Pliocene (3.5-5 Ma). Although the rise in global mean surface temperatures that will accompany continued increases in CO2 is hard to predict, proxy evidence from the early Pliocene suggest that these CO2 concentrations, together with higher-than-present summer insolation, were associated with circum-Antarctic seas 2-4° C warmer than present and air temperatures 6-10° C warmer. Large sectors of the present-day Antarctic ice sheet rest on bedrock below sea level, and as such these areas are more sensitive to environmental forcings than ice grounded above sea level because the geometry of their submarine beds allows for runaway retreat in response to relatively small initial perturbations (Thomas & Bentley, 1978; Mengel & Levermann, 2014). Here we present an ice-sheet model ensemble that explores the consequences of a range of air and ocean warming scenarios representative of a higher-than-present CO2 world. Using circum-Antarctic palaeoenvironmental proxy data to constrain the range of likely conditions adjacent to the continent we calculate probability densities of likely sea-level equivalent ice-sheet volume changes relative to present, together with their associated uncertainties, for a range of timeframes. We find that multi-metre sea-level contributions are likely within centuries, increasing to over ten metres within subsequent millennia. Our results are consistent with empirically-based sea-level reconstructions for the Pliocene, and in addition offer new insights into basin-specific responses within the Antarctic continent.

  13. The gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt contributes to closing the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, W; Brune, D; Vermaas, WFJ

    2014-07-16

    A traditional 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is missing in the cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid cycle. To determine pathways that convert 2-oxoglutarate into succinate in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a series of mutant strains, Delta sll1981, Delta slr0370, Delta slr1022 and combinations thereof, deficient in 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase (Sll1981), succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Slr0370), and/or in gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism (Slr1022) were constructed. Like in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acetylornithine aminotransferase, encoded by slr1022, was shown to also function as gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, catalysing gamma-aminobutyrate conversion to succinic semialdehyde. As succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase converts succinic semialdehyde to succinate, an intact gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is present in Synechocystis. The Delta sll1981 strain, lacking 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, exhibited a succinate level that was 60% of that in wild type. However, the succinate level in the Delta slr1022 and Delta slr0370 strains and the Delta sll1981/Delta slr1022 and Delta sll1981/Delta slr0370 double mutants was reduced to 20-40% of that in wild type, suggesting that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt has a larger impact on metabolite flux to succinate than the pathway via 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase. C-13-stable isotope analysis indicated that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt catalysed conversion of glutamate to succinate. Independent of the 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase bypass, the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is a major contributor to flux from 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate to succinate in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  14. On the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Howat, Ian M.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Noël, Brice P. Y.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van Meijgaard, Erik; Wouters, Bert

    2016-09-01

    We assess the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) to sea level change. We use the mass budget method, which quantifies ice sheet mass balance (MB) as the difference between surface mass balance (SMB) and solid ice discharge across the grounding line (D). A comparison with independent gravity change observations from GRACE shows good agreement for the overlapping period 2002-2015, giving confidence in the partitioning of recent GrIS mass changes. The estimated 1995 value of D and the 1958-1995 average value of SMB are similar at 411 and 418 Gt yr-1, respectively, suggesting that ice flow in the mid-1990s was well adjusted to the average annual mass input, reminiscent of an ice sheet in approximate balance. Starting in the early to mid-1990s, SMB decreased while D increased, leading to quasi-persistent negative MB. About 60 % of the associated mass loss since 1991 is caused by changes in SMB and the remainder by D. The decrease in SMB is fully driven by an increase in surface melt and subsequent meltwater runoff, which is slightly compensated by a small ( < 3 %) increase in snowfall. The excess runoff originates from low-lying ( < 2000 m a.s.l.) parts of the ice sheet; higher up, increased refreezing prevents runoff of meltwater from occurring, at the expense of increased firn temperatures and depleted pore space. With a 1991-2015 average annual mass loss of ˜ 0.47 ± 0.23 mm sea level equivalent (SLE) and a peak contribution of 1.2 mm SLE in 2012, the GrIS has recently become a major source of global mean sea level rise.

  15. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  16. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde (Denmark); Outridge, Peter M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2009-12-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  17. Accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Horowitz, Sigal Brown; Kobiler, Ilana; Sherman, Amir; Prusky, Dov

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of D-gluconic acid (GLA) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. GLA involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to P. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. The roles of GLA and patulin accumulation in P. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase GOX2-RNAi mutants exhibiting decreased GOX2 expression, GLA accumulation, and reduced pathogenicity; ii) IDH-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of IDH (the last gene in patulin biosynthesis), reduced patulin accumulation, and no effect on GLA level; and iii) PACC-RNAi mutants exhibiting downregulation of both GOX2 and IDH that reduced GLA and patulin production. Present results indicate that conditions enhancing the decrease in GLA accumulation by GOX2-RNAi and PACC-RNAi mutants, and not low pH, affected patulin accumulation, suggesting GLA production as the driving force for further patulin accumulation. Thus, it is suggested that GLA accumulation may modulate patulin synthesis as a direct precursor under dynamic pH conditions modulating the activation of the transcription factor PACC and the consequent pathogenicity factors, which contribute to host-tissue colonization by P. expansum.

  18. Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David

    2016-03-31

    Polar temperatures over the last several million years have, at times, been slightly warmer than today, yet global mean sea level has been 6-9 metres higher as recently as the Last Interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) and possibly higher during the Pliocene epoch (about three million years ago). In both cases the Antarctic ice sheet has been implicated as the primary contributor, hinting at its future vulnerability. Here we use a model coupling ice sheet and climate dynamics-including previously underappreciated processes linking atmospheric warming with hydrofracturing of buttressing ice shelves and structural collapse of marine-terminating ice cliffs-that is calibrated against Pliocene and Last Interglacial sea-level estimates and applied to future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Antarctica has the potential to contribute more than a metre of sea-level rise by 2100 and more than 15 metres by 2500, if emissions continue unabated. In this case atmospheric warming will soon become the dominant driver of ice loss, but prolonged ocean warming will delay its recovery for thousands of years. PMID:27029274

  19. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  20. Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConto, Robert M; Pollard, David

    2016-03-31

    Polar temperatures over the last several million years have, at times, been slightly warmer than today, yet global mean sea level has been 6-9 metres higher as recently as the Last Interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) and possibly higher during the Pliocene epoch (about three million years ago). In both cases the Antarctic ice sheet has been implicated as the primary contributor, hinting at its future vulnerability. Here we use a model coupling ice sheet and climate dynamics-including previously underappreciated processes linking atmospheric warming with hydrofracturing of buttressing ice shelves and structural collapse of marine-terminating ice cliffs-that is calibrated against Pliocene and Last Interglacial sea-level estimates and applied to future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Antarctica has the potential to contribute more than a metre of sea-level rise by 2100 and more than 15 metres by 2500, if emissions continue unabated. In this case atmospheric warming will soon become the dominant driver of ice loss, but prolonged ocean warming will delay its recovery for thousands of years.

  1. LTP3 contributes to disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis by enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Wenya; Feng, Wen; Liu, Liang; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Jian; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Hongxia; Tang, Saijun; Hu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Several plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) act positively in plant disease resistance. Here, we show that LTP3 (At5g59320), a pathogen and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene, negatively regulates plant immunity in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of LTP3 (LTP3-OX) led to an enhanced susceptibility to virulent bacteria and compromised resistance to avirulent bacteria. On infection of LTP3-OX plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, NCED3 and AAO3, were highly induced, whereas salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, ICS1 and PR1, were down-regulated. Accordingly, in LTP3-OX plants, we observed increased ABA levels and decreased SA levels relative to the wild-type. We also showed that the LTP3 overexpression-mediated enhanced susceptibility was partially dependent on AAO3. Interestingly, loss of function of LTP3 (ltp3-1) did not affect ABA pathways, but resulted in PR1 gene induction and elevated SA levels, suggesting that LTP3 can negatively regulate SA in an ABA-independent manner. However, a double mutant consisting of ltp3-1 and silent LTP4 (ltp3/ltp4) showed reduced susceptibility to Pseudomonas and down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggesting that LTP3 acts in a redundant manner with its closest homologue LTP4 by modulating the ABA pathway. Taken together, our data show that LTP3 is a novel negative regulator of plant immunity which acts through the manipulation of the ABA-SA balance. PMID:26123657

  2. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, KM; de Walle, HEK; de Rover, CM; Jeeninga, W; Cornel, MC; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Buitendijk, SE; Paulussen, TGWM

    2003-01-01

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of

  3. Strain-level dissection of the contribution of the gut microbiome to human metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhong; Zhao, Liping

    2016-04-20

    The gut microbiota has been linked with metabolic diseases in humans, but demonstration of causality remains a challenge. The gut microbiota, as a complex microbial ecosystem, consists of hundreds of individual bacterial species, each of which contains many strains with high genetic diversity. Recent advances in genomic and metabolomic technologies are facilitating strain-level dissection of the contribution of the gut microbiome to metabolic diseases. Interventional studies and correlation analysis between variations in the microbiome and metabolome, captured by longitudinal sampling, can lead to the identification of specific bacterial strains that may contribute to human metabolic diseases via the production of bioactive metabolites. For example, high-quality draft genomes of prevalent gut bacterial strains can be assembled directly from metagenomic datasets using a canopy-based algorithm. Specific metabolites associated with a disease phenotype can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics of urine and other samples. Such multi-omics approaches can be employed to identify specific gut bacterial genomes that are not only correlated with detected metabolites but also encode the genes required for producing the precursors of those metabolites in the gut. Here, we argue that if a causative role can be demonstrated in follow-up mechanistic studies--for example, using gnotobiotic models--such functional strains have the potential to become biomarkers for diagnostics and targets for therapeutics.

  4. Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, C.F.; Motyka, R.J.; Arendt, A.A.; Echelmeyer, K.A.; Geissler, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The digital elevation model (DEM) from the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was differenced from a composite DEM based on air photos dating from 1948 to 1987 to detennine glacier volume changes in southeast Alaska and adjoining Canada. SRTM accuracy was assessed at ??5 in through comparison with airborne laser altimetry and control locations measured with GPS. Glacier surface elevations lowered over 95% of the 14,580 km2 glacier-covered area analyzed, with some glaciers thinning as much as 640 in. A combination of factors have contributed to this wastage, including calving retreats of tidewater and lacustrine glaciers and climate change. Many glaciers in this region are particularly sensitive to climate change, as they have large areas at low elevations. However, several tidewater glaciers that had historically undergone calving retreats are now expanding and appear to be in the advancing stage of the tidewater glacier cycle. The net average rate of ice loss is estimated at 16.7 ?? 4.4 km3/yr, equivalent to a global sea level rise contribution of 0.04 ?? 0.01 mm/yr. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Contribution to the study of the oxidation reaction of Np(V) by nitric acid catalyzed par nitrous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation reaction kinetics of Np(V) to Np(VI) by nitric acid catalyzed by nitrous acid was studied. In a first part, a detailed bibliographical survey was made of the oxidation-reduction reactions of U, Np, Pu, Am with nitrous and nitric acids (51 references). It is shown that only when both the organic and aqueous phases are mixed up, the extraction of a reaction product (NpVI) induces an equilibrium displacement. TBP was used as solvent. It is shown that the extraction of nitrous acid from the solvent enables the nitrous acid concentration to be kept constant and in the same order of magnitude than that of Np. This enables to show that Np(V) and nitrous acid have no simple orders. The temperature and nitric acid concentration dependence was studied. It is shown that tetravalent nitrogen must play a major part in the Np(V) oxidation

  6. Study of serum fucose and serum sialic acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinomia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikanth M; Rao B

    1994-01-01

    Serum fucose and sialic acid levels were determined in 50 oral cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A statistically significant increase was noted in the study group. The increase in serum fucose level correlated well with the clinical staging in the study group whereas sialic acid did not. These values were independent of age, sex and histopathological grading. The result suggest that the serum fucose level is a better biochemical tumor marker than sialic acid level. However its usefulne...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, and supplemental intakes of EPA alone up to 1.8 g/day, do not raise safety concerns for adults. Dietary recommendations for EPA and DHA based on cardiovascular risk considerations for European adults are between 250 and 500 mg/day. Supplemental intakes of DHA alone up to about 1 g/day do not raise safety concerns for the general population. No data are available for DPA when consumed alone. In the majority of the human studies considered, fish oils, also containing DPA in generally unknown (but relatively low amounts, were the source of EPA and DHA.

  8. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  9. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  10. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6%) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P<0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P<0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.

  11. Contributions of modern and dead organic carbon to individual fatty acid homologues in spring aerosols collected from northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Matsumoto, Kohei; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) have been used as proxies to evaluate the contributions of modern/fossil carbon and marine/terrestrial organic matter, respectively, in geochemical samples. However, there are few such studies in atmospheric aerosols. Here, we measured 14C contents and δ13C of individual n-fatty acids in an aerosol sample collected from northern Japan in spring 2001 during Asian dust season. Our results show that the distribution of fatty acids in the spring aerosols was characterized by a strong even/odd carbon number predominance with two maxima at C16 and C26. Their δ13C (range: -30.6 to -20.5‰) showed higher values (average: -24.5‰) for lower molecular weight (LMW) fatty acids (C16 - C19) and lower values (average: -29.7‰) for higher MW (HMW) fatty acids (C20 - C32). This difference suggests that LMW acids are mainly derived from lacustrine and/or marine algal sources whereas HMW acids are predominantly from terrestrial C3 higher plants. Δ14C values of fatty acids were found to range from -96.9 to +122.9‰ with lower values for HMW acids and higher values for LMW acids. LMW acids in the aerosols contain only modern carbon. In contrast, HMW acids ≥C24 were found to contain up to 9.7 wt% dead carbon, although their major portion (up to 92.3%) is composed of modern carbon. Backward trajectory analyses indicated that the source regions of the spring aerosols were dominated by central and north China (62%). This study suggests that the old fatty acids in the spring aerosols are most likely originated from the loess deposits in China via long-range atmospheric transport over the western North Pacific, although their contribution to the aerosols was relatively small.

  12. Boric Acid Levels in Fresh Noodles and Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    Pang-Hung Yiu; Jian See; Amartalingam Rajan; Choon-Fah J. Bong

    2008-01-01

    Boric acid (H3BO3) is detrimental to human health if consumed in excess. However, it continues to be used in the production of food especially noodles and some processed seafood such as fish ball. Five kinds of noodles and a type of fish ball were collected over a period of four weeks from a random sample of manufacturers in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The boric acid in these food samples were analyzed by the curcumin-acetic acid method using 2-ethyl-1, 3-hexanediol (EHD) extraction. Results ...

  13. Volumetric behaviour of amino acids and their group contributions in aqueous lactose solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.co [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Chauhan, Nalin [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Densities, {rho}, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi}}{sup o}, and experimental slope, S{sub V} were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the ({partial_derivative}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} values. The partial molar volume of transfer, {Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH{sub 3}{sup +}COO{sup -}, and CH{sub 2} groups to V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}.

  14. Contributions of colonic short-chain fatty acid receptors in energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsukazu eKuwahara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is separated from the body’s internal environment by a single layer of epithelial cells, through which nutrients must pass for their absorption into the bloodstream. Besides food and drink, the GI lumen is also exposed to bioactive chemicals and bacterial products including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. Therefore, the GI tract has to monitor the composition of its contents continuously to discriminate between necessary and unnecessary compounds. Recent molecular identification of epithelial membrane receptor proteins has revealed the sensory roles of intestinal epithelial cells in the gut chemosensory system. Malfunctioning of these receptors may be responsible for a variety of metabolic dysfunctions associated with obesity and related disorders. Recent studies suggest that SCFAs produced by microbiota fermentation act as signaling molecules and influence the host’s metabolism; uncovering the sensory mechanisms of such bacterial metabolites would help us understand the interactions between the host and microbiota in host energy homeostasis. In this review, the contribution of colonic SCFA receptors in energy metabolism and our recent findings concerning the possible link between SCFA receptors and host energy homeostasis are discussed.

  15. Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wingham, Duncan

    2007-03-16

    After a century of polar exploration, the past decade of satellite measurements has painted an altogether new picture of how Earth's ice sheets are changing. As global temperatures have risen, so have rates of snowfall, ice melting, and glacier flow. Although the balance between these opposing processes has varied considerably on a regional scale, data show that Antarctica and Greenland are each losing mass overall. Our best estimate of their combined imbalance is about 125 gigatons per year of ice, enough to raise sea level by 0.35 millimeters per year. This is only a modest contribution to the present rate of sea-level rise of 3.0 millimeters per year. However, much of the loss from Antarctica and Greenland is the result of the flow of ice to the ocean from ice streams and glaciers, which has accelerated over the past decade. In both continents, there are suspected triggers for the accelerated ice discharge-surface and ocean warming, respectively-and, over the course of the 21st century, these processes could rapidly counteract the snowfall gains predicted by present coupled climate models. PMID:17363663

  16. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  17. The contribution of urban runoff to organic contaminant levels in harbour sediments near two Norwegian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pettersen, Arne; Nesse, Elisabeth; Eek, Espen; Helland, Aud; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare the quality of particle emissions (urban runoff and settling particles in rivers and harbours) to the quality of top-layer bed sediments, for two Norwegian harbours (Oslo and Drammen). A sub-aim was to investigate whether non-industrial urban runoff contributed to the organotin load of sediments, apart from leaching from ship hulls. Time-integrated samples of stormwater runoff were obtained in an innovative manner, by sampling man-holes in the stormwater system. Settling particles were sampled with sediment traps. The study focused on PAHs, PCBs and organotin compounds. Contaminant levels were generally a factor of 2-10 (PAHs) and 3-30 (TBT) lower in emitted riverine and runoff particles than in top-layer bed sediments, except for PCBs in Oslo harbour (only 20-30% lower). Significant levels of tributyltin (TBT; median 140mug/kg) were shown in runoff particles, showing that TBT can also be emitted via urban sources, since the sampled man-holes were not in areas where dry-docking activities take place. Possible land-based TBT sources include long-lasting house paint and use of TBT as PVC stabilizer and timber preservative. Since there are ongoing emissions into the two studied harbour areas, it is concluded that the addition of an actively sorbing capping material such as activated carbon might be the best remediation alternative. PMID:18230401

  18. Contribution of coagulant and native microflora to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of an artisanal cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, Freni K.; Tavares, Tânia G.; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the coagulant Cynara cardunculus and of the microflora of raw milk to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of Serra da Estrela cheese were evaluated. The experimental design included both a model system and, dual cheeses. The study in the model system showed that isovaleric acid was the predominant volatile compound after 7 d of ripening. The systems inoculated with Enterococcus faecium produced the highest amount of this volatile (ca. 135.8mg kg 1 curd), while t...

  19. Contributions of Individual Amino Acid Residues to the Endogenous CLV3 Function in Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Fen Song; Da-Li Yu; Ting-Ting Xu; Shi-Chao Ren; Peng Guo; Chun-Ming Liu

    2012-01-01

    As a peptide hormone,CLV3 restricts the stem cell number in shoot apical meristem (SAM) by interacting with CLV1/CLV2/CRN/RPK2 receptor complexes.To elucidate howthe function of the CLV3 peptide in SAM maintenance is established at the amino acid (AA) level,alanine substitutions were performed by introducing point mutations to individual residues in the peptide-coding region of CLV3 and its flanking sequences.Constructs carrying such substitutions,expressed under the control of CLV3 regulatory elements,were transformed to the clv3-2 null mutant to evaluate their efficiencies in complementing its defects in SAMs in vivo.These studies showed that aspartate-8,histidine-11,glycine-6,proline-4,arginine-1,and proline-9,arranged in an order of importance,were critical,while threonine-2,valine-3,serine-5,and the previously assigned hydroxylation and arabinosylation residue proline-7 were trivial for the endogenous CLV3 function in SAM maintenance.In contrast,substitutions of flanking residues did not impose much damage on CLV3.Complementation of different alanine-substituted constructs was confirmed by measurements of the sizes of SAMs and the WUS expression levels in transgenic plants.These studies established a complete contribution map of individual residues in the peptide-coding region of CLV3 for its function in SAM,which may help to understand peptide hormones in general.

  20. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  1. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Naithani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p=0.790. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  2. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  3. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  4. Multivariate data analysis for finding the relevant fatty acids contributing to the melting fractions of cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    feeding regimes. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that the melting point of the medium melting fraction of milk fat was positively correlated with palmitic acid (C16:0), whereas it was negatively correlated with oleic acid (C18:1 cis9), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA cis9 trans11), vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans11......), elaic acid (C18:1 trans9) and myristoleic acid (C14:1). The melting points of the high melting fractions could not be related to the fatty acid composition. Addition of palmitic acid-based fat supplement to the feeding ration in combination with a lower forage intake increased the amount of C16......:0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) in milk fat, whereas it decreased the amount of stearic acid (C18:0) and C18:1 trans fatty acid. Average data on the melting behaviour of cream separated the farms into two groups where the main differences in feeding were the amounts of maize silage and rapeseed cake used. CONCLUSION...

  5. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to global sea-level change: ANDRILL and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1 to 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  6. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Levels among Egyptian Children with Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: antiepileptic drugs might upset the homeostatic balance of Hcy and its cofactors and cause abnormalities of their serum levels. The duration of anti-epileptic drug treatment was related to decrease of folic acid and increase in homocysteine levels.

  7. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

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    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  8. Antarctic contribution to sea level rise observed by GRACE with improved GIA correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik R.; James, Thomas S.; Wahr, John; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Landerer, Felix W.; Simon, Karen M.

    2013-06-01

    Antarctic volume changes during the past 21 thousand years are smaller than previously thought, and here we construct an ice sheet history that drives a forward model prediction of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) gravity signal. The new model, in turn, should give predictions that are constrained with recent uplift data. The impact of the GIA signal on a Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Antarctic mass balance estimate depends on the specific GRACE analysis method used. For the method described in this paper, the GIA contribution to the apparent surface mass change is re-evaluated to be +55±13 Gt/yr by considering a revised ice history model and a parameter search for vertical motion predictions that best fit the GPS observations at 18 high-quality stations. Although the GIA model spans a range of possible Earth rheological structure values, the data are not yet sufficient for solving for a preferred value of upper and lower mantle viscosity nor for a preferred lithospheric thickness. GRACE monthly solutions from the Center for Space Research Release 04 (CSR-RL04) release time series from January 2003 to the beginning of January 2012, uncorrected for GIA, yield an ice mass rate of +2.9± 29 Gt/yr. The new GIA correction increases the solved-for ice mass imbalance of Antarctica to -57±34 Gt/yr. The revised GIA correction is smaller than past GRACE estimates by about 50 to 90 Gt/yr. The new upper bound to the sea level rise from the Antarctic ice sheet, averaged over the time span 2003.0-2012.0, is about 0.16±0.09 mm/yr.

  9. Ocean Temperature and Salinity Contributions to Global and Regional Sea-Level Change (Chapter 6)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Direct Estimates of Steric Sea-Level Rise Estimating Steric Sea-Level Change Using Ocean Syntheses Inferring Steric Sea Level from Time-Variable Gravity and Sea Level Modeling Steric Sea-Level Rise Conclusions and Recommendations Acknowledgments References

  10. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Crown

    Full Text Available The branched chain amino acids (BCAA valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0 and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  11. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Scott B; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  12. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Scott B; Marze, Nicholas; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0) and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0) fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA. PMID:26710334

  13. Contributions of separate reactions to the acid-base buffering of soils in brook floodplains (Central Forest State Reserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Rusakova, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    The acid-base buffering of gleyic gray-humus soils developed in brook floodplains and undisturbed southern-taiga landscapes has been characterized by the continuous potentiometric titration of soil water suspensions. During the interaction with an acid, the major amount of protons (>80%) is consumed for the displacement of exchangeable bases and the dissolution of Ca oxalates. In the O and AY horizons, Mn compounds make the major contribution (2-15%) to the acid buffering. The buffer reactions with the participation of Al compounds make up from 0.5 to 1-2% of the total buffering capacity, and the protonation of the surface OH groups of kaolinite consumes 2-3% of the total buffering capacity. The deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of Fe hydroxides (9-43%), the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of illite crystals (3-19%), and the dissolution of unidentified aluminosilicates (9-14%) are the most significant buffer reactions whose contributions have been quantified during the interaction with a base. The contribution of the deprotonation of OH groups on the surface of kaolinite particles is lower (1-5%) because of the small specific surface area of this mineral, and that of the dissolution of Fe compounds is insignificant. In the AY horizon, the acid and base buffering of soil in the rhizosphere is higher than beyond the rhizosphere because of the higher contents of organic matter and nonsilicate Fe and Al compounds.

  14. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

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    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  15. Serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Korean patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Kim, Y K; Hann, S K

    1999-06-01

    The association of vitiligo and pernicious anemia has been previously documented. The low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were thought to be related to vitiligo. To date, there have been very few reports about the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo. Using radioimmunoassay, we measured the serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in 100 Korean patients with vitiligo. The mean serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were 6.31 +/- 2.82 ng/ml and 630.25 +/- 230.94 pg/ml, respectively, in patients with vitiligo. These levels showed no significant difference compared to the normal control group, suggesting that folic acid and vitamin B12 do not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

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    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  18. Contributions of Cell Metabolism and H+ Diffusion to the Acidic pH of Tumors

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    Paul A. Schornack

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is hypoxic and acidic. These conditions have a significant impact on tumor progression and response to therapies. There is strong evidence that tumor hypoxia results from inefficient perfusion due to a chaotic vasculature. Consequently, some tumor regions are well oxygenated and others are hypoxic. It is commonly believed that hypoxic regions are acidic due to a stimulation of glycolysis through hypoxia, yet this is not yet demonstrated. The current study investigates the causes of tumor acidity by determining acid production rates and the mechanism of diffusion for H+ equivalents through model systems. Two breast cancer cell lines were investigated with divergent metabolic profiles: nonmetastatic MCF-7/s and highly metastatic MDA-mb-435 cells. Glycolysis and acid production are inhibited by oxygen in MCF-7/s cells, but not in MDA-mb-435 cells. Tumors of MDAmb-435 cells are significantly more acidic than are tumors of MCF-7/s cells, suggesting that tumor acidity is primarily caused by endogenous metabolism, not the lack of oxygen. Metabolically produced protons are shown to diffuse in association with mobile buffers, in concordance with previous studies. The metabolic and diffusion data were analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model to demonstrate that the consequent pH profiles conform well to measured pH values for tumors of these two cell lines.

  19. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used

  20. Evaluation of gamma gluthamyl transferase and uric acid levels in arsenic exposed subject

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    Ceylan Bal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arsenic is a metal with a widespread industrial usage and causing oxidative stress. Studies shows serum uric acid and gamma gluthamyl transferase (GGT levels are increasing in oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of arsenic exposure on serum uric acid and GGT levels. Methods: 500 patients who refer to Ankara Occupational Disease Hospital between 2010 to 2014 for periodic examination and urinary arsenic, serum uric acid and serum GGT levels assessed are included in this study. 268 patients with urinary arsenic levels over 35μg/L are defined as exposed and below 35μg/L are controls. Results: Data of 500 patients were analysed. 268 of them had high urine arsenic levels and 232 had normal urine arsenic levels. In the high urine arsenic level group the median serum uric acid level was 5.4 (2.60-7.20 and median serum GGT level was 27 (10-51 in the other group with normal urine arsenic levels the median serum uric acid level was 4.9 (2.5-7 and median serum GGT level was 22 (10-52. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p value: 0.002 and <0.001 respectively Conclusion: Arsenic exposure may be associated with hyperuricemia and high levels of GGT and with prospective studies the causal relationship between arsenic exposure and hyperuricemia and GGT can be revealed.

  1. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI. PMID:27003900

  2. Uric acid levels and their relation to incapacities in acute cerebrovascular disease

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    Julio López Argüelles

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: cerebrovascular disease and ischemic cardiopathy can be considered as an epidemic and constitute the first cause of incapacities in developed countries. Multiple studies have shown the association between uric acid levels and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To correlate the levels of serum uric acid and incapacities in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Methods: A correlational study was carried out with 217 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s incapacity level was measured by using the Barthel Index and those results were related with the serum uric acid levels and other variables. Results: Male patients have higher levels of uric acid (p=0, 04; r=0, 13. Age and Barthel index were p < 0,001; r = -0, 30 and uric acid levels and Barthel Index were p=0, 03; r=-0, 14. The principal predicting factors of incapacity in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease were the high levels of uric acid, age and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: It is shown that the highest is the level of uric acid at advanced age; the greatest is the risk of suffering from incapacity in acute phases of cerebrovascular diseases.

  3. Homosistein, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Levels in Patients with Pediatric Celiac Disease

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    Dilek Beker Şanlı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our aim in this study was to investigate effects of vitamin B12 and folic acid malabsorption to homocysteine levels in celiac patients. Materials and Methods: Between 2-17 years of ages 32 celiac patients before treatment, 14 celiac patient in remission and 30 healthy controls involved in this study. Homocystein levels were evaluated in all groups. In addition plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid determined in celiac and remission groups. Results: Homocysteine levels as arithmetic mean±SD found 22.8±1.69 µmol/L in celiac group, 17.31±1.94 µmol/L in remission group and 15.21±1.69 µmol/L in control group. Folic acid levels as arithmetic mean±SD found 7.04±0.74 ng/ml in celiac patients and 12.95±1.9 ng/ml in remission group. There is statistically significant difference between folic acid and homocysteine levels of two groups (p0.05. Conclusions: In our study homocysteine levels were found to be higher in celiac group than remission group. In this study, difference in folic acid levels between two groups may show that changes in folic acid levels related to changes in homocysteine levels.

  4. Characterization of humic acids, the Riso contribution to the Coco-club activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the CEC project Mirage 2/Coco Club, a series of humic acids has been characterized by moisture content, ash content, metal content, functional group content and complexional behaviour towards europium ions

  5. Metabolomics reveals amino acids contribute to variation in response to simvastatin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Trupp

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Statins are widely prescribed for reducing LDL-cholesterol (C and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, but there is considerable variation in therapeutic response. We used a gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics platform to evaluate global effects of simvastatin on intermediary metabolism. Analyses were conducted in 148 participants in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics study who were profiled pre and six weeks post treatment with 40 mg/day simvastatin: 100 randomly selected from the full range of the LDL-C response distribution and 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of this distribution ("good" and "poor" responders, respectively. The metabolic signature of drug exposure in the full range of responders included essential amino acids, lauric acid (p<0.0055, q<0.055, and alpha-tocopherol (p<0.0003, q<0.017. Using the HumanCyc database and pathway enrichment analysis, we observed that the metabolites of drug exposure were enriched for the pathway class amino acid degradation (p<0.0032. Metabolites whose change correlated with LDL-C lowering response to simvastatin in the full range responders included cystine, urea cycle intermediates, and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, citrulline and lysine. These dibasic amino acids share plasma membrane transporters with arginine, the rate-limiting substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS, a critical mediator of cardiovascular health. Baseline metabolic profiles of the good and poor responders were analyzed by orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis so as to determine the metabolites that best separated the two response groups and could be predictive of LDL-C response. Among these were xanthine, 2-hydroxyvaleric acid, succinic acid, stearic acid, and fructose. Together, the findings from this study indicate that clusters of metabolites involved in multiple pathways not directly connected with cholesterol metabolism may play a role in modulating

  6. Contribution au profilage des acides organiques urinaires, chez l'enfant

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Vásquez, Naira

    2015-01-01

    Among inherited metabolic diseases, organic acidemia (OA) or organic aciduria is characterized by urinary excretion of abnormal amounts or types of organic acids. OA is mostly associated with genetic conditions resulting in a specific step of amino acid catabolism dysfunction. Such alterations can produce disease states that range from mild to lethal neurological involvement. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) remains the most used analytical technique for detecting speci...

  7. Unusually High Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Whale Sharks and Reef Manta Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, L. I. E.; Rohner, C. A.; Richardson, A. J.; Pierce, S. J.; Marshall, A. D.; Jaine, F. R. A.; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M. B.; Weeks, S.J.; Nichols, P D

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12–17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA—eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and d...

  8. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  9. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  10. The contribution to distribution network fault levels from the connection of distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study investigating the potential impact of distributed generation (DG) on the UK distribution network fault levels up to the year 2010, and examining ways of managing the fault levels so that they do not become a barrier to increased penetration of DG. The project focuses on the circumstances and scenarios that give rise to the fault levels. The background to the study is traced, and a technical review is presented covering the relationship between DG and fault levels, and the likely impact in the period to 2010. Options for managing increased fault levels, and fault level management and costs are outlined, and a case study is given. The measurement and calculation of fault level values are described along with constraints to DG penetration due to fault level limitations, characteristics of DG machines, and long term perspectives to 2020-2030.

  11. Acid rain research[NIVA contributions to ACID REIGN '95? Conference in Gothenburg, Sweden, 26-30 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The conference dealt with various sources, aspects and present and future consequences of pollution, particularly acid precipitation on the environment especially on the terrestrial and aquatic parts, with the focus on acidification. Surveys of the extent of the problems were presented. Various methods of reversing the effects are dealt with. Much attention was focused on various water systems such as rivers, lakes, surface waters and ground water and consequences of pollution chemically, geologically, biologically and botanically. The problems of global warming and changes were also focused upon. The origins of pollutants were discussed.

  12. Classroom- and school-level contributions to bullying and victimization : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saarento, Silja; Garandeau, Claire F.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    School bullying is increasingly viewed by researchers as a group phenomenon that extends beyond the perpetrator-victim dyad and is embedded in the wider social context. This paper reviews the literature on classroom and school factors contributing to bullying and victimization among children and ado

  13. On the neutron contribution to the exposure level onboard space vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurny, F; Ploc, O; Dachev, T

    2007-01-01

    The neutron contribution to the spacecraft crew exposure could represent an important part of the total dose equivalent value. The determination of this contribution represents a rather complex and difficult task, both through experimental and theoretical estimation. This paper will present an attempt to determine the neutron contribution onboard the International Space Station and Foton capsule using the data measured by means of a Si-diode based energy deposition spectrometer. As such a spectrometer, the MDU-Liulin equipment, developed in one of our laboratories was used. The equipment allows the data accumulated during the passage in or out of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). In this paper, only the data obtained out of the SAA were analysed, assuming that the neutron spectra are similar to those onboard aircraft and/or at the CERF high-energy radiation field. The excess of deposited energy in the region above 1 MeV, when comparing with the aircraft field, was expected to represent the primary high-energy charged particles. Total dosimetry characteristics obtained in this way are in reasonable agreement with other data, neutron contribution representing approximately 40% of the total dose equivalent for the flight duration outside of the SAA.

  14. Increased hepatic Fatty Acid uptake and esterification contribute to tetracycline-induced steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Chae-Hyeon; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tetracycline induces microvesicular steatosis, which has a poor long-term prognosis and a higher risk of steatohepatitis development compared with macrovesicular steatosis. Recent gene expression studies indicated that tetracycline treatment affects the expression of many genes associated with fatty acid transport and esterification. In this study, we investigated the role of fatty acid transport and esterification in tetracycline-induced steatosis. Intracellular lipid accumulation and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2 were increased in both mouse liver and HepG2 cells treated with tetracycline at 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) and 100 μM, respectively. Tetracycline increased the cellular uptake of boron-dipyrromethene-labeled C16 fatty acid, which was abolished by CD36 RNA interference. Oleate-induced cellular lipid accumulation was further enhanced by co-incubation with tetracycline. Tetracycline downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which negatively regulated DGAT2 expression. U0126, a specific ERK inhibitor, also increased DGAT2 expression and cellular lipid accumulation. DGAT1 and 2 knock-down with specific small interfering (si)-RNA completely abrogated the steatogenic effect of tetracycline in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our data showed that tetracycline induces lipid accumulation by facilitating fatty acid transport and triglyceride esterification by upregulating CD36 and DGAT2, respectively. PMID:25745068

  15. Salt Contribution to the Flexibility of Single-stranded Nucleic Acid of Finite Length

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids are negatively charged macromolecules and their structure properties are strongly coupled to metal ions in solutions. In this paper, the salt effects on the flexibility of single stranded (ss) nucleic acid chain ranging from 12 to 120 nucleotides are investigated systematically by the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations where the salt ions are considered explicitly and the ss chain is modeled with the virtual bond structural model. Our calculations show that, the increase of ion concentration causes the structural collapse of ss chain and multivalent ions are much more efficient in causing such collapse, and trivalent and small divalent ions can both induce more compact state than a random relaxation state. We found that monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions can all overcharge ss chain, and the dominating source for such overcharging changes from ion exclusion volume effect to ion Coulomb correlations. In addition, the predicted Na and Mg dependent persistence length lp of ss nucleic acid a...

  16. Induction of liver metallothionein contribute to the developmental toxicity of valproic acid in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Abolhassani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased risk of neural tube defects and axial skeletal malformations among infants born by mothers who had received Valproic acid...The aim of the present study is, if administration of valproic acid can induce maternal hepatic Metallothionein (MT synthesis and so secondary decrease of plasma Zn. In the present experimental study, mated rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each [control, valproic acid (VPA, valproic acid + zinc (VPA+ Zn and Zinc (Zn groups]. The VPA group received 300 mg/kg valproic acid; daily. The control group received an equal volume of 0.9% NaCI. The VPA+ Zn group received 300 mg/kg VPA as well as 30 mg/kg zinc sulfate, and the Zn group received 30 mg/kg zinc sulfate, daily. These drugs were administered intraperitoneally from day 6 through day 15 of gestation. Dams were killed on GD 16 or 20. Blood was drawn to determine plasma zinc; furthermore, maternal liver Zn and MT were also determined. The zinc concentration in the plasma of rats treated with valproic acid was significantly lower than those of the other groups on GD 16 (p=0.004, but liver Zn (p=0.016 and MT (p=0.004 were significantly higher than those of the control group. On GD 20 the incidence of skeletal malformations and neural tube defects tended to be higher in VPA group than VPA+ Zn treated group and no anomalies were seen in the control group. The results from the present experiment support hypothesis that one of biochemical lesions causing the teratogenicity of VPA is a drug induced maternal plasma zinc deficiency secondary to Metallothionein induction in liver.

  17. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  18. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source. PMID:23975574

  19. Investigation of Plasma Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels in Obese and Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hümeyra Yerlikaya; İdris Mehmetoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Obesity is very widespread health problem especially in developed countries. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it implicates with many factors in the etiology and it needs to treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. An array of purposed beneficial effects of CLA, such as capability of reducing or eliminating cancer, preventing heart disease a...

  20. Cystathionine γ-lyase, a H2S-generating enzyme, is a GPBAR1-regulated gene and contributes to vasodilation caused by secondary bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Barbara; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cipriani, Sabrina; Carino, Adriana; Monti, Maria Chiara; Zampella, Angela; Gargiulo, Antonella; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    GPBAR1 is a bile acid-activated receptor (BAR) for secondary bile acids, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), expressed in the enterohepatic tissues and in the vasculature by endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Despite that bile acids cause vasodilation, it is unclear why these effects involve GPBAR1, and the vascular phenotype of GPBAR1 deficient mice remains poorly defined. Previous studies have suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) in regulatory activity exerted by GPBAR1 in liver endothelial cells. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a vasodilatory agent generated in endothelial cells by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Here we demonstrate that GPBAR1 null mice had increased levels of primary and secondary bile acids and impaired vasoconstriction to phenylephrine. In aortic ring preparations, vasodilation caused by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a weak GPBAR1 ligand and farnesoid-x-receptor agonist (FXR), was iberiotoxin-dependent and GPBAR1-independent. In contrast, vasodilation caused by LCA was GPBAR1 dependent and abrogated by propargyl-glycine, a CSE inhibitor, and by 5β-cholanic acid, a GPBAR1 antagonist, but not by N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine (l-NIO), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, or iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels antagonist. In venular and aortic endothelial (HUVEC and HAEC) cells GPBAR1 activation increases CSE expression/activity and H2S production. Two cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) sites (CREs) were identified in the CSE promoter. In addition, TLCA stimulates CSE phosphorylation on serine residues. In conclusion we demonstrate that GPBAR1 mediates the vasodilatory activity of LCA and regulates the expression/activity of CSE. Vasodilation caused by CDCA involves BKCa channels. The GPBAR1/CSE pathway might contribute to endothelial dysfunction and hyperdynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25934094

  1. Serum uric acid levels and leukocyte nitric oxide production in multiple sclerosis patients outside relapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, JP; Ramsaransing, GSM; Heerserna, DJ; Heerings, M; Wilczak, N; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: A number of studies found that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have low serum levels of uric acid. It is unclear whether this represents a primary deficit or secondary effect. Uric acid is a scavenger of peroxynitrite, which is the product of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. Becau

  2. The Contribution of High Levels of Somatic Symptom Severity to Sickness Absence Duration, Disability and Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; Krol, Boudien; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The primary objectives were to compare the duration of sickness absence in employees with high levels of somatic symptom severity (HLSSS) with employees with lower levels of somatic symptom severity, and to establish the long-term outcomes concerning return to work (RTW), disability an

  3. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities).

  4. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCHNO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  5. Understanding job satisfaction amongst mid-level cadres in Malawi: the contribution of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Eilish; Manafa, Ogenna; Maseko, Fresier; Bowie, Cameron; White, Emma

    2009-05-01

    The migration of doctors and nurses from low- to high-income countries has left many countries relying on mid-level cadres as the mainstay of their health delivery system, Malawi being an example. Although an extremely important resource, little attention has been paid to the management and further development of these cadres. In this paper we use the concept of organisational justice - fairness of treatment, procedures and communication on the part of managers - to explore through a questionnaire how mid-level cadres in jobs traditionally done by higher-level cadres self-assessed their level of job satisfaction. All mid-level health workers present on the day of data collection in 34 health facilities in three health districts of Malawi, one district each from the three geographical regions, were invited to participate; 126 agreed. Perceptions of justice correlated strongly with level of job satisfaction, and in particular perceptions of how well they were treated by their managers and the extent to which they were informed about decisions and changes. Pay was not the only important element in job satisfaction; promotion opportunities and satisfaction with current work assignments were also significant. These findings highlight the important role that managers can play in the motivation, career development and performance of mid-level health workers. PMID:19523585

  6. Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Beukers, Marja; Buurma-Rethans, Elly; Verhagen, Hans; Ocké, Marga C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy) and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addit...

  7. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  8. Uric acid levels and their relation to incapacities in acute cerebrovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Julio López Argüelles; Joan Rojas Fuentes; Ricardo Verdecia Fraga

    2010-01-01

    Background: cerebrovascular disease and ischemic cardiopathy can be considered as an epidemic and constitute the first cause of incapacities in developed countries. Multiple studies have shown the association between uric acid levels and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To correlate the levels of serum uric acid and incapacities in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Methods: A correlational study was carried out with 217 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s ...

  9. Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addition, the risk of young children exceeding the UL for folic acid was studied. Methods: Folic acid fortified foods present on the Dutch market were identified in product databases and by a supermarket inventory. Together with data of the Dutch National Consumption Survey-Young Children (2005/2006 these inventory results were used to re-estimate the model parameters. Habitual folic acid intake of young children was estimated and compared to the UL for several realistic fortification scenarios. Results: Folic acid fortified foods were identified in seven different food groups. In up to 10% of the population, the proportion of energy intake of folic acid fortified foods exceeded 10% – the original model parameter. The folic acid intake from food supplements was about 100 µg/day, which is lower than the intake assumed as the original model parameter (300 µg. In the scenarios representing the current market situation, a small proportion (<5% of the children exceeded the UL. Conclusion: The maximum fortification level of 100 µg/100 kcal is sufficiently protective for children in the current market situation. In the precautionary model to estimate the maximum fortification levels, subjects with high intakes of folic acid from food and supplements, and high energy intakes are protected from too high folic acid intakes. Combinations of high intakes are low in this population. The maximum levels should be monitored and revised with increasing fortification and

  10. Fluctuations in sedation levels may contribute to delirium in ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, I; Videbech, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU.......Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU....

  11. Gap Junction Contributions to the Goldfish Electroretinogram at the Photopic Illumination Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doh-Yeon; Jung, Chang-Sub

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. To understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the ERG b-wave. Many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons through gap junctions. The photopic (cone-dominated) ERG, stimulated by a small light beam, was recorded from goldfish (Carassius auratus) usi...

  12. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows

    OpenAIRE

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins ...

  13. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica ePessione

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitutes the basis for their antiinfective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both GABA, that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins.Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cellproliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects.A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine Thus opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as antioxidant nutraceutical

  14. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p meta-regression analyses confirmed this association only as compared with healthy controls. Finally, though uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research.

  15. The contribution of sea-level rise to flooding in large river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Hopson, T. M.; Gilleland, E.; Lamarque, J.; Hu, A.; Simmer, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to both impact sea level rise as well as flooding. Our study focuses on the combined effect of climate change on upper catchment precipitation as well as on sea-level rise at the river mouths and the impact this will have on river flooding both at the coast and further upstream. We concentrate on the eight catchments of the Amazonas, Congo, Orinoco, Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna, Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Danube and Niger rivers. To assess the impact of climate change, upper catchment precipitation as well as monthly mean thermosteric sea-level rise at the river mouth outflow are taken from the four CCSM4 1° 20th Century ensemble members as well as from six CCSM4 1° ensemble members for the RCP scenarios RCP8.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 2.6. Continuous daily time series for average catchment precipitation and discharge are available for each of the catchments. To arrive at a future discharge time series, we used these observations to develop a simple statistical hydrological model which can be applied to the modelled future upper catchment precipitation values. The analysis of this surrogate discharge time series alone already yields significant changes in flood return levels as well as flood duration. Using the geometry of the river channel, the backwater effect of sea-level rise is incorporated in our analysis of both flood frequencies and magnitudes by calculating the effective additional discharge due to the increase in water level at the river mouth outflow, as well as its tapering impact upstream. By combining these effects, our results focus on the merged impact of changes in extreme precipitation with increases in river height due to sea-level rise at the river mouths. Judging from our preliminary results, the increase in effective discharge due to sea-level rise cannot be neglected when discussing late 21st century flooding in the respective river basins. In particular, we find that especially in countries with low elevation gradient, flood

  16. Projected contributions of future wind farm development to community noise and annoyance levels in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind turbines produce sound during their operation; therefore, jurisdictions around the world have developed regulations regarding the placement of electricity generating wind farms with the intent of preventing unacceptable levels of ‘community noise’ in their vicinity. However, as survey results indicate that the relationship between wind turbine noise and annoyance may differ from noise-annoyance relationships for other common noise sources (e.g., rail, traffic), there are concerns that the application of general noise guidelines for wind turbines may lead to unacceptably high levels of annoyance in communities. In this study, previously published survey results that quantified wind turbine noise and self-reported annoyance were applied to the predicted noise levels (from turbines and transformers) for over 8000 receptors in the vicinity of 13 planned wind power developments in the province of Ontario, Canada. The results of this analysis indicate that the current wind turbine noise restrictions in Ontario will limit community exposure to wind turbine related noise such that levels of annoyance are unlikely to exceed previously established background levels of noise-related annoyance from other common noise sources. This provides valuable context that should be considered by policy-makers when evaluating the potential impacts of wind turbine noise on the community. -- highlights: •Wind turbine noise-annoyance relationship used to predict annoyance in Ontario. •Noise annoyance predicted to be <8% for non-participants <1 km from turbines. •Predicted levels of wind turbine noise annoyance similar to that from traffic noise. •Wind turbine noise annoyance not expected to exceed existing background levels

  17. Voluntary food fortification with folic acid in Spain: predicted contribution to children's dietary intakes as assessed with new food folate composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish market offers a significant number of folic acid (FA) voluntarily fortified foods. We analysed FA and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu) content in ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (n=68) and cow's milk (n=25) by a previously validated affinity chromatography-HPLC method. Contribution to potential FA intakes for children aged 2-13years, was assessed using food consumption data from a representative nationwide study, folate Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and Upper Levels (UL). Results showed that at all food fortification levels obtained, fortified products provided more than tenfold FA than (6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu. For RTEC, the high fortification level provided 6-21%, per serving, of RDI and ⩽32% of ULs at 90th percentile of RTEC consumption (P90). Milk products fortified at the higher level reached on average 54-136% of RDI per serving and only exceeded UL at P90 of milk consumption in children aged 2-5years.

  18. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  19. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  20. Asymmetric functional contributions of acidic and aromatic side chains in sodium channel voltage-sensor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Elstone, Fisal D; Niciforovic, Ana P;

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels mediate electrical excitability in animals. Despite strong sequence conservation among the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) of closely related voltage-gated potassium (KV) and NaV channels, the functional contributions of individual side chains in Nav VSDs remain...... largely enigmatic. To this end, natural and unnatural side chain substitutions were made in the S2 hydrophobic core (HC), the extracellular negative charge cluster (ENC), and the intracellular negative charge cluster (INC) of the four VSDs of the skeletal muscle sodium channel isoform (NaV1.......4). The results show that the highly conserved aromatic side chain constituting the S2 HC makes distinct functional contributions in each of the four NaV domains. No obvious cation-pi interaction exists with nearby S4 charges in any domain, and natural and unnatural mutations at these aromatic sites produce...

  1. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  2. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Epilepsy%癫痫与血清尿酸水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤英; 蔡学坤; 赵旦; 张伟雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the abnormal metabolism of uric acid in patients with epilepsy. Method:The serum levels of uric acid was determined by colorimetry in 70 patients with epilepsy as the trials group and 70 healthy as the normal controls group. Result:The serum uric acid concentrations in the trials group was(399.37±129.23)μmol/L,and it was significantly higher compared to those in the normal control group(316.56±66.84)μmol/L,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:It is concluded that the higher serum uric acid levels may contribute to the physiopathological course in epilepsy.%目的:探讨癫痫与血清尿酸(serum uric acid,SUA)的代谢异常的关系。方法:采用比色法测定70例癫痫和70例正常成人SUA的水平。结果:癫痫组的SUA水平为(399.37±129.23)μmol/L,明显高于正常组的(316.56±66.84)μmol/L,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:癫痫患者存在尿酸代谢异常。

  3. Positronium energy levels at order m α7 : Product contributions in the two-photon-annihilation channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Gregory S.; Tran, Lam M.; Wang, Ruihan

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing improvements in the measurement of positronium transition intervals motivate the calculation of the O (m α7) corrections to these intervals. In this work we focus on corrections to the spin-singlet parapositronium energies involving virtual annihilation to two photons in an intermediate state. We have evaluated all contributions to the positronium S -state energy levels that can be written as the product of a one-loop correction on one side of the annihilation event and another one-loop correction on the other side. These effects contribute Δ E =-0.561971 (25 ) m α7/π3 to the parapositronium ground-state energy.

  4. Positronium energy levels at order $m \\alpha^7$: Product contributions in the two-photon-annihilation channel

    CERN Document Server

    Adkins, Gregory S; Wang, Ruihan

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing improvements in the measurement of positronium transition intervals motivate the calculation of the $O(m \\alpha^7)$ corrections to these intervals. In this work we focus on corrections to the spin-singlet parapositronium energies involving virtual annihilation to two photons in an intermediate state. We have evaluated all contributions to the positronium S-state energy levels that can be written as the product of a one-loop correction on one side of the annihilation event and another one-loop correction on the other side. These effects contribute $\\Delta E = -0.561971(25) m \\alpha^7/\\pi^3$ to the parapositronium ground state energy.

  5. Sfermion loop contribution to the two-loop level fermion electric dipole moment in R-parity violating supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the Barr-Zee type two-loop level contribution to the fermion electric and chromo-electric dipole moments with sfermion loop in R-parity violating supersymmetric models. It is found that the Barr-Zee type fermion dipole moment with sfermion loop acts destructively to the currently known fermion loop contribution, and that it has small effect when the mass of squarks or charged sleptons in the loop is larger than or comparable to that of the sneutrinos, but cannot be neglected if the sneutrinos are much heavier than loop sfermions.

  6. Contribution of climate forcing to sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Vergos, Georgios S.; Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2016-04-01

    With the availability of an abundance of earth observation data from satellite altimetry missions as well as those from the ENVISAT and CRYOSAT-2 satellites, monitoring of the sea level variations is gaining increased importance. In this work, altimetric data sets from the satellite remote sensing missions of ENVISAT and CRYOSAT-2 have been used to study the variations of the Mediterranean sea level. Alongside, a correlation analysis of Sea Level Anomalies (SLAs) with global and regional climatic indexes that influence the ocean state, has been carried out as well. The raw data used were SLAs from the respective altimetric missions, acquired by the on-board altimeters from the ENVISAT satellite for seven consecutive years (2003-2009) and from the CRYOSAT-2 satellite for six consecutive years (2010-2015). Three oscillation indexes have been investigated, as representative of climate-change and seasonal forcing on the sea level. The first one was the well-known Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), the next one the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the third, being primarily more representative of the Mediterranean sea state, was the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI). The possible correlation is investigated in both monthly and annual scales, while a regional multiple regression and a principal component analysis (PCA) between the SLAs and oscillation indexes is carried out. Multiple regression and PCA have been used as tools in order to deduce possible correlations between the Mediterranean sea level variations and the aforementioned oscillation indexes, under the assumption that SLA variations are driven by steric forcing. Finally, evidence of the sea level cyclo-stationarity in the Mediterranean Sea is deduced from the analysis of empirically derived covariance functions at monthly intervals from the available SLA data.

  7. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  8. Fatty acid content of honeycombs depending on the level of technogenic loading on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Vishchur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The content of heavy metals, non-etherified and anionic forms of fatty acids, and also fatty acids of common lipids in honeycomb cells, obtained from hives placed in areas with high, medium and low levels of technogenic loading is investigated. The hives were located at the educational apiary of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj (area with very heavy traffic and industrial activity and in private beekeeping farms in the town Vynnyky and the village Chyzhyky, Pustomyty district, Lviv region (areas with lower intensity of traffic and industrial activity. Our research has shown that the newly-built honeycomb cells obtained from hives placed in the territory with medium and low levels of technogenic loading contain a lower quantity of such heavy metals as iron, zinc, cuprum, chromium, nickel, lead and cadmium. The total amount of non-etherified fatty acids with even and odd number of carbon atoms in the chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families was higher in these honeycombs. However, the total concentration of anionic forms of fatty acids with even and odd number of carbon atoms in the chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families was lower in these honeycombs. Due to the above-mentioned monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids the amount of fatty acids of common lipids rises. It leads to increase in the antibacterial and antifungal properties of honeycomb cells and reduction of fragility of their walls. The greatest changes in concentration of heavy metals, non-etherified and anionic form of fatty acids, and also fatty acids of common lipids occur in the newly built honeycomb cells in the territory with low technogenic loading on the environment.

  9. Flicker Adaptation of Low-Level Cortical Visual Neurons Contributes to Temporal Dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Several seconds of adaptation to a flickered stimulus causes a subsequent brief static stimulus to appear longer in duration. Nonsensory factors, such as increased arousal and attention, have been thought to mediate this flicker-based temporal-dilation aftereffect. In this study, we provide evidence that adaptation of low-level cortical visual…

  10. Perceptions of Counselor Characteristics: Contributions of Counselor Sex, Experience, and Disclosure Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Assessed effects of counselor sex, experience, and self-disclosure level on perceived expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. Results indicated expert counselors were rated more expert than nonexpert. Female experts were rated more expert than female nonexperts, but male experts and nonexperts did not differ. High-disclosing counselors…

  11. Contribution of coated humic acids calculated through their surface coverage on nano iron oxides for ofloxacin and norfloxacin sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of organic contaminants on organo-mineral complexes has been investigated extensively, but the sorption contribution of mineral particles was not properly addressed before calculating KOC, especially for ionic organic contaminants. We measured the surface coverage of a humic acid (HA) on nano iron oxides (n-Fe2O3) in a series of synthesized organo-mineral complexes. The contribution of the coated HA to ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) sorption in HA–n-Fe2O3 complexes was over 80% of the total sorption with the surface coverage of 36% and fOC of 1.6%. All the coated HA showed higher sorption to NOR and OFL in comparison to the original HA, suggesting HA fractionation and/or physical re-conformation during organo-mineral complex formation. The decreased KOC with multilayer coating may suggest the importance of site-specific interactions for OFL sorption, while the increased KOC with multilayer coating may suggest the importance of partitioning in hydrophobic region for NOR sorption. - Highlights: • The sorption of nano iron oxides was calculated through their exposed surface area. • The contribution of the coated HA was over 80% of the total sorption. • The decreased KOC with multilayer coating suggests site-specific sorption for OFL. • The increased KOC with multilayer coating suggests NOR partitioning in hydrophobic region. - Coated humic acid showed increased sorption to ionic organic contaminants in comparison to bulk humic acid, and accounted for over 80% of the total sorption at fOC of 1.6%

  12. Relationship between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Kidney Arteriole Resistance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Associated with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wodong; Mai Ciguang; Liang Weixiang; Xie Yinong; Liao Zhida; Yang Junqing

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and arteriole resistance detected with the color Doppler energy imaging (CDEI) and to explore the risks of impaired regulation of vascular tone by uric acid in kidneys of hypertension patients. Methods In 12 healthy control cases, 28 non-diabetic hypertension (nNIDDM +H) cases and 25 type 2 diabetic hypertension (NIDDM+H) cases, uric acid (UA)levels were measured with uricase-peroxidase method.Arteriole resistance index (RI) and pulsate index (PI) in separate sections of renal artery included MAR,SRA, IRA were detected using CDEI with 2.1~4.2 Hz Doppler transducer in kidneys. Results In comparison,UA was significantly higher in non-diabetic hypertension group and diabetic hypertension group than in control group (P < 0.01, separately). UA levels was also significantly higher in NIDDM +H group than in nNIDDM +H, P < 0.029. RI in separate sections of renal artery was significantly higher in nNIDDM+H, or NIDDM+H group than in control group ( all P < 0.01 ),and it was significantly higher in NIDDM +H than nNIDDM +H groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In nNIDDM +H and NIDDM +H groups UA levels and IRA-RI could be elevated significantly following with the impaired heart function being aggravated (X2=13.028, P=0.005, X2=13.29, P=0.004); the dosage of HCT being increased ( X2 =14.216, P=0.001, X2 =14.661, P=0.001); the levels of GHbA1 being excessed unnormally (P=0.000). The correlation between UA and IRA-RI in both hypertension groups were directly related, in nNIDDM+H group r=0.842, P=0.000, in NIDDM+H group, r=0.797, P=0.000. Conclusions Uric acid levels and IRA-RI in hyper-tension patients were directly related. Uric acid levels and IRA-RI could be partly dependent on the severity of heart dysfunction, diuretic dose, and serum glucose status of diabete patients in long-term. Uric acid and the xanthine oxidase metabolic pathway may contribute to impaired regulation of arteriole tone in

  13. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  14. INTERIM ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGH-LEVEL EVIDENCE FOR DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Olaf; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-01-01

    This interim analysis reviews the available systematic literature for dengue vector control on three levels: 1) single and combined vector control methods, with existing work on peridomestic space spraying and on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; further work is available soon on the use of Temephos, Copepods and larvivorous fish; 2) or for a specific purpose, like outbreak control, and 3) on a strategic level, as for example decentralization vs centralization, with a systematic review on vector control organization. Clear best practice guidelines for methodology of entomological studies are needed. There is a need to include measuring dengue transmission data. The following recommendations emerge: Although vector control can be effective, implementation remains an issue; Single interventions are probably not useful; Combinations of interventions have mixed results; Careful implementation of vector control measures may be most important; Outbreak interventions are often applied with questionable effectiveness. PMID:26506739

  15. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks

  16. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infectio...

  17. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (Pfitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [Pvisceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  18. Does cosleeping contribute to lower testosterone levels in fathers? Evidence from the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T Gettler

    Full Text Available Because cross-species evidence suggests that high testosterone (T may interfere with paternal investment, the relationships between men's transition to parenting and changes in their T are of growing interest. Studies of human males suggest that fathers who provide childcare often have lower T than uninvolved fathers, but no studies to date have evaluated how nighttime sleep proximity between fathers and their offspring may affect T. Using data collected in 2005 and 2009 from a sample of men (n = 362; age 26.0 ± 0.3 years in 2009 residing in metropolitan Cebu, Philippines, we evaluated fathers' T based on whether they slept on the same surface as their children (same surface cosleepers, slept on a different surface but in the same room (roomsharers, or slept separately from their children (solitary sleepers. A large majority (92% of fathers in this sample reported practicing same surface cosleeping. Compared to fathers who slept solitarily, same surface cosleeping fathers had significantly lower evening (PM T and also showed a greater diurnal decline in T from waking to evening (both p0.2. These results are consistent with previous findings indicating that daytime father-child interaction contributes to lower T among fathers. Our findings specifically suggest that close sleep proximity between fathers and their offspring results in greater longitudinal decreases in T as men transition to fatherhood and lower PM T overall compared to solitary sleeping fathers.

  19. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  20. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  1. Inhibition of Human Hepatic Bile Acid Transporters by Tolvaptan and Metabolites: Contributing Factors to Drug-Induced Liver Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slizgi, Jason R; Lu, Yang; Brouwer, Kenneth R; St Claire, Robert L; Freeman, Kimberly M; Pan, Maxwell; Brock, William J; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2016-01-01

    Tolvaptan is a vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist that has shown promise in treating Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Tolvaptan was, however, associated with liver injury in some ADPKD patients. Inhibition of bile acid transporters may be contributing factors to drug-induced liver injury. In this study, the ability of tolvaptan and two metabolites, DM-4103 and DM-4107, to inhibit human hepatic transporters (NTCP, BSEP, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4) and bile acid transport in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) was explored. IC(50) values were determined for tolvaptan, DM-4103 and DM-4107 inhibition of NTCP (∼41.5, 16.3, and 95.6 μM, respectively), BSEP (31.6, 4.15, and 119 μM, respectively), MRP2 (>50, ∼51.0, and >200 μM, respectively), MRP3 (>50, ∼44.6, and 61.2 μM, respectively), and MRP4 (>50, 4.26, and 37.9 μM, respectively). At the therapeutic dose of tolvaptan (90 mg), DM-4103 exhibited a C(max)/IC(50) value >0.1 for NTCP, BSEP, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4. Tolvaptan accumulation in SCHH was extensive and not sodium-dependent; intracellular concentrations were ∼500 μM after a 10-min incubation duration with tolvaptan (15 μM). The biliary clearance of taurocholic acid (TCA) decreased by 43% when SCHH were co-incubated with tolvaptan (15 μM) and TCA (2.5 μM). When tolvaptan (15 μM) was co-incubated with 2.5 μM of chenodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, or glycochenodeoxycholic acid in separate studies, the cellular accumulation of these bile acids increased by 1.30-, 1.68-, and 2.16-fold, respectively. Based on these data, inhibition of hepatic bile acid transport may be one of the biological mechanisms underlying tolvaptan-associated liver injury in patients with ADPKD. PMID:26507107

  2. Contribution of ants in modifying of soil acidity and particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgun, Alexandra; Golichenkov, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Being a natural body, formed by the influence of biota on the upper layers of the Earth's crust, the soil is the most striking example of biogenic-abiogenic interactions in the biosphere. Invertebrates (especially ants that build soil nests) are important agents that change soil properties in well developed terrestrial ecosystems. Impact of soil microorganisms on soil properties is particularly described in numerous literature and concerns mainly chemical properties and general indicators of soil biological activity. Influence of ants (as representatives of the soil mesofauna) mostly appears as mechanical movement of soil particles and aggregates, and chemical effects caused by concentration of organic matter within the ant's nest. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ants on physical and chemical soil attributes such as particle size distribution and soil acidity. The samples were taken from aerial parts of Lasius niger nests, selected on different elements of the relief (summit position, slope, terrace and floodplain) in the Arkhangelsk region (north of the European part of Russia) and compared with the specimens of the upper horizons of the reference soils. Particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction method using laser diffraction particle size analyzer «Analysette 22 comfort» (FRITSCH, Germany). The acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry in water suspension. Particle size distribution of the samples from the nests is more variable as compared to the control samples. For example, the content of 5-10 μm fraction ranges from 9% to 12% in reference soils, while in the anthill samples the variation is from 8% to 15%. Similarly, for 50-250 μm fraction - it ranges from 15% to 18% in reference soils, whereas in anthills - from 6% to 29%. The results of particle size analysis showed that the reference sample on the terrace has silty loam texture and nests soil L. niger are medium loam. The reference soil on the slope is

  3. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  4. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress

  5. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  6. Roughness characterization through 3D textured image analysis: contribution to the study of road wear level

    OpenAIRE

    KHOUDEIR, Madji; Brochard, Jacques; Legeay, Vincent; Do, Minh Tan

    2004-01-01

    Skid resistance, on which road safety depends, is closely related to the road surface texture and particularly to its microtexture. The microtexture is defined as surface irregularities whose height ranges from 0.001 mm to 0.5 mm and whose width is less than 0.5 mm. The deterioration due to the road traffic, especially polishing effect, involves a change in the microtexture. So, we suggest a method to characterize, through image analysis, wear level or microroughness of road surfaces. We p...

  7. Roughness Characterization through 3D Textured Image Analysis : Contribution to the Study of Road Wear Level

    OpenAIRE

    KOUDEIR, M; Brochard, J.; LEGEAY, V; DO, MT

    2004-01-01

    Skid resistance, on which road safety depends, is closely related to the road surface texture and particularly to its microstructure. The microstructure is defined as surface irregularities whose height ranges from 0.001 mm to 0.5 mm and whose width is less than 0.5 mm (Alvarez and Mprel, 1994). The deterioration due to the road traffic, especially polishing effect, involves a change in the microstructure. So, we suggest a method to characterize, through image analysis, wear level or microrou...

  8. Contributing factors to potential turnover in a sample of South African management-level employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Muteswa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which a number of key organisational variables influence the potential decision to leave the organisation in a sample of managerial-level employees. Organisational variables focused on included: career path strategies, management style, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, team dynamics, training and development opportunities, and work / life balance. Methodology: An exploratory and descriptive research design was adopted. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers based on the related literature. 106 MBA students based in KwaZulu-Natal participated in the study. Findings: The three aspects of internal organisational functioning found to have a significant influence on the participant's potential turnover considerations were: management / leadership style, career path strategies and rewards. Value of the research: According to the Department of Labour (2008:5 there is need for an additional 22 600 managers in various professions in South Africa. As a result of the skills shortages, South African organisations find themselves competing with international organisations for managerial-level employees, resulting in a 'war for talent'. This research is of significant value to organisations as it provides information relevant to the design and support of talent management and retention strategies in South African organisations.

  9. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups.

  10. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437875

  11. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  12. Childrens' learning and behaviour and the association with cheek cell polyunsaturated fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A; Woodward, A; Jackson, S; Wang, Y; Crawford, M A

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly omega-3, in their red blood cells and plasma, and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may alleviate behavioural symptoms in this population. However, in order to compare levels it seems appropriate to establish fatty acid levels in a mainstream school aged population and if levels relate to learning and behaviour. To date no study has established this. For this study, cheek cell samples from 411 typically developing school children were collected and analysed for PUFA content, in order to establish the range in this population. In addition, measures of general classroom attention and behaviour were assessed in these children by teachers and parents. Cognitive performance tests were also administered in order to explore whether an association between behaviour and/or cognitive performance and PUFA levels exists. Relationships between PUFA levels and socio-economic status were also explored. Measures of reading, spelling and intelligence did not show any association with PUFA levels, but some associations were noted with the level of omega-3 fatty acids and teacher and parental reports of behaviour, with some evidence that higher omega-3 levels were associated with decreased levels of inattention, hyperactivity, emotional and conduct difficulties and increased levels of prosocial behaviour. These findings are discussed in relation to previous findings from omega-3 supplementation studies with children. PMID:20172688

  13. Shock capturing, level sets, and PDE based methods in computer vision and image processing: a review of Osher's contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the algorithm development and applications in high resolution shock capturing methods, level set methods, and PDE based methods in computer vision and image processing. The emphasis is on Stanley Osher's contribution in these areas and the impact of his work. We will start with shock capturing methods and will review the Engquist-Osher scheme, TVD schemes, entropy conditions, ENO and WENO schemes, and numerical schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi type equations. Among level set methods we will review level set calculus, numerical techniques, fluids and materials, variational approach, high codimension motion, geometric optics, and the computation of discontinuous solutions to Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Among computer vision and image processing we will review the total variation model for image denoising, images on implicit surfaces, and the level set method in image processing and computer vision

  14. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: Speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Maria Kaldal; Kristensen, Kasper; Nguyen, Quynh;

    2014-01-01

    (-3)) and total organic acids (7-10 ngm(-3)) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain......-range transport, whereas indications of local sources were found for some compounds at Zeppelin Mountain. Furthermore, organosulfates contributed significantly to organic matter throughout the year at Zeppelin Mountain (annual mean of 13 +/- 8 %) and during Arctic haze at Station Nord (7 +/- 2 %), suggesting...

  15. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  16. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH4NO3 to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha−1 y−1, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing 15NH4+ or 15NO3− at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH4+ at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH4+ by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO3− uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing 15NH4+ or 15NO3−. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on the artificial rainwater chemistry. • Foliar N uptake increased with the level of pedospheric nitrogen fertilisation. • Foliar

  17. L-DOPA Reverses the Increased Free Amino Acids Tissue Levels Induced by Dopamine Depletion and Rises GABA and Tyrosine in the Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Oscar; García-Sanz, Patricia; Herranz, Antonio S; Asensio, María-José; Moratalla, Rosario

    2016-07-01

    Perturbations in the cerebral levels of various amino acids are associated with neurological disorders, and previous studies have suggested that such alterations have a role in the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the direct effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment, that produces dyskinesia, on neural tissue amino acid concentrations have not been explored in detail. To evaluate whether striatal amino acid concentrations are altered in peak dose dyskinesia, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian mice were treated chronically with L-DOPA and tissue amino acid concentrations were assessed by HPLC analysis. These experiments revealed that neither 6-OHDA nor L-DOPA treatment are able to alter glutamate in the striatum. However, glutamine increases after 6-OHDA and returns back to normal levels with L-DOPA treatment, suggesting increased striatal glutamatergic transmission with lack of dopamine. In addition, glycine and taurine levels are increased following dopamine denervation and restored to normal levels by L-DOPA. Interestingly, dyskinetic animals showed increased levels of GABA and tyrosine, while aspartate striatal tissue levels are not altered. Overall, our results indicate that chronic L-DOPA treatment, besides normalizing the altered levels of some amino acids after 6-OHDA, robustly increases striatal GABA and tyrosine levels which may in turn contribute to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. PMID:26966009

  18. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea SR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simon R Lea,1,* Hannah J Metcalfe,1,* Jonathan Plumb,1 Christian Beerli,2 Chris Poll,3 Dave Singh,1 Katharine H Abbott-Banner3 1Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Diseases, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Horsham, West Sussex, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2 and acid SMase (aSMase, which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS, smokers (S, and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20 were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results: nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54% compared with NS (31.7% (P<0.05, and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2% and S (69.5% alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4% (P

  19. Inverted barometer contributions to recent sea level changes along the northeast coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2015-07-01

    Regional sea level (SL) changes reflect dynamic and isostatic ocean effects. Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme SL changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes; however, dedicated study of isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading—the inverted barometer (IB) effect—has been lacking. This investigation uses five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. The IB effect explains ˜25% of interannual SL variance and accounts for ˜50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise along Atlantic Canada and New England. Estimated IB effects also amount to ˜10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation and removal of isostatic effects for studies of dynamic SL.

  20. Comparison of Serum Homocystein and Folic Acid Levels in Gestational Diabetes with Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Movahed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: High levels of homocystein are a risk factor for insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardio-vascular complications. This study was done to assess serum homocystein and folic acid levels and their relationship in women with gestational diabetes and compare them with normal pregnant women. Materials & Methods: This analytic epidemiologic case-control study was performed in Qazvin Kosar hospital in 2013-2015. 120 singleton pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestation according to 2-hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test were assigned to two groups; gestational diabetes (n=60, and normal pregnancy (n=60. Serum homocystein and folic acid levels were measured in two groups. Data were analyzed with statistical t-test and correlation method. Results: In gestational diabetes serum homocystein level was significantly higher (P<0.001 and folic acid was significantly lower (P<0.001 than normal pregnancy group .No relation-ship was observed between serum homocystein and serum folate. In both groups, serum folic acid was significantly related to fasting blood sugar. This relationship was inverse in gesta-tional diabetes group (P<0.001, r = - 0.512 and direct in normal pregnancy group (P=0.001 r =0.417. Conclusion: It seems folic acid has a role in regulation of serum homocystein level and blood sugar.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 93-98

  1. Contribution of brain atrophy on CT and aging to intelligence level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrased intellectual functions due to senility have been much discussed in connection with aging or brain atophy alternatively. But this change should be analysed under multifactorial basis. Furthermore, variations between individuals should be taken into account in dealing with an advanced age group. In these regards, the author performed multivariate analysis on intellectual changes, aging and brain arophy demonstrated on brain CT. Clonological study was also performed to reveal the individual variations. The objects were consisted of 72 people, including the patients of more than 65 years of age who were hospitalized to a geriatrics hospital because of senile dementia, and, as a control group residents in a home for the aged nearby the hospital. Average age was 75.4 years old. Intellectual level was measured through Hasegawa's dementia rating scale. Ventricular enlargement was measured on brain CT to determine the severity of brain atrophy. These two factors and age were processed with multivariate analysis. And clonological study was made to the deviation of intellectual level vs. the change of ventricular enlargement. As the result, firstly, this simple analysing model was able to reveal some aspcts of the deteriolating phenomena of intellectual leve through double factorial basis, i.e. brain atrophy on CT and age. Secondly, the group showing greater changes in the brain atrophy on CT, which included one case with rapid deteriolation in dementia scale of more than 10 points, was distributed mainly around full marks or zero point in dementia scale. This result postulates that the range of the dementia scale should be expanded upwrds as well as downwards for the better explanation of the relation between intellectual deteriolation and above mentioned two factors. (author)

  2. [Spanish contribution to the creation of a European analytical database of trans-fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Núñez, C; Ruiz-Roso, B; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    Within the AAIR Program of the EU titled Evaluation of the Ingestion of Trans Fatty Acids (FA) and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in European countries (TRANSFAIR), which is being carried out in 16 countries with different alimentary habits, among which is our country, we have developed the following study. Based on the information derived from the last National Nutrition and Feeding Study (ENNA-3), we have made up a list of foods which make up 95% of the total ingestion of lipids, and it also includes those which although they are not included within this percentage, may have an especially high trans isomer content as a result of their processing. The foods selected for the analysis belong to different food groups: cereals, milk products, oils and fats, meats, various, and pre-cooked foods, until making up a total of 100 foods for each country. The central analysis laboratory is that of the Department of Human Nutrition, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist (The Netherlands). In each sample, in addition to the total lipids, one determines the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including the cis and trans isomers. The trans FA's measured were: C14:1 T9, C16:1 T9, C18:1 T, C18:2 T, C18:3 T + C20:1 T, C20:2 T11,14, and C22:1 T13. Of the samples analyzed, the highest percentages of trans FA with respect to the total FA corresponded to the following foods: French fries, pre-cooked and frozen croquettes sliced bread, margarine, cakes, and frozen mille feuilles dough of different industrial brands. The lowest percentages of trans FA's were found in refined vegetable oils (sunflower and olive), those used for deep frying, and those discarded in catering, as well as in some commercial brands of cookies and ice creams. Pure chocolate, different brands of sweetened powdered cocoa, and ready to make chocolate, did not contain and trans FA. PMID:9578683

  3. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yasar; Kamer Gunduz; Ece Onur; Mehmet Calkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time ...

  4. Ezrin dephosphorylation/downregulation contributes to ursolic acid-mediated cell death in human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezrin links the actin filaments with the cell membrane and has a functional role in the apoptotic process. It appears clear that ezrin is directly associated with Fas, leading to activation of caspase cascade and cell death. However, the exact role of ezrin in ursolic acid (UA)-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that UA induces apoptosis in both transformed and primary leukemia cells through dephosphorylation/downregulation of ezrin, association and polarized colocalization of Fas and ezrin, as well as formation of death-inducing signaling complex. These events are dependent on Rho-ROCK1 signaling pathway. Knockdown of ezrin enhanced cell death mediated by UA, whereas overexpression of ezrin attenuated UA-induced apoptosis. Our in vivo study also showed that UA-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse leukemia xenograft model is in association with the dephosphorylation/downregulation of ezrin. Such findings suggest that the cytoskeletal protein ezrin may represent an attractive target for UA-mediated lethality in human leukemia cells

  5. Significant association between parathyroid hormone and uric acid level in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin KY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yong Chin,1 Soelaiman Ima Nirwana,1 Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah21Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and above, residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their body anthropometry was measured, and their fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The relationship between PTH and uric acid was analyzed using regression analysis.Results: Increased serum PTH level was significantly associated with increased serum uric acid level (β=0.165; P=0.001. Increased PTH level was also significantly associated with the condition of hyperuricemia in the study population (odds ratio [OR], 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.075; P=0.002. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, vitamin D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels.Conclusion: There is a significant positive relationship between PTH level and uric acid level in Malaysian men. This relationship and its clinical significance should be further investigated in a larger longitudinal study. Keywords: hyperuricemia, Asian, cross-sectional study, uric acid, urate

  6. Direct determination of trace-level haloacetic acids in drinking water by two-dimensional ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Verrey, Dominique; Louyer, Mari-Vorgan; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment process of drinking water, disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide) react on water containing organic matter and bromide to produce disinfection by-products at trace levels. Among them, five of the nine existing halo-acetic acids (HAAs) are commonly found in drinking water (monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)), including four classified in the 2B IARC gro...

  7. The physical statistics analysis of the contributing factors of the low level clouds development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    In this article studying of conditions of low level clouds development and applicability of individual predictive factors in prognostic models are considered. In this purposes advective variations of temperature (A), radius of isobars (R), ground pressure Laplasian (P ), horizontal gradient of air pressure (grad P) are calculated. It is shown, that the consideration of advective variations of temperature and humidity, radius of curvature of isobars, ground pressure Laplasian and a vertical movements allows to survey conditions of low clouds development comprehensively. At presence of clouds main values of advective variations of temperature during cold and warm air advections were -0.630C•h and 0.530C•h appropriately. At the above stated conditions main values of advective variation of a dew-point was -0.500C•h and 0.620C•h. At the absence of low clouds main advective variations of temperature and dew-point were -0.150C•h for cold air advection, and -0.030C•h for warm air advection. References: Bruks K., Karuzers N.: Application of statistics in meteorology. Hydrometizdat, 416 pp., Leningrad, 1963. Gruza G.V., Rankova E.Y.: The structural changes of up to date climate // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #7, 14-18, Moscow, 1990. Panofsky G.A., Brayer G.V.: Statistical methods in meteorology. Hydrometizdat, 209 pp., Leningrad, 1977.

  8. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  9. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  10. Serum lipid profile and uric acid levels in preeclampsia in University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosakhare O Enaruna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Lipid abnormality and elevated serum uric acid have been reported as early features of the disease. We aimed to detect the level of serum lipid profile and uric acid abnormalities in severe preeclamptics in Benin City and to measure their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted with subjects presenting with severe preeclampsia to the Obstetric Unit of the UBTH, Benin City. Fasting serum lipid profile and uric acid levels of 40 severe preeclamptic subjects and 80 gestation-matched normotensive controls were done at recruitment. The preeclamptic subjects were managed according to our departmental protocol which included stabilisation and delivery. Their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used to generate a database for analysis. Results: The mean serum uric acid level was 28% higher in severe preeclamptics than normotensive women (5.96 ± 2.54 mg/dl versus 4.30 ± 0.85; P = 0.005. There were statistically significant differences in levels of triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL between the preeclamptics and their normotensive controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively. Abnormal serum uric acid was associated with advanced maternal age (P = 0.000, early-onset preeclampsia (P = 0.000 and abnormal body mass index (BMI; P = 0.000. Low birth weight was more likely in preeclamptics with elevated serum uric acid levels (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Abnormality of serum uric acid in preeclampsia was significantly associated with increased frequency of complications but lipid profile abnormalities were not shown in the subjects studied. We recommend a larger scale study to determine lipid profile in normal and complicated pregnancies in our environment.

  11. Contribution to growth and increment analysis on the Italian CONECOFOR Level II Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio AMORINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the "Estimation of growth and yield" included in the National Programme on Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems CONECOFOR Aims of the paper are: i to outline the composition and design of Level II PMPs network, also examining the structural characteristics of forest stands; ii to describe the contents of mensurational surveys carried out in winter 1996/97 and 1999/00; iii to analyse the growth rates in progress at each PMP using selected descriptors. Stand origin (11 high forests and 13 stored coppices and transitory crops and the number of forest types tested are focused as the main discriminants of the PMPs network. This composition, together with irregular forestry practice, results in a number of consequences (prevailing age classes, tree densities and related stand structures, growth patterns which cause a high in-and-between variability of all growth parameters. For the purposes of this analysis, the network of the plots was divided into three main sets: broadleaved high forest (i.e. beech stands, 6 PMPs; coniferous forest (i.e. Norway spruce stands, 5 PMPs; coppice forest (i.e. deciduous and evergreen oaks, beech and hardbeam stands, 13 PMPs. The measurement of basic growth variables (dbh and tree height was used to describe the tree populations in each PMP; the calculation of basal area, mean and top dbh, mean and top height, provided the reference dataset at each inventory. The assessment of social class according to Kraft gave information on vertical stand structure and made it possible to analyse growth according to tree layers. Data comparison provided increments in the interval 1997-2000. The occurrence of natural mortality and ingrowth was also assessed to take into account their combined effect on tree population dynamics. No trend was found, due to limited data availability, but it was possible to have a detailed overview of the stand situation and growth rates in PMPs.

  12. Total and free valproic acid: plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadín, J A; Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, J S

    1991-04-01

    Free plasma level/dose ratio of valproic acid (L/D-F) can be more effective than total plasma level/dose ratio (L/D-T) in adjusting dosage regimens. The influence of age, dose, and plasma concentration have been studied on L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios from 67 outpatients under long-term monotherapy were obtained. Analytical data was carried out by fluorescent polarized immunoassay. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios do not vary according to age. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios decreased while the dosage increased; both ratios increased with an increase in total plasma level of valproic acid. Significant differences were found between L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. Dose and interindividual variations are the factors which most influence L/D ratios of valproic acid. PMID:2051846

  13. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumithra N Unni C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001 lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001 higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  15. Inhibition of Excitatory Amino Acid Efflux Contributes to Protective Effects of Puerarin Against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the protective effects of puerarine (Pur) against cerebral ischemia is associated with depressing the extracellular levels of amino acid transmitters in brain of rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. Pur (50, 100 mg/kg,i.p.) was administered at the onset of MCAO. The infarct rate and edema rate were detected on TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride)-stained coronal sections. The extracellular levels of amino acid transmitters were monitored in striatum of rats with ischemic/reperfusion injury using in vivo microdialysis technique. Furthermore, the protective effects of Pur against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were detected. Glutamate-induced apoptotic and necrotic cells in hippocampus were estimated by flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-Ⅴ and PI labeling cells. Results Pur (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased infarct size by 31.6% (P<0.05), reduced edema volume (P<0.05), and improved neurological functions (P<0.05) following MCAO. In these rats, the ischemia-induced extracellular levels of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were significantly reduced in striatum of vehicle-treated animals by 54.7%, 56.7%, 75.8%, and 68.1% (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Pur reduced the peak values of Glu and Asp more obviously than those of GABA and Tau, and the rate of Glu/GABA during MCAO markedly decreased in Pur-treated MCAO rats, compared with the vehicle-treated MCAO rats.Meanwhile, apoptosis and necrosis induced by Glu in cultured hippocampal neurons were significantly reduced after Pur treatment. Conclusion Acute treatment with Pur at the onset of occlusion significantly depresses ischemia-induced efflux of amino acids, especially, excitotoxicity in the striatum, a mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect on cellular survival.

  16. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and ferritin levels in patients with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Acar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that disability due to migraine may be reduced with homocysteine-lowering treatment including folic acid and vitamin B12. In addition, recently the periaqueductal gray matter iron deposits have been found to be increased in migraine patients. There are few studies regarding vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine. The aims of this study was to measure vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine and compare them with the control group. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive newly diagnosed migraine patients who did not receive any vitamin supplement medication were enrolled. The study group consisted of 51 patients, suffering from migraine with aura (n= 23 and migraine without aura (n= 28. The control group consisted of 28 healthy participants without history of headache, anemia and vitamin supplement. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferin levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B12 and folic acid compared with the healthy controls (for vitamin B12; 215.6±133.7 pg/ml vs. 289.9±12 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.005; for folic acid; 6.74 ± 4.31 pg/ml vs. 8.47 ± 1.85 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.048. The vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (177.3 ± 139.2 pg/ml vs 252.5 ± 119.5 pg/ml, p=0.043. There were no differences in folic acid, ferritin, and transferritin levels between during attacks and in interictal period of patients with migraine (p>0.05. The ferritin levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (43.4 ± 41.1 mg/ml, vs 75.4 ± 51.7, mg/ml, p=0.018. CONCLUSION: Migraine patients had lower serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels than healthy subjects. These findings supported that vitamin B12

  17. Effects of low birth weight in 8- to 13-year-old children: implications in endothelial function and uric acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Maria C P; Christofalo, Dejaldo M J; Sawaya, Ana Lydia; Ajzen, Sérgio A; Sesso, Ricardo

    2006-07-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and high levels of serum uric acid are associated with hypertension. In this study, we have determined whether uric acid is related to blood pressure and vascular function in children with low birth weight. We evaluated vascular function using high-resolution ultrasound, blood pressure, and uric acid levels in 78 children (35 girls, 43 boys, aged 8 to 13 years). Increasing levels of uric acid and systolic blood pressure were observed in children with low birth weight. Birth weight was inversely associated with both systolic blood pressure and uric acid; on the other hand, uric acid levels were directly correlated with systolic blood pressure in children of the entire cohort. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (r=0.427, P<0.001). Because the children with low birth weight had elevated uric acid as well as higher systolic blood pressure levels, we evaluated the correlation between these variables. In the low birth weight group, multiple regression analysis revealed that uric acid (beta=-2.886; SE=1.393; P=0.040) had a graded inverse relationship with flow-mediated dilation, which was not affected in a model adjusting for race and gender. We conclude that children with a history of low birth weight show impaired endothelial function and increased blood pressure and uric acid levels. These findings may be early expressions of vascular compromise, contributing to susceptibility to disease in adult life. PMID:16682609

  18. Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels of young rats are related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA levels and fat matrix of the diet: impact of dairy fat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dososahexaenoate (DHA is highly concentrated in mammalian nervous and visual systems and its deficiency during gestation, lactation and early life, could have dramatic impacts on brain functions and mental health. Achieving an appropriate DHA status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how a-linolenic acid (ALA provided by different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both young male and female rats. Young rats born from dams fed during gestation and lactation with a low ALA diet (0.4% of fatty acids were subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to an anhydrous dairy fat blend-based diet that provided 1.5% ALA or to a palm oil blend-based diet that provided the same ALA level: either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid (ARA. With each diet the n-6/ n-3 ratio was similar (10 to follow the values generally recommended for infant formula. Fatty acids analysis in whole brain showed that 1.5% ALA dairy fat blend was superior to both 1.5% ALA palm-oil blends, supplemented or not with dietary DHA, for increasing brain DHA. Females compared to males had significantly higher brain DHA with the 1.5% ALA palm-blend diet, but the dietary supplementation with DHA smoothed the differences by a specific increase of males DHA brain. In conclusion, dairy fat blend enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of post-weaning rats. Inclusion of dairy fat in infant formulas should be reconsidered.

  19. Evidence for a substantial West Antarctic ice sheet contribution to meltwater pulses and abrupt global sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.; Golledge, N. R.; Etheridge, D. M.; Rubino, M.; Thornton, D.; Woodward, J.; Winter, K.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Curran, M. A.; Rootes, C.; Rivera, A.; Millman, H.

    2015-12-01

    During the last deglaciation (21,000 to 7,000years ago) global sea level rise was punctuated by several abrupt meltwater spikes triggered by the retreat of ice sheets and glaciers world-wide. However, the debate regarding the relative timing, geographical source and the physical mechanisms driving these rapid increases in sea level has catalyzed debate critical to predicting future sea level rise and climate. Here we present a unique record of West Antarctic Ice Sheet elevation change derived from the Patriot Hills blue ice area, located close to the modern day grounding line of the Institute Ice Stream in the Weddell Sea Embayment. Combined isotopic signatures and gas volume analysis from the ice allows us to develop a record of local ice sheet palaeo-altitude that is assessed against independent regional high-resolution ice sheet modeling studies, allowing us to demonstrate that past ice sheet elevations across this sector of the WSE were considerably higher than those suggested by current terrestrial reconstructions. We argue that ice in the WSE had a significant influence on both pre and post LGM sea level rise including MWP-1A (~14.6 ka) and during MWP-1B (11.7-11.6 ka), reconciling past sea level rise and demonstrating for the first time that this sector of the WAIS made a significant and direct contribution to post LGM sea level rise.

  20. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  1. The effect of erythropoietin on serum uric acid levels during renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effect of erythropoietin on a rat model, particularly under a renal ischemia reperfusion protocol. The beneficial or lack of effects of that molecule on the excreted renal product of serum uric acid were studied biochemically. Material and methods: Forty rats were used with a mean weight of 247.7 gr. Serum uric acid levels were measured measured at 60 min after reperfusion (Groups A and C) and at 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D). Results: 1) Erythropoietin administration non-significantly decreased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.02 mg/dL [−0.2415423 mg/dL-0.2015423 mg/dL] (p=0.8560), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.8438). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.17 mg/dL [−0.0444933 mg/dL-0.3844933 mg/dL] (p=0.1169), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.1648). 3) The interaction of erythropoietin administration and reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.1 mg/dL [−0.0295564 mg/dL-0.2295564 mg/dL] (p=0.1264). Conclusion: Erythropoietin administration, reperfusion time and their interaction have no significant short-term alterations on serum uric acid levels. Conclusions cannot be extracted by non-significant p-values within 2 hours. Obviously, longer study times may permit safer results. PMID:26328161

  2. Improvement Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on Serum Testosterone Level after Exposing with Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Farsi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rosmarinic acid has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and helps to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals and other sources.Material and methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 40 were allocated to four groups, a control group (n = 10 and three treatment groups (n = 30. The first treatment group received rosmarinic acid (5 mg/kg body weight by gavage method, the second test group received rosmarinic acid (5mg/kg body weight by gavage and electromagnetic field (EMF exposure at 50 Hz for 42 consecutive days, whilst the third test group just received EMF exposure for 42 consecutive days respectively; however, control group received 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl daily by gavage method.Results: In 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected for testosterone level measurement from whole groups. The level of testosterone significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (PConclusion: Since in our study administration of 5mg/kg Rosmarinic acid significantly have increasing effect on decreased testosterone that is caused by EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be efficient for supporting people living in EMF environmental pollution.

  3. The GLUT9 gene is associated with serum uric acid levels in Sardinia and Chianti cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siguang Li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available High serum uric acid levels elevate pro-inflammatory-state gout crystal arthropathy and place individuals at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide scans in the genetically isolated Sardinian population identified variants associated with serum uric acid levels as a quantitative trait. They mapped within GLUT9, a Chromosome 4 glucose transporter gene predominantly expressed in liver and kidney. SNP rs6855911 showed the strongest association (p = 1.84 x 10(-16, along with eight others (p = 7.75 x 10(-16 to 6.05 x 10(-11. Individuals homozygous for the rare allele of rs6855911 (minor allele frequency = 0.26 had 0.6 mg/dl less uric acid than those homozygous for the common allele; the results were replicated in an unrelated cohort from Tuscany. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in GLUT9 could affect glucose metabolism and uric acid synthesis and/or renal reabsorption, influencing serum uric acid levels over a wide range of values.

  4. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  5. Stable isotope composition of fatty acids in organisms of different trophic levels in the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Makhutova, Olesia N

    2012-01-01

    We studied four-link food chain, periphytic microalgae and water moss (producers), trichopteran larvae (consumers I), gammarids (omnivorous--consumers II) and Siberian grayling (consumers III) at a littoral site of the Yenisei River on the basis of three years monthly sampling. Analysis of bulk carbon stable isotopes and compound specific isotope analysis of fatty acids (FA) were done. As found, there was a gradual depletion in (13)C contents of fatty acids, including essential FA upward the food chain. In all the trophic levels a parabolic dependence of δ(13)C values of fatty acids on their degree of unsaturation/chain length occurred, with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in its lowest point. The pattern in the δ(13)C differences between individual fatty acids was quite similar to that reported in literature for marine pelagic food webs. Hypotheses on isotope fractionation were suggested to explain the findings. PMID:22470513

  6. Stable isotope composition of fatty acids in organisms of different trophic levels in the Yenisei River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail I Gladyshev

    Full Text Available We studied four-link food chain, periphytic microalgae and water moss (producers, trichopteran larvae (consumers I, gammarids (omnivorous--consumers II and Siberian grayling (consumers III at a littoral site of the Yenisei River on the basis of three years monthly sampling. Analysis of bulk carbon stable isotopes and compound specific isotope analysis of fatty acids (FA were done. As found, there was a gradual depletion in (13C contents of fatty acids, including essential FA upward the food chain. In all the trophic levels a parabolic dependence of δ(13C values of fatty acids on their degree of unsaturation/chain length occurred, with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in its lowest point. The pattern in the δ(13C differences between individual fatty acids was quite similar to that reported in literature for marine pelagic food webs. Hypotheses on isotope fractionation were suggested to explain the findings.

  7. The contribution of school-level factors to contraceptive use among adolescents in New York city public high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L.

    Every year approximately 17,000 adolescents ages 15-19 become pregnant in New York City. Most of these pregnancies are unintended and only a small percent of adolescents use effective contraception, with wide disparities by race/ethnicity and poverty level. While many studies have identified factors associated with contraceptive use, most research has focused on individual level factors, with little attention to the contribution of the school environment to sexual risk behavior and contraceptive use. This study investigates the effect of school-level factors on contraceptive use among adolescents in NYC public high schools before and after controlling for individual-level factors, and whether this effect varies with race/ethnicity. Using a cross-sectional design, the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) individual-level datasets for 2007, 2009 and 2011 were linked to a school-level dataset. Variables were selected based on empirical findings on factors associated with sexual behaviors, including contraceptive use, by adolescents. The analytic sample included all YRBS respondents aged 14 or older who reported having sexual intercourse in the past three months and had complete responses to the YRBS questions on contraceptive use at last sex (N=8,054). The chi square test of significance was used to evaluate significant associations between independent variables and contraceptive use in bivariate analyses; variables with a p value associations of school-level factors with contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Findings included that use of any contraception and/or hormonal contraception at last sexual intercourse was associated with attending schools with a higher six-year graduation rate, higher percent of students strongly agreeing they were safe in their classrooms, higher percent of teachers at the school for over two years, and having a School-Based Health Center (SBHC) in the building. No known study has examined the contribution of school-level

  8. Minor Contribution of Chimeric Host-HIV Readthrough Transcripts to the Level of HIV Cell-Associated gag RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Alexander O; DeMaster, Laura K; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Reiss, Peter; O'Doherty, Una; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-11-11

    Cell-associated HIV unspliced RNA is an important marker of the viral reservoir. HIV gag RNA-specific assays are frequently used to monitor reservoir activation. Because HIV preferentially integrates into actively transcribed genes, some of the transcripts detected by these assays may not represent genuine HIV RNA but rather chimeric host-HIV readthrough transcripts. Here, we demonstrate that in HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, such host-derived transcripts do not significantly contribute to the HIV gag RNA level.

  9. On the steric and mass-induced contributions to the annual sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Garcia, David; Chao, Benjamin F.; Río, Jorge del; Vigo Aguiar, Isabel; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    The sea level variation (SLVtotal) is the sum of two major contributions: steric and mass-induced. The steric SLVsteric is that resulting from the thermal and salinity changes in a given water column. It only involves volume change, hence has no gravitational effect. The mass-induced SLVmass, on the other hand, arises from adding or subtracting water mass to or from the water column and has direct gravitational signature. We examine the closure of the seasonal SLV budget and estimate the rela...

  10. Basal efflux of bile acids contributes to drug-induced bile acid-dependent hepatocyte toxicity in rat sandwich-cultured hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susukida, Takeshi; Sekine, Shuichi; Ogimura, Eiichiro; Aoki, Shigeki; Oizumi, Kumiko; Horie, Toshiharu; Ito, Kousei

    2015-10-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP or Bsep) functions as an apical transporter to eliminate bile acids (BAs) from hepatocytes into the bile. BSEP or Bsep inhibitors engender BA retention, suggested as an underlying mechanism of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury. We previously reported a method to evaluate BSEP-mediated BA-dependent hepatocyte toxicity by using sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). However, basal efflux transporters, including multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP or Mrp) 3 and 4, also participate in BA efflux. This study examined the contribution of basal efflux transporters to BA-dependent hepatocyte toxicity in rat SCHs. The apical efflux of [(3)H]taurocholic acid (TC) was potently inhibited by 10 μM cyclosporine A (CsA), with later inhibition of basal [(3)H]TC efflux, while MK571 simultaneously inhibited both apical and basal [(3)H]TC efflux. CsA-induced BA-dependent hepatocyte toxicity was 30% at most at 10 μM CsA and ∼60% at 50 μM, while MK571 exacerbated hepatocyte toxicity at concentrations of ≥50 μM. Quinidine inhibited only basal [(3)H]TC efflux and showed BA-dependent hepatocyte toxicity in rat SCHs. Hence, inhibition of basal efflux transporters as well as Bsep may precipitate BA-dependent hepatocyte toxicity in rat SCHs. PMID:26055650

  11. Regulation of embryonic neurotransmitter and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels by ascorbic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, M. Elizabeth; May, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: Ascorbic acid (ascorbate) is required to recycle tetrahydrobiopterin, which is necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis by the rate-limiting enzymes tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. We sought to determine whether ascorbate might regulate embryonic brain cortex monoamine synthesis utilizing transgenic mouse models with varying intracellular ascorbate levels. Methods and Results: In embryos lacking the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2), very low levels of brain ascorb...

  12. INFLUENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES ON THE LEVELS OF IMMUNE COMPLEXES UNDER IONIZED RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Boyajyan; S. A. Bajinyan; M. H. Malakyan; L. A. Manukyan; E. A. Arakelova; D. E. Yeghiazaryan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. In the present study, blood levels of circulating immune complexes and of their pathogenic subpopulations were determined in rats following ionizing irradiation. Experimental animals were treated with synthetic Schiff base aromatic amino acid derivatives, nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate or nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate, before irradiation, whereas untreated irradiated rats served as controls. The results obtained demonstrate significantly increased levels of immune complexes, as well as presence...

  13. Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance rosmarinic acid production in spearmint plantlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The C20 diterpene rosmarinic acid (RA) is synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway and is constitutively expressed in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantlets grown in vitro. RA levels within plantlet leaves were found to be readily manipulated by the nutritional and physical environments. Higher...

  14. Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein(a) levels in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.; Hornstra, G.

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein[a] (Lp[a]) is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. We therefore examined the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on serum Lp[a] levels in three strictly controlled experiments with healthy normocholesterolemic men and women. In Expt. I, 58 subjects consumed a contr

  15. A `Clicked' Tetrameric Hydroxamic Acid Glycopeptidomimetic Antagonizes Sugar-Lectin Interactions On The Cellular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zang, Yi; Xie, Juan; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2014-07-01

    A tetrameric N-acetyl galactosaminyl (GalNAc) peptidomimetic was constructed by N-acetylation of repeating proline-based hydroxamic acid units, followed by a convergent `click chemistry' coupling. This novel glycopeptidomimetic was determined to effectively antagonize the interaction between a transmembrane hepatic lectin and GalNAc on the cellular level.

  16. Interference of flavonoids with enzymatic assays for the determination of free fatty acid and triglyceride levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E.F.; Beekmann, K.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Rietjens, I.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive food compounds with potential lipid-lowering effects. Commercially available enzymatic assays are widely used to determine free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels both in vivo in plasma or serum and in vitro in cell culture medium or cell lysate. However, we have

  17. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Walters, G.B.; Helgadottir, H.T.; Helgason, A.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Zanon, C.; Besenbacher, S.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Magnusson, O.T.; Magnusson, G.; Hjartarson, E.; Saemundsdottir, J.; Gylfason, A.; Jonasdottir, A.; Holm, H.; Karason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Stefansson, H.; Andreassen, O.A.; Pedersen, J.H.; Pack, A.I.; Visser, M.C. de; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Geirsson, A.J.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Olafsson, I.; Kong, A.; Masson, G.; Jonsson, H.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Jonsdottir, I.; Stefansson, K.

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16 million SNPs, identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders, for association with gout and serum uric acid levels. Genotypes were imputed into 41,675 chip-genotyped Icelanders and their relatives, for effective sample sizes of 968 individuals with gout and 15,506 individu

  18. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only the

  19. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi;

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16 million SNPs, identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders, for association with gout and serum uric acid levels. Genotypes were imputed into 41,675 chip-genotyped Icelanders and their relatives, for effective sample sizes of 968 individuals with gout and 15,506 indiv...

  20. Lack of association between serum uric acid levels and outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Irene; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Koch, Marcus; Kremer, Berry; de Keyser, Jacques; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of serum uric acid (UA) in acute ischemic stroke is controversial. The aim of this study is to further analyse the relation between UA and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We analysed UA levels in blood samples collected within 6 h of stroke onset from p

  1. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Le; Huang, Yue-Hui; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Peng; He, Meng-Jie; Huang, Xin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Lu, Wen-Qing, E-mail: luwq@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2014-11-15

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  2. Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs), such as dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), have been suggested as potential biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, variable exposure to and the short elimination half-lives of these biomarkers can result in considerable variability in urinary measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Here we examined the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among eleven men who provided urine samples on 8 days over 3 months. The urinary concentrations of DCAA and TCAA were measured by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize the within-person and between-person variances and computed the sensitivity and specificity to assess how well single or multiple urine collections accurately determined personal 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels. The within-person variance was much higher than the between-person variance for all three sample types (spot, first morning, and 24-h urine samples) for DCAA (ICC=0.08–0.37) and TCAA (ICC=0.09–0.23), regardless of the sampling interval. A single-spot urinary sample predicted high (top 33%) 3-month average DCAA and TCAA levels with high specificity (0.79 and 0.78, respectively) but relatively low sensitivity (0.47 and 0.50, respectively). Collecting two or three urine samples from each participant improved the classification. The poor reproducibility of the measured urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations indicate that a single measurement may not accurately reflect individual long-term exposure. Collection of multiple urine samples from one person is an option for reducing exposure classification errors in studies exploring the effects of DBP exposure on reproductive health. - Highlights: • We evaluated the variability of DCAA and TCAA levels in the urine among men. • Urinary DCAA and TCAA levels varied greatly over a 3-month

  3. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  4. Potato Patatin Generates Short-Chain Fatty Acids from Milk Fat that Contribute to Flavour Development in Cheese Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Robin E J; Lensing, Hellen; Egmond, Maarten R; Giuseppin, Marco L F

    2015-05-01

    The potato lipase, patatin, has long been thought of as essentially inactive towards triacylglycerols. Recently, technology has been developed to isolate potato proteins in native form as food ingredients at industrial scale. Characterisation of native patatin obtained in this way revealed that this enzyme activity towards triacylglycerols has been underestimated. This enables the application of patatin in cheese ripening, which is described in this study. When patatin is added to milk during cheese making, the lipase preferentially releases short-chain fatty acids that contribute to cheese flavour in a dose-dependent manner. Fortuitously, the lipase activity is found mainly in the curd. The release of the short-chain fatty acids matches the activity profile of patatin towards homotriacylglycerols of defined chain length. Residual patatin in the whey fraction can be inactivated effectively by heat treatment that follows Arrhenius kinetics. The results are discussed in terms of cheese making, patatin substrate preference and implications for the use of patatin more generally in food emulsions. PMID:25809992

  5. What is the contribution of two genetic variants regulating VEGF levels to type 2 diabetes risk and to microvascular complications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnefond, Amélie; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Stathopoulou, Maria G;

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key chemokine involved in tissue growth and organ repair processes, particularly angiogenesis. Elevated circulating VEGF levels are believed to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) microvascular complications, especially diabetic retinopathy. Recently......6921438 or rs10738760 on diabetic microvascular complications or the variation in related traits in T2D patients.In spite of their impact on the variance in circulating VEGF, we did not find any association between SNPs rs6921438 and rs10738760, and the risk of T2D, diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy......, a genome-wide association study identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6921438 and rs10738760) explaining nearly half of the variance in circulating VEGF levels. Considering the putative contribution of VEGF to T2D and its complications, we aimed to assess the effect of these...

  6. Effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation on levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert T. Verhoeven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In smoking COPD patients the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid contains high numbers of inflammatory cells. These cells might produce arachidonic acid (AA metabolites, which contribute to inflammation and an increased bronchomotor tone.

  7. Admission Serum Uric Acid Levels and In-Hospital Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Sadique Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uric acid is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hospital admission for ischemic heart disease (IHD is increasing rapidly in our country. Although studies were conducted abroad regarding association of serum uric acid with in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, no data is yet available to show the association in our country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association of serum uric acid level on admission with in-hospital outcomes of the patients with ACS. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was done in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH from January to December 2012. After proper ethical consideration total 93 ACS patients were enrolled in the study by nonrandom sampling. Serum uric acid of all subjects was measured within 24 hours of admission. Then in-hospital outcomes were observed in all subjects. Results: The frequency of hyperuricemia among ACS patients was 24.7% (22.54% in male and 31.82% in female. Hyperuricemic patients significantly developed heart failure (30.4% vs 11.4%, p=0.032 and conduction defect (13.0% vs 1.4%, p=0.017 than normouricemic subjects. The mean ejection fraction was significantly lower in hyperuricemic patients than patients with normal uric acid level (50.87 ± 10.27% vs 55.94 ± 6.66%. The mean ± SD duration of hospital stay of hyperuricemic group was significantly longer in patients with ACS (8.26 ± 1.18 vs 7.51±1.18 days, p=0.010. Conclusion: The measurement of serum uric acid level, an easily available and inexpensive biochemical tool, might turn out as a valuable risk marker for prediction of in-hospital outcomes in patients with ACS.

  8. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi;

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16 million SNPs, identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders, for association with gout and serum uric acid levels. Genotypes were imputed into 41,675 chip-genotyped Icelanders and their relatives, for effective sample sizes of 968 individuals with gout and 15......,506 individuals for whom serum uric acid measurements were available. We identified a low-frequency missense variant (c.1580C>G) in ALDH16A1 associated with gout (OR = 3.12, P = 1.5 × 10(-16), at-risk allele frequency = 0.019) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0.36 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-21)). We confirmed...... the association with gout by performing Sanger sequencing on 6,017 Icelanders. The association with gout was stronger in males relative to females. We also found a second variant on chromosome 1 associated with gout (OR = 1.92, P = 0.046, at-risk allele frequency = 0.986) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0...

  10. In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Function Using Luciferase-Expressing Caenorhabditis elegans: Contribution of Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, and Fatty Acid Oxidation to Toxicant-Induced Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Lagido, Cristina; Hirschey, Matthew D; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are a target of many drugs and environmental toxicants; however, how toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the progression of human disease remains poorly understood. To address this issue, in vivo assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial function need to be developed. Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we describe how to rapidly assess the in vivo role of the electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation in energy metabolism following toxicant exposure, using a luciferase-expressing ATP reporter strain. Alterations in mitochondrial function subsequent to toxicant exposure are detected by depleting steady-state ATP levels with inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation. Differential changes in ATP following short-term inhibitor exposure indicate toxicant-induced alterations at the site of inhibition. Because a microplate reader is the only major piece of equipment required, this is a highly accessible method for studying toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  12. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  13. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  14. Effects of Alterations of Plasma Free Fatty Acid Levels on Pancreatic Glucagon Secretion in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, John E.; Langlois, Maurice; Schneider, Victor; Karam, John H.; Noacco, Claudio

    1974-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain whether alterations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) affect pancreatic glucagon secretion in man since FFA have been reported to influence pancreatic alpha cell function in other species. Elevation of plasma FFA from a mean (±SE) basal level of 0.478±0.036 mM to 0.712±0.055 mM after heparin administration caused plasma glucagon levels to fall approximately 50%, from a basal value of 122±15 pg/ml to 59±14 pg/ml (P < 0.001). Lowering of plasma FFA from a basal level of 0.520±0.046 mM to 0.252±0.041 mM after nicotinic acid administration raised plasma glucagon from a basal level of 113±18 pg/ml to 168±12 pg/ml (P < 0.005). Infusion of glucose elevated plasma glucose levels to the same degree that heparin raised plasma FFA levels. This resulted in suppression of plasma glucagon despite the fact that plasma FFA levels also were suppressed. Glucagon responses to arginine were diminished after elevation of plasma FFA (P < 0.01) and during infusion of glucose (P < 0.01). Diminution of plasma FFA by nicotinic acid did not augment glucagon responses to arginine. These results thus demonstrate that rather small alterations in plasma FFA within the physiologic range have a significant effect on glucagon secretion in man. Although the effects of glucose appear to predominate over those of FFA, alterations in plasma FFA may nevertheless exert an important physiologic influence over human pancreatic alpha cell function, especially in the postabsorptive state. PMID:4825225

  15. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  16. Enhanced basal lubrication and the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Sarah R; Payne, Antony J; Bartholomew, Ian D; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Edwards, Tamsin L; Fettweis, Xavier; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Goelzer, Heiko; Hoffman, Matthew J; Huybrechts, Philippe; Mair, Douglas W F; Nienow, Peter W; Perego, Mauro; Price, Stephen F; Smeets, C J P Paul; Sole, Andrew J; van de Wal, Roderik S W; Zwinger, Thomas

    2013-08-27

    We assess the effect of enhanced basal sliding on the flow and mass budget of the Greenland ice sheet, using a newly developed parameterization of the relation between meltwater runoff and ice flow. A wide range of observations suggest that water generated by melt at the surface of the ice sheet reaches its bed by both fracture and drainage through moulins. Once at the bed, this water is likely to affect lubrication, although current observations are insufficient to determine whether changes in subglacial hydraulics will limit the potential for the speedup of flow. An uncertainty analysis based on our best-fit parameterization admits both possibilities: continuously increasing or bounded lubrication. We apply the parameterization to four higher-order ice-sheet models in a series of experiments forced by changes in both lubrication and surface mass budget and determine the additional mass loss brought about by lubrication in comparison with experiments forced only by changes in surface mass balance. We use forcing from a regional climate model, itself forced by output from the European Centre Hamburg Model (ECHAM5) global climate model run under scenario A1B. Although changes in lubrication generate widespread effects on the flow and form of the ice sheet, they do not affect substantial net mass loss; increase in the ice sheet's contribution to sea-level rise from basal lubrication is projected by all models to be no more than 5% of the contribution from surface mass budget forcing alone. PMID:23940337

  17. Changes in uric acid levels following bariatric surgery are not associated with SLC2A9 variants in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Sarzynski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Obesity and SLC2A9 genotype are strong determinants of uric acid levels. However, data on SLC2A9 variants and weight loss induced changes in uric acid levels are missing. We examined whether the changes in uric acid levels two- and ten-years after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery were associated with SLC2A9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Swedish Obese Subjects study. METHODS: SNPs (N = 14 identified by genome-wide association studies and exonic SNPs in the SLC2A9 gene locus were genotyped. Cross-sectional associations were tested before (N = 1806, two (N = 1664 and ten years (N = 1201 after bariatric surgery. Changes in uric acid were compared between baseline and Year 2 (N = 1660 and years 2 and 10 (N = 1172. A multiple testing corrected threshold of P = 0.007 was used for statistical significance. RESULTS: Overall, 11 of the 14 tested SLC2A9 SNPs were significantly associated with cross-sectional uric acid levels at all three time points, with rs13113918 showing the strongest association at each time point (R(2 = 3.7-5.2%, 3.9×10(-22≤p≤7.7×10(-11. One SNP (rs737267 showed a significant association (R(2 = 0.60%, P = 0.002 with change in uric acid levels from baseline to Year 2, as common allele homozygotes (C/C, N = 957 showed a larger decrease in uric acid (-61.4 µmol/L compared to minor allele carriers (A/X: -51.7 µmol/L, N = 702. No SNPs were associated with changes in uric acid from years 2 to 10. CONCLUSIONS: SNPs in the SLC2A9 locus contribute significantly to uric acid levels in obese individuals, and the associations persist even after considerable weight loss due to bariatric surgery. However, we found little evidence for an interaction between genotype and weight change on the response of uric acid to bariatric surgery over ten years. Thus, the fluctuations in uric acid levels among the surgery group appear to be driven by the weight

  18. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  19. A common non-synonymous variant in GLUT9 is a determinant of serum uric acid levels in Old Order Amish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Patrick F.; Parsa, Afshin; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Weir, Matthew R.; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Uric acid is the primary end product of purine metabolism. Increased serum uric acid has been associated with gouty arthritis as well as with a variety of cardiovascular related phenotypes. Methods A 500,000 SNP genome wide association study of serum uric acid levels was performed in a cohort of Old Order Amish from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Results The scan confirmed a previously identified region on chromosome 4 to be strongly associated with uric acid levels (p = 4.2×10−11 for rs10489070). Follow-up genotyping revealed a non-synonymous coding SNP (Val253Ile; rs16890979) in GLUT9 that was most strongly associated with uric acid levels, with each copy of the minor allele associated with 0.47 mg/dl less uric acid (95% confidence interval: 0.31 − 0.63; p = 1.43 × 10−11). The effect of this variant tended to be stronger in women than in men (p = 0.16 for sex × genotype interaction). The genotypic effect was not modified by the inclusion of several cardiovascular risk factors suggesting that GLUT9 is directly related to uric acid homeostasis. The same SNP (rs10489070) identified in the Amish genome wide scan was significantly associated with gout in the Framingham Heart Study (p = 0.004). Conclusions We conclude that GLUT9, which is expressed in the kidney may be a novel regulator of uric acid elimination and a common non-synonymous variant in this gene contributes to abnormalities in uric acid homeostasis and gout. PMID:18759275

  20. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B₄-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T; Dang, Dongmin; Schmidt, Brian L

    2015-05-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c. PMID:25787958

  1. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk. PMID:24124276

  2. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Maryani; Neneng Ratnasari; Siti Nurdjanah

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI) and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosi...

  3. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52...

  4. Clinical evaluation of total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in oral precancer and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ahmed Taqi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Special attention has been given to define the biochemical changes in cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids that take place during malignant transformation. This study was thus designed to explore the clinical utility of total and lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) in patients with oral precancer and oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 95 subjects divided into three groups, namely healthy individuals, oral cancer, and precancer. Serum total and LSA level...

  5. Effects of composite restorations on nitric oxide and uric acid levels in saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Akgul; Pinar Gul; Hamit Hakan Alp; Ahmet Kiziltunc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, and should, therefore, not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances capable of causing side effects. This study was intended to investigate the effects on salivary nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid (UA) levels after application of dental composite filling materials to healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 individuals (32 female and 20 male) participated in the stu...

  6. Studies of Different pH Levels of Simulated Acid Rain on Lens culinaris CVS. Malika and L-830.

    OpenAIRE

    RP Malik; De Manisha; Lokendra Singh; VK Deshwal

    2013-01-01

    Simulated acid rain affected seed vigour, relative seed vigour percentage, seeding survival percentage and other related attributes in two cultivars of Lens culinaris. Treatment consist of four acidic levels in simulated acid rain pH 2.5,3.5,4.5 and 5.5.Effect of different pH of acid rain on germination, seed germination, seed germination action index, mean germination frequency etc. on cvs. malika and L-830 of Lens culinaris was studied. High acidic levels were found to be inhibitory for sur...

  7. The Influence of Manganese and Glutamine Intake on Antioxidants and Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Levels in Rats' Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpetnar, Maria; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the concentration, Mn can exert protective or toxic effect. Potential mechanism for manganese neurotoxicity is manganese-induced oxidative stress. Glutamine supplementation could reduce manganese-induced neurotoxicity and is able to influence the neurotransmission processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long term administration of manganese (alone or in combination with glutamine) in dose and time dependent manner could affect the selected parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, concentrations of vitamin C and malonic dialdehyde) and concentrations of excitatory (Asp, Glu) and inhibitory amino acids (GABA, Gly) in the brain of rats. The experiments were carried out on 2-months-old albino male rats randomly divided into 6 group: Mn300 and Mn500-received solution of MnCl2 to drink (dose 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively), Gln group-solution of glutamine (4 g/L), Mn300-Gln and Mn500-Gln groups-solution of Mn at 300 and 500 mg/L and Gln at 4 g/L dose. The control group (C) received deionized water. Half of the animals were euthanized after three and the other half-after 6 weeks of experiment. The exposure of rats to Mn in drinking water contributes to diminishing of the antioxidant enzymes activity and the increase in level of lipid peroxidation. Glutamine in the diet admittedly increases SOD and GPx activity, but it is unable to restore the intracellular redox balance. The most significant differences in the examined amino acids levels in comparison to both control and Gln group were observed in the group of rats receiving Mn at 500 mg/L dose alone or with Gln. It seems that Gln is amino acid which could improve antioxidant status and affect the concentrations of the neurotransmitters. PMID:27161372

  8. Contribution of Individual Chemoreceptors to Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis Towards Amino Acids of Host and Nonhost Seed Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2016-03-01

    Plant seeds and roots exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil that attract bacteria to the spermosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti utilizes eight chemoreceptors (McpT to McpZ and IcpA) to mediate chemotaxis. Using a modified hydrogel capillary chemotaxis assay that allows data quantification and larger throughput screening, we defined the role of S. meliloti chemoreceptors in sensing its host, Medicago sativa, and a closely related nonhost, Medicago arabica. S. meliloti wild type and most single-deletion strains displayed comparable chemotaxis responses to host or nonhost seed exudate. However, while the mcpZ mutant responded like wild type to M. sativa exudate, its reaction to M. arabica exudate was reduced by 80%. Even though the amino acid (AA) amounts released by both plant species were similar, synthetic AA mixtures that matched exudate profiles contributed differentially to the S. meliloti wild-type response to M. sativa (23%) and M. arabica (37%) exudates, with McpU identified as the most important chemoreceptor for AA. Our results show that S. meliloti is equally attracted to host and nonhost legumes; however, AA play a greater role in attraction to M. arabica than to M. sativa, with McpZ being specifically important in sensing M. arabica. PMID:26713349

  9. Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewumi Adediran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HIV infection and zidovudine on red blood cells (RBC parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA levels in patients with HIV infection. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 114 subjects, 94 of which are HIV-infected nonanaemic and 20 HIV negative subjects (Cg as control. Full blood count parameters and urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA level of each subject were determined. Associations were determined by Chi-square test and logistic regression statistics where appropriate. Results. Subjects on zidovudine-based ART had mean MCV (93 fL higher than that of control group (82.9 fL and ART-naïve (85.9 fL subjects and the highest mean RDW. Mean UMMA level, which reflects vitamin B12 level status, was high in all HIV-infected groups but was significantly higher in ART-naïve subjects than in ART-experienced subjects. Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fL, zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects.

  10. Abrupt Bølling warming and ice saddle collapse contributions to the Meltwater Pulse 1a rapid sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Lauren J.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the source(s) of Meltwater Pulse 1a, the largest rapid sea level rise caused by ice melt (14-18 m in less than 340 years, 14,600 years ago), is important for understanding mechanisms of rapid ice melt and the links with abrupt climate change. Here we quantify how much and by what mechanisms the North American ice sheet could have contributed to Meltwater Pulse 1a, by driving an ice sheet model with two transient climate simulations of the last 21,000 years. Ice sheet perturbed physics ensembles were run to account for model uncertainties, constraining ice extent and volume with reconstructions of 21,000 years ago to present. We determine that the North American ice sheet produced 3-4 m global mean sea level rise in 340 years due to the abrupt Bølling warming, but this response is amplified to 5-6 m when it triggers the ice sheet saddle collapse.

  11. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke.

  12. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1 coding variants do not contribute to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genest Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Niemann-Pick disease type A and B is caused by a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase due to mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1 gene. In Niemann-Pick patients, SMPD1 gene defects are reported to be associated with a severe reduction in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. Methods Two common coding polymorphisms in the SMPD1 gene, the G1522A (G508R and a hexanucleotide repeat sequence within the signal peptide region, were investigated in 118 unrelated subjects of French Canadian descent with low plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol (th percentile for age and gender-matched subjects. Control subjects (n = 230 had an HDL-cholesterol level > the 25th percentile. Results For G1522A the frequency of the G and A alleles were 75.2% and 24.8% respectively in controls, compared to 78.6% and 21.4% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.317. The frequency of 6 and 7 hexanucleotide repeats was 46.2% and 46.6% respectively in controls, compared to 45.6% and 49.1% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.619. Ten different haplotypes were observed in cases and controls. Overall haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were not significantly different. Conclusion These results suggest that the two common coding variants at the SMPD1 gene locus are not associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels in the French Canadian population.

  13. Relationship between Pain and Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Chronic Pancreatitis

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    Yoshiaki Kawaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Our aim was to investigate the relationship between imbalances of plasma amino acids and pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP. Methods Thirty patients with alcoholic CP in an exocrine-insufficient state were examined. We divided them between diet and control group. Diet group ingested 80g/300 kcal of the elemental diet "Elental®". This diet of 300 kcal/day was administered for two months. Selected clinical and laboratory values were compared between both groups before and after diet. Pain was observed and compared using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was no significant difference in the BMI between both groups before and after diet. The serum albumin level in diet group after diet was significantly higher than in control group (P=0.036. There was no significant difference in HbA1c between both groups before and after diet. The total amino acid concentration was significantly higher in diet group after diet than in control group (P=0.033. The concentrations of serum histidine and methionine in diet group after diet were significantly higher than in control group (histidine, P=0.022; methionine, P=0.026. The concentration of serum glutamate in diet group after diet was significantly lower than in control group (P=0.027. The balance of amino acids in diet group was normalized after the Elental® was ingested. The VAS score was significantly lower in diet group after diet than in control group (P=0.018. Conclusion These amino acid levels and pancreatic pain were improved by the elemental diet. The pancreatic pain may be related to these amino acid imbalances.

  14. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Orsavova; Ladislava Misurcova; Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova; Robert Vicha; Jiri Mlcek

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%)...

  15. The toc132toc120 heterozygote mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates reduced levels of hexadecatrienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Duffield-Duncan, Kayla; Fry, Morgan; Workman, Samantha; Hum-Musser, Sue; Hildebrand, David

    2015-11-01

    A null and heterozygous mutant for the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC132 and TOC120 genes accumulates increased levels of 16:0 and decreased 16:3, suggesting altered homeostasis in fatty acid synthesis. The FAD5 gene encodes a plastid desaturase that catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of 16:3 in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). In non-acclimated toc132toc120+/- mutant plants, the FAD5 gene was repressed and this correlated with decreased levels of 16:3. In cold-acclimated mutant however, the FAD5 gene was upregulated and there was a small increase in 16:3 levels relative to the non-acclimated mutant plants. The MGD1 gene was expressed at control levels and the mutant accumulated levels of MGDG that were similar to the wild type. In the mutant however, MGDG had decreased 16:3 levels, suggesting that the activity of FAD5 desaturase was compromised. In the mutant, the FAD2 and FAD3 genes were downregulated but levels of 18:3-PC were increased, suggesting posttranscriptional regulation for the ER-localized fatty acid desaturases. The Toc120 or Toc159 receptor is likely to compensate for a defective Toc132 receptor. In the cold-acclimated mutant, the TOC159 gene was repressed ca. 300-fold, whereas the TOC120 gene was repressed 7-fold relative to the non-acclimated wild type. Thus, the TOC159 gene is more sensitive to cold-stress and might not compensate for defect in the TOC132 gene under these conditions. Overall, these data show that a mutation in the TOC132 gene results in decreased 16:3 levels, indicating the need for an intact Toc132/Toc120 receptor, presumably to facilitate the import of the FAD5 preprotein into chloroplasts.

  16. Serum vitamin B12 and folic Acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Abdulkadir; Ince, Nurhan; Canbulat, Cuneyt E; Sargin, Mehmet

    2004-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral stroke. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important determinants of homocysteine metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the relationship, if present, between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and acute cerebral stroke in this study. Blood aliquots drawn within 24 hours after the stroke from hospitalized patients (n=66) with the diagnosis of acute ischemic cerebrovascular episode and also blood samples from 38 healthy controls without any vascular risk factor were analyzed. With a competitive, chemoluminescence assay, serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured in blood samples taken within 24 hours after the stroke. The differences and correlations were tested using frequency test, student-t test and multivariate analysis. Mean serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 245.40 (S.D.: 72.9) and 343.2 (S.D.: 113.0) pg/ml respectively (p=0.0001). This difference was independent from other risk factors. Likewise, mean serum folic acid levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects, 4.62 (S.D.: 1.94) and 5.97 (S.D.: 1.19) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.003). Mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate at the convalescence phase were 253.05 (S.D.: 68.78) pg/ml and 4.48 (S.D.: 2.08) ng/ml, respectively; the values obtained at the acute phase were not significantly different from the values obtained at the convalescence phase. We conclude that low vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations are associated with an increased risk of stroke, and the relationship for vitamin B12 is independent from the other known modifiable stroke risk factors. For understanding the effects of B12 and folate in stroke patients, more detailed follow-up studies with long period are needed.

  17. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

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    Siti Maryani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosis. This was a cross sectional study that conducted at Gastroentero-Hepatology Clinic andInternal Ward at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were patients withliver cirrhosis > 18 years old, male, with Child-Pugh classification B and C, and provided informedconsent. The exclusion criteria were liver cirrhotic patients with comorbidity chronic kidney disease,chronic heart failure, diabetic, cancer, infection/septic, pregnancy, breast feeding, and steroid use.Data collecting was performed by anamnesis, physical examination, abdominal ultrasonographyexamination, and blood chemistry test. Pearson test was used to evaluate the correlation betweenthe serum leptin level with the lipid profile and free fatty acid. The results showed that no significantnegative correlation was observed between the serum leptin level with the total cholesterol (r= -0.052; p=0.766, high-density lipoprotein/HDL (r= -0.078; p=0.658 and triglyceride (r= -0.170; p=0.328 in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, no significant positive correlationwas observed between the serum leptin levels with the low-density lipoprotein/LDL (r= -0.013; p=0.942 and free fatty acid/FFA (r= 0.007; p=0.968. In conclusion, there was no correlationbetween serum leptin levels with lipid profile and FFA in male patients with liver cirrhosis.

  18. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Hees, A.M. van; Sijben, J.W.; Vellas, B.; Shah, R.C.; Bennett, D.A.; Scheltens, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in

  19. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, and most trienoate-containing polar lipid molecular species increase during the dark period of the diurnal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMaatta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of phosphatidic acid. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  20. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  1. Dietary protein levels in Piaractus brachypomus submitted to extremely acidic or alkaline pH

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    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels in pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus, submited to extremely acidic or alkaline pH. Juveniles were fed for 20 days with three diets with different crude protein (CP levels (25.3, 32.4 and 40.0% and then separated in five groups (n=10, three replicates each which were kept in 60 L aquaria and exposed to pH 3.0, 3.5, 7.0, 10, or 10.5. Fish were removed from aquaria when they showed loss of swimming balance, and then blood was collected and plasma separated for measurement of Na+, Cl- and K+ levels. The increase of dietary protein levels (up to 40.0% CP provided some protection for pirapitinga at pH 3.5 or 10.0 because the time to lose equilibrium increased after acute exposure, but was not effective for compensating ion loss at very acidic (Na+ and Cl- and alkaline (Cl- pH.

  2. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Methattel Raman, Shijeesh; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels in bipolar disorder: a case report

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    Miura I

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Itaru Miura,1,2 Soichi Kono,1 Sachie Oshima,1 Keiko Kanno-Nozaki,1 Hirobumi Mashiko,1 Shin-Ichi Niwa,1 Hirooki Yabe11Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; 2Division of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USAAbstract: Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder is a serious, but not unusual problem for patients. Nevertheless, there are few biomarkers for distinguishing unipolar and bipolar disorder. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive and useful method for the measurement of hemoglobin concentration changes in the cortical surface area, which enables the assessment of brain function. We measured NIRS and plasma monoamine metabolite levels in a patient with bipolar disorder. A 22-year-old man was admitted due to major depression. At admission, NIRS findings showed oxygenated hemoglobin reincrease in the posttask period, which is characteristic of schizophrenia. After treatment with paroxetine, he became manic with psychotic symptoms. His plasma level of homovanillic acid just before the manic switch was ten times higher than that just after paroxetine initiation. Treatment with lithium and antipsychotics was successful, and plasma homovanillic acid decreased after treatment. In this case, the NIRS findings may predict a possible risk of a manic switch, which is likely induced by paroxetine. NIRS may be able to help distinguish unipolar and bipolar disorder in clinical settings.Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, bipolar disorder, homovanillic acid, diagnosis, biomarker

  4. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  5. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  6. Investigation of change of serum immunosuppressive acidic protein levels in gynecological tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance for measuring serum immunosuppressive acidic protein(IAP) levels to diagnose and follow up survey patients with the gynecological tumor.Methods: Serum IAP levels were determined by IAP-single radial immunodiffusion test in 235 patients with the gynecological tumor,including 38 cases of benign tumor of ovary,41 cases of malignant tumor of ovary,66 cases of hysteromyoma,34 carcinomas of uterine cervix, 16 endometrial carcinomas,27 cases of chemotherapy,13 cases of recurrence, and the control group was 50 cases health women.Results: Serum IAP level was 889.4±207.8mg/L in malignant ovary tumors,which was significantly higher than that of health women and benign tumors of ovary (P<0.01).In patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix and endometrial carcinoma, their IAP levels were 741.4±212.6mg/L and 763.3±209.4mg/L,which were higher than those of the health women and benign tumor of ovary(P<0.01).After chemotherapy, serum IAP levels of malignant tumor of ovary were decreased;in patients with recurrence of tumor of ovary,IAP levels increased compared with the health women(P<0.01).Incidence of the abnormal value was 100%.Conclusion:Measuring IAP level of the gynecological tumor may be an auxiliary index for monitoring gynecological tumor and identifying benign and malignant tumor.

  7. Effect of somatostatin on nonesterified fatty acid levels modifies glucose homeostasis during fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 7-days fasted conscious dog, unlike the postabsorptive conscious dog, somatostatin infusion results in decreased levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased glucose utilization (Rd) even when insulin and glucagon levels are held constant. The aim of this study was to determine whether NEFA replacement in such animals would prevent the increase in Rd. In each of three protocols there was an 80-min tracer equilibration period, a 40-min basal period, and a 3-h test period. During the test period in the first protocol saline was infused, in the second protocol somatostatin was infused along with intraportal replacement amounts of insulin and glucagon (hormone replacement), while in the third protocol somatostatin plus the pancreatic hormones were infused with concurrent heparin plus Intralipid infusion. Glucose turnover was assessed using [3-3H]glucose. The peripheral levels of insulin, glucagon, and glucose were similar and constant in all three protocols; however, during somatostatin infusion, exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia. The NEFA level was constant during saline infusion and decreased in the hormone replacement protocol. In the hormone replacement plus NEFA protocol, the NEFA level did not change during the first 90-min period and then increased during the second 90-min period. After a prolonged fast in the dog, (1) somatostatin directly or indirectly inhibits adipose tissue NEFA release and causes a decrease in the plasma NEFA level, and (2) this decrease in the NEFA level causes an increase in Rd

  8. Stress-induced increases in brainstem amino acid levels are prevented by chronic sodium hydrosulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenycia, M W; Kombian, S B; Reiffenstein, R J

    1990-01-01

    Neurotransmitter amino acid levels were measured in select brain regions of rats and mice after chronic treatment with sublethal doses of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Brainstem aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and GABA levels increased in chronically but not acutely saline-treated rats. These increases may have been due to stress from frequent handling, and were prevented by chronic NaHS treatment (7.5 mg/kg ip every 8 hr for 3 consecutive days). In contrast, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine increased in female but not in male ICR mouse brainstems after once daily treatment with 7.0 mg/kg NaHS for 5 consecutive days. These effects of NaHS may indicate chronic low level H2S neurotoxicity. Differences between chronic and acute treatments, female and male responses, and treatment paradigms may complicate interpretations of such toxicity studies.

  9. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP factor and host acid sphingomyelinase contribute to bacterial virulence: potential targets for inflammatory acne treatment.

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    Teruaki Nakatsuji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs

  10. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  11. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sousa Moisés S.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training (RT can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34 that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34 that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001. Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001, leg extension (p<0.001, shoulder press (p<0.001, leg curl (p=0.001, seated row (p<0.001, leg press (p=0.001 and high pulley (p<0.001. The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively. The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024. We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics.

  12. The contribution of interventional cardiology procedures to the population radiation dose in a 'health-care level I' representative region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo Cornetto, Andrea; Aimonetto, Stefania; Pisano, Francesco; Giudice, Marcello; Sicuro, Marco; Meloni, Teodoro; Tofani, Santi

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates per-procedure, collective and per capita effective dose to the population by interventional cardiology (IC) procedures performed during 2002-11 at the main hospital of Aosta Valley Region that can be considered as representative of the health-care level I countries, as defined by the UNSCEAR, based on its socio-demographic characteristics. IC procedures investigated were often multiple procedures in patients older than 60 y. The median extreme dose-area product values of 300 and 22 908 cGycm(2) were found for standard pacemaker implantation and coronary angioplasty, respectively, while the relative mean per-procedure effective dose ranged from 0.7 to 47 mSv. A 3-fold increase in frequency has been observed together with a correlated increase in the delivered per capita dose (0.05-0.27 mSv y(-1)) and the collective dose (5.8-35 man Sv y(-1)). Doses increased particularly from 2008 onwards mainly because of the introduction of coronary angioplasty procedures in the authors' institution. IC practice contributed remarkably in terms of effective dose to the population, delivering ∼10% of the total dose by medical ionising radiation examination categories.

  13. Attenuation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase activity contributes to GABA increase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to β-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Cao, D; Li, X; Zhang, R; Yu, F; Ren, Y; An, L

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and GABA metabolic enzymes (GABA transaminase (GABA(T)) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)) activities at 2 and 4 h after treatment, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detectors and colorimetric assay, in the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin by a single oral gavage, with corn oil as vehicle control. In addition, GABA protein (4 h after treatment), GABA(T) protein (2 h after treatment) and GABA receptors messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. β-Cypermethrin (80 mg/kg) significantly increased GABA levels in the cerebral cortex of mice, at both 2 and 4 h after treatment, compared with the control. Also, GABA immunohistochemistry results suggested that the number of positive granules was increased in the cerebral cortex of mice 4 h after exposure to 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin when compared with the control. Furthermore, the results also showed that GABA(T) activity detected was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of mice 2 h after β-cypermethrin administration (40 or 80 mg/kg). No significant changes were found in GAD activity, or the expression of GABA(T) protein and GABAB receptors mRNA, in the cerebral cortex of mice, except that 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin caused a significant decrease, compared with the vehicle control, in GABAA receptors mRNA expression 4 h after administration. These results suggested that attenuated GABA(T) activity induced by β-cypermethrin contributed to increased GABA levels in the mouse brain. The downregulated GABAA receptors mRNA expression is most likely a downstream event.

  14. Comparison of plasma uric acid levels in five varieties of the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, S; Taleb, S A; Geng, T; Gyenai, K; Guan, X; Smith, E

    2006-10-01

    Plasma uric acid (PUA) is a consensus physiological biomarker for many phenotypes in vertebrates because it is a reliable indicator for processes such as oxidative stress and tubular function. In birds, it is considered a major antioxidant and is also the primary endproduct of nitrogen metabolism. Despite this importance, knowledge of baseline levels of PUA in physiologically normal birds, including the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is limited. Here, we compared PUA levels in a total of 106 apparently normal male and female birds at 8 and 32 wk of age from 5 strains of the domestic turkey, including Bourbon Red, Narragansett, Blue Slate, Royal Palm, and Spanish Black. Though differences in PUA were not significant at 8 and 32 wk of age, BW, variety, and sex effects were highly significant. When adjusted for BW, female birds had, on average, a higher PUA per kilogram of BW than male birds. When adjusted for both sex and BW, Royal Palm birds had the lowest average PUA, and Blue Slate had the highest PUA. Results of these investigations represent the first comparative analysis of PUA in physiologically normal turkey varieties. They suggest that differences in basal plasma levels of uric acid in physiologically normal turkeys are influenced by sex, weight, and genetic background but may be independent of age.

  15. Plasma uric acid levels correlate with inflammation and disease severity in Malian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Tatiana M Lopera-Mesa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs and may be converted by plasma xanthine oxidase to UA at schizont rupture. These two forms of 'parasite-derived' UA stimulate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines in vitro. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured plasma levels of soluble UA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNFα, IP-10, IFNγ, GM-CSF, IL-1β in 470 Malian children presenting with uncomplicated malaria (UM, non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM or cerebral malaria (CM. UA levels were elevated in children with NCSM (median 5.74 mg/dl, 1.21-fold increase, 95% CI 1.09-1.35, n = 23, p = 0.0007 and CM (median 5.69 mg/dl, 1.19-fold increase, 95% CI 0.97-1.41, n = 9, p = 0.0890 compared to those with UM (median 4.60 mg/dl, n = 438. In children with UM, parasite density and plasma creatinine levels correlated with UA levels. These UA levels correlated with the levels of seven cytokines [IL-6 (r = 0.259, p<0.00001, IL-10 (r = 0.242, p<0.00001, sTNFRII (r = 0.221, p<0.00001, MCP-1 (r = 0.220, p<0.00001, IL-8 (r = 0.147, p = 0.002, TNFα (r = 0.132, p = 0.006 and IP-10 (r = 0.120, p = 0.012]. In 39 children, UA levels were 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.34-1.65; p<0.0001 higher during their malaria episode [geometric mean titer (GMT 4.67 mg/dl] than when they were previously healthy and aparasitemic (GMT 3.14 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated UA levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria by activating immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. While this study cannot identify the cause of elevated UA levels, their association with parasite density and

  16. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid contributes to the inhibition of K+ channel activity and vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin II in rat renal microvessels.

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    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE contributes to the vasoconstrictor effect of angiotensin II (ANG II in renal microvessels by preventing activation of the large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channel (KCa in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells. ANG II increased the production of 20-HETE in rat renal microvessels. This response was attenuated by the 20-HETE synthesis inhibitors, 17-ODYA and HET0016, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor AACOF3, and the AT1 receptor blocker, Losartan, but not by the AT2 receptor blocker, PD123319. ANG II (10(-11 to 10(-6 M dose-dependently decreased the diameter of renal microvessels by 41 ± 5%. This effect was blocked by 17-ODYA. ANG II (10(-7 M did not alter KCa channel activity recorded from cell-attached patches on renal VSM cells under control conditions. However, it did reduce the NPo of the KCa channel by 93.4 ± 3.1% after the channels were activated by increasing intracellular calcium levels with ionomycin. The inhibitory effect of ANG II on KCa channel activity in the presence of ionomycin was attenuated by 17-ODYA, AACOF3, and the phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor U-73122. ANG II induced a peak followed by a steady-state increase in intracellular calcium concentration in renal VSM cells. 17-ODYA (10(-5 M had no effect on the peak response, but it blocked the steady-state increase. These results indicate that ANG II stimulates the formation of 20-HETE in rat renal microvessels via the AT1 receptor activation and that 20-HETE contributes to the vasoconstrictor response to ANG II by blocking activation of KCa channel and facilitating calcium entry.

  17. Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

  18. Association of serum uric acid with different levels of glucose and related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hui-juan; YANG Xu-guang; SHI Xiao-yang; TIAN Rui; ZHAO Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that serum uric acid (UA) is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in general populations. This study aimed to investigate specific characteristics of UA and its relationship between UA and blood glucose and other risk factors in the Chinese population.Methods A total of 946 subjects were included in this study. UA, glucose, insulin, fractional excretion of UA (FEua),creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine (FA), blood pressure and lipids were studied and also reexamined after the patients underwent two weeks of combined therapeutics.Results UA levels were the highest in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), followed by subjects with normoglycemia (NGT) and finally by subjects with T2DM. The level of the 2-hour postprandial insulin and the area under the curve for insulin (AUCins) showed a similar tendency. The UA levels initially increased with increasing fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels, up to 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L, respectively, and thereafter decreased at higher FBG and PPBG levels. Compared with subjects in the lower serum UA quartile, subjects in the upper quartile of serum UA levels had higher weights, triglyceride levels, and creatinine levels as well as lower Ccr and FEua levels. Compared with women's group, UA levels were higher, and FEua levels were lower in men's group. Sex,body mass index (BMI), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), serum triglycerides (TG), FA and Ccr were independent correlation factors of UA. UA decreased and FEua increased after the patients underwent a combined treatment.Conclusions UA increased initially and then decreased as glucose levels increased from NGT to IGR and T2DM.Compared with NGT and T2DM, IGR subjects had higher SUA levels, which related to its high levels of insulin. Under T2DM, male gender, BMI, MAP, Ccr, TG and FA are independent correlation factors of UA

  19. A highly pleiotropic amino acid polymorphism in the Drosophila insulin receptor contributes to life-history adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaby, Annalise B.; Bergland, Alan O.; Behrman, Emily L.; Schmidt, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Finding the specific nucleotides that underlie adaptive variation is a major goal in evolutionary biology, but polygenic traits pose a challenge because the complex genotype–phenotype relationship can obscure the effects of individual alleles. However, natural selection working in large wild populations can shift allele frequencies and indicate functional regions of the genome. Previously, we showed that the two most common alleles of a complex amino acid insertion–deletion polymorphism in the Drosophila insulin receptor show independent, parallel clines in frequency across the North American and Australian continents. Here, we report that the cline is stable over at least a five-year period and that the polymorphism also demonstrates temporal shifts in allele frequency concurrent with seasonal change. We tested the alleles for effects on levels of insulin signaling, fecundity, development time, body size, stress tolerance, and life span. We find that the alleles are associated with predictable differences in these traits, consistent with patterns of Drosophila life-history variation across geography that likely reflect adaptation to the heterogeneous climatic environment. These results implicate insulin signaling as a major mediator of life-history adaptation in Drosophila, and suggest that life-history trade-offs can be explained by extensive pleiotropy at a single locus. PMID:25319083

  20. Human Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Increased Plasma Levels of 12α-Hydroxylated Bile Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Astiarraga, Brenno; Camastra, Stefania; Accili, Domenico; Ferrannini, Ele

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) exert pleiotropic metabolic effects, and physicochemical properties of different BAs affect their function. In rodents, insulin regulates BA composition, in part by regulating the BA 12α-hydroxylase CYP8B1. However, it is unclear whether a similar effect occurs in humans. To address this question, we examined the relationship between clamp-measured insulin sensitivity and plasma BA composition in a cohort of 200 healthy subjects and 35 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. In healthy subjects, insulin resistance (IR) was associated with increased 12α-hydroxylated BAs (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and their conjugated forms). Furthermore, ratios of 12α-hydroxylated/non–12α-hydroxylated BAs were associated with key features of IR, including higher insulin, proinsulin, glucose, glucagon, and triglyceride (TG) levels and lower HDL cholesterol. In T2D patients, BAs were nearly twofold elevated, and more hydrophobic, compared with healthy subjects, although we did not observe disproportionate increases in 12α-hydroxylated BAs. In multivariate analysis of the whole dataset, controlling for sex, age, BMI, and glucose tolerance status, higher 12α-hydroxy/non–12α-hydroxy BA ratios were associated with lower insulin sensitivity and higher plasma TGs. These findings suggest a role for 12α-hydroxylated BAs in metabolic abnormalities in the natural history of T2D and raise the possibility of developing insulin-sensitizing therapeutics based on manipulations of BA composition. PMID:23884887

  1. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress.

  2. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress. PMID:26264736

  3. Peripartum responses of dairy cows to prepartal feeding level and dietary fatty acid source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirli, A; Keisler, D H; Doepel, L; Petit, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding level and oilseed supplementation during the close-up dry period on energy balance (EB), hepatic lipidosis, metabolic status, and productivity in early lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein cows were blocked according to parity and expected calving date and then assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial allocation with 2 feeding levels: ad libitum (AL) or 30% feed restriction (FR), and 3 dietary fatty acid sources: canola seed, linola seed, or flaxseed at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM), to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acids, respectively during the last 4 wk of gestation. After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet. Cows fed AL lost less body weight (-2.9 vs. -6.0%) and body condition score (+0.67 vs. -2.30%), and consequently were in more positive EB (+4.6 vs. -0.3 Mcal) during the prepartum period than cows subjected to FR. Postpartum, FR cows lost less body weight (-9.7 vs. -12.4%) and experienced less severe negative EB (-4.5 vs. -7.0 Mcal) than AL cows. Cows fed AL had higher plasma insulin (6.8 vs. 4.4 μIU/mL) and lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (436 vs. 570 mEq/mL) during the close-up period than cows subjected to FR. Cows fed AL tended to have lower liver glycogen content in early lactation than cows subjected to FR (4.4 vs. 2.9 % of DM) [corrected], but had similar triglyceride content (13.1 ± 1.2 μg/g of DM). Fatty acid source did not influence response variables. In conclusion, eliminating intake depression by FR during the close-up period had positive carryover effects on EB and metabolic status during early lactation, but feeding linoleic and linolenic acids via unprotected oilseeds only had negligible effects on peripartum responses.

  4. Elevated Serum Levels of Arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidic Acid and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in Systemic Sclerosis

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    Akira Tokumura, Laura D. Carbone, Yasuko Yoshioka, Junichi Morishige, Masaki Kikuchi, Arnold Postlethwaite, Mitchell A. Watsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an often fatal disease characterized by autoimmunity and inflammation, leading to widespread vasculopathy and fibrosis. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, a bioactive phospholipid in serum, is generated from lysophospholipids secreted from activated platelets in part by the action of lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, a member of the bioactive lysophospholipid family, is also released from activated platelets. Because activated platelets are a hallmark of SSc, we wanted to determine whether subjects with SSc have altered serum lysophospholipid levels or lysoPLD activity. Lysophospholipid levels were measured using mass spectrometric analysis. LysoPLD activity was determined by quantifying choline released from exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC. The major results were that serum levels of arachidonoyl (20:4-LPA and S1P were significantly higher in SSc subjects versus controls. Furthermore, serum LPA:LPC ratios of two different polyunsaturated phospholipid molecular species, and also the ratio of all species combined, were significantly higher in SSc subjects versus controls. No significant differences were found between other lysophospholipid levels or lysoPLD activities. Elevated 20:4 LPA, S1P levels and polyunsaturated LPA:LPC ratios may be markers for and/or play a significant role in the etiology of SSc and may be future pharmacological targets for SSc treatment.

  5. Serum Leptin Levels in Epileptic Patients Treated with Topiramate and Valproic Acid

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    İrem Fatma Uludağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leptin is considered to be a signal factor that regulates body weight and energy expenditure, and there is a strong correlation between serum leptin concentrations, body mass index, and body fat mass in humans. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in valproic acid (VPA and topiramate (TPM related weight changes in epileptic patients. METHODS: Body mass index is calculated and serum leptin and insulin levels are measured in 56 patients with epilepsy (40 patients taking VPA and 16 patients taking VPA and TPM and in 40 healty control subjects. RESULTS: Obesity was seen in 21 patients (52.5% in VPA treated group, in 15 patients (37.5% in the control group and in only one male (6.3% in VPA and TPM treated group. Body mass index was lower in the group treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.001. Serum leptin concentrations were correlated with the body mass index (r=0.49, p<0.001 and were significantly higher in obese subjects (p<0.001 and in women (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients treated with VPA and TPM (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: High levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and significantly low levels of serum leptin in patients taking VPA and TPM in our study are in agreement with the hypotheses that weight changes induced with VPA and TPM are related with the alterations in serum leptin levels.

  6. Adaptive response of Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 to salt and phenolic stress on the level of mycolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Fischer, Martin A; Kirsten, Sandra; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2016-12-01

    Mycolata form a group of Gram-positive bacteria with unique cell envelope structures that are known for their high tolerance against antibiotics and both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. An important part of the unique surface structure of the mycolata is the presence of long chain α-alkyl-β-hydroxy fatty acids, the mycolic acids. In order to investigate the adaptive changes in the mycolic acid composition, we investigated the composition of mycolic acids during the response both to osmotic stress caused by NaCl and to 4-chlorophenol in Rhodococcus opacus PWD4. This bacterium was chosen as it is known to adapt to different kinds of stresses. In addition, it is a potential biocatalyst in bioremediation as well as for biotechnological applications. In the present study, cells of R. opacus PWD4, grown in liquid cultures, responded to toxic concentrations of NaCl by increasing the ratio between mycolic acids and membrane phospholipid fatty acids (MA/PLFA-ratio). Cells reacted to both NaCl and 4-chlorophenol by decreasing both the average chain length and the unsaturation index of their mycolic acids. These changes in mycolic acid composition correlated with increases in cell surface hydrophobicity and saturation of membrane fatty acids, demonstrating the relation between mycolic acid and phospholipid synthesis and their contribution to cell surface properties of R. opacus PWD4.

  7. Measuring the mass balance and contribution to sea level rise of North American glaciers using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlooy, Jeffrey Adam

    Volume and surface elevation changes were calculated for six icefields throughout Alaska and British Columbia by differencing Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that represent glacial elevations from different time periods. For the Harding Icefield on the Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska, United States Geological Survey (USGS) DEMs from the 1950s were differenced with Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEMs from 2000 (effective 1999 elevations). Results indicated that the icefield had a volume loss of -72.1 +/-15.0 km3, which equates to 0.0033 +/- 0.0006 mm y-1 of sea level rise contribution. Along with these results, Light Detecting and Ranging (Lidar) elevation data of 13 Harding Icefield glaciers from the mid-1990s provided a third elevation data set for comparison with the USGS and SRTM DEMs. The results from these surface elevation change calculations indicated that surface elevation change rates increased by 1.5 times from the mid-1990s to 1999 (-0.72 +/- 0.13 m y-1) as compared to the 1950s to the mid-1900s (-0.47 +/- 0.01 m y-1). In southwest British Columbia, five icefields were studied: Monarch, Ha-Iltzuk, Mt. Waddington area, Homathko, and Lillooet. Terrain Resource Information Management (TRIM) DEMs from the mid-1980s were differenced from the SRTM DEMs to calculate the volume and surface elevation change of the five icefields. Results from these calculations indicate that between the mid-1980s and 1999 the total volume change of the five icefields was a loss of -47.72 +/- 14.62 km3, which equates to a potential sea level rise contribution of 0.0077 +/-0.0021 mm y-1. A DEM of a third time period was produced by kriging elevation points derived from 1970s topographic maps, and used to calculate volume and surface elevation changes of Ha-Iltzuk Icefield for the time period of 1970 to the mid-1980s. The results of this analysis indicate that Ha-Iltzuk Icefield had a volume loss of -5.87 +/- 2.89 km3 and a surface elevation change rate of -0

  8. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with ...

  10. INFLUENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES ON THE LEVELS OF IMMUNE COMPLEXES UNDER IONIZED RADIATION

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    A. S. Boyajyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the present study, blood levels of circulating immune complexes and of their pathogenic subpopulations were determined in rats following ionizing irradiation. Experimental animals were treated with synthetic Schiff base aromatic amino acid derivatives, nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate or nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate, before irradiation, whereas untreated irradiated rats served as controls. The results obtained demonstrate significantly increased levels of immune complexes, as well as presence of a pathogenic subpopulation of circulating immune complexes in blood of irradiated animals. In addition, the data obtained suggest a normalizing effect of nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate upon the mentioned parameters. On the basis of these observations, a cyto- and immunoprotective ability of nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate may be proposed.

  11. Contribution of placental leptin to the serum levels in preeclampsia and the effect of hypoxia on synthesis of placental leptin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang; LI Dong-hong; ZHOU Run-suo; ZHAO Hong-xi; LI Yi; YAO Yuan-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contribution of placental leptin to the serum levels in preeclampsia and the effect of hypoxia on synthesis of placental leptin. Methods: Fifteen preeclamptic women and 20 normotensive pregnant women were recruited in present study. Leptin concentrations in peripheral venous blood samples and uterine venous blood samples were measured by radioimmunoassay. Eight cases of normal human term placental villi were cultured either in normaxia (21%O2) or in hypoxia (2%O2) followed by determining leptin in the culture medium by radioimmunoassay. Results: Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive pregnant women, both in the peripheral vein ([23.29±12.87] μg/L vs [13.87±5.57] μg/L, P<0.01) and uterine vein ([16.44±8.62] μg/L vs [11.21±4.20] μg/L, P<0.05). Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in the peripheral vein than in uterine vein, both in the preeclamptic (P<0.01) and in normotensive pregnant women (P<0.01). Concentrations of leptin in the culture medium were significantly increased in hypoxia than in normoxia (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia may be associated with an increase of maternal serum leptin and placenta leptin, and hypoxia in placenta may be an important factor that results in preeclamptic placenta to produce more leptin. Placenta is not the principal source of the serum leptin in the preeclamptic women or normotensive pregnant women.

  12. Effects of a low birthweight infant formula containing human milk levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, B; Edenhofer, S; Lipowsky, G; Reinhardt, D

    1995-08-01

    Long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for low birth weight infants (LBWI). Therefore, enrichment of LBWI formulae with metabolites both linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acids at levels typical for human milk has been recommended. However, previous feeding trials with LCP-enriched formulae evaluated only a dietary supplementation with omega-3 LCP from fish oils alone or with both omega-3 and omega-6 LCP at levels considerably lower than usual human milk contents. We studied the effects of an LBWI formula providing the major omega-3 and omega-6 LCP, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, in amounts similar to those in average human milk. Twenty-seven LBWIs were enrolled in this study when they tolerated full enteral feeding (> or = 130 ml milk/kg/day). Infants either received their own mother's milk (n = 8, birthweight 1218 +/- 146 g, gestational age 30.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- SD) fortified with protein and minerals (FM-85, Nestle Ag, Munchen, Germany; dosage 5 g/100 ml milk) or were randomly assigned to blinded batches of an LBWI formula (Prematil, Milupa AG, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) without LCP (n = 10, 1280 +/- 229 g, 31.1 +/- 3.1 weeks) or with LCP (n = 9, 1253 +/- 334 g, 30.4 +/- 3.3 wks.). During the study period of 21 days, the three feeding groups did not differ in growth and feeding tolerances as assessed by occurrence of gastric residuals, spitting, or abdominal distention; however, firms stools were noted more frequently in the two formula groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Optimal level of Purple Acid Phosphatase5 is required for maintaining complete resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar eRavichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess an exceedingly complex innate immune system to defend against most pathogens. However, a relative proportion of the pathogens overcome host’s innate immunity and impair plant growth and productivity. We previously showed that mutation in purple acid phosphatase (PAP5 lead to enhanced susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000. Here, we report that an optimal level of PAP5 is crucial for mounting complete basal resistance. Overexpression of PAP5 impaired ICS1, PR1 expression and salicylic acid (SA accumulation similar to pap5 knockout mutant plants. Moreover, plant overexpressing PAP5 was impaired in H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000. PAP5 is localized in to peroxisomes, a known site of generation of reactive oxygen species for activation of defense responses. Taken together, our results demonstrate that optimal levels of PAP5 is required for mounting resistance against Pst DC3000 as both knockout and overexpression of PAP5 lead to compromised basal resistance.

  14. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  15. Reproductive factors and serum uric acid levels in females from the general population: the KORA F4 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Stöckl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. RESULTS: Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036. A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009. Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038, but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings.

  16. Effect of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Tan; Yu-Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder.Methods: One hundred and twenty-six cases of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy were rolled into the observation group, and 80 healthy pregnant women were rolled into the as control group. The relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of AFP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in the observation group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the observation group, with the increase of blood pressure, the serum AFP and uric acid levels were increased, which in the moderate sub-group and severe sub-group were significantly higher than those in mild sub-group, and the severe sub-group was significantly higher than that in the moderate sub-group (allP<0.05). The rate of preterm birth, premature rupture rate, placental abruption rate, fetal distress rate and cesarean section rate in the pregnant women with abnormal serum AFP and uric acid level were significantly higher than that of the normal serum AFP and uric acid group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The serum AFP and uric acid levels in the late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder are significantly higher than those of the normal pregnant women, and are elevated remarkably as the blood pressure rising. When the serum AFP and uric acid levels are abnormal, the adverse outcomes of pregnancy and cesarean section rate increase significantly. Monitoring of serum AFP and uric acid levels is of importance.

  17. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C;

    2009-01-01

    index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic...

  18. Ethacrynic acid inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells: effect on cellular ATP levels and thiol groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    The experiments concerned the effect of ethacrynic acid (0.5 mM) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells and the effect on histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187 (10 microM). Ethacrynic acid decreased the ATP level of the cells in presence of antimycin A and glucose...

  19. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  20. Relationship of circulating hyaluronic acid levels to disease control in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.

  1. A Turkish 3-center study evaluation of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in Alzheimer disease

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSU, NURİYE NURAY; YILMAZ, Gökhan; Erbayraktar, Zübeyde; EVLİCE, AHMET TURAN; ARAS, SEVGİ; YENER, GÖRSEV; AVCI, ASLIHAN

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Alzheimer disease, a common proteopathy of advanced age, is characterized by cortical atrophy, neuron degeneration, neuronal loss, and accumulation of extracellular amyloid β plaques. We aimed to investigate serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Alzheimer disease and other dementia patients, as a potential screening test to detect presymptomatic Alzheimer disease in Turkish patients. Materials and methods: We evaluated folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in Alzhei...

  2. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Crown, Scott B.; Nicholas Marze; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2015-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass...

  3. Chlorogenic acid increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation when heating fructose alone or with aspartic acid at two pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zou, Yueyu; Wu, Taigang; Huang, Caihuan; Pei, Kehan; Zhang, Guangwen; Lin, Xiaohua; Bai, Weibin; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic acid that ubiquitously exists in fruits. This work aims to investigate whether and how CGA influences HMF formation during heating fructose alone, or with an amino acid. The results showed that that CGA increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. At pH 5.5 and 7.0, the addition of 5.0 μmol/ml CGA increased HMF formation by 49.4% and 25.2%, respectively when heating fructose alone, and by 9.0% and 16.7%, respectively when heating fructose with aspartic acid. CGA significantly increased HMF formation by promoting 3-deoxosone formation, and its conversion to HMF by inhibiting HMF elimination, especially in the Maillard reaction system. A comparison of the catalytic capacity of CGA with its six analogous compounds showed that both its di-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups function in increasing HMF formation. PMID:26213045

  4. One-third of pregnant and lactating women may not be meeting their folate requirements from diet alone based on mandated levels of folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Kelly L; Houghton, Lisa A; Tarasuk, Valerie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Many women are advised to consume a folic acid-containing prenatal supplement for the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Whether this remains necessary after folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America has yet to be determined. Our objective was to assess the dietary folate intake of a sample of pregnant and lactating women at mandated and predicted folic acid-fortification levels and determine the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes. Weighed food records (for 3 d) were collected from predominantly university-educated women (32 +/- 4 y of age) at 36 wk of pregnancy (n = 61) and at 4 and 16 wk of lactation (n = 60). Dietary folate intakes during pregnancy and lactation, assuming fortification at mandated levels (140-150 micro g/100 g), were 562 +/- 106 and 498 +/- 99 micro g/d dietary folate equivalents (DFE), respectively. The prevalence of inadequacy for folate, or the proportion of individuals with usual folate intakes less than their nutrient requirement, was 36% for women during pregnancy (estimated average requirement of 520 micro g/d DFE), and 32% during lactation (estimated average requirement of 450 micro g/d DFE). Assuming fortification at twice the mandated level, mean dietary intakes during pregnancy and lactation were 786 +/- 132 and 716 +/- 150 micro g/d DFE, respectively, producing only a 3% prevalence of folate inadequacy. Grains contributed approximately 41% of total folate intake followed by fruits and vegetables (approximately 21%). To conclude, at mandated levels of fortification many pregnant and lactating women are unlikely to meet their folate requirements from dietary sources alone; however, the actual level of inadequacy cannot be determined until the level of folic acid in the food supply is known with greater precision.

  5. Serum uric acid levels correlate with atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-yan; YU Sheng-bo; HUANG He; CUI Hong-ying; QIN Mu; HUANG Ting; HUANG Cong-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that increased levels of serum uric acid (SUA) are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF).However,less is known about the prognostic value of SUA levels for AF in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).The aim of the study was to examine the prognostic value of SUA levels for AF in patients with CHF.Methods Sixteen thousand six hundred and eighty-one patients diagnosed with CHF from 12 hospitals were analyzed.Patients were categorized into AF group and non-AF group,death group,and survival group according to the results of the patients' medical records and follow-up.Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to examine the risk of AF.The sensitivity and specificity of SUA level in predicting the prognosis were examined by multivariate Cox models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.Results The results of univariate predictors in overall patients showed that the higher SUA level was associated with AF.SUA level (HR,1.084; 95% CI,1.017-1.144; P<0.001),diuretics (HR,1.549; 95% CI,1.246-1.854; P<0.001),and New York Heart Association (NYHA) (HR,1.237; 95% CI,1.168-1.306; P<0.001) function class were the independent risk factors for AF.The sensitivity and specificity of the models were 29.6% and 83.8% respectively for predicting AF.When SUA level was added to these models,it remained significant (Wald x2,1494.88; P <0.001 for AF); 58.8% (95% CI,57.7%-60.0%) of the observed results were concordant with the separate model.Conclusion Higher SUA level is associated strongly with AF in patients with CHF.SUA level can increase the sensitivity and specificity in predicting AF.

  6. Electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid on platinum nanoparticles with different oxidation levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te, E-mail: cthsieh@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Han-Tsung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Yu, Po-Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yen; Jang, Bi-Sheng [Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Herein reported is an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of platinum (Pt) from (methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum (MeCpPtMe{sub 3}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) for synthesizing the Pt electrocatalysts toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. The as-synthesized Pt catalysts are thermally reduced in 5 vol% H{sub 2} within temperature window of 150–450 °C. The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species, e.g., PtO and PtO{sub 2}. The presence of Pt–O species not only enhances catalytic activity but also improves anti-poisoning ability toward the oxidation of methanol and formic acid. The improved activity originates from the fact that the Pt–O species, formed by the ALD route, creates a large number of active sites (e.g., Pt–O{sub ads} and Pt–(OH){sub ads}) to strip the CO-adsorbed sites, leading to a high-level of CO tolerance. This work also proposes a stepwise reaction steps to shed some lights on how the Pt–O species promote the catalytic activity. - Highlights: • This study adopts atomic layer deposition (ALD) to grow metallic Pt nanoparticles. • The Pt catalysts show catalytic activity toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. • The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species. • The Pt–O species creates a number of active sites to strip the CO-adsorbed sites. • A stepwise reaction step concerning the promoted catalytic activity is proposed.

  7. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  8. Serum Uric Acid Level and Diverse Impacts on Regional Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Bian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both increased arterial stiffness and hyperuricaemia are associated with elevated cardiovascular risks. Little is known about the relations of serum uric acid (UA level to regional arterial stiffness and wave reflection. The aim of the study was to investigate the gender-specific association of serum UA and indices of arterial function in a community-based investigation in China.Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2374 adults (mean age 58.24 years who underwent routine laboratory tests, regional pulse wave velocity (PWV and pulse wave analysis measurements were analyzed in a gender-specific manner. None of the participants had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, systemic inflammatory disease, gout, or were under treatment which would affect serum UA level.Results: Men had higher serum UA level than women. Subjects with hyperuricaemia had significantly higher carotid-ankle PWV in both genders (P< 0.05, and the carotid-femoral PWV (PWVc-f was higher in women (P< 0.001 while the augmentation index was marginally lower in men (P = 0.049. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum UA was an independent determinant only for PWVc-f in women (β = 0.104, P = 0.027 when adjusted for atherogenic confounders. No other independent relationship was found between UA level and other surrogates of arterial stiffness.Conclusions: Serum UA levels are associated with alterations in systemic arterial stiffness that differ in men and women. Women might be more susceptible to large vascular damage associated with hyperuricaemia.

  9. Serum uric acid levels are associated with polymorphism in the SAA1 gene in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Serum uric acid (SUA is a cardiovascular risk marker associated with inflammation. The serum amyloid A protein (SAA is an inflammatory factor and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and SUA levels has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA levels and SAA genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: All participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs12218 of the SAA1 gene was genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. The association of SUA levels with genotypes was assessed by using the general liner mode. RESULTS: The SNP rs12218 was associated with SUA levels by analyses of a dominate model (P = 0.002 and additive model (P = 0.005, and the difference remained significant after adjustment of sex, age, obesity, ethnicity, HDL-C, alcohol intake, smoking, and creatinine (P = 0.006 and P = 0.023, respectively. The TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 39.34 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.61-75.06, P = 0.031 compared with the CC genotype, and the TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 2.48 mmol/L (95% CI, 6.86-38.10; P = 0.005 compared with the CT genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The rs12218 SNP in the SAA1 gene was associated with SUA levels in Chinese subjects, indicating that carriers of the T allele of rs12218 have a high risk of hyperuricemia.

  10. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR’s Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vanella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape, isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration.

  11. Regulation of auxin, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels by ascorbate application under heat stress in sensitive and tolerant maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Demir, Emel; Kompe, Yasemin Ozdener

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h. PMID:25475985

  12. Contribution to the study of the redox couple Np(VI)/Np(V) in the presence of uranium(VI) in solutions of nitric acid and nitrous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was the subject of a spectrometric study of the Np(VI) reduction reaction in nitric acid solutions (4 to 5 M) containing variable concentrations (1.5 to 3.5 x 10-3 M) of nitrous acid. A low nitrous acid concentration and a high nitric acid concentration were found to favor the stabilization of Np(VI). The stoichiometric coefficients of nitrous acid and nitric acid in the Np(VI) reduction reaction were determined thermodynamically, although only the reaction order with respect to HNO2 could be calculated from a kinetic analysis. Adding nitrate ions to a HNO3/HNO2 solution enhanced the stability of neptunium at oxidation state +VI, but also increased the reduction rate. When uranium(VI) was added to the HNO3/HNO2 solutions, the total quantity of neptunium at oxidation state +V (either free or as a Np(V)-U(VI) complex) remained practically unchanged, as did the Np(VI) reduction rate. The electrochemical behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was investigated in a weak acidic medium by voltammetry with an ultra-micro-electrode (UME). The oxidation wave limiting current variation was a linear function of the Np(V) concentration when a gold UME was used, but not with a platinum UME; the reduction wave limiting current variation versus the Np(V) concentration was linear with either gold or platinum UMEs. The presence of the Np(V)-U(VI) complex in the neptunium solutions was characterized by a shift in the normal apparent potential of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple toward anodic potentials consistent with the previously determined values of the complexation constants. (author)

  13. Multi-coincidence measurements in gas-phase amino acid alanine after valence level ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The first chiral amino acids having distinct enantiomeric structures is the alanine. Therefore the study of such molecules is important for developing our understanding of this class of molecule. In this work, we report coincidence measurements between photoelectron and photoion, and total ion yield (TIY) measurements after valence level ionization of D,L-alanine in gas phase. The experiments were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) at the Toroidal Grating Monochromator beamline (D0-5A TGM) in the 12-35 eV energy range. The end-station of the beamline is composed by a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer specially build for the photoelectron-photoion-photoion (PEPIPICO) measurements. The TIY have been compared with valence photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation reported in the literature and have been discussed in a comparative form. The results will be presented during the conference

  14. Amino acid biogeochemistry and bacterial contribution to sediment organic matter along the western margin of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Garg, A.; Borole, D.V.

    their distribution, digenetic alteration and bacterial contribution to organic matter (OM). Irrespective of their location, THAA concentrations and yields generally decreased and mol% glycine increased with increasing water depth indicating that OM was degraded...

  15. Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Sleep Variables: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing as well as high serum uric acid levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and hyperuricemia are limited. We examined the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey's sleep variables and high serum uric acid among 6491 participants aged ≥20 years. The sleep variables included sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. The main outcome was high serum uric acid level, defined as levels of serum uric acid >6.8 mg/dL in males and >6.0 mg/dL in females. We found that snoring more than 5 nights per week, daytime sleepiness, and an additive composite score of sleep variables were associated with high serum uric acid in the age- , sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors. The association was attenuated with the addition of variables related to clinical outcomes such as depression, diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol levels. Our results indicate a positive relationship between sleep variables, including the presence of snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness, and high serum uric acid levels.

  16. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide and uric acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Salian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC being the most common head and neck cancer, involves the interplay of several free radicals and antioxidant molecules. The potential role of salivary nitric oxide (NO and uric acid in cancer development needs to be explored as there are a few studies highlighting their association with each other and with oral cancer. Aims: The present study was designed to measure the NO and uric acid levels in the saliva of patients with OSCC as compared with healthy controls and to highlight any possible correlations between them. Materials and Methods: The present study involved 50 subjects, 25 with OSCC (study and 25 healthy individuals (controls. Saliva samples collected from patients were subjected to NO and uric acid analysis by griess method and uricase method, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were analyzed using Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test. Results: A significant increase in the salivary levels of NO was seen in study subjects as compared to healthy controls. On the contrary, a significant decrease in salivary uric acid level was observed in the study group as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there exists an inverse correlation between NO and uric acid levels in study and control groups. Conclusion: Salivary levels of NO and uric acid may act as key bimolecular markers in the detection of oral cancer, which could be further confirmed by larger sample size and future studies.

  17. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

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    Javier delBarco-Trillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid. Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  18. Zinc-chelation contributes to the anti-angiogenic effect of ellagic acid on inhibiting MMP-2 activity, cell migration and tube formation.

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    Sheng-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2 activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined by gelatin zymography, which was reversed dose-dependently by adding zinc chloride. In addition, EA was demonstrated to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as analyzed by Western blot method, which was also reversed by the addition of zinc chloride. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, known to down-regulate the MMP-2 activity, was induced by EA at both the mRNA and protein levels which was correlated well with the inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Interestingly, zinc chloride could also abolish the increase of EA-induced RECK expression. The anti-angiogenic effect of EA was further confirmed to inhibit matrix-induced tube formation of endothelial cells. The migration of endothelial cells as analyzed by transwell filter assay was suppressed markedly by EA dose-dependently as well. Zinc chloride could reverse these two effects of EA also in a dose-dependent manner. Since magnesium chloride or calcium chloride could not reverse the inhibitory effect of EA, zinc was found to be involved in tube formation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these results demonstrated that the zinc chelation of EA is involved in its anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting MMP-2 activity, tube formation and cell migration of vascular endothelial cells. The role of zinc was confirmed to be important in the process of angiogenesis.

  19. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet

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    T. L. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Régional: Fettweis, 2007 climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  20. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet – Part 2: Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Quiquet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2013 to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs. The MAR climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB-elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a~perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicates that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Renal Functions by Increasing Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolite Levels in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats, a Metabolic Syndrome Model

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    Masanori Katakura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHRcp rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum, TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA, or EPA (300 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  2. Hepatocyte MyD88 affects bile acids, gut microbiota and metabolome contributing to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duparc, Thibaut; Plovier, Hubert; Marrachelli, Vannina G;

    2016-01-01

    performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESULTS...... proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes......, resembling those observed during diet-induced obesity. Finally, obese humans with NASH displayed a decreased expression of different cytochromes P450 involved in bioactive lipid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies a new link between innate immunity and hepatic synthesis of bile acids and bioactive...

  3. Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios

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    Rowe William

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected fatty acid ratios were estimated. Results Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3, AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.96. The strongest inverse relation for the EPA+DHA levels in serum phospholipid was found with the omega-6: omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.94 followed closely by the AA:(EPA+DHA ratio at R2 = 0.88. It was estimated that 95% of the subjects would be in the 'lower risk' category for coronary heart disease (based on total omega-3 ≥ 7.2% with omega-6:omega-3 ratios Conclusions Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. Certain fatty acid ratios may aid in cardiovascular disease-related risk assessment if/when complete profiles are not available.

  4. Effects of composite restorations on nitric oxide and uric acid levels in saliva

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    Nilgun Akgul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, and should, therefore, not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances capable of causing side effects. This study was intended to investigate the effects on salivary nitric oxide (NO and uric acid (UA levels after application of dental composite filling materials to healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 individuals (32 female and 20 male participated in the study. Filtek Z250 composite filling material (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA was applied to healthy volunteers. Saliva samples were collected before restoration (baseline and 1 h, 1-day, 7 days, and 30 days after restoration. NO concentrations were measured using the Griess reaction method, and UA was measured using an enzymatic method. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test (α =5%. Results: NO values increased statistically significant after 7 days (P 0.05. There was no correlation between NO and UA levels in saliva (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Composite resins activated the antioxidant system in saliva. However, further studies are now needed to confirm our findings and to permit a definitive conclusion.

  5. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. (Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, (India))

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  6. Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Proliferation and Differentiation of the Cells Contributing in Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    AMID, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Ahsaie, Mitra Ghazizadeh; Hakakzadeh, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as photobiomodulation, is a treatment that uses low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to change cellular function and is a clinically well accepted tool in regenerative medicine and dentistry. Considering the variety of laser, exposure, cells and study types, the exact effects of low level laser therapy seems to be unclear. The aim of this study was to review the data published in the field of the effects of low level laser th...

  7. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  8. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore

  9. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. PMID:25955697

  10. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling.

  11. Secondary palatal closure in rats in association with relative maternofetal levels of folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Jens; Maile, Sergei; Proff, Peter; Reicheneder, Claudia; Bienengräber, Volker; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Animal experiments are used in embryological and teratological studies of matters relevant to humans. In gravid rats, a decrease in the levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 was observed in maternal blood and in amniotic fluid. At the time of secondary palatal closure (14th day of pregnancy), the folic acid level of the amniotic fluid was 73% lower than that of the maternal blood. A drop in vitamin B12 in conjunction with an increase in amniotic homocysteine levels is seen as a risk factor for malformation of the palate. The understanding of causes of cleft generation could lead to a prophylactic treatment approach.

  12. Transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of acute coronary syndrome: Paradoxical contribution of plasma glucose level and glycohemoglobin

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    Sekiyama Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a decrease in serum potassium level has been suggested to be a fairly common observation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, there have so far been no definitive reports directly demonstrating the transient potassium decrease (the potassium dip during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase in individual patients. To understand the pathophysiological significance of the potassium dip, we examined the changes in serum potassium level throughout ischemic attack and evaluated the clinical factors affecting it. Methods The degree of the potassium dip during ischemic attack (as indicated by ΔK, ΔK = K at discharge − K on admission was examined in 311 consecutive patients with ACS who required urgent hospitalization in our institution. Results Serum potassium level during ischemic attack was significantly decreased compared to that during stable phase (P  Conclusions We have clearly demonstrated that there is a transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase. The degree of the potassium dip was tightly correlated with glucose level, which overwhelmed the diabetic condition, and it also indicates the disease severity. The present study therefore promotes awareness of the significance of monitoring potassium level in parallel with glucose level in patients with ACS.

  13. Effects of smoking on fatty acid composition of phospholipid sperm membrane and the malondialdehyde levels in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štramová, X; Čegan, A; Hampl, R; Kanďár, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids composition of sperm phospholipids, level of lipoperoxidation represented by malondialdehyde and to examine differences between recent smokers and nonsmokers. The levels of malondialdehyde were in the group of all patients 1.51 ± 0.56 μmol l(-1) , in smokers 1.36 ± 0.59 μmol l(-1) and in nonsmokers 1.53 ± 0.55 μmol l(-1) . Total sperm membrane phospholipid fatty acids were profiled into several groups, saturated acids (in smokers 61.86 ± 9.02%, in nonsmokers 61.20 ± 11.66%), polyunsaturated acids n-3 (in smokers 12.62 ± 8.18%, in nonsmokers 14.28 ± 13.65%), polyunsaturated acids n-6 (in smokers 9.13 ± 4.37%, in nonsmokers 10.10 ± 3.79%) and other acids (in smokers 14.36 ± 3.94%, in nonsmokers 13.88 ± 2.31%). Significant correlations were found between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sperm motility in all patients (r = -0.358, P = 0.013), between both the level of MDA and progressive motility (r = -0.465, P = 0.001) and between the level of MDA and total motility (r = -0.382, P = 0.037) in nonsmokers. There were no statistically significant differences between composition of sperm phospholipid important fatty acids in smokers and nonsmokers. Significant correlations between selected sperm fatty acids and sperm motility and morphology in smokers and nonsmokers were not observed. PMID:25311153

  14. Effects of cadmium and copper on sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utku Gner; Elvan Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on sialic acid levels of brain and blood tissues of Cyprinus carpio.Methods:Adult carps were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 mg/L Cu, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cd and 0.1 mg/L Cu+0.1 mg/L Cd under static experiment conditions for 1 week. At the end of exposure period, heavy metal accumulations and sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of the test animals were analyzed.Results:Cu and Cd accumulated in tissues in a dramatically increasing dose-dependent manner. Sialic acids level of the fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cu and Cd and control grups for 1 week were 0.834, 1.427, 0.672, 0.934, 2.968, 4.714 mg/mL respectively. The results also showed that Cu has an antagonistic effect on tissue sialic acid level.Conclusions:We propose that Cd and Cu make a complex with sialic acids of membranes in the tissues researched. This complex between metal ions and sialic acid migth account for the cellular toxicity based on Cu and Cd.

  15. Contribution of Reduced Interleukin-10 Levels to the Pathogenesis of Osteomyelitis in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sarray, Sameh; Almawi, Wassim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a significant complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), and several factors contribute to its pathogenesis, including altered expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In view of the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, we tested the notion that SCD osteomyelitis is associated with a reduction in IL-10 secretion and, hence, precipitation of a proinflammatory state. Study subjects comprised 52 SCD patients with confirmed diagno...

  16. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, UA, creatinine (Cr, albumin (Alb, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl (P 1, P < 0.05 associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.

  17. Supplementation of corn-soybean based layer diets with different levels of acid protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrijo Widi Purbojo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was held in Institute of Animal Science farm, University of the Philippines Los Banos, was to know the effects of acid protease supplementation in layer diets. Ninety-four-week old pullets were caged individually. Five treatments were randomly arranged to 95 pullets following a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 19 times. The feeding trial lasted for 16 weeks. The same management practices were provided to all treatments throughout the feeding period. Pullets were fed once a day in the morning and clean drinking water was available to the pullets at all times. A basal layer diet that contained 18% crude protein (CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg supplemented with required vitamins, minerals and amino acids were formulated. The diets with reduced protein of 17% and 2800 kcal ME/kg was also formulated. The diet with the reduced crude protein was supplemented with different levels of protease (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%. Six birds from each treatment were randomly selected and placed in individual digestion cages. They were fed with their respective diets with chromic oxide as indicator for 7 days. Chromic oxide was added to the different diets at 0.2%. On the 3rd to 6th day of feeding, feces were collected using stainless fecal trays installed under each cage. At the end of the collection period, fecal samples collected from each replicate of treatment were dried then subjected to proximate analysis and chromic oxide determination. Result showed that no significant difference on biweekly feed consumption and overall observations. Reduced CP + 0.1% protease was the highest on the hen day production (93.75% and the lowest of feed conversion (1.85 while reduced CP + 0.075% protease was the highest of egg weight (58.82 g and eggshell thickness (0.392 mm. There was no significant difference on digestibility coefficient.

  18. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...

  19. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized, double-blin

  20. An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, 5 combined with the mass balance sensitivity o

  1. Effects of dietary pantethine levels on contents of fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of rats orally administered varying amounts of autoxidized linoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, N; Kishida, T; Hamano, T; Natake, M

    1991-02-01

    The effects of dietary pantethine levels on the contents and compositions of fatty acids and on the levels of lipid peroxides were investigated with rat liver and its S-9 fraction under administration of 0 (non), 0.2 (low dose), and 0.35 ml (high dose) of autoxidized linoleate (AL) per 100 g body weight of the rats per day for 5 days. AL having 800 meq/kg of peroxide value (PV) and 1,700 meq/kg of carbonyl value (CV) was dosed to the rats of each group given drinking water containing 0 mg% (deficient), 6.25 mg% (adequate), and 125 mg% pantethine (excess). In the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups, the contents of fatty acids both in the liver homogenate and in the S-9 fraction were correspondingly decreased by increasing dose levels of AL, and the decrease was remarkable especially in the pantethine-deficient group, but was not significant in the pantethine-excess group even by a high dose of AL. Particularly, in the high dose of AL, the notable decreases of oleic acid (C18:1) contents in both the liver and the S-9 fraction were observed in rats of the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the liver homogenate and the S-9 fraction were increased correspondingly by increasing dose levels of AL, and the increases were repressed in the pantethine-excess group. PMID:1880633

  2. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  3. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  4. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Li-Shun, E-mail: jywangls@shsmu.edu.cn [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  5. Antiepileptic Potential of Matrine via Regulation the Levels of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamic Acid in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, glutamic acid (Glu, glycine (Gly in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  6. Antiepileptic potential of matrine via regulation the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-12-05

    Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  7. Contribution of vertical land motions to coastal sea level variations: a global synthesis of multisatellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Julia; Allemand, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sea level variations result from a complex mix of climatic, oceanic and geodynamical processes driven by natural and anthropogenic constraints. Combining data from multiple sources is one solution to identify particular processes and progress towards a better understanding of the sea level variations and the assessment of their impacts at coast. Here, we present a global database merging multisatellite altimetry with tide gauges and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Vertical land motions and sea level variations are estimated simultaneously for a network of 886 ground stations with median errors lower than 1 mm/yr. The contribution of vertical land motions to relative sea level variations is explored to better understand the natural hazards associated with sea level rise in coastal areas. Worldwide, vertical land motions dominate 30 % of observed coastal trends. The role of the crust is highly heterogeneous: it can amplify, restrict or counter the effects of climate-induced sea level change. A set of 182 potential vulnerable localities are identified by large coastal subsidence which increases by several times the effects of sea level rise. Though regional behaviours exist, principally caused by GIA (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment), the local variability in vertical land motion prevails. An accurate determination of the vertical motions observed at the coast is fundamental to understand the local processes which contribute to sea level rise, to appraise its impacts on coastal populations and make future predictions.

  8. Light-absorbing aldol condensation products in acidic aerosols: Spectra, kinetics, and contribution to the absorption index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, Barbara; Esteve, William

    The radiative properties of aerosols that are transparent to light in the near-UV and visible, such as sulfate aerosols, can be dramatically modified when mixed with absorbing material such as soot. In a previous work we had shown that the aldol condensation of carbonyl compounds produces light-absorbing compounds in sulfuric acid solutions. In this work we report the spectroscopic and kinetic parameters necessary to estimate the effects of these reactions on the absorption index of sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmosphere. The absorption spectra obtained from the reactions of six different carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butanone, and trifluoroacetone) and their mixtures were compared over 190-1100 nm. The results indicated that most carbonyl compounds should be able to undergo aldol condensation. The products are oligomers absorbing light in the 300-500 nm region where few other compounds absorb, making them important for the radiative properties of aerosols. Kinetic experiments in 96-75 wt% H 2SO 4 solutions and between 273 and 314 K gave an activation energy for the rate constant of formation of the aldol products of acetaldehyde of -(70±15) kJ mol -1 in 96 wt% solution and showed that the effect of acid concentration was exponential. A complete expression for this rate constant is proposed where the absolute value in 96 wt% H 2SO 4 and at 298 K is scaled to the Henry's law coefficient for acetaldehyde and the absorption cross-section for the aldol products assumed in this work. The absorption index of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols after a 2-year residence time was estimated to 2×10 -4, optically equivalent to a content of 0.5% of soot and potentially significant for the radiative forcing of these aerosols and for satellite observations in channels where the aldol products absorb.

  9. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...

  10. Increased uric acid levels in drug-naïve subjects with bipolar disorder during a first manic episode

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadore, Giacomo; Viale, Carlos I.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Zanatto, Vanessa C.; Luiz V. Portela; Souza, Diogo O.; Carlos A Zarate; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that purinergic system dysfunction may play a role in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of bipolar disorder (BPD). Uric acid is a key nitrogenous end product of purine metabolism. In addition to being a potential marker of treatment response, high levels of uric acid may represent a state marker during mania. In this study, we assessed the presence of purinergic dysfunction in 20 treatment-naïve first episode patients with BPD who were experiencing a manic episode....

  11. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide and uric acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Salian; Farah Demeri; Suchetha Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) being the most common head and neck cancer, involves the interplay of several free radicals and antioxidant molecules. The potential role of salivary nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid in cancer development needs to be explored as there are a few studies highlighting their association with each other and with oral cancer. Aims: The present study was designed to measure the NO and uric acid levels in the saliva of patients with OSCC as compared with...

  12. Analysis of the Contribution of Chromophores in Side Groups of Amino Acids to the Absorption Spectrum of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrinenko, I. A.; Vashanov, G. A.; Ruban, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Based on spectral analysis of solutions of aromatic, heterocyclic, and sulfur-containing amino acids, we propose an additive model and assess the roles of the studied types of amino acid residues in formation of the overall absorption spectrum of hemoglobin. We have established that the identified absorption maxima (transitions) at 243.4, 248.4, 253.2, 258.8, 261.6, 264.8, and 268.4 nm belong to phenylalanine amino acid residues. Probably the latter also form the unassigned transition at 241.0 nm. The transitions at 272.8, 274.6, 280.0, and 284.4 nm are a superposition of the absorption by the side groups of tyrosine and tryptophan; the transition at 278.2 nm is associated with tyrosine, masked by adjacent transitions of tryptophan, and the transition at 291.2 nm belongs to tryptophan. We consider the possibility of estimating the changes in the spectral properties of proteins under the influence of various physical and chemical factors using data from additive spectra.

  13. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Gavin F.; McNiven, Mary A.; Petit, Hélène V.; Duynisveld, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 1...

  14. Changes in ganglioside contents, plasma sialic acid and cAMP levels in experimental hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The present sutdy was designed to assess whether changes in glycolipids and cyclic AMP contents might serve as markers for the diagnosis of malignancy in the liver. The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into three groups:(1) a therapeutic group. which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with the antimetabolism drug 5-flurouracil(0.2mg/day i.p).(2) a control group, which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with 0.2ml 0.9% NaCl day and (3) a normal group of mice . The ganglioside and cAMP contents in the hepatoma tissue, plasma cAMP, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels and red blood cell memebrane sialic acid levels were determined. Results showed that the ganglioside content, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in the control group were significantly higher than those in the livers of normal mice(P<0.01) while these respective values in the therapeutic group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01).The cAMP levels of tumor tissues and plasma in the control group were lower than those in normal mice. No significant difference in red blood cell membrane sialic acid content was observed between the therapeutic and control groups though levels for both were higher than those in normal mice. These results indicate that ganglioside ocntent and sialic acid levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly elevated, and cAMP levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly decreased during proliferation and abnormal differentiation. Key words transplantable hepatoma, gangliosides , sialic acid, cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate, 5-flurouracil 摘自Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2000; Vol 207,29~33 该杂志摘要被美国科学引证索引(SCI)收录

  15. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  16. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits. PMID:26760897

  17. Effects of dietary folic acid level and symbiotic folate production on fitness and development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatch, Sydella A; Meyer, Kyle W; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin for probably all animals. When converted to folate forms, it is used in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Literature suggests insects must consume folates, folates do not affect others, is a toxin for some, and that a few insects synthesize it. It has been reported that Drosophila melanogaster does not consistently need dietary folate because it can synthesize it. This seems unlikely since animals generally lack this ability. More likely, folates thought to have been made by the fly came from microbial symbionts. We aimed to clarify how dietary folic acid affects fitness and development in fruit flies and whether flies may receive folates from microbial symbionts. We found larvae were more viable and developed faster with increasing dietary folic acid, with the surprising exception that larvae fed nearly-zero folic acid developed faster. Their body folate levels did not significantly differ from those that consumed up to 600 times more folic acid. However, these flies fed little folate only achieved normal body folate levels and development times when antibiotics were excluded from the diet. When flies consumed near-zero folates with antibiotics, their body folate levels decreased and development was prolonged. An assay for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in flies used to generate the experimental flies did not show presence of these bacteria. Our data suggest D. melanogaster can harbor unknown bacterial symbiont(s) that provide essential folates to their host when it is scarce in the diet, allowing the fruit fly to maintain growth and development.

  18. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  19. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  20. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody levels discriminate two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 杨琳; 周智广; 黄干; 颜湘

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) with different titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) and to define the two distinct subtypes of LADA.Methods Sera of 750 patients with an initial diagnosis of T2DM from central south of China were screened for GADA using a radioligand assay. The distribution and frequency of GADA levels were described. Two hundred and ninety-five patients were divided into the T2DM group (n=233) and the LADA group (n=62) to compare the age of onset, body mass index, HbA1c, C-peptide, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic diabetic complications. Furthermore, LADA patients with different GADA titers were subdivided to analyze the same indexes as the above. Results The prevalence of LADA (defined as GADA≥0.05, namely GADA positive) was 9.7% in the 750 initially diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Compared with T2DM, LADA patients were younger at their ages of onset, had lower C-peptide and body mass index, and also had less cases with hypertension and with dyslipidemia. However, only patients with high titer of GADA had poorer beta cell functions and less diabetic complications compared to T2DM and low GADA titer of LADA patients. Patients with low GADA titer were similar to T2DM patients, except that they were prone to develop ketosis more frequently.Conclusions Two clinically distinct subtypes of LADA can be identified by GADA levels in patients initially-diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Patients with high titer of GADA (GADA≥0.5) subsequently develop more insulin dependency, which are classified as LADA-type 1; while those with lower GADA titer (0.05≤GADA<0.5) and having clinical and metabolic phenotypes of type 2 diabetes are classified as LADA-type 2.

  1. Understanding interactions of oleic acid with basic drugs in solid lipids on different biopharmaceutical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravka Misic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the impact of intestinal supersaturation on absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs has raised much interest among researchers. A focus has been mostly to study excipient effects on maintenance of drug supersaturation. The aim of the present study was to better understand the effects of drug-excipient interactions on the level of the anhydrous formulation, upon dispersion in simple buffer media and, in particular, regarding precipitation kinetics. A solid lipid-based formulation comprising PEG-32 stearate and oleic acid (OA (8:2 w/w was developed as a model. Loratadine (pKa = 4.33 and carvedilol (pKa = 8.74 were chosen as basic drugs. UV/FTIR spectroscopy and viscometry were used to characterize drug-OA molecular interactions in solution, while solid formulations were studied using x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and van’t Hoff solubility-temperature plots. Precipitation kinetics of drug formulations was real-time monitored in phosphate buffer (pH = 6.5 by focused beam reflectance measurements. It was found that the addition of OA in the formulations resulted in substantial drug solubility increase. Although the drug-OA interactions appeared to be partially lost upon formulation dispersion, the extent of precipitation was markedly lowered compared to the formulations without OA. A Precipitation number (Pnc was introduced as a ratio of a relevant residence time of drug in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT to the induction time (the onset time of crystalline precipitation. Without OA, Pnc was already taking critical values (>1, while the anhydrous formulation was still below saturation for both model drugs. Interestingly, the addition of OA resulted in amorphous instead of crystalline precipitates, which is advantageous for drug re-dissolution and absorption. In conclusion, this study provides an improved understanding of OA and basic drug interactions on different levels of in vitro performance for more rational oral formulation

  2. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  3. Determination of Critical Point of pO2 Level in the Production of Lactic Acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Maizirwan; Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed; Abdullah, Rohane

    The study was conducted to determine the critical point of pO2 level in the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The fermentation process was successfully carried out in laboratory scale fermenter/bioreactor using different pO2 level (the main parameter that significantly affects the growth of L. rhamnosus and lactic acid production) together with two other parameters; the agitation rate and pH. From the result, it was observed that the best production of lactic acid with the concentration of 16.85 g L-1 or 1.68% production yield has been obtained at the operating parameters of 5% pO2 level, agitation speed of 100 rpm and sample pH 6. The critical point of pO2 was found to be between 5 and 10%.

  4. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  5. Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Chinese Red Soils with Varying Fertility Levels and Land Use Histories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was used to estimate the microbial community structures of eight Chinese red soils with different fertility levels and land use histories.The total amounts of PLFAs in the soils were significantly correlated with soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,microbial biomass C and basal respiration,indicating that total PLFA was closely related to fertility and sustalnability in these highly weathered soils.Soils for the eroded wasteland were rich in Gram-positive species.When the eroded soils were planted with citrus trees,the soil microbial population had changed little in 4 years but took up to 8~12 years before it reached a significantly different population.Multivariate analysis of PLFAs demonstrated that land use history and plant cover type had a significant impact on microbial community structure.However,the difference of soil microbial community structure in the paddy field compared to other land uses was not larger than expected in this experiment.

  6. Proanthocyanidins Inhibit Seed Germination by Maintaining a High Level of Abscisic Acid in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liguo Jia; Jianhua Zhang; Qiuyu Wu; Nenghui Ye; Rui Liu; Lu Shi; Weifeng Xu; Hui Zhi; A. N. M. Rubaiyath Bin Rahman; Yiji Xia

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the main products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in seeds,but their biological function during seed germination is still unclear.We observed that seed germination is delayed with the increase of exogenous PA concentration in Arabidopsis.A similar inhibitory effect occurred in peeled Brassica napus seeds,which was observed by measuring radicle elongation.Using abscisic acid (ABA),a biosynthetic and metabolic inhibitor,and gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction,we found that the inhibitory effect of PAs on seed germination is due to their promotion of ABA via de novo biogenesis,rather than by any inhibition of its degradation.Consistent with the relationship between PA content and ABA accumulation in seeds,PA-deficient mutants maintain a lower level of ABA compared with wild-types during germination.Our data suggest that PA distribution in the seed coat can act as a doorkeeper to seed germination.PA regulation of seed germination is mediated by the ABA signaling pathway.

  7. Trifluoroacetic Acid Level in the Atmosphere of Beijing and Its Relationship with PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA), one of the main degradation products of HCFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-134a, were detected in Beijing, China between 2013 and 2014. By analyzing the 137 atmospheric samples, the results showed that the annual mean atmospheric concentration of TFA was 1459±223 pg•m-3. TFA was mainly distributed in gaseous phase, for the concentration was 1396±225 pg•m-3, while that in particle phase was 62±8 pg•m-3. Considering the frequent occurrence of hazy weather in Beijing, the relationship between TFA and PM2.5 in atmosphere was analyzed. The correlation analysis shows that the proportion of particle phase in atmosphere concentration of TFA and mass concentration of PM2.5 are positively correlated with each other (PTFA. At the same time, when mass concentration of PM2.5 in atmosphere is high, atmospheric concentration of TFA is relatively low. According to the correlation analysis, mass concentration of PM2.5 and atmospheric concentration of TFA are negatively correlated with each other (P=0.005). The main reason is very likely that particle's extinction for light can be enhanced as particle level rises, which causes TFA precursors photolysis to weaken. The results indicate that PM2.5 has a significant impact on TFA.

  8. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (Presults showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (PUA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging.

  9. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  10. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  11. Intensive lifestyle intervention provides rapid reduction of serum fatty acid levels in women with severe obesity without lowering omega-3 to unhealthy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M

    2016-08-01

    Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid. PMID:27334055

  12. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia: a cohort study focused on cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Daniel; Lindström, Leif H; Bodén, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the association between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bullying, and later suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Methods Ninety-nine patients with schizophrenia were included. Correlations of clinical factors, 5-HIAA and HVA, and later suicide were investigated. Results Twelve patients committed suicide (12%) during a 28-year follow-up period. Later suicide was correlated to bullying in childhood (P=0.02) and a lower quotient of HVA/5-HIAA in CSF (P<0.05). Conclusion Suicide in schizophrenia is related to childhood exposedness and CSF neurotransmitter levels. PMID:27468235

  13. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: We have previously shown that rare mutations in the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) may result in not only severe hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease but also hypocholesterolemia. Despite this, common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOB have not convincingly been...... on cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels. However, as predicted from the magnitude of the observed LDL cholesterol effects, none of these SNPs predicted risk of ischemic heart disease prospectively in the general population, in a case-control study, or as haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple common and rare...... demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN...

  14. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  15. Geophysical logging to determine construction, contributing zones, and appropriate use of water levels measured in confined-aquifer network wells, San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Geophysical logs were recorded in 32 wells in the confined-aquifer monitoring well network maintained by the Rio Grande Water Conservation District. Logging results were used to determine well construction, zones contributing water to the wells, and the purposes for which the ground-water levels measured in the wells can be used. The confined-aquifer well network consists of 42 flowing and nonflowing wells. This network consists of wells used to supply water for irrigation, household use, wildlife refuge supply, and stock use, and wells for water-level monitoring. Geophysical logs recorded in the wells included video, caliper, water specific conductance, water temperature, and water flow. Most wells in the confined-aquifer well network yield a composite water level representing water levels in multiple permeable zones in the confined-aquifer system of the San Luis Valley. A potentiometric-surface map constructed using November 2000 water levels indicates that water levels from most wells in the network are correlated with water levels from nearby network wells. Potentiometric-surface maps that are constructed from water levels measured in most of the wells in the network can be used to understand long-term local and regional changes in water levels in the confined-aquifer system. Water levels measured in 8 of the 42 wells in the confined-aquifer network are not representative of water levels in the confined-aquifer system.

  16. The contribution of sulphuric acid to atmospheric particle formation and growth: a comparison between boundary layers in Northern and Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fiedler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gaseous sulphuric acid was measured and its influence on particle formation and growth was investigated building on aerosol data. The measurements were part of the EU-project QUEST and took place at two different measurement sites in Northern and Central Europe (Hyytiälä, Finland, March-April 2003 and Heidelberg, Germany, March-April 2004. From a comprehensive data set including sulphuric acid, particle number size distributions and meteorological data, particle growth rates, particle formation rates and source rates of condensable vapors were inferred. Growth rates were determined in two different ways, from particle size distributions as well as from a so-called timeshift analysis. Moreover, correlations between sulphuric acid and particle number concentration between 3 and 6 nm were examined and the influence of air masses of different origin was investigated. Measured maximum concentrations of sulphuric acid were in the range from 1x106 to 16x106cm-3. The gaseous sulphuric acid lifetime with respect to condensation on aerosol particles ranged from 2 to 33min in Hyytiälä and from 0.5 to 8 min in Heidelberg. Most calculated values (growth rates, formation rates, vapor source rates were considerably higher in Central Europe (Heidelberg, due to the more polluted air and higher preexistent aerosol concentrations. Close correlations between H2SO4 and nucleation mode particles (size range: 3-6 nm were found on most days at both sites. The percentage contribution of sulphuric acid to particle growth was below 10% at both places and to initial growth below 20%. An air mass analysis indicated that at Heidelberg new particles were formed predominantly in air advected from southwesterly directions.

  17. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  18. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  19. The effect of humic acids on the element release from high level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eu and Am doped glasses were interacted with synthetic interstitial clay water (SiC) and corresponding reference leachant, humic acids free interstitial solution (IS) to investigate the influence of humic acids on the leaching behavior of the waste glass. Static leach tests were carried out at 40 C and 90 C. The release of the lanthanide Eu and the actinide Am from the glass was obviously enhanced by the presence of humic acids. The leaching of transition elements, Fe and Ti strongly depends on the humic acids concentration. The leaching of glass matrix components, Al and B was also influenced by the concentrations of humic acids. However, humic acids have little effect on the leaching of glass matrix element Si

  20. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit. The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  2. High dose folic acid supplementation improves arterial endothelial function of coronary patients independent of homocysteine level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KS Woo; P Chook; M Qiao; AKY Chan; LLT Chan; WWM Chan; DS Celermajer

    2003-01-01

    @@ Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (prevalent in rural northern China)is an emerging risk factor for arterial endothelial dysfunction in CAD, which can be improved with folic acid supplementation. Such homocysteine-lowerying dosage of folio acid ( < 1 mg/d ) can reduce restenosis after PTCA, but not the cardiovascular events.Folic acid has additional vascular protection in antixidation, NO synthase protection, angiogenesis-promotion and cytokines reduction.

  3. Improvement Effect of Rosmarinic Acid on Serum Testosterone Level after Exposing with Electromagnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Arezoo Farsi; Arash Khaki; Fatemeh Fathiazad; Fatemeh Afshari; Laleh Hajhossini; Amir Afshin Kahki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Rosmarinic acid has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and helps to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals and other sources.Material and methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were allocated to four groups, a control group (n = 10) and three treatment groups (n = 30). The first treatment group received rosmarinic acid (5 mg/kg body weight) by gavage method, the second test group received rosmarinic acid (5mg/kg body weight) by gavage and electromagnetic f...

  4. Lineage-specific expansion of vomeronasal type 2 receptor-like (OlfC) genes in cichlids may contribute to diversification of amino acid detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masato; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Kocher, Thomas D; Carleton, Karen; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Fish use olfaction to sense a variety of nonvolatile chemical signals in water. However, the evolutionary importance of olfaction in species-rich cichlids is controversial. Here, we determined an almost complete sequence of the vomeronasal type 2 receptor-like (OlfC: putative amino acids receptor in teleosts) gene cluster using the bacterial artificial chromosome library of the Lake Victoria cichlid, Haplochromis chilotes. In the cluster region, we found 61 intact OlfC genes, which is the largest number of OlfC genes identified among the seven teleost fish investigated to date. Data mining of the Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) draft genome sequence, and genomic Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the ancestor of all modern cichlids had already developed almost the same OlfC gene repertoire, which was accomplished by lineage-specific gene expansions. Furthermore, comparison of receptor sequences showed that recently duplicated paralogs are more variable than orthologs of different species at particular sites that were predicted to be involved in amino acid selectivity. Thus, the increase of paralogs through gene expansion may lead to functional diversification in detection of amino acids. This study implies that cichlids have developed a potent capacity to detect a variety of amino acids (and their derivatives) through OlfCs, which may have contributed to the extraordinary diversity of their feeding habitats. PMID:23501830

  5. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  6. Radiostrontium levels in foodstuffs: 4-Years control activity by Italian reference centre, as a contribution to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Mangiacotti, Michele; Damiano, Rita; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    (90)Sr is considered an important contaminant relating to food supply chains. In this study, 176 liquid and 260 solid foods, were analysed in order to quantify (90)Sr. Through ruggedness tests, the application field of radiochemical methods used was extended successfully to all most important types of foodstuffs. Regarding liquid matrices, milk samples resulted the most important indicator about (90)Sr contamination, with mean (90)Sr activity concentration equal to 0.058BqL(-1). Among other liquid foods, wine/spirits and livestock watering resulted the most contaminated, with mean contamination levels equal to 0.022 and 0.035BqL(-1), respectively. Concerning solid matrices, cheeses produced from sheep's milk and animal feeds resulted the most contaminated (mean levels: 1.237 and 1.557Bqkg(-1), respectively). Meat products and seafood showed contamination levels not significant within this survey; while, among vegetables, cacao/chocolate and spices resulted in contamination levels comparable with those of cheese obtained from milk of cows origin. PMID:27211657

  7. The Resource utilization by ATLAS High Level Triggers. The contributed talk for the Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011.

    CERN Document Server

    Ospanov, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the ATLAS experiment has successfully recorded data from LHC collisions with high efficiency and excellent data quality. ATLAS employs a three-level trigger system to select events of interest for physics analyses and detector commissioning. The trigger system consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger at level-1 (L1) and software algorithms executing on commodity servers at the two higher levels: second level trigger (L2) and event filter (EF). The corresponding trigger rates are 75~kHz, 3~kHz and 200~Hz. The L2 uses custom algorithms to examine a small fraction of data at full detector granularity in Regions of Interest selected by the L1. The EF employs offline algorithms and full detector data for more computationally intensive analysis. The trigger selection is defined by trigger menus which consist of more than 500 individual trigger signatures, such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. An execution of a trigger signature incurs computing and data storage costs. A composition of the depl...

  8. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad;

    2015-01-01

    to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  9. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  10. Do High Blood Hepcidin Concentrations Contribute to Low Ferritin Levels in Young Tennis Players at the End of Tournament Season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Ewa; Kasprowicz, Katarzyna; Kasperska, Anna; Zembroń-Lacny, Agnieszka; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify whether impaired iron metabolism in young athletes is a consequence of an excessive workload during the tournament season. Low levels of ferritin (under 25 µg·L-1) have been frequently observed in young tennis players. We considered this finding to be related to the high-intensity workload or to insufficient rest, which both trigger a strong immune response. Groups of male, well-trained young tennis players (16 ± 0.9 years old, average of 10-year training experience) and a control peer group participated in this study. The research consisted of two examination sessions (March and September 2010). Blood samples were collected to determine haematological and immunological parameters. Additionally, body composition and physical capacity were assessed. In both periods of the study, the trained groups were characterised by low levels of ferritin, but also elevated levels of pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Moreover, an inverse correlation between IL-1β and blood ferritin was observed. Additionally, an increased concentration of the iron homeostasis regulator hepcidin was found in blood samples (mean 71 ng·ml-1; range from 48 to 100 ng·ml-1). We concluded that the pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, most likely induced by an extensive workload during the tournament season, was responsible for the low level of ferritin in young, professional athletes. Key Points The first research demonstrating low grade inflammation-induced iron deficiency to be associated with elevated blood hepcidin levels in young tennis athletes. Evaluation of immunological response after the complete tournament season in young male tennis players. Conclusion to introduce the assessment of hepcidin to monitor trainings as well as symptoms of overreaching more effectively. Research providing practical information for coaches that changes in diet and modifications in workloads applied in physical training could be more effective than iron

  11. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  12. Serum uric acid levels correlate with recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-nan; LI Song-nan; ZHAN Jin-liang; XIE Shuang-lun; ZHANG Zhi-jun; DONG Jian-zeng; YU Rong-hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently there has been a great deal of interest in the role of serum uric acid (SUA) in atrial fibrillation (AF).The objective of this study was to establish whether there is a relationship between levels of SUA and recurrence of paroxysmal AF after catheter ablation.Methods Three hundred and thirty patients diagnosed with paroxysmal AF were analyzed.Patients were categorized into quartiles on the basis of their pre-operative SUA measurement and follow-up,and Kaplan-Meier estimation with a Log-rank test was used for the analysis of the influence of SUA on the recurrence of AF.Pre-procedural clinical variables were correlated with the clinical outcome after ablation using multivariate Logistic analysis.A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relationship between SUA and the recurrence of AF.Results After a mean follow-up of (9.341±3.667) (range 3.0-16.3) months,recurrence rates from the lowest SUA quartile to the highest SUA quartile were 16.0%,26.4%,28.3%,and 29.3% respectively (P=0.014).After adjustment for gender,body mass index (BMI),hypertension,serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP),triglyceride (TG),left atrial diameter (LA),estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),and SUA,there was an increased risk of recurrence in subjects in the highest SUA quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio 2.804,95% confidence interval 1.466-5.362,P=0.002).Following multivariate Logistical analysis,SUA was found to be an independent predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio 1.613,95% confidence interval 1.601-1.625,P=0.014).Conclusion In a retrospective study of patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing catheter ablation,elevated preoperative SUA levels were associated with a higher rate of recurrence of AF.

  13. Single substitutions to closely related amino acids contribute to the functional diversification of an insect-inducible, positively selected plant cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    A causal link has been reported between positively selected amino acids in plant cystatins and the inhibitory range of these proteins against insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Here we assessed the impact of single substitutions to closely related amino acids on the contribution of positive selection to cystatin diversification. Cystatin sequence alignments, while confirming hypervariability, indicated a preference for related amino acids at positively selected sites. For example, the non-polar residues leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were shown to predominate at positively selected site 2 in the N-terminal region, unlike selected sites 6 and 10, where polar residues are preferred. The model cystatin SlCYS8 and single variants with Leu, Ile or Val at position 2 were compared with regard to their ability to bind digestive proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata and to induce compensatory responses in this insect. A functional proteomics procedure to capture target Cys proteases in midgut extracts allowed confirmation of distinct binding profiles for the cystatin variants. A shotgun proteomics procedure to monitor whole Cys protease complements revealed protease family specific compensatory responses in the insect, dependent on the variant ingested. Our data confirm the contribution of closely related amino acids to the functional diversity of positively selected plant cystatins in a broader structure/function context imposing physicochemical constraints to primary structure alterations. They also underline the complexity of protease/inhibitor interactions in plant-insect systems, and the challenges still to be met in order to harness the full potential of ectopically expressed protease inhibitors in crop protection.

  14. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  15. Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Contribute to Intracerebral Hemorrhage during Thrombolysis after Concomitant Stroke and Influenza Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombolysis is the only approved therapy for acute stroke. However, life-threatening complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH can develop after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. Both infection and thrombolysis during cerebral ischemia disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB. tPA can induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, which is known to be involved in BBB disruption. However, it has still not been investigated whether preexisting influenza virus infection during thrombolysis after acute stroke affects systemic levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1 and whether increased systemic MMP-9 levels affect ICH. This study aimed to investigate the influence of influenza virus infection on plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after thrombolysis in acute stroke, and to determine whether the infection correlates with intracerebral bleeding. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were infected by administering 1 × 105 plaque-forming units of human influenza (H1N1 virus intranasally. After 3 days of infection the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 45 min and then reperfused. Intravenous tPA (10 mg/kg treatment was started 10 min after stroke onset. Twenty-four hours after stroke onset, mice were deeply anesthetized with ketamine, venous blood was drawn from the caval vein and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm, and the supernatant was collected and frozen at -80°C. Plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were quantified by using ELISA. Results: After stroke, plasma MMP-9 was significantly increased in mice with a concomitant influenza infection that were treated with tPA (9.99 ± 0.62 ng/ml, n = 7 as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated with tPA (4.74 ± 0.48 ng/ml, n = 8. Moreover, plasma levels of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, were also significantly increased in mice treated with tPA after concomitant infection and stroke (42.17 ± 7.02 ng/ml, n = 7 as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated

  16. Identification of okadaic acid binding protein 2 in reconstituted sponge cell clusters from Halichondria okadai and its contribution to the detoxification of okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoki, Keiichi; Okada, Kayo; Kohama, Mami; Matsuura, Hiroki; Saito, Kaori; Cho, Yuko; Nishitani, Goh; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Fukuzawa, Seketsu; Tachibana, Kazuo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-12-15

    Okadaic acid (OA) and OA binding protein 2 (OABP2) were previously isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. Because the amino acid sequence of OABP2 is completely different from that of protein phosphatase 2A, a well-known target of OA, we have been investigating the production and function of OABP2. In the present study, we hypothesized that OABP2 plays a role in the detoxification of OA in H. okadai and that the OA concentrations are in proportional to the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens. Based on the OA concentrations and the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens collected in various places and in different seasons, however, we could not determine a positive correlation between OA and OABP2. We then attempted to determine distribution of OA and OABP2 in the sponge specimen. When the mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species were separated with various pore-sized nylon meshes, most of the OA and OABP2 was detected from the same 0-10 μm fraction. Next, when sponge cell clusters were prepared from a mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species in the presence of penicillin and streptomycin, we identified the 18S rDNA of H. okadai and the gene of OABP2 in the analysis of genomic DNA but could not detect OA by LC-MS/MS. We thus concluded that the sponge cells express OABP2, and that OA was not apparently present in the sponge cells but could be colocalized with OABP2 in the sponge cells at a concentration less than the limit of detection.

  17. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between...

  18. Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at discussing evolution of Sea Level (SL) in the Northern Adriatic Sea for the 20th and 21st century. A Linear Regression Model (LRM) which aims at describing the effect of regional processes, is built and validated. This LRM computes the North Adriatic mean SL variations using three predictors: the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) in the Gulf of Venice, the mean Sea Temperature (ST) of the water column in the South Adriatic and the Upper Level Salinity (ULS) in the central part of the basin. SL data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges distributed along the Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL, Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). MSLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean ST and ULS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual SL variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent, so that the Northern Adriatic SL can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste. The LRM is found to be robust, very successful at explaining interannual SL variations and consistent with the physical mechanisms responsible for SL evolution. Results show that observed SL in the 20th century has a large trend, which cannot be explained by this LRM, and it is interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause (such as polar ice melting). When the LRM is used with the MSLP, ST and ULS from climate model projections for the end of the 21st century (A1B scenario), it produces an SL rise in the range from 2.3 to 14.1 cm, with a best estimate of 8.9 cm. However, results show that the behavior of the remotely forced SL rise is the main source of future SL uncertainty and extrapolating its present trend to the future would expand the range of SL uncertainty from 14 to 49 cm.

  19. Ethyl pyruvate regulates the levels of leptin, lactin acid-pyruvic, ALT and UA in mice sepsis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on the serum levels of leptin, lactin acid to pyruvic acid ratio, ALT and UA in sepsis mice. The mice sepsis model of cecum ligation and perforation was established. The 90 male mice were divided randomly into sham-operation ( Sham), injury (RLS) and EP(REPS)-intervened groups, the latter two groups were further divided into 15 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h subgroups, each of them had 10 mice. The serum lactin acid to pyruvic acid ratio, ALT and UA were detected by autonomous biochemical analyzer, and the serum leptin were detected by RIA. The results showed that the serum leptin level in REPS group was significantly higher than that of in RLS group at the later phase (P<0.05). The ratio of lactin acid to pyruvic acid in RLS and REPS groups were significantly higher that of in sham group, but there is no significant different between REPS group and RLS group at same time points. The serum levels of ALT in RLS and REPS groups were significantly higher than that of in Sham group, and the serum level of ALT in REPS group at later time points was significantly higher than that of RLS group. Compared with Sham group, the serum UA in RLS group was increased significantly at first time points (P<0.05) and then decreased at later time points; the serum UA in REPS group was significantly lower than that of RLS group (P<0.05). The results indicated that EP may protect renal function, worsen hepatic injury at the early phase and up-regulate the serum leptin level. (authors)

  20. Transcriptome analysis highlights changes in the leaves of maize plants cultivated in acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al(3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Lucia; Begcy, Kevin; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Jorge, Renato A; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidity limits crop yields worldwide and is a common result of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity, which is known to inhibit root growth. Here, we compared the transcriptome of leaves from maize seedlings grown under control conditions (soil without free Al) and under acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al. This study reports, for the first time, the complex transcriptional changes that occur in the leaves of maize plants grown in acidic soil with phytotoxic levels of Al. Our data indicate that 668 genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants grown in acidic soil, which is significantly greater than that observed in our previous work with roots. Genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes were upregulated, although no specific transporter of organic acids was differentially expressed in leaves. We also provide evidence for positive roles for auxin and brassinosteroids in Al tolerance, whereas gibberellin and jasmonate may have negative roles. Our data indicate that plant responses to acidic soil with high Al content are not restricted to the root; tolerance mechanisms are also displayed in the aerial parts of the plant, thus indicating that the entire plant responds to stress. PMID:25205121

  1. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  2. Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, H. E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the awareness of and the behaviour towards folic acid in 2003 and the trend of folic acid use among pregnant Dutch women between 1995 and 2003 with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Method: We conducted 2-yearly cross-sectional studies among pregnant wom

  3. Effects of common anti-epileptic drugs on the serum levels of homocysteine and folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamzam Paknahad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Homocysteine (Hcy was not different between the epileptic and nonepileptic groups, although the means of the serum folic acid were similar. Possible mechanisms by which AEDs could cause hyper-homocysteinemia might be through the dysfunction of homocysteine metabolism, the acceleration of vitamin metabolism, and the interference in the metabolism of folic acid coenzymes.

  4. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (Poil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet had no influence on the tested parameters.

  5. The Contribution of Active Journey to School to overall Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents: Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Jerina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily active journey (AJ to/from school can be an important source of physical activity (PA of children and adolescents, necessary for their overall development and health preservation. Yet, the relation between AJ to/from school and PA of children and adolescents is still not clear. The purpose of this article is to find out whether the AJ to/from school influences the rise of PA. Systematic examination of electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springerlink, in May 2012 helped us find relevant articles of which 18 met the criteria for inclusion in our review. Studies include children and adolescents aged 5 to 16 years and quantitatively analyse the relationship between AJ and PA. Fourteen out of eighteen studies report that children and adolescents who practice AJ accumulate more PA compared to those who are driven to/from school. At the same time 8 studies report a positive correlation between AJ to/from school and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. More longitudinal studies would be necessary to get a deeper insight into the link between AJ and PA. Establishing uniformed criteria for monitoring AJ and PA and monitoring factors that influence the decision for the AJ would contribute to comparability of the results of individual studies and would at the same time make the development of effective intervention programmes for encouraging AJ among children and adolescents possible.

  6. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama; Rambla, José Luis; Granell, Antonio; Gómez Gómez, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  7. Contribution of the first galaxies to the cosmic far-infrared/sub-millimeter background - I. Mean background level

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria Emilia

    2016-01-01

    We study the contribution of the first galaxies to the far-infrared/sub-millimeter (FIR/sub-mm) extragalactic background light (EBL) by implementing an analytical model for dust emission. We explore different dust models, assuming different grain size distributions and chemical compositions. According to our findings, observed re-radiated emission from dust in dwarf-size galaxies at $z \\sim 10$ would peak at a wavelength of $\\sim 500 \\mu {\\rm m}$ with observed fluxes of $\\sim 10^{-3} - 10^{-2}$ nJy, which is below the capabilities of current observatories. In order to be detectable, model sources at these high redshifts should exhibit luminosities of $\\gtrsim 10^{12} L_{\\odot}$, comparable to that of local ultra-luminous systems. The FIR/sub-mm EBL generated by primeval galaxies peaks at $\\sim 500 \\mu {\\rm m}$, with an intensity ranging from $\\sim 10^{-4}$ to $10^{-3} {\\rm nW \\ m^{-2} \\ sr^{-1}}$, depending on dust properties. These values are $\\sim 3 - 4$ orders of magnitude below the absolute measured cosmi...

  8. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS). A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA) and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA)), 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14) ng m-3, accounting for 7 (±2)% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3) ng m-3 (accounting for 1 (±1)% of total organic matter) observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4) ng m-3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6)% of total organic matter) in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1) ng m-3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4)% of total organic matter) during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  9. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. K. Hansen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14 ng m−3, accounting for 7 (±2% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3 ng m−3 (accounting for 1 (±1% of total organic matter observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4 ng m−3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6% of total organic matter in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1 ng m−3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4% of total organic matter during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  10. Contribution of carbon fixed by Rubisco and PEPC to phloem export in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Postl, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants exhibit a complex interplay between CO(2) fixation by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco), and carbon demand for CAM maintenance and growth. This study investigated the flux of carbon from PEPC and direct Rubisco fixation to different leaf carbon pools and to phloem sap over the diurnal cycle. Concentrations and carbon isotope compositions of starch, soluble sugars, and organic acids were determined in leaves and phloem exudates of Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perr., and related to CO(2) fixation by PEPC and Rubisco. Three types of leaf carbon pools could be distinguished. (i) Starch and malate pools were dominant and showed a pattern of reciprocal mobilization and accumulation (85/54 and 13/48 mg C g(-1) DW, respective, at the beginning/end of phase I). The carbon isotope composition of these pools was compatible with predominant PEPC fixation (delta(13)C values of -13 and -11 per thousand for starch and malate compared to -11 per thousand of PEPC fixed carbon). (ii) Isotopic composition (-17 per thousand and -14 per thousand) and concentration of glucose and fructose (2 and 3 mg C g(-1) DW, respectively) were not affected by diurnal metabolism, suggesting a low turnover. (iii) Sucrose (1-3 mg C g(-1) DW), in contrast, exhibited large diurnal changes in delta(13)C values (from -17 per thousand in the evening to -12 per thousand in the morning), which were not matched by net changes in sucrose concentration. This suggests a high sucrose turnover, fed by nocturnal starch degradation and direct Rubisco fixation during the day. A detailed dissection of the carbon fixation and mobilization pattern in K. daigremontiana revealed that direct fixation of Rubisco during the light accounted for 30% of phloem sucrose, but only 15% of fixed carbon, indicating that carbon from direct Rubisco fixation was preferentially used for leaf export. PMID:20159885

  11. The Contribution of the Activation Entropy to the Gas-Phase Stability of Modified Nucleic Acid Duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Yvonne; Dugovič, Branislav; Istrate, Alena; Fignolé, Annabel; Leumann, Christian J.; Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is a sugar-modified analogue of DNA currently tested for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an antisense approach. Tandem mass spectrometry plays a key role in modern medical diagnostics and has become a widespread technique for the structure elucidation and quantification of antisense oligonucleotides. Herein, mechanistic aspects of the fragmentation of tcDNA are discussed, which lay the basis for reliable sequencing and quantification of the antisense oligonucleotide. Excellent selectivity of tcDNA for complementary RNA is demonstrated in direct competition experiments. Moreover, the kinetic stability and fragmentation pattern of matched and mismatched tcDNA heteroduplexes were investigated and compared with non-modified DNA and RNA duplexes. Although the separation of the constituting strands is the entropy-favored fragmentation pathway of all nucleic acid duplexes, it was found to be only a minor pathway of tcDNA duplexes. The modified hybrid duplexes preferentially undergo neutral base loss and backbone cleavage. This difference is due to the low activation entropy for the strand dissociation of modified duplexes that arises from the conformational constraint of the tc-sugar-moiety. The low activation entropy results in a relatively high free activation enthalpy for the dissociation comparable to the free activation enthalpy of the alternative reaction pathway, the release of a nucleobase. The gas-phase behavior of tcDNA duplexes illustrates the impact of the activation entropy on the fragmentation kinetics and suggests that tandem mass spectrometric experiments are not suited to determine the relative stability of different types of nucleic acid duplexes.

  12. Multi-scale modeling study of the source contributions to near-surface ozone and sulfur oxides levels over California during the ARCTAS-CARB period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Spak, S. N.; Adhikary, B.; Kulkarni, S.; Cheng, Y.; Wei, C.; Tang, Y.; D'Allura, A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Huey, G. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Kaduwela, A.; Cai, C.; Wong, M.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.

    2011-04-01

    Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify contributions of biogenic and fire emissions to SC O3 levels. California biogenic and fire emissions contribute 3-4 ppb to near-surface O3 over SC, with larger contributions to other regions in CA. During a long-range transport event from Asia starting from 22 June, high SOx levels (up to ~0.7 ppb of SO2 and ~1.3 ppb of SO4) is observed above ~6 km, but they did not affect CA surface air quality. The elevated SOx observed at 1-4 km is estimated to enhance surface SOx over SC by ~0.25 ppb (upper limit) on ~24 June. The near-surface SOx levels over SC during the flight week are attributed mostly to local emissions. Two anthropogenic SOx emission inventories (EIs) from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are compared and applied in 60 km and 12 km chemical transport simulations, and the results are compared withobservations. The CARB EI shows improvements over the National Emission Inventory (NEI) by EPA, but generally underestimates surface SC SOx by about a factor of two. Adjoint sensitivity analysis indicated that SO2 levels at 00:00 UTC (17:00 local time) at six SC surface sites were influenced by previous day maritime emissions over the ocean, the terrestrial emissions over nearby urban areas, and by transported SO2 from the north through both terrestrial and maritime areas. Overall maritime emissions contribute 10-70% of

  13. Comparative study of serum uric acid levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women and its related outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fakhri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy and is known as a specific syndrom of pregnancy. Several studies have been done to asses the indicators of preeclampsia for early detection of the disease. Uric acid is considered by some investigators as one of the most sensetive indicators in preeclampsia. In contrast some researchers have found it not useful in prediction of preeclampsia. Hence, more studies are needed about the role of uric acid levels in diagnosis of preeclampsia. The aim of this research is to compare the serum uric acid levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women and its sensivity as an indicator of preeclampsia.Materials and methods : In this case-control study 304 pregnant women were enrolled in the study at Fatmeh Zahrah Hospital of Sari. Among them, 151 preeclamptic women were allocated in case group and 153 healthy pregnant women in control group. SPSS were used for analysis of data and variables were compared by Chi square, ANOVA, Pearson correlation index, and sensivity and specifity were calculated.Results : Difference in the number of term delivery and primi gravidity between the three groups (normal, mild and severe preeclampsia were significant (P<0.05. Considering maternal and fetal outcomes, only Decolman (two cases had no significant difference between 3 groups.Mean of uric acid levels differed between three groups (P<0.0001. Severe preeclampsia had the most significant difference with normal group. Elevated uric acid (defined as up of 5.5 mg/dl was observed in 34/2% in hyperuricemia group, 71.2 % in preeclamtic and 28.8% in control group (P<0.0001 The sensivity of uric acid levels for determining the preeclampsia and its severity elevated with increasing in concentration of uric acid but the specifity decreased.Conclusion : Results showed that the sensivity of uric acid levels in diagnosis of preeclampsia is moderate and measuring uric acid can be used in determining the

  14. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, T; Sawazaki, S; Nagasawa, T; Nagao, Y; Kanagawa, Y; Yazawa, K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to clarify the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake on behavior and plasma catecholamines (CA). In Study 1, 42 students took either DHA-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 g DHA/d or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% of another fish oil for 3 mon in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (PF Study) at the start and end of the study. This study started at the end of summer vacation and ended just before the final exams. In the control group, external aggression (aggression against others) in PF Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (+8.9%), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (-1.0%). In a similar double-blind study (Study 2), we measured external aggression under nonstressful conditions. External aggression slightly decreased in the control group, whereas there were no significant changes in the DHA group. In Study 3 with 14 students, plasma CA were measured at the start and end of capsule administration period of 2 mon. Subjects were under continuous stress of the final exams that lasted throughout the whole study period. The ratio of plasma epinephrine to norepinephrine concentrations was significantly increased in the DHA group (78%), whereas it stayed at the same level in the control group. In Study 4, mice were fed either DHA-deficient diet or -sufficient diet for 4 wk, and their rearing frequency (an anxiety index) was measured. In the DHA-sufficient group, the rearing frequency was significantly less than in the other group. These effects of DHA intake may be applied to people in an attempt to ameliorate stress-related diseases. PMID:10419086

  15. Two centuries of heating our homes. An empirical - historical contribution to the problem of sustainability on a micro level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions about sustainability are often restricted to statements about energy. However, when the notion was first used, it had a broader meaning. It argued that every generation should strive for economic progress, yet this should affect all generations in a positive way. This interpretation was evolved by the Brundtland commission in 1987. Since the publication of its report 'Our common future', it is widely accepted that sustainable development involves a social, economic and environmental dimension. Since there is no unambiguous definition of 'sustainable development' on hand, a set of sustainability indicators was developed. However, these indicators are not very instructive about the micro level: can we label a particular commodity 'sustainable' or does this have only relatively limited value? To what extent is mankind capable of producing, distributing and consuming in a 'pure', efficient and cheap way? To create a long-term view on 'sustainable development', important lessons could be learned from the past. 'Sustainability' has little meaning without an understanding of long-term ecosystem trajectories and a knowledge of baseline conditions, if they ever existed. The interdisciplinary research project '(Un)sustainability developments of product systems, 1800 - 2000' investigates the (un)sustainability development of four basic needs (potable water, bread, transportation of people over land, and heated living space) in Belgium over the last two centuries, to gain insight into sustainable development on a micro level. This paper focuses on the case study of the heated living space. It explores the boundaries of the research subject, before examining sources and methodology. The project employs Life Cycle Assessment techniques on historical data, which is a first in historical research in Belgium. After studying the social, economic and environmental indicators, the results are combined. This leads to several (cautious) conclusions about sustainability on a

  16. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  17. Wind and Wave Setup Contributions to Extreme Sea Levels at a Tropical High Island: A Stochastic Cyclone Simulation Study for Apia, Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Karl Hoeke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind-wave contributions to tropical cyclone (TC-induced extreme sea levels are known to be significant in areas with narrow littoral zones, particularly at oceanic islands. Despite this, little information exists in many of these locations to assess the likelihood of inundation, the relative contribution of wind and wave setup to this inundation, and how it may change with sea level rise (SLR, particularly at scales relevant to coastal infrastructure. In this study, we explore TC-induced extreme sea levels at spatial scales on the order of tens of meters at Apia, the capitol of Samoa, a nation in the tropical South Pacific with typical high-island fringing reef morphology. Ensembles of stochastically generated TCs (based on historical information are combined with numerical simulations of wind waves, storm-surge, and wave setup to develop high-resolution statistical information on extreme sea levels and local contributions of wind setup and wave setup. The results indicate that storm track and local morphological details lead to local differences in extreme sea levels on the order of 1 m at spatial scales of less than 1 km. Wave setup is the overall largest contributor at most locations; however, wind setup may exceed wave setup in some sheltered bays. When an arbitrary SLR scenario (+1 m is introduced, overall extreme sea levels are found to modestly decrease relative to SLR, but wave energy near the shoreline greatly increases, consistent with a number of other recent studies. These differences have implications for coastal adaptation strategies.

  18. Multi-scale modeling study of the source contributions to near-surface ozone and sulfur oxides levels over California during the ARCTAS-CARB period

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, M.; G. R. Carmichael; S. N. Spak; B. Adhikary; Kulkarni, S; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Tang, Y.; A. D'Allura; Wennberg, P.O.; G. L. Huey; Dibb, J. E.; Jimenez, J. L.; M. J. Cubison; A. J. Weinheimer

    2011-01-01

    Chronic high surface ozone (O3) levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4) ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC) and other areas of California (CA) are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emissio...

  19. The cadmium–mercaptoacetic acid complex contributes to the genotoxicity of mercaptoacetic acid-coated CdSe-core quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang WK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Weikun Tang,1 Junpeng Fan,1 Yide He,1 Bihai Huang,2 Huihui Liu,1 Daiwen Pang,2 Zhixiong Xie11College of Life Sciences, 2College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs have many potential clinical and biological applications because of their advantages over traditional fluorescent dyes. However, the genotoxicity potential of QDs still remains unclear. In this paper, a plasmid-based system was designed to explore the genotoxic mechanism of QDs by detecting changes in DNA configuration and biological activities. The direct chemicobiological interactions between DNA and mercaptoacetic acid-coated CdSe-core QDs (MAA–QDs were investigated. After incubation with different concentrations of MAA–QDs (0.043, 0.13, 0.4, 1.2, and 3.6 µmol/L in the dark, the DNA conversion of the covalently closed circular (CCC DNA to the open circular (OC DNA was significantly enhanced (from 13.9% ± 2.2% to 59.9% ± 12.8% while the residual transformation activity of plasmid DNA was greatly decreased (from 80.7% ± 12.8% to 13.6% ± 0.8%, which indicated that the damages to the DNA structure and biological activities induced by MAA–QDs were concentration-dependent. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data suggested that the observed genotoxicity might be correlated with the cadmium–mercaptoacetic acid complex (Cd–MAA that is formed in the solution of MAA–QDs. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and transformation assay results indicated that the Cd–MAA complex might interact with DNA through the groove-binding mode and prefer binding to DNA fragments with high adenine and thymine content. Furthermore, the plasmid transformation assay could be used as an effective method to evaluate the genotoxicities of nanoparticles.Keywords: genotoxicity, MAA CdSe quantum dots, cadmium–MAA complex, transformation assay, DNA 

  20. Human cerebrospinal fluid fatty acid levels differ between supernatant fluid and brain-derived nanoparticle fractions, and are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Although saturated (SAFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are important structural components of neuronal membranes and precursors of signaling molecules, knowledge of their metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD is limited. Based on recent discovery that lipids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are distributed in both brain-derived nanoparticles (NP and supernatant fluid (SF, we hypothesized that fatty acid (FA abundance and distribution into these compartments is altered in early AD pathology.We assayed the FA composition and abundance in CSF fractions from cognitively healthy (CH, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and AD study participants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the SF fraction, concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, (C22:6n-3] was less in AD compared with CH, while alpha linolenic acid [α-LNA, (C18:3n-3] was lower in MCI compared with CH. In the NP fraction, levels of SAFAs (C15:0, C16:0 and a MUFA (C15:1 differentiated CH from MCI, while two MUFAs (C15:1, C19:1 and four PUFAs (C20:2n-6, C20:3n-3, C22:4n-6, C22:5n-3 were higher in AD compared with CH. Levels of even-chain free SAFA and total free FA levels were higher in AD, levels of odd-chain free SAFAs, MUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and total PUFA, were lower in AD compared with CH. Free n-6 PUFA levels were similar in all three groups.FA metabolism is compartmentalized differently in NP versus SF fractions of CSF, and altered FA levels reflect the importance of abnormal metabolism and oxidative pathways in AD. Depleted DHA in CSF fractions in AD is consistent with the importance of n-3 PUFAs in cognitive function, and suggests that disturbed PUFA metabolism contributes to AD pathology. This study of FA levels in CSF fractions from different cognitive stages shows potential AD biomarkers, and provides further insight into cell membrane dysfunctions, including mechanisms leading to amyloid production.

  1. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  2. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rubio Moraga

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  3. What contributes to predicting change in the treatment of dissociation: initial levels of dissociation, PTSD, or overall distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Stadnik, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative disorders (DDs) suffer from high levels of dissociation as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general distress. No research has investigated how changes in dissociation relate to changes in other symptoms over the course of treatment in patients with DD. Using a prospective, naturalistic design, we collected reports of symptoms from a sample of therapists and their patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in the Treatment Outcome of Patients with Dissociative Disorders study. The patients completed surveys at intake (Time 1) into the study and at 30-month follow-up (Time 4). We found that dissociative symptoms, including amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption, at the initial assessment of the study ("initial") were related to initial levels of PTSD and general distress and that changes in dissociative symptoms were related to changes in PTSD and general distress. Initial dissociation was a significant predictor of change in dissociation at 30 months when we controlled for length of time for follow-up, length of time practicing therapy, and length of time treating dissociative patients. Our results suggest that a reduction in dissociative symptoms in DD patients is associated with reductions in the overall severity of dissociative, posttraumatic stress, and distress symptoms. PMID:23627481

  4. The effect of epidermal levels of urocanic acid on 25-hydroxyvitamin D synthesis and inflammatory mediators upon narrowband UVB irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landeck, Lilla; Jakasa, Ivone; Dapic, Irena;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Urocanic acid (UCA) absorbs ultraviolet (UV)B radiation in the epidermis which may interfere with phototherapy. Therefore, the influence of individual levels of UCA on immune reactivity and vitamin D synthesis induced by narrowband UVB radiation was assessed. METHODS: 28 subje...... levels of trans-UCA affect vitamin D synthesis, but not cutaneous immune reactivity upon repeated exposure to suberythemal doses of narrowband UVB radiation. However, this requires further exploration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  5. Effects of dissolved CO2 levels on the growth of Mannheimia succiniciproducens and succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jeong Wook; Choi, Sol; You, Jong Kyun; Hong, Won Hi; Lee, Sang Yup

    2007-12-15

    A capnophilic rumen bacterium Mannheimia succiniciproducens produces succinic acid as a major fermentation end product under CO(2)-rich anaerobic condition. Since succinic acid is produced by carboxylation of C3 compounds during the fermentation, intracellular CO(2) availability is important for efficient succinic acid formation. Here, we investigated the metabolic responses of M. succiniciproducens to the different dissolved CO(2) concentrations (0-260 mM). Cell growth was severely suppressed when the dissolved CO(2) concentration was below 8.74 mM. On the other hand, cell growth and succinic acid production increased proportionally as the dissolved CO(2) concentration increased from 8.74 to 141 mM. The yields of biomass and succinic acid on glucose obtained at the dissolved CO(2) concentration of 141 mM were 1.49 and 1.52 times higher, respectively, than those obtained at the dissolved CO(2) concentration of 8.74 mM. It was also found that the additional CO(2) source provided in the form of NaHCO(3), MgCO(3), or CaCO(3) had positive effects on cell growth and succinic acid production. However, growth inhibition was observed when excessive bicarbonate salts were added. By the comparison of the activities of key enzymes, it was found that PEP carboxylation by PEP carboxykinase (PckA) is the most important for succinic acid production as well as the growth of M. succiniciproducens by providing additional ATP. PMID:17570706

  6. Neutral alpha-1,4-glucosidase and fructose levels contribute to discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia in Chinese men with azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B; Xing, R; Zhou, X; Lv, D; Wan, B; Shu, F; Zhong, L; Wu, H; Mao, X

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, whether neutral alpha-1,4-glucosidase (NAG) and fructose levels are contributed to discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia in Chinese azoospermic patients remains unclear. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the levels of NAG and fructose in 229 patients with obstructive azoospermia and 415 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia from three different medical central. Results indicated that NAG and fructose levels in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia were significantly higher compared with those with obstructive azoospermia (P fructose defined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), decreased level of NAG was observed in 77.3% of patients with obstructive azoospermia, which was significantly higher than those with nonobstructive azoospermia (55.2%, P fructose was observed in 48.0% of patients with obstructive azoospermia, which is also obviously higher than those with nonobstructive azoospermia (31.8%, P fructose was only recorded in 3.7% of patients with SCO syndrome, 5.0% of patients with severe hypospermatogenesis and 18.2% of patients with maturation arrest. Therefore, our results indicated that NAG and fructose levels are contributed to discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia in Chinese patients based on the histological types of testes. PMID:26610429

  7. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  8. Hyaluronic acid levels predict risk of hepatic encephalopathy and liver-related death in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Soriano, Vincent;

    2013-01-01

    Whereas it is well established that various soluble biomarkers can predict level of liver fibrosis, their ability to predict liver-related clinical outcomes is less clearly established, in particular among HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons. We investigated plasma hyaluronic acid's (HA...

  9. Serum uric acid levels and cancer mortality risk among males in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J. M.; Boezen, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) has antioxidant capacities and therefore may protect against the development of cancer. Few epidemiological studies have tested this hypothesis, and findings were inconsistent. We studied the association between SUA levels and mortality due to any type of cancer, and three comm

  10. Method development for liquid chromatographic/triple quadrupole mass spectrometric analysis of trace level perfluorocarboxylic acids in articles of commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method to identify and quantify trace levels of C5 to C12 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in articles of commerce (AOC) is developed and rigorously validated. Solid samples were extracted in methanol, and liquid samples were diluted with a solvent consisting of 60...

  11. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Chen, Ying; Hou, Xu; Xu, Donghua; Che, Kui; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggested a possible association between serum uric acid levels and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, but no definite evidence was available. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies were performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases were searched for eligible studies. Study-specific data were combined using random-effect or fixed-effect models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twelve studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 1388 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4746 patients without peripheral neuropathy. Meta-analysis showed that there were obvious increased serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 50.03 μmol/L, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 22.14-77.93, P = 0.0004). Hyperuricemia was also significantly associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95%CI 2.13-3.76, P peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients (RR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.23-3.11, P = 0.005). Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy have obvious increased serum uric acid levels, and hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to validate the impact of serum uric acid levels on peripheral neuropathy risk.

  12. The association of serum uric acid level with prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in Uyghur and Han ethnicities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of serum uric acid level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in Han and Uyghur ethnic groups. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the population in 2011 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University.

  13. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  14. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  15. Relation of Serum Uric Acid With C-reactive Protein and Ferritin Levels in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical studies have shown that precipitation of urate crystals in joints of hyperuricemic patients could lead to systemic inflammation; however, this subject has been little explored in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Objectives We carried out this study in order to evaluate the association of serum uric acid (SUA levels with plasma concentrations of CRP, an inflammatory marker, and ferritin in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 hemodialysis patients in two hemodialysis wards in Iran. Required laboratory parameters, including serum levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, and ferritin were measured. Demographic data were also collected with the self-report survey. P Value less than 0.05 is considered significant. Results Higher serum levels of uric acid and CRP were seen in 44% and 47% of the patients, respectively. Hyperferritinemia was observed in 80% of participants. Although there was a significant relationship between SUA level and plasma triglyceride (P = 0.007, a linear correlation indicated that SUA level had no significant association with CRP and ferritin. Conclusions Our results indicated that there is no statistical relationship between SUA level and CRP and serum ferritin. Detailed investigations with larger sample size are recommended.

  16. Inhibitions of Several Antineoplastic Drugs on Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Mice Bearing Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Da-Yong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Ting-Ren; Wu, Hong-Ying; Xu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the content of sialic acids in blood was increased in tumor growth and certain tumor types. Higher sialic acid content was observed in ascites than that present in blood. The influence of antineoplastic agents (vincristine, ...

  17. Neurobiological constraints and fly systematics: how different types of neural characters can contribute to a higher level dipteran phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbeck, E K

    2000-06-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding higher level phylogenetic relationships in the insect order Diptera, and the need for independent analyses is apparent. In this paper, I present a parsimony analysis that is based on details of the nervous system of flies. Because neural characters have received little attention in modern phylogenetic analyses and the stability of neural traits has been debated, special emphasis is given to testing the robustness of the analysis itself and to evaluating how neurobiological constraints (such as levels of neural processing) influence the phylogenetic information content. The phylogenetic study is based on 14 species in three nematoceran and nine brachyceran families. All characters used in the analysis are based on anatomical details of the neural organization of the fly visual system. For the most part they relate to uniquely identifiable neurons, which are cells or cell types that can be confidently recognized as homologues among different species and thus compared. Parsimony analysis results in a phylogenetic hypothesis that favors specific previously suggested phylogenetic relationships and suggests alternatives regarding other placements. For example, several heterodactylan families (Bombyliidae, Asilidae, and Dolichopodidae) are supported in their placement as suggested by Sinclair et al. (1993), but Tipulidae and Syrphidae are placed differently. Tipulidae are placed at a derived rather than ancestral position within the Nematocera, and Syrphidae are placed within the Schizophora. The analysis suggests that neural characters generally maintain phylogenetic information well. However, by "forcing" neural characters onto conventional phylogenetic analyses it becomes apparent that not all neural centers maintain such information equally well. For example, neurons of the second-order visual neuropil, the medulla, contain stronger phylogenetic "signal" than do characters of the deeper visual center, the lobula plate. These

  18. Analysis of the contribution of acid phosphatase to P efficiency in Brassica napus under low phosphorus conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To understand whether genotypic variation in acid phosphatase (APase) activity in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) induced by phosphorus (P) deficiency has impact on P efficiency,soil APase activity in the rhizosphere for rapeseed P-efficient genotype 102 and P-inefficient genotype 105 was measured against organic and inorganic P sources in the pot experiment,and the activities of root-secreted APase and leaf intracellular APase were investigated in different P-starvation periods in the nutrient solution.Higher activity of root-secreted APase in B.napus was induced under low P conditions.However,P nutrition and P uptake efficiency of the plants supplied with organic P were not directly related to the activity of root-secreted APase due to several confounding factors affecting APase availability.The higher activity of leaf APase improved P remobilization in plants and played important roles in enhancing P use efficiency,shown by the significant correlation between leaf APase activity and P use efficiency in a rapeseed recombinant inbred population of 135 lines.

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA...... 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA...

  20. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    Full Text Available Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP. 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001. Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional

  1. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; Stern, Hal; He, Qinghua; Li, He; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Dong, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies) have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation) to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system) genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP). 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth) that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001). Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional behavioral genetics