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Sample records for acid jazz saaremaalt

  1. Ühe väljasurnud kala lugu Saaremaalt / Tiiu Märss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Märss, Tiiu, 1943-

    2011-01-01

    Saaremaalt Himmistest leitud siluriaegse telodondi Phlebolepis elegans Panderi kivististest ning Himmiste paemurru laastamisest ja üle 3500 kivistunud merelooma väljaveost Ameerikasse 1930nendatel William Patteni poolt

  2. JazzDanmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Artikel om genreorganisationen JazzDanmarks udvikling fra Dansk Jazz Forbund til JazzDanmark Udgivelsesdato: April-maj......Artikel om genreorganisationen JazzDanmarks udvikling fra Dansk Jazz Forbund til JazzDanmark Udgivelsesdato: April-maj...

  3. Selected Jazz Haiku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Emanuel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jazz AirlinesJAZZ Airlines! Bestest,Firstest with Mostest. ALWAYSPrettiest-Hostessed.Brown BananaBrown banana, JAZZ,peels for touch. Come  close. Closer,till music’s too-oo much.JA-A-ZZ fruit, banana,browned to please, suntan music(goes naked with ease.Count BasieLast-chance dance! Her cheekwarms his chest. “One O’clock Jump”swings jitterbugs best.Lester YoungHowdja do it, “Prez”(stay nice, cool, when all that jazzchose another school?His Volkswagen jazz,classic, never rocked ’n’ rolled--ro...

  4. Jazz v sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Jazz je glasba z dolgo in bogato zgodovino. Njegove korenine prihajajo iz Afrike, ki so se pozneje združile z vplivi iz Evrope. V osnovi gre za združitev afriških črnskih ritmov z evropskimi harmonijami. Za predhodnike jazza označujemo duhovno pesem, blues in ragtime. Skozi zgodovino pa so se izoblikovali različni stili jazza, kot so new orleans, dixieland, chicago, swing, bebop, cool jazz, free jazz, electric jazz. Za to so bili odgovorni različni najvidnejši izvajalci jazzovske glasbe, ki s...

  5. Jazz: An Afro-American Art Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Marie P.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of roots of jazz--form of art music which originated in United States through confrontation of blacks with European music--highlights jazz styles and stylists, blues, ragtime, dixieland, big bands, bop, cool jazz, modern jazz, jazz recording, jazz discography, and jazz collection in the library. Thirty-four references are cited. (EJS)

  6. Learning with Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Lucille

    2002-01-01

    Describes how teachers at three different elementary schools use jazz to teach students to read, write, and sing. In each case, jazz is used to enrich standard curricula and raise students' appreciation of this music form widely recognized for its rich heritage rooted in African American culture. Literature resources and relevant Web sites are…

  7. Teaching as Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Germundson, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Tomlinson and Germundson compare teaching well to playing jazz well. Excellent teaching involves a blend of techniques and theory; expressiveness; syncopation; call and response, and, frequently, improvisation. Weaving in analogies to jazz, the authors delineate four elements of such teaching: curriculum that helps students connect to big ideas,…

  8. Profiling the Jazz Singer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents new data extracted from the National Survey of Jazz Instrumentalists and Vocalists. The survey was administered to 209 professional jazz musicians who resided and performed in Australia during 2009-2010. Presented here are five statistically significant characteristics which differentiate vocalists' experiences from other jazz…

  9. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    Jazz Club

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" that will take place on September 21st and 22nd 2012 at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains. This festival is organized by the "CERN Jazz Club" with the support of the "CERN Staff Association". This festival is a major musical event in the French/Swiss area and proposes a world class program with jazz artists such as D.Lockwood and D.Reinhardt. More information on http://www.jurajazz.com.

  10. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" will take place at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains, France on September 21 and 22. This festival organized by the CERN Jazz Club and supported by the CERN Staff Association is becoming a major musical event in the Geneva region. International Jazz artists like Didier Lockwood and David Reinhardt are part of this year outstanding program. Full program and e-tickets are available on the festival website. Don't miss this great festival!

  11. Les mots du jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Roueff, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    L’ouvrage d’André Schaeffner constitue la première analyse savante du jazz (1926). Il a marqué une étape importante dans le processus de réinvention du jazz en France en contribuant notamment, par sa réception et les polémiques qu’il a suscitées, à transformer l’identification du jazz d’une musique « américaine » à une musique « noire-américaine » (c’est-à-dire aux « racines » africaines). Les analyses proposées dans cet ouvrage, alors qu’elles désignaient des musiques que la critique de jazz...

  12. Is Punk the New Jazz?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In the 1920s, jazz was widely condemned as "the devil's music," and "Ladies' Home Journal" warned its readers that young people were being morally corrupted as they danced along to "the abominable jazz orchestra with its voodoo-born minors and its direct appeal to the sensory center." But within a few decades, jazz was fully absorbed into the…

  13. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tartaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I describe and provide a justification for the fusion of jazz music and philosophy which I have developed; the justification is provided from the perspectives of both jazz and philosophy. I discuss two of my compositions, based on philosophical ideas presented by Schopenhauer and Derek Parfit respectively; links to sound files are provided. The justification emerging from this discussion is that philosophy produces ‘non-argumentative effects’ which provide suitable material for artistic expression and exploration. These effects – which are often emotional – are under-recognised in philosophy, but they do important philosophical work in demarcating the kinds of truths we want to discover, and in sustaining our search for them. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion can help to increase metaphilosophical self-consciousness about these effects, while also helping to counteract any undue persuasive force they may achieve. Jazz is a particularly suitable medium because it has independently developed a concern with philosophical ideas; because of strong parallels between jazz and philosophy which explain their mutual openness to fusions, and because improvisation very effectively facilitates the direct audience engagement essential to inducing these effects.

  14. Jazz som transnational populærkultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Knudsen, Knud

    2013-01-01

    Jazz as Transnational Popular Culture. The Perspective of a Local Biotope In the article, we explore the "diaspora of jazz", inspired by Bruce Johnson's critique of traditional historiography of jazz, portraying it solely as a history of the musical development of jazz. The argument is that jazz...

  15. Jazz: A Beginner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Introducing jazz music to elementary and middle school students can open a multitude of creative doors--provided that teachers know how and where to start. This article presents a sample of what Christine Nowmos teaches to her kindergarten-through-fourth-grade classrooms over the course of two months. During January and February each year, she has…

  16. Jazz Up Your Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Janine

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Jazz Workshop, a unique blend of collaboration and constructivist learning using videoconferencing and Web 2.0 tools. Each summer it draws about 400 participants--mostly teachers, technology facilitators, teacher librarians, and videoconferencing coordinators--who convene in 20 locations across three…

  17. Transformasi dalam Ranah Jazz Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Rahadianto Sutopo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show the transformation of jazz music as a cultural product in Yogyakarta. This transformation is, according to Baumann, fluid, contradictory, and ambivalent. In the origin, this music became a symbol of resistance by the lower class, whereas in Indonesia jazz became the upper middle class consumption. However, in its development, some jazz musicians try to restore the original meaning by combining local elements and bring a hybrid genre of jazz, although this was not last long. The traditional elements can not survive to bring the spirit of resistance because this new genre of jazz eventually entered the music industry as a pop culture. Local elements in the end are commodified. The impact is then the reduction of the meaning of jazz and locality itself.

  18. 爵士乐%Jazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1. When was Jazz born? The music called Jazz was born sometime around 1895 in New Orleans. It combined elements (元素) of Ragtime (雷格泰姆旋律), marching band music and Blues. What differentiated(区分) Jazz from these earlier styles was the widespread use of improvisation (即席演奏), often by more than one player at a time.

  19. Jazz et tourisme

    OpenAIRE

    Guedj, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Depuis quinze ans, la scène jazz du quartier de Harlem à New York connaît une renaissance populaire et médiatique. Dans les clubs, l’audience se compose de plus en plus de touristes, venus des quatre coins des États-Unis, de l’Europe mais aussi du Japon. À Harlem, ceux-ci cherchent à découvrir le jazz « authentique », témoignage d’une culture noire américaine dont l’histoire et les origines pourraient se chercher aujourd’hui dans l’Uptown new-yorkais. Cet article, résultat d’un travail en cou...

  20. Using Jazz to Teach Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Improvising has been around since the dawn of music. Most music in the world is improvised to some extent, and the idea of performing notes on the page "as written" is a fairly young development in music's history. One genre that does heavily stress improvisation from the start is jazz. Since jazz ethic is based on improvised performances,…

  1. The American Jazz Music Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Harold

    This publication reports the findings of research carried out in recognition of the need for an in-depth analysis of the U.S. jazz music audience in order to identify and assess ways to shape the future of jazz as part of the "Survey of Public Participation in The Arts" conducted in 1982. The research problem was to learn the size,…

  2. The History of Jazz Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣斌

    2004-01-01

    "Is jazz a kind of folk music? Is it a performing style? How is it different from other kinds of music?" There is no simple answer to these questions, because the most important quality (特性,品质) of jazz comes from its unique combination (独特的组合) of different musical sources over a period of almost dO0 years.

  3. Globalization Goes Local: Nationalism in Indonesian Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto Wishnoebroto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article presented how Jazz, as a product of American popular culture, can be very local in Indonesia. Nationalism, in this case, refers to how Indonesian jazz artists translate and create a kind of ‘dialogue’ between jazz and local Indonesian culture. The study used library research by finding what values that jazz had in order to create such dialogue, and how Indonesian nationalism could be transformed in jazz. The evolution of Jazz in Indonesia and the attitude of Indonesian jazz audience were discussed to see the position of jazz in Indonesian popular culture mainstream. It can be concluded that Jazz seems to deconstruct the common notion that music should be understood to be enjoyed. In jazz,  the irrational and sometimes absurd combination between jazz and other indigenous culture, has created a specific kinds of the music itself. Jazz in Indonesia has gone through its own cycle of evolution where the western and the eastern culture has created its own art and nobody knows the direction of jazz in the future.  

  4. Relationships among Vocal Jazz Improvisation Achievement, Jazz Theory Knowledge, Imitative Ability, Musical Experience, Creativity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Patrice Dawn

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the nature of vocal jazz improvisation and the factors that influence achievement in improvisation. Participating subjects performed two jazz improvisation tasks that were measured for tonal, rhythmic, and expressive items. Correlating independent variables included jazz theory knowledge, jazz experience, and…

  5. A History of Women in Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susanna L.

    1991-01-01

    The history of women jazz performers and composers, namely African Americans, in the United States is traced from its beginnings to contemporary artists. Women have played an integral role in jazz development. Separate women's festivals showcase many female talents, demonstrating that the future is very promising for women in jazz. (SLD)

  6. Jazz Listening Activities: Children's Literature and Authentic Music Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nan L.; Fisher, Douglas; Helzer, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a unit that is appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students that focuses on jazz music using biographies about jazz musicians. Discusses the five sections of the unit. Includes a list of "Suggested Jazz Listening Samples," jazz videos, and a bibliography of resources related to jazz music. (CMK)

  7. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  8. Humanizing the Deities of Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    As musicians, we have been taught to idolize certain figures in music history. These individuals are considered untouchable, unassailable, and unquestionably brilliant. This practice is increasingly evident in jazz. Figures like Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Charlie Parker, and Miles Davis have all undergone a virtual apotheosis. While there is…

  9. SmAll That Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  10. Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pillai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The call for papers Brilliant Corners: Approaches to Jazz and Comics was published on 30 July 2015. In it, the editors made a public invitation for scholarship that proposed meeting points between the disciplines of jazz studies and comics studies. This editorial discusses the motivations for the collection, the editorial methodology, and the research articles included. Finally, the editors suggest some areas in which jazz studies and comics scholarship might address under-researched and fertile topics.

  11. Sur des erres de jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Daverat, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Une opinion commune considère que le jazz vivrait une période de dépérissement ou de ressassement. Cette conception est d’abord basée sur une erreur qui consiste à croire que le jazz évolue uniquement au travers de relèves entre les générations, de substitutions complètes de nouveaux styles à des formes d’expression qui se démoderaient aussitôt, d’instaurations systématiques de nouveaux langages opposés à ceux qui les ont précédés. Au contraire, les caractéristiques de chaque style s’imbrique...

  12. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  13. Rhythmic Patterns in Ragtime and Jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odekerken, Daphne; Volk, A.; Koops, Hendrik Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in ragtime and jazz. Ragtime and jazz are related genres, but there are open questions on what specifies the two genres. Earlier studies revealed that variations of a particular syncopation pattern, referred to as 121, are among the most

  14. Jazz: The Serious Music of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daphne Duval

    1978-01-01

    Racism has been a major factor in determining the role and stature of jazz and the musicians who play it. Jazz has been denied its artistic due because it emerged from Black people who have been systematically denied their social and civil rights. (Author/GC)

  15. Middle Level Leadership... and All That Jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patti; Tomlin, Dru

    2013-01-01

    Much like a Jazz group, successful middle level schools are also founded on elements of improvisation, collaboration, teamwork, and responsive communication. Just as the director of the jazz group must have a solid foundation of music theory, the skills to bring out the best in the players, and an attitude that allows others to shine, those who…

  16. What Research Reveals about School Jazz Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Though jazz has been a part of many school music programs for more than 40 years, relatively little research on jazz education exists. Despite this scarcity, a comprehensive examination of the extant literature could serve to inform practice and guide future studies. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze and synthesize the extant…

  17. Leading teaming: Evidence from Jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Francisco Maria Trigo da Roza Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In this research we conducted qualitative analysis to study the team dynamics of jazz combos in order to explore deeper the leadership behaviors in a creative environment where teaming occurs. We found evidence of a dual leader, one that shifts his/her role between ‘leader as leader’ and ‘leader as member’, embracing both leaderfulness an...

  18. Y. Laberge on Jazz Icons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available (Various artists, Jazz Icons: Series 4. Reelin' In The Years Productions and Naxos, 2.108003. Box Set (8 DVDs, 2009, 10 hours. B&W. All regions (no DVD zone. 1. Coleman Hawkins- Live in '62 & '64- (w/ Sweets Edison and Jo Jones 2. Art Blakey- Live in '65- (w/ Freddie Hubbard 3.  Erroll Garner - Live in '63 & '64 4.  Jimmy Smith- Live in '69 5.  Woody Herman- Live in '64 6.  Anita O'Day- Live In '63 & '70 7.  Art Farmer- Live In '64- (w/ Jim Hall 8. Bonus performances, including excerpts...

  19. Defining Jazz Revisited - Taking a social constructionist approach to the characterisation of jazz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Ole Izard

    2017-01-01

    the concept of jazz from a social constructionist perspective and examines how constructions of a genre formation of jazz are characterised by ideas about the social. It is argued that ‘characterisations of jazz’ are central to such genre-definitions and are as tightly bound to social context......This article reconsiders the definition of jazz as a case study in relation to how a musical genre is constituted through narratives of culture and identity in musical culture. Rethinking the definition of jazz as a way of characterisation through a social constructionist approach, this article...

  20. "Doctor Jazz": Lessons that medical professionals can learn from jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ark, Allard E; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo

    2018-04-24

    The worlds of a physician and a jazz musician seem entirely different. Various studies, however, relating the concepts behind jazz music to medical practice and education, have been published. The aim of this essayistic review is to summarize previously described concepts behind jazz music and its required artistic skills that could be translated to medicine, encouraging doctors, medical students and medical educators to see their professional environment from a different perspective. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and ERIC databases, combining keywords with regard to jazz, medicine and medical education. Background information concerning jazz music and several jazz musicians was retrieved through an additional nonsystematic search using Google Scholar. Lessons with regard to improvisational skills, both in communication with patients and in a technical context, communication skills, leadership, interprofessional teamwork and coping with errors are presented. Doctors and medical students could learn various lessons from jazz music performance and jazz musicians. The potential and the possibilities of implementing jazz into the medical curriculum, in order to contribute to the development of professional skills and attitudes of medical students, could be explored further.

  1. How to Stage a Jazz Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Bart

    1982-01-01

    Describes how to organize a successful college jazz festival. The author discusses how to find funding, the importance of getting good musical clinicians and star attractions, and the use of media to promote the festival. (AM)

  2. Konkurss "Sony Jazz Stage" otsib uusi talente

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    The Contemporary Music Centre'i korraldatavast konkursist "Sony Jazz Stage 2006". Võistlus toimub vokaali ja bassi (basskitarri või kontrabassi) kategoorias (The Contemporary Music Centre'i posti-või meiliaadress - vt. www.jazzkaar.ee)

  3. IMPROVING STUDENTS‟ PRONUNCIATION USING JAZZ CHANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primanda Dewanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a habit, language needs to be used repeatedly. Jazz chants provides repeated and rhythmical words and sentences which are easily memorized. Due to the fact mentioned, Jazz chants can be considered to be used in conducting the activities enhancing the students‘ pronunciation accuracy. This study aims to analyze (1 whether Jazz chants can improve students‘ pronunciation accuracy, and (2 the advantages of the Jazz chants implementation to improve students‘ pronunciation. This research was conducted in the first semester students of Diploma 3 of Economy and Business Faculty of a university in Surakarta. The action research was conducted in two cycles comprising three meetings in each cycle. The research procedures used in this research are planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The writer applied observation, interview, questionnaire, and test to collect the data. The quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, while the qualitative ones by Interactive Model. The research results in the conclusions, including: (1 Jazz chants could improve students‘ pronunciation in terms of stress, intonation, and connected speech and (2 Jazz chants is beneficial that it stimulates the class to be more active, improves motivation, and supports students‘ memory.

  4. Neurological problems of jazz legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L

    2009-08-01

    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  5. The Effect of Conceptual Advancement in Jazz Music Selections and Jazz Experience on Musicians' Aesthetic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggiola, John C.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an investigation of what musicians consider to be their aesthetic experience with jazz music selections that vary in level of conceptual advancement (melodic complexity during improvised solos). Music major participants (N = 128) were assigned to either the jazz musician (n = 64) or nonjazz musician (n = 64) group. Data were gathered…

  6. Living Jazz, Learning Jazz: Thoughts on a Responsive Pedagogy of Early Childhood Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, jazz music is used as a lens through which early childhood music pedagogy is viewed, specifically thinking about swing and improvisation--the listening and responding to what is heard and seen, and the openness to possibility. These two concepts are defined by prominent jazz musicians and are traced in the child development…

  7. Professional Notes: Creativity in the Jazz Ensemble--Let's Get away from the Written Jazz Solo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Performing jazz offers students the opportunity to participate in a unique group activity where notated passages are blended with exciting moments of improvisation. Expectations have risen over the years as middle and high school jazz ensembles have proved that they can perform at a very high level. This expectation however, has led to the…

  8. Peer Mentoring in a High School Jazz Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The use of peer mentoring in a successful high school jazz band was explored during one academic year of instruction using ethnographic techniques. Participants included primary informants (student jazz band members, director, assistant director, adult mentors) and secondary informants (guidance counselor, principal, parents, non-jazz band member…

  9. Creativity and Learning Jazz: The Practice of "Listening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about interaction, culture, and creativity. The ethnographic setting is a set of jazz performance classes at a California university. Although I write about jazz music, the reader need not have a background in studying or performing jazz (or music in general) to understand this article. In the title of the article, the term…

  10. Perceptions of Jazz Improvisation among Pennsylvania Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jason Robert

    2010-01-01

    Jazz education has been a part of school music programs in the United States in both extracurricular and curricular settings since the 1920's. An enormous growth in the popularity of stage bands and jazz ensembles was experienced between the 1940's and 1980's resulting in a vibrant, widespread acceptance of jazz in the music curriculum (Luty,…

  11. Understanding the Experiences of Women in Jazz: A Suggested Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has long been recognized as a male-dominated field, with females traditionally having only limited acceptance, often in the roles of singer and pianist. Researchers have explored sources of the gender imbalance in the field of jazz and jazz education, but there is no theory or framework to organize such findings. This directed content…

  12. Birth of the School: Discursive Methodologies in Jazz Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyton, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, jazz as an academic discipline has grown in volume and stature--indeed, jazz studies now plays a significant role in a number of higher education music programmes within the university and conservatoire sector. The proliferation of jazz education programmes has, inevitably, brought about the publication of specific pedagogical…

  13. Dinamika Kekuasaan dalam Komunitas Jazz Yogyakarta 2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Rahadianto Sutopo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about jazz in Indonesia tend to generalize and hold a bias against narration from the mainstream, they do not see the different narration from micro scope. Using Yogyakarta jazz community as an entry point, this study shows that jazz community is not a single entity, rather, it involved various identities including educational as well as social background. This paper also indicates contestation among different jazz community in Yogyakarta wich eventually shape the colour of jazz music in the city.

  14. Da den moderne jazz kom til Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Ole Izard; Nielsen, Anders H.U.

    som tog over, deriblandt Erik Moseholm, Bent Axen og Jørn Elniff. Denne bog forklarer, hvordan den moderne jazz kom til Danmark, og hvordan den udviklede det danske jazzmiljø. Den inddrager faktorer som udenlandske musikeres besøg, koncerter og efterfølgende jazzsessions. Hvilken betydning havde disse...... for den danske jazzudvikling? Hvor blev musikken spillet, og hvordan blev den behandlet af medierne og af samfundet? Sammen med beskrivelser af de vigtigste moderne jazzmusikere fra perioden, analyseres og beskrives en række indspilninger af moderne dansk jazz for at undersøge hvornår, og hvilke af de nye...

  15. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  16. American Jazz Cathedra Enters into Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> On the evening of 25 June, 2003, an American Music Cathedra was held in the In ternational Friendship Hall of Beijing Jintai Art Museum. And its theme is "a form of American Art-Jazz". The Economic Department, Press Department of American Embassy and Beijing Jueshi Culture Development Co.Ltd. sponsored the activity.

  17. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  18. Jazz talks: representations & self-representations of African American music and its musicians from bebop to free jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Mazman, Alper

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is the representation of jazz music and its musicians, and the ways in which American (black and white) critics, novelists, and musicians interpret this music from the development of bebop to free jazz. My aim is to reveal the complexities of the dialogue between white and black representations of jazz, as well as among the self-representations of African American musicians. To this end, I discuss the discourses of jazz that are embedded within the broader cultur...

  19. Jazz Chants 到 China Chants——Jazz Chants教学法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐金马; 韩天霖

    2005-01-01

    @@ 约30年前,纽约大学Carolyn Graham教授创建了英语作为第二语言和外语(ESL/EFL)的教学方法:Jazz Chants.①自1978年以来,Graham出版了多本以Jazz Chants教学法为指导而编写的教材,她的chants还出现在其他许多著名英语教材和词典里.

  20. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  1. Novel Music Segmentation Interface and the Jazz Tune Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; Bountouridis, D.; Volk, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present MOSSA, an easy-to-use interface for mobile devices, developed to annotate the segment structure of music. Moreover, we present the jazz tune collection (JTC), a database of 125 Jazz melodies annotated using MOSSA, and developed specifically for benchmarking of computational

  2. Use Jazz to Teach Your String Students Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Standards 3 and 9 of the National Standards for Music Education charge teachers to teach improvisation as well as music of diverse cultures. Jazz is a musical style that is perfect to cover both content areas. Until now, however, jazz repertoire and improvisation have not played a major role in the education of string students. One reason is that…

  3. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  4. Memorization by a Jazz Musician: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noice, Helga; Jeffrey, John; Noice, Tony; Chaffin, Roger

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the memory strategies of jazz musicians, we videotaped an experienced jazz pianist as he learned a new bebop piece. He had not previously heard a recording of the selection, nor had he seen the written music. The pianist provided detailed reports of the musical structure and the types of cues he used as landmarks to guide his…

  5. Jazz Leader Helps a Band Take Giant Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Neil Slater, the longtime leader of the jazz program at the University of North Texas who encouraged both musical perfection and artistic freedom among his star pupils. Standards are high at North Texas, which has become a Camelot where aspiring jazz musicians have come to hone their skills since 1947, when it offered one of…

  6. Jazz Researchers: Riding the Dissonance of Pedagogy and Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozenski, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study, this article establishes jazz as an epistemological metaphor for critical participatory action research. The author juxtaposes the tensions inherent in jazz music and critical participatory research methodologies to provide a framework for understanding how dissonance can become a productive element for…

  7. Development of a Rubric for Collegiate Jazz Improvisation Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kendall Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a jazz improvisation rubric for the evaluation of collegiate jazz improvisation. To create this measure, research objectives were devised to investigate the aurally-observed performer-controlled components of improvisation, which aurally-observed components should be evaluated in an improvisatory…

  8. Generating Ideas in Jazz Improvisation: Where Theory Meets Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Idea generation is an integral component of jazz improvising. This article merges theoretical origins and practical experiences through the examination of two seminal works from Pressing and Sudnow. A comparative analysis yields three common sources with distinct characteristics. The greater body of jazz literature supports this potential link…

  9. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  10. Race, history, and black British jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Toynbee, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.

  11. Jazz improvisers’ shared understanding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Schober

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard (It Could Happen to You on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner’s musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener’s statements more than their partner’s argues against a simple notion that performers’ interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider’s.

  12. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's.

  13. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  14. Les mots du jazz. Retour(s) sur Le Jazz, d'André Schaeffner et André Coeuroy

    OpenAIRE

    Roueff , Olivier

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Le Jazz by André Schaeffner and André Cœuroy (1926), the first learned analysis of jazz, signaled an important phase in the reinvention of this music in France, since, through the debates it sparked at the time, it helped change jazz’s identity from an « American » to a « Black American » music with African « roots ». Cœuroy and Schaeffner referred to sorts of music that jazz criticism would have throw out of its pantheon, but their analyses would form the major grids ...

  15. Book review: Musical echoes: South African women thinking in jazz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Musical echoes: South African women thinking in jazz. Author: Muller, Carol and Sathima, Bea Benjamin. Publisher: Duke University Press. Publication year: 2011. ISBN 978-0-8223-4914-3 ...

  16. A generative representation for the evolution of jazz solos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Kjell; Dahlstedt, Palle

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a system developed to create computer based jazz improvisation solos. The generation of the improvisation material uses interactive evolution, based on a dual genetic representation: a basic melody line representation, with energy constraints ("rubber band") and a hierarchic...... developed for this specific type of music. This is the first published part of an ongoing research project in generative jazz, based on probabilistic and evolutionary strategies....

  17. WORKING WITH JAZZ PERCUSSIONISTS IN THE VIBRAPHONE CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEREZOVICOVA TATIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article approaches some aspects of teaching students whose major is light music and jazz instruments (percus­sion instruments in the vibraphone class. The authors examine problems specific to studying the vibraphone by the percussion­ist that work in the field of light music and jazz such as setting the interpretative apparatus, forming the repertoire, overcoming some technical difficulties in the process of assimilating the instructive-didactic programme etc.

  18. "Telling a Story." On the Dramaturgy of Monophonic Jazz Solos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frieler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The metaphor of storytelling is widespread among jazz performers and jazz researchers. However, little is known about the precise meaning of this metaphor on an analytical level. The present paper attempts to shed light on the connected semantic field of the metaphor and relate it to its musical basis by investigating time courses of selected musical elements and features in monophonic jazz improvisations. Three explorative studies are carried out using transcriptions of 299 monophonic jazz solos from the Weimar Jazz Database. The first study inspects overall trends using fits of quadratic polynomials onto loudness and pitch curves. The second study does the same using selected features related to intensity, tension and variability over the course of phrases in the solos. The third study examines the distribution of the relative positions of various improvisational ideas in a subset of 116 solos. Results show that certain trends can be found, but not to a large extent. Significant trends most often display arch-shaped curves as expected from classical dramatic models. This is also in accordance with the fact that expressive improvisational ideas are more often found in the last part of a solo, while more relaxed ideas occur earlier. All in all, jazz improvisations show a wide range of variation and no single overarching dramatic model could be identified.

  19. Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Kruse-Weber, Silke

    2014-06-01

    The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.

  20. 'Disease is unrhythmical': jazz, health, and disability in 1920s America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The 1920s in the United States are commonly remembered as the Jazz Age. Although historians have focused on the African American origins of the music, another theme was also prominent in the public discourse surrounding jazz: disability. Critics saw jazz and its associated dances as defective, causing both mental and physical impairments in their devotees. In other words, jazz music and dance were disabled and disabling. Proponents of jazz responded in kind, asserting that jazz did not cause impairments, it cured them; similarly, jazz was not defective music or dance, but a revitalisation of the art forms. On the one hand, these reactions might have been expected, given the long history of belief in a relationship between music and health. However, the importance of health issues such as eugenics and rehabilitation in the 1920s also clearly influenced the responses of opinion leaders, politicians, academics, music professionals, and others to jazz music and dance.

  1. Om beatlitteraturens repræsentationer af jazz: Bidrag til en rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Fabian

    2004-01-01

    Jazz, rock, litteratur, populærkultur, raceidentitet, kulturteori, beargenerationen, Jack Kerouac, Charlie Parker, Bob Dylan......Jazz, rock, litteratur, populærkultur, raceidentitet, kulturteori, beargenerationen, Jack Kerouac, Charlie Parker, Bob Dylan...

  2. "Tallinn Jazz Weekend" tõi kultuuripealinna Euroopa jazzielu korraldajad / Marje Ingel, Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingel, Marje

    2011-01-01

    Jazziorganisatsioonist Europe Jazz Network ja selle aastakonverentsist Tallinnas ning J. Sang selle raames Von Krahli teatris toimunud Tallinn Jazz Weekendi eesti jazzmuusika showcase-festivalist lühidalt

  3. Will Jazz Survive? Thoughts on the State of the Great American Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Playthell

    1983-01-01

    Jazz is undoubtedly the great North American contribution to art, yet this art form is undermined by the White music elite which chooses instead to support institutions that perpetuate European music. When jazz is given attention in the mass media, both its Black origins and the great Black jazz artists are largely ignored. (GC)

  4. Valuing Cultural Context and Style: Strategies for Teaching Traditional Jazz Dance from the Inside Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Karen W.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an approach to teaching that acknowledges the history and style of authentic jazz dance; also known as traditional jazz dance. Described for students on the first class-day as "...your great-grandparents' jazz..." the course is an introduction to the stylistic characteristics of an indigenous U.S. form evolved primarily from…

  5. Beyond borders : broadening the artistic palette of (composing) improvisers in jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this on-line dissertation, jazz saxophonist Dick de Graaf investigates a variety of compositional and improvisational models and techniques in contemporary jazz and Western art music, and discusses possible applications of these materials in current jazz practices. The study includes

  6. Charting Future Directions for Research in Jazz Pedagogy: Implications of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys and evaluates extant empirical research in jazz pedagogy. Investigations in the following areas are addressed: (a) variables that predict achievement in jazz improvisation; (b) content analyses of published instructional materials; (c) effectiveness of pedagogical methods; (d) construction and evaluation of jazz improvisation…

  7. Mechanics of jazz shoes and their effect on pointing in child dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hiller, Claire

    2012-07-01

    There has been little scientific investigation of the impact of dance shoes on foot motion or dance injuries. The pointed (plantar-flexed) foot is a fundamental component of both the technical requirements and the traditional aesthetic of ballet and jazz dancing. The aims of this study were to quantify the externally observed angle of plantar flexion in various jazz shoes compared with barefoot and to compare the sagittal plane bending stiffness of the various jazz shoes. Sixteen female recreational child dancers were recruited for 3D motion analysis of active plantar flexion. The jazz shoes tested were a split-sole jazz shoe, full-sole jazz shoe, and jazz sneaker. A shoe dynamometer measured the stiffness of the jazz shoes. The shoes had a significant effect on ankle plantar flexion. All jazz shoes significantly restricted the midfoot plantar flexion angle compared with the barefoot condition. The split-sole jazz shoe demonstrated the least restriction, whereas the full-sole jazz shoe the most midfoot restriction. A small restriction in metartarsophalangeal plantar flexion and a greater restriction at the midfoot joint were demonstrated when wearing stiff jazz shoes. These restrictions will decrease the aesthetic of the pointed foot, may encourage incorrect muscle activation, and have an impact on dance performance.

  8. The Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of College Students Majoring in Jazz Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the occupational aspirations and occupational expectations of college students majoring in jazz studies in the United States. Participants included the population of jazz studies majors (N = 211) at a large mid-southern university known for its prestigious and internationally recognized jazz program. A…

  9. Instrumental Jazz Improvisation Development: Characteristics of Novice, Intermediate, and Advanced Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the role aural imitation ability, jazz theory knowledge, and personal background variables play in the development of jazz improvisation achievement. Participants (N = 70) included 26 high school and 44 college instrumentalists with varying degrees of jazz improvisation experience. Data were…

  10. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  11. Jazz musicians reveal role of expectancy in human creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysinda, Emily; Zeng, Tima; Maves, Kellyn; Arkin, Cameron; Loui, Psyche

    2017-12-01

    Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently. We compare jazz improvisers, non-improvising musicians, and non-musicians in the domain-general task of divergent thinking, as well as the musical task of preference ratings for chord progressions that vary in expectation while EEGs were recorded. Behavioral results showed for the first time that jazz musicians preferred unexpected chord progressions. ERP results showed that unexpected stimuli elicited larger early and mid-latency ERP responses (ERAN and P3b), followed by smaller long-latency responses (Late Positivity Potential) in jazz musicians. The amplitudes of these ERP components were significantly correlated with behavioral measures of fluency and originality on the divergent thinking task. Together, results highlight the role of expectancy in creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel activation domain derived from Che-1 cofactor coupled with the artificial protein Jazz drives utrophin upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, Agata; Onori, Annalisa; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Passananti, Claudio; Corbi, Nicoletta

    2009-02-01

    Our aim is to upregulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, thus complementing the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end, we have engineered synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. We have previously shown that the artificial three-zinc finger protein named Jazz fused with the Vp16 activation domain, is able to bind utrophin promoter A and to increase the endogenous level of utrophin in transgenic mice. Here, we report on an innovative artificial protein, named CJ7, that consists of Jazz DNA binding domain fused to a novel activation domain derived from the regulatory multivalent adaptor protein Che-1/AATF. This transcriptional activation domain is 100 amino acids in size and it is very powerful as compared to the Vp16 activation domain. We show that CJ7 protein efficiently promotes transcription and accumulation of the acetylated form of histone H3 on the genomic utrophin promoter locus.

  13. Jazz with the cosmos | CERN at the Montreux Jazz Festival | 12 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    CERN will be participating in the Montreux Jazz Festival again this year with "The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics" at the Petit Palais on 12 July. The event, which is also part of CERN's 60th anniversary schedule, brings the music of the LHC, the Higgs boson, and the distant cosmos.   The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics Petit Palais, Montreux Jazz Festival Saturday 12 July 2014 - 5.00 p.m.  Free Entrance - for more information, visit the event site You may not realise it but energetic cosmic rays are passing through your body every second. They are produced by the collision of high-energy charged particles with the Earth’s upper atmosphere. The particles come from events occurring all over our Universe, some of which happened billions of years ago. A little over 100 years ago, scientists started detecting these ‘cosmic rays’, finding that there were many more particles in our Universe than we originally th...

  14. High notes: the role of drugs in the making of Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill; Mirhej, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the role played by illicit drugs, especially marijuana and heroin, in the historic development and evolution of Jazz in the United States during the twentieth century. In addition to an assessment of the extent of drug use and kinds of drugs used by Jazz musicians and singers, the impact and costs of drug use on the lives of people in Jazz, and the changing patterns of drug use during several eras of Jazz production, the paper contextualizes drug use among Jazz performers and societal response to it in light of prevailing ethnic inequalities and critical medical anthropological theory.

  15. Playing off the beat: Applying the jazz paradigm to psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Read

    2018-02-01

    A jazz paradigm is applied to traditional psychotherapy practice, illuminating the links between psychotherapy and the Romantic aesthetic tradition, primarily in the centrality of concepts such as attunement. Modernist disruptions of realism during the early 20 th century, such as jazz, elaborated dissonant and improvisational artistic impulses that brought new vitality to their art forms. The psychotherapeutic relationship also has potential avenues for multilevel and discrepant communication that open possibilities of freedom. However, the limitations imposed by the single channel nature of comprehended language, compared with the capacity of artistic media to express multiple sensory information simultaneously, remain the most significant obstacle to dimensionalizing the psychotherapeutic dialogue. Psychotherapy may have much to gain from embracing some of the concepts underlying the jazz aesthetic. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nuclear power in the WEC partitions: Jazz and symphony - 5404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Energy Council (WEC) has built two scenarios typified by characteristics, which, each from their own perspective, may comprehensively describe large parts of the world in 2050: the more consumer-driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario. While scenarios are 'music based', they are completely different in nature. As an energy scenario, Jazz has a focus on energy equity with priority given to achieving individual access and affordability of energy through economic growth. As an energy scenario, Symphony has a focus on achieving environmental sustainability through internationally coordinated policies and practices. These scenarios are designed to help a range of stakeholders address the 'energy tri-lemma' of achieving environmental sustainability, energy security, and energy equity. The energy landscape we expect to see in 2050 will be quite different from how it looks today. Meeting future energy demand will be a key challenge. The world's population will increase from approximately 7 billion in 2013 to approximately 8.7 billion in the Jazz scenario and approximately 9.4 billion in the Symphony scenario in 2050, which is equal to a 26% increase (36% respectively). The WEC estimates that total primary energy supply (equal to consumption) will increase globally from 546 EJ (152 PWh) in 2010 to 879 EJ (144 PWh) in the Jazz scenario and 696 EJ (193 PWh) in the Symphony scenario in 2050. This corresponds to an increase of 61% in Jazz and 27% in Symphony. In WEC Scenarios to 2050, nuclear energy will contribute approximately 4% of total primary energy supply in Jazz in 2050 and 11% in Symphony - compared to 6% in 2010. More precisely, there is an increase of nuclear capacity (even in Jazz, thanks to demand increase) from 373 GW in 2010 to 481 GW (Jazz) or 884 GW (Symphony) in 2050. Electricity generation from renewable sources (RES-E) will increase around 4 to 5 times by 2050 in comparison to 2010

  17. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  18. Listeners' and performers' shared understanding of jazz improvisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Schober

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners’ interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers’ interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  19. Correlated microtiming deviations in jazz and rock music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sogorski

    Full Text Available Musical rhythms performed by humans typically show temporal fluctuations. While they have been characterized in simple rhythmic tasks, it is an open question what is the nature of temporal fluctuations, when several musicians perform music jointly in all its natural complexity. To study such fluctuations in over 100 original jazz and rock/pop recordings played with and without metronome we developed a semi-automated workflow allowing the extraction of cymbal beat onsets with millisecond precision. Analyzing the inter-beat interval (IBI time series revealed evidence for two long-range correlated processes characterized by power laws in the IBI power spectral densities. One process dominates on short timescales (t < 8 beats and reflects microtiming variability in the generation of single beats. The other dominates on longer timescales and reflects slow tempo variations. Whereas the latter did not show differences between musical genres (jazz vs. rock/pop, the process on short timescales showed higher variability for jazz recordings, indicating that jazz makes stronger use of microtiming fluctuations within a measure than rock/pop. Our results elucidate principles of rhythmic performance and can inspire algorithms for artificial music generation. By studying microtiming fluctuations in original music recordings, we bridge the gap between minimalistic tapping paradigms and expressive rhythmic performances.

  20. "Jazz Ruuler" toob dzhässi Rock Cafesse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Muhu tulevikumuusika festival "Ju jääb" ja Rock Cafe avavad uue dzhässiürituste sarja "Jazz Ruuler", mille raames soovitakse igal kuul Eesti publiku ette tuua mõni maailma dzhässi tuntud artist. Kontserdist 24. jaan. Rock Cafés

  1. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  2. Exploring an Industry-Based Jazz Education Performance Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Derrin; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Central Queensland Conservatorium of Music (CQCM) has maintained a partnership with Hamilton Island Enterprises (HIE) since 2002. As a part of this partnership, the Bachelor of Music (jazz & popular) students visit Hamilton Island (HI), an island resort located off the Australian east coast, four to six times annually to engage in 3 to 10…

  3. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Developing Jazz Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research investigating improvisational skill development in adolescent learners is scant. In this study interviews with developing jazz improvisers are used to characterize the skill-building process. The findings were considered in light of two views of skill learning. In one view, students progress through several discrete levels, while in a…

  4. Correlated microtiming deviations in jazz and rock music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogorski, Mathias; Geisel, Theo; Priesemann, Viola

    2018-01-01

    Musical rhythms performed by humans typically show temporal fluctuations. While they have been characterized in simple rhythmic tasks, it is an open question what is the nature of temporal fluctuations, when several musicians perform music jointly in all its natural complexity. To study such fluctuations in over 100 original jazz and rock/pop recordings played with and without metronome we developed a semi-automated workflow allowing the extraction of cymbal beat onsets with millisecond precision. Analyzing the inter-beat interval (IBI) time series revealed evidence for two long-range correlated processes characterized by power laws in the IBI power spectral densities. One process dominates on short timescales (t jazz vs. rock/pop), the process on short timescales showed higher variability for jazz recordings, indicating that jazz makes stronger use of microtiming fluctuations within a measure than rock/pop. Our results elucidate principles of rhythmic performance and can inspire algorithms for artificial music generation. By studying microtiming fluctuations in original music recordings, we bridge the gap between minimalistic tapping paradigms and expressive rhythmic performances.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  6. Migration, Trauma, PTSD: A Gender Study in Morrison's Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Leila Tafreshi; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Wan

    2014-01-01

    Toni Morrison is an acknowledged master of trauma literature, however trauma theory and a gender response to trauma remain largely unaccounted for her migration literature, specifically "Jazz" (1992). In her novel, two migrant women are affected by the same trauma, a crime of passion. But they choose different reactions and coping…

  7. A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…

  8. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  9. Jazz Musicians as Academic Leaders: Improvisation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Jazz musicians are unique individuals who seek to perform from a transcendental state in which tacit knowledge, teamwork, and communication blend to produce an effective performance. Academic leaders are also unique individuals who rely on communication to generate a sense of inclusion within a complex organization that at times epitomizes…

  10. Summer Workshop on Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, Masamitsu; Güngördü, Utkan; Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz

    2014-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions from a Summer Workshop on Physics, Mathematics, and All That Quantum Jazz . Subjects of the symposium include quantum information theory, quantum annealing, Bose gases, and thermodynamics from a viewpoint of quantum physics. Contributions to this book are prepared in a self-contained manner so that readers with a modest background may understand the subjects.

  11. Listeners' and Performers' Shared Understanding of Jazz Improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners' interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers' interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  12. Džässiklubis kõlab nu-jazz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    12. märtsil esineb Pärnu Endla Jazz-klubis nu-jazzi mängiv Eclectic Stories koosseisus Kristjan Mazurtchak (saksofon), Vladimir Võssotski (klahvpillid, elektroonika), Mihkel Mälgand (bass) ja Boris Hrebtukov (löökpillid)

  13. Reflections on Freirean Pedagogy in a Jazz Combo Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevock, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Paulo Freire was an important figure in adult education whose pedagogy has been used in music education. In this act of praxis (reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it), I share an autoethnography of my teaching of a university-level small ensemble jazz class. The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine my teaching…

  14. Trumpeting through the iron curtain: The breakthrough of jazz in socialist Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Radina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, jazz became a powerful propaganda weapon in the battle for “hearts and minds”. As early as the 1950s, the American administration began its Cold War “jazz campaign”, by broadcasting the popular jazz radio show Music USA over the Voice of America, and by sending its top jazz artists on world tours. In this specific cultural Cold War, Yugoslavia was, as in its overall politics, in a specific position between the East and the West. The postwar period in Yugoslavia, following the establishment of the new (socialist government, was characterized by strong resistance towards jazz as “decadent” music, until 1948 when “no” to Stalin became “yes” to jazz. From the 1950s, jazz entered Yugoslav institutions and media, and during the following two decades, completely conquered the radio, TV, and record industry, as well as the manifestations such as the Youth Day. On account of the openness of the regime during the 1950s and 1960s, Yugoslavia was frequently visited by the greatest jazz stars, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald. In the context of the Cold War, the promotion of jazz in Yugoslavia proved to be beneficial for both sides - by exporting jazz, America also exported its freedom, culture and system of values, while Yugoslavia showed the West to what extent its political system was open and liberal, at least concerning this type of music.

  15. Jazz als probleem. Receptie en acceptatie van de jazz in de wederopbouwperiode van Nederland 1945-1952

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhout, G.W.H.

    2006-01-01

    After the liberation of The Netherlands in 1945 jazz went through a new start because it had been banned from the public sphere and forced to go and stay underground for most of the five years of German occupation. As a consequence of this the young generation was at a loss what to make of popular

  16. Freedom of Expression and Rhetorical Art: The Problems of Avant-Garde Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Robert

    Although the success of black jazz has been limited by its lack of recognition in the white-controlled music industry, its rhetorical development as an expression of black consciousness can be traced from the bebop of the 1940s and early 1950s, through the hard bop and free jazz of the 1960s, to the jazz orientation of the disco circuit in the…

  17. A critical reassessment of the reception of early jazz in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Parsonage, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The Original Dixieland Jazz Band's visit in 1919–1920 has been well documented as the beginning of jazz in Britain. This article illuminates a more complex evolution of the image and presence of jazz in Britain through consideration of the cultural and musical antecedents of the genre, including minstrel shows and black musical theatre, within the context of musical life in Britain in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries. The processes through which this evolution took place are c...

  18. Trumpeting through the iron curtain: The breakthrough of jazz in socialist Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić Radina

    2012-01-01

    During the Cold War, jazz became a powerful propaganda weapon in the battle for “hearts and minds”. As early as the 1950s, the American administration began its Cold War “jazz campaign”, by broadcasting the popular jazz radio show Music USA over the Voice of America, and by sending its top jazz artists on world tours. In this specific cultural Cold War, Yugoslavia was, as in its overall politics, in a specific position between the East and the West. The pos...

  19. Impact attenuation properties of jazz shoes alter lower limb joint stiffness during jump landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  1. JAZZ-800信号处理器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Miranda推出的JAZZ-800是一个仅1RU的单/双通道通用信号处理器,它结合高性能的信号处理功能和便捷的操作控制,提供了上/下/交叉/ARC和高/标清变换功能,以及数/模之间的转换功能,适合多信号的工作环境。JAZZ-800配备带功能菜单和视频监视的本地控制面板,具备噪音屏蔽的高/标清画面显示,

  2. LEP Celebration : Groupe de Jazz "Wolfgang & The Werewolves"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    At 14:00: Groupe de Jazz "Wolfgang & The Werewolves" . The official programme begins at 15:00 with an introduction from the Director General, and Professor Martinus Veltman will give the keynote speech. Heads of national delegations represented at ministerial level will then make their speeches, following which a commemorative plaque will be unveiled. A specially commissioned ballet by Maurice Béjart will bring the ceremony to a close.

  3. Images of a Sound: Portraits and Pictures of Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Sparti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Images of a sound. Portraits and Pictures of Jazz. Davide Sparti [trans. lise hogan] It has always been maintained that jazz reflects the social and urban changes of its times, but little attention has been given to the reversed statement, or rather, that twentieth-century culture reflects jazz, reacting and responding to its presence, and re-elaborating its sounds in visual (as well as textual and choreographic forms. This paper, inspired by an exhibition of jazz album covers, examines the interplay between jazz and the visual arts. Notwithstanding the significant link between image and sound at the referential level of the content (album covers represent a mirror of the era and of its political changes, it is primarily the relationship established through the notion of process, action or operation that is crucial. We live in a videocentric age that greatly emphasizes the defined and completed object, and that has sanctioned the existence of a place for its worship: the museum. But an (improvised performance is above all an action, the action of generating music during the course of a performance. By focusing on the final product of a performance, we risk losing sight of the “phenomenon”: the emergence, sound after sound, of a musical sense. For many painters, precisely because they can take their time deciding what to “express”, the process recedes to the background and what becomes relevant (also for the evaluation of the artwork is what they produce. Yet, dating from the Surrealists and from Pollock, many visual arts exhibitors have been inspired by jazz and have placed the notion of process at the centre of their artistic practice. Les images d'un son. Portraits et tableaux du Jazz Davide Sparti [traduction de lise hogan] On a toujours affirmé que le jazz reflète le changement social et urbain de l'époque, mais peu d'attention a été payé à la déclaration inverse, c'est-à-dire, que la culture du XXe siècle reflète le jazz

  4. CERN Takes a Bow at the Montreux Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    A year after CERN announced the discovery of a Higgs boson on the world stage, several of the participating scientists found themselves in a new and unfamiliar arena – the renowned Montreux Jazz Festival.   The Canettes Blues Band of the CERN Music Club performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July. CERN and the Montreux Jazz Foundation teamed up this summer to host a series of seminars and performances titled “The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics”.  The seminars took place in the historic Petit Palais and included a variety of presentations on the interplay between science and sound. Sound artist Bill Fontana kicked off the series by presenting the concepts and methods behind the creation of  “sound sculptures”.  As the current Collide@CERN artist-in-residence, Fontana has been placing microphones and sensors on accelerators, detectors and other objects at CERN t...

  5. A Facet-Factorial Approach towards the Development and Validation of a Jazz Rhythm Section Performance Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable rating scale to assess jazz rhythm sections in the context of jazz big band performance. The research questions that guided this study included: (a) what central factors contribute to the assessment of a jazz rhythm section? (b) what items should be used to describe and assess a jazz…

  6. Canons in Harmony, or Canons in Conflict: A Cultural Perspective on the Curriculum and Pedagogy of Jazz Improvization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines how jazz educators construct methods for teaching the art of improvisation in institutionalized jazz studies programs. Unlike previous studies of the processes and philosophies of jazz instruction, I examine such processes from a cultural standpoint, to identify why certain methods might be favored over others. Specifically,…

  7. "Play It Again, Billy, but This Time with More Mistakes": Divergent Improvisation Activities for the Jazz Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The jazz ensemble represents an important performance opportunity in many school music programs. Due to the cultural history of jazz as an improvisatory art form, school jazz ensemble directors must address methods of teaching improvisation concepts to young students. Progress has been made in the field of prescribed improvisation activities and…

  8. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  9. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  10. Learning Pre-Played Solos: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Jazz/Improvised Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…

  11. Reading "Gatsby"/Performing "Jazz": On Narrative Voice, Race, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Theresa

    1998-01-01

    Describes an experiment in pairing the novels "The Great Gatsby" (F. Scott Fitzgerald) and "Jazz" (Toni Morrison) in a teacher preparation class. Relates that the students (all European American) initially resisted "Jazz" and accepted "Gatsby" as a timeless classic. Includes responses about another Toni…

  12. Exploring the 12-Key Approach: Perceptions and Experiences of Improvising Jazz Vocalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The 12-key approach is considered a foundational practice strategy for jazz instrumentalists. Its relevance to vocalists, however, seems less clear. This article investigates improvising jazz vocalists' perceptions and experiences of using the 12-key approach as distinguished from instrumentalists'. It uses data from a two-phase, mixed methods…

  13. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  14. The Exceptional Art of Hank Mobley's 1955-1970 Jazz Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Hank Mobley had profound influence on the East coast style of jazz. As a composer, he was a major contributor to the development of the specific style of East Coast jazz known as hard bop. Between the years of 1955 and 1970, Hank Mobley recorded one hundred-forty two original compositions. Due to the lack of published transcriptions and analyses…

  15. Landscapes of Musical Metaphor and Musical Learning: The Example of Jazz Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to learning in practice-based jazz improvisation contexts include situated learning and ecological perspectives. This article focuses on how interest-driven, self-sustaining jazz learning activities can be matched against the results of a recent Swedish investigation based on extensive qualitative interviews with jazz…

  16. Putting It Together: Integrating Jazz Education in the Elementary General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2004-01-01

    American schools have great secondary performance programs, and many of these programs do wonderful things with jazz education. As wonderful as these programs are, only a small percentage of secondary school students join them, and usually the percentage of students participating in the jazz components of these programs is even smaller. As many…

  17. Stealing Knowledge in a Landscape of Learning: Conceptualizations of Jazz Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to learning in practice-based jazz improvisation contexts include situated learning and ecological perspectives. This article focuses on how interest-driven, self-sustaining jazz learning activities can be matched against the concepts of stolen knowledge (Brown & Duguid, 1996) and landscape of learning (Bjerstedt, 2014).…

  18. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  19. The effect of modified jazz dance on balance, cognition, and mood in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Patricia T; Miller, Sally K; Wallmann, Harvey; Havey, Richard; Cross, Chad; Chevalia, Theresa; Gillis, Carrie B; Kodandapari, Keshavan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of jazz dance class instruction on balance, cognition, and mood (specifically depression) in 13 healthy, community-dwelling, English-speaking older women with a mean age of 68. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires (Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination [MMSE] and Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]), and the sensory organization test (SOT) for balance measurements (using the NeuroCom Smart Balance Master) was performed at three time periods in the study: time 1: between week 1 and week 2 of jazz class (baseline), time 2: between week 8 and week 9 of jazz class (midpoint), and time 3: after week 15 of jazz class (final measurement). Differences in mean MMSE and GDS scores over time were not significant; however, SOT scores showed an increasing trend (p jazz dance does not impact cognition or mood but may improve balance in older women. This finding may have significant implications for fall prevention in the postmenopausal population. Because falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults of both genders, research is needed to evaluate both the impact of jazz dance on balance in older men and jazz dance as a fall prevention strategy in aging adults. Additionally, longitudinal research with a larger sample size is needed to test the effectiveness of jazz dance as a strategy for improving balance, cognition, and mood.

  20. A Pilot Study of Using Jazz Warm Up Exercises in Primary School Choir in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason Chi Wai; Lee, Han Wai

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study is to examine whether it is valuable to implement jazz choral practice in Hong Kong primary school setting. The findings can serve as a reference to explore the possibilities of promoting jazz education in Asian countries or in China. The participants were 70 public primary school students from grade 2 to 5 in Hong Kong. All…

  1. Moral Outrage and Musical Corruption: White Educators' Responses to the "Jazz Problem"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    More than a musical genre, jazz in the 1920s was viewed by critics and supporters alike as a type of lifestyle, one that frequently led to drinking, dancing, and "petting." Much to the horror of older generations, white young people were particularly drawn to jazz and its "hot rhythms." Secondary school teachers and…

  2. Gender and Participation in High School and College Instrumental Jazz Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of the relationship between gender and participation in high school and college instrumental jazz ensembles. Student demographic and attitudinal information was collected using the researcher-designed Instrumental Jazz Participation Survey (IJPS). Undergraduate college band students (N = 628) representing 15 programs…

  3. Sharing the Gift of Jazz: An Interview with Willie L. Hill Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Willie L. Hill Jr., founder and director of the Society for Jazz Education. Currently a professor of music education at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and the director of the UMass Fine Arts Center, Hill has served as director of education for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. He is a past…

  4. Forty lives in the bebop business: mental health in a group of eminent jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Geoffrey I

    2003-09-01

    Above-average levels of psychopathology have been demonstrated convincingly in groups of outstanding individuals working in the arts. Currently, jazz musicians have not been studied in this regard. To investigate any evidence of psychopathology in a group of eminent jazz musicians. Biographical material relating to 40 eminent American modern jazz musicians was reviewed and an attempt was made to formulate diagnoses using DSM-IV. Evidence was provided of levels of psychopathology in the sample of jazz musicians similar to those found in other previously investigated creative groups, with the exception of substance related problems. An interesting connection between creativity and sensation-seeking was highlighted. The link between psychopathology and creativity in the arts was given further weight. Future studies of jazz musicians using larger samples and making comparison with groups from different eras of music would give greater clarification to this area.

  5. The artificial gene Jazz, a transcriptional regulator of utrophin, corrects the dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Corbi, Nicoletta; Strimpakos, Georgios; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Batassa, Enrico Maria; Pisani, Cinzia; Floridi, Aristide; Benassi, Barbara; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Magrelli, Armando; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    The absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The utrophin protein is the best candidate for dystrophin replacement in DMD patients. To obtain therapeutic levels of utrophin expression in dystrophic muscle, we developed an alternative strategy based on the use of artificial zinc finger transcription factors (ZF ATFs). The ZF ATF 'Jazz' was recently engineered and tested in vivo by generating a transgenic mouse specifically expressing Jazz at the muscular level. To validate the ZF ATF technology for DMD treatment we generated a second mouse model by crossing Jazz-transgenic mice with dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Here, we show that the artificial Jazz protein restores sarcolemmal integrity and prevents the development of the dystrophic disease in mdx mice. This exclusive animal model establishes the notion that utrophin-based therapy for DMD can be efficiently developed using ZF ATF technology and candidates Jazz as a novel therapeutic molecule for DMD therapy.

  6. Like, comment, share and all that jazz : social media as communication and marketing tool case: Social media marketing approaches used by MaiJazz music festival

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaskovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...

  7. Migration Theories and Mental Health in Toni Morrison's Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tafreshi Motalgh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992. To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite post-migration stresses, the main female characters who encounter pre-migration stress factors and traumas are more likely to develop mental health problems like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Although there is extensive literary criticism of Jazz (1992, no theoretical criticism exists that simultaneously covers migration theories and the mental health problems evident in Toni Morrison's female characters. It is worth highlighting that gender is a variable that correlates positively with migration and mental health. This article attempts to fill a gap in literary criticism and contribute to the body of research on mental health problems associated with gender and migration. Keywords: Push-Pull Theory, Great Migration, Black Studies, Gender, Trauma, PTSD

  8. Jazz and the ‘Art’ of Medicine: Improvisation in the Medical Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one’s communication), a physician’s communicative style (ie, developing one’s voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication. PMID:17389542

  9. Jazz and the 'art' of medicine: improvisation in the medical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one's communication), a physician's communicative style (ie, developing one's voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication.

  10. Ethnic Dance. The Origins of Jazz. A Curriculum Design for Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Karen W.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the development, organization, goals, and activities of a course designed to trace the evolution of jazz dance and tie this dynamic dance form to the cultural experiences of African-Americans. (CB)

  11. Variations on a theme : the role of music in Toni Morrison´s Jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Berre, Tone

    2008-01-01

    African American music and contemporary African American literature are connected both thematically and structurally. This thesis examines the various ways in which Toni Morrison draws on the cultural traditions of her ancestors, especially blues and jazz music, in creating her sixth novel, Jazz. My analysis includes the important contexts of the history and culture of black Americans from slavery and to the present. Slaves brought with them their traditions and music, out of which musical fo...

  12. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Wang, H; Daw, M S

    2015-01-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/. (paper)

  13. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Daw, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/.

  14. Application of Jazz Chants in English Phonetic Training%Jazz Chants在英语语音训练中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元春

    2011-01-01

    语音技能是非英语专业学生亟待解决的问题.在多元智能理论理指导下,将Jazz Chants用于自主语音训练.通过对比实验发现:与传统语音训练形式相比Jazz Chants在语音语调、语音节奏能力提高方面具有比较大的优势,而在单词正音方面的作用不明显;教师要根据学生语音实际状况,把Jazz Chants与传统的语音训练形式有效结合,切实提高学生的英语语音能力.

  15. Jazz and substance abuse: road to creative genius or pathway to premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Gerald H Jerry; Cuyjet, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Jazz music and jazz musicians have often been linked for better or worse to the world of addictive substances. Many talented jazz musicians either had their careers sidetracked or prematurely ended due to their addiction to drugs and/or alcohol. The rigors of nightly performances, travel, and for many musicians a disapproving society exacted a toll that impacted the creativity of many artists of the genre. The fact that drug and alcohol use had a significant impact on the performance levels of numerous jazz musicians in the 1940's and 1950's has been much discussed, but more study of that impact is warranted. While recent research has provided new information regarding this challenging topic, there is still much to learn. Indeed, a number of questions for inquiry may be posed. Among those questions are the following: Was the work of these jazz artists truly inspired? Would their creative output have been enhanced had they not been addicted to substances? What was the impact of the addictive substances on their ability to function as creative artists and is there evidence to refute or verify that impact? Are there identifiable traits in certain artists that allowed them to be creative in spite of their addictions? This examination presents an evaluation of the evidence of the link between creativity and substance abuse especially as it relates to selected jazz artists during this time period and how they remained creative and actually prospered in their careers in spite of addictions to controlled substances.

  16. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  17. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  18. The Five Improvisation "Brains": A Pedagogical Model for Jazz Improvisation at High School and the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The learning of jazz improvisation is often treated as the incorporation of stylistic vocabulary and development of technical dexterity. Although this methodology is effective, considering other aspects of jazz improvisation can make the learning process a more holistic and less technical endeavour. My experience teaching improvisation has led me…

  19. Rituals of creativity: tradition, modernity, and the "acoustic unconscious" in a U.S. collegiate jazz music program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I seek to complicate the distinction between imitation and creativity, which has played a dominant role in the modern imaginary and anthropological theory. I focus on a U.S. collegiate jazz music program, in which jazz educators use advanced sound technologies to reestablish immersive interaction with the sounds of past jazz masters against the backdrop of the disappearance of performance venues for jazz. I analyze a key pedagogical practice in the course of which students produce precise replications of the recorded improvisations of past jazz masters and then play them in synchrony with the recordings. Through such synchronous iconization, students inhabit and reenact the creativity epitomized by these recordings. I argue that such a practice, which I call a “ritual of creativity,” suggests a coconstitutive relationship between imitation and creativity, which has intensified under modernity because of the availability of new technologies of digital reproduction.

  20. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  1. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  2. Neurosyphilis in Anglo-American Composers and Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Kust, Davor; Breitenfeld, Tomislav; Prpić, Marin; Lucijanić, Marko; Zibar, Davor; Hostić, Vedran; Franceschi, Maja; Bolanča, Ante

    2017-09-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report. In this group of Anglo-American composers and musicians, most of them died from progressive paralysis while still in the creative phase of life. Additionally, diagnoses of eleven other famous neurosyphilitic composers, as well as basic biographic data on ten less known composers that died from neurosyphilis-progressive paralysis are also briefly mentioned. In conclusion, neurosyphilis can cause serious neurological damage, as well as permanent disability or death, preventing further work and skill improvement.

  3. Jazz, guitar, and neurosurgery: the Pat Martino case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Marcelo; Isaac, Claire; Pellicer, Olga; Mayes, Andrew; Broks, Paul; Montaldi, Daniela; Denby, Christine; Simeone, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a professional jazz guitarist with temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to an arteriovenous cerebral malformation. The patient underwent a left temporal lobectomy in 1980. After surgery, he presented with severe retrograde amnesia and complete loss of musical interest and capabilities. The patient's musical abilities recovered over time, and he regained his previous virtuoso status. In 2007, his medical history, neuropsychologic functions, and structural magnetic resonance imaging study were examined and revealed a remarkable degree of recovery of memory and musical abilities in the context of extensive temporal lobe resection. The neuropsychologic findings and neuroanatomic features of the magnetic resonance imaging study were analyzed to try to understand the high degree of recovery of both long-term memory and musical processing abilities in this musician. This case reveals the possibility of an unusual degree of cerebral plasticity and reorganization. Additionally, it emphasizes the question of musical virtuosity. This report shows that the musical capabilities of professional musicians, in specific cases, can completely recover even when much of the left temporal lobe has been removed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel adeno-associated viral vector delivering the utrophin gene regulator jazz counteracts dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimpakos, Georgios; Corbi, Nicoletta; Pisani, Cinzia; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Gabanella, Francesca; Monaco, Lucia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Over-expression of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin represents a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is based on the ability of utrophin to functionally replace defective dystrophin. We developed the artificial zinc finger transcription factor "Jazz" that up-regulates both the human and mouse utrophin promoter. We observed a significant recovery of muscle strength in dystrophic Jazz-transgenic mdx mice. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of an experimental gene therapy based on the systemic delivery of Jazz gene in mdx mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAV serotype 8 was chosen on the basis of its high affinity for skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific expression of the therapeutic Jazz gene was enhanced by adding the muscle α-actin promoter to the AAV vector (mAAV). Injection of mAAV8-Jazz viral preparations into mdx mice resulted in muscle-specific Jazz expression coupled with up-regulation of the utrophin gene. We show a significant recovery from the dystrophic phenotype in mAAV8-Jazz-treated mdx mice. Histological and physiological analysis revealed a reduction of fiber necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration associated with functional recovery in muscle contractile force. The combination of ZF-ATF technology with the AAV delivery can open a new avenue to obtain a therapeutic strategy for treatment of DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Les « routes du jazz », ou portrait du jazz en nomade : mémoire sonore et voyage identitaire dans Jazz from the Haiku King de James A. Emanuel (1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vincent-Arnaud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Poète américain contemporain, auteur de nombreux recueils dont l’éclectisme souligne son goût pour le franchissement des frontières géographiques et culturelles, James A. Emanuel fait figure de passeur entre l’art poétique et l’art musical comme en témoigne sa collaboration étroite avec des musiciens de jazz depuis une quinzaine d’années. Décrivant volontiers son activité poétique récente comme « des ponts jetés entre musique et poésie », revendiquant la paternité du genre du « jazz and blues and gospel haiku » dont la pratique s’est affirmée et systématisée dans son recueil Jazz from the Haiku King paru en 1999, il paraît ainsi s’inscrire de plein droit dans la tradition des poètes jazz initiée par un Kerouac ou un Burroughs au cours de la période particulièrement riche dans ce domaine de la Beat Generation.Consacré à l’exploration de l’« anatomie du jazz » à travers l’évocation d’une myriade de figures du jazz, du gospel et du blues – de Louis Armstrong à Sonny Rollins en passant par Cab Calloway, Ray Charles et Mahalia Jackson – le recueil est avant tout conçu comme le parcours de reconnaissance d’une mémoire culturelle. Au fil de ces « routes du jazz » – autoroutes soigneusement balisées ou chemins de traverse plus obscurs – qu’il met en scène, se trouvent peu à peu dévoilées les diverses facettes de la tension omniprésente entre la mémoire spécifique d’un peuple et l’élargissement à l’universel d’un art complexe qui fait résonner la symbiose de divers modes d’expression identitaire.Le présent article a pour but de montrer comment ces poèmes, au carrefour du linguistique et du musical, tissent une toile de fond identitaire des plus foisonnantes qui, œuvrant à la redéfinition d’un genre, confère à ce dernier de nouveaux et féconds points de résonance.

  6. "Our subcultural shit-music": Dutch jazz, representation, and cultural politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, musicologist Loes Rusch examines how Dutch musicians, policy makers, audiences and journalists in the 1960s and 1970s contributed to the development of what has become known as a distinctively Dutch sound in jazz: ‘Nederlandse (aktuele) geïmproviseerde muziek’. Through interviews and

  7. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  8. The Cultural-Rhetorical Role of Free Jazz: Forging an Identity in the Sixties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Robert

    The free jazz movement of the 1960s provided a rhetorical parallel in music to the verbal messages of black power and black nationalism. The use of Third World musical patterns represented an attempt to reinforce the revolutions in perceptions that black Americans held of themselves, their cultural heritage, and relationships to the rest of the…

  9. Using the Jazz Metaphor to Enhance Student Learning and Skill Development in the Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The marketing research course is often a very challenging one both for students and instructors. This article discusses how the jazz metaphor can aid the instructor in both facilitating students' learning of the more basic as well as the more specific skills that make up the course, in addition to contributing more to student enjoyment of the…

  10. ERGO Jazz Session võõrustab Chris Gall Triot. Vennad Urbid ajakohaste lauludega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    14. septembril alustab Jazzkaar koostöös ERGO Kindlustusega uut sarja ERGO Jazz Session, mille avaesinejaks on Chris Gall Trio (kontserdid 14. sept.Kumu auditooriumis ja 15. sept. Tartus Athena keskuses). Vendade Urbide kontserdist "Aeg" 13. sept. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

  11. Students Engaging in Diversity: Blogging to Learn the History of Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Anissa Ryan; Reid, Jacqueline Marie; Stewart, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined discursive choices made by the instructor of a Black Studies course in constructing what counted as blogging and the history of jazz; how students showed evidence of meeting the course requirements, and how particular students engaged with issues of race and diversity in their blogs. The instructor required blogging to enable…

  12. Creating in the Collective: Dialogue, Collaboration, and the Search for Understanding in the Jazz Small Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branker, Anthony Daniel John

    2010-01-01

    What would happen if college students involved in jazz small group performance were given the opportunity to be musically independent and self-directed while working in their own collaborative space? What sorts of things would they experience? What kind of learning space would they create for themselves? The purpose of this study was to…

  13. The Tight-interlocked Rhythm Section: Production and Perception of Synchronisation in Jazz Trio Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Wesolowski, Brian C; Goebl, Werner

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the production and perception of timing, synchronisation and dynamics in jazz trio performances. In a production experiment, six trio combinations of one saxophonist, two bassists, and three drummers were recorded while they performed three popular jazz songs. Onset timing and dynamics of each performer were extracted and analysed. Results showed that the tempo was significantly influenced by the timing of the drummers and all performers showed higher temporal precision on the backbeats. The drummers demonstrated individual swing-ratios, accentuations of beats and intrapersonal asynchronies between simultaneous hi-hat and ride cymbal onsets, which resulted in a hi-hat played 2-26 ms ahead of the pulse of the music. In a subsequent perception test, participants ([Formula: see text]) rated 12 excerpts of the jazz recordings. They selected their preferred version from a pool of stimuli containing the original version, but also manipulations with artificially increased or reduced asynchronies. Stimuli with reduced asynchronies smaller than 19 ms were preferred by the listeners over the original or the fully quantised timing. This suggests that listeners endorse a 'tight-interlocked' jazz rhythm section, with asynchronies smaller than the perceptual threshold (temporal masking), but with natural timing variabilities that makes it distinguishable from a computer-generated playback.

  14. The Value of Clinical Jazz: Teaching Critical Reflection on, in, and Toward Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapulla, Sharon; Longenecker, Randall; Beverly, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Clinical Jazz is a small-group strategy in medical education designed to develop interpersonal skills and improve doctor-patient and interprofessional relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore medical students' and faculty facilitators' perceived value of Clinical Jazz. We conducted a modified Nominal Group Process with participating medical students (n=21), faculty facilitators (n=5), and research team members (n=3). Students and faculty facilitators independently answered the question, "What do you value about Clinical Jazz?" We then conducted content and thematic analyses on the resulting data. Three themes emerged during analysis: (1) students and faculty appreciated the opportunity to learn and practice a thoughtful and structured process for problem solving, (2) students and faculty valued the safety of the group process in sharing a diversity of perspectives on topics in medicine, and (3) students and faculty acknowledged the importance of addressing real and challenging problems that are rarely addressed in formal lectures and other planned small-group settings. Clinical Jazz provides students and faculty with the opportunity to address the hidden and/or informal curriculum in medical education, while providing a safe space and time to solve important clinical and interprofessional problems.

  15. High-Speed Imaging Analysis of Register Transitions in Classically and Jazz-Trained Male Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Sebastian; Voigt, Daniel; Richter, Bernhard; Echternach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Little data are available concerning register functions in different styles of singing such as classically or jazz-trained voices. Differences between registers seem to be much more audible in jazz singing than classical singing, and so we hypothesized that classically trained singers exhibit a smoother register transition, stemming from more regular vocal fold oscillation patterns. High-speed digital imaging (HSDI) was used for 19 male singers (10 jazz-trained singers, 9 classically trained) who performed a glissando from modal to falsetto register across the register transition. Vocal fold oscillation patterns were analyzed in terms of different parameters of regularity such as relative average perturbation (RAP), correlation dimension (D2) and shimmer. HSDI observations showed more regular vocal fold oscillation patterns during the register transition for the classically trained singers. Additionally, the RAP and D2 values were generally lower and more consistent for the classically trained singers compared to the jazz singers. However, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Some of our results may support the hypothesis that classically trained singers exhibit a smoother register transition from modal to falsetto register. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  17. Musical Preferences as a Function of Stimulus Complexity of Piano Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Josh; Gridley, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Seven excerpts of modern jazz piano improvisations were selected to represent a range of perceived complexities. Audio recordings of the excerpts were played for 27 listeners who were asked to indicate their level of enjoyment on 7-point scales. Indications of enjoyment followed an inverted-U when plotted against perceived complexity of the music.…

  18. On Being and Becoming a Jazz Musician: Perceptions of Young Scottish Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines what goes on in an improvising jazz combo in a secondary school in Scotland, where teaching follows Rogoff's three-stage sociocultural process, moving from an initial apprenticeship model through one of guided participation to one of participatory appropriation. Using a case study research design and interpretative…

  19. An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamso, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

  20. Effects of jazz on postoperative pain and stress in patients undergoing elective hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafer, Lorenzo; Austin, Flower; Frey, Jessica; Mulvey, Christie; Vaida, Sonia; Prozesky, Jansie

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesiologists use various medications to provide surgical patients with pain relief in the postoperative period. Other modalities, such as music, could be used in conjunction with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to decrease pain and lower heart rate and blood pressure. Our hypothesis was that patients listening to jazz in a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) would have lower heart rates and blood pressures and reduced pain and anxiety. The study objective was to determine if listening to jazz music in the PACU, when compared to wearing noise-canceling headphones with no music playing, would decrease heart rate, blood pressure, pain, or anxiety in patients undergoing a hysterectomy. The research design was a prospective, randomized study. The study was conducted in the PACU at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center in Hershey, PA, USA. A total of 56 patients, aged 18-75 y, who were categorized as status 1 or 2 according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System, and who were undergoing elective laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomies, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned either to listen to jazz music where the beats per min (BPM) was jazz group, heart rates were significantly lower at 15, 20, 25, and 30 min when compared with baseline. The pain scores were significantly lower (P jazz group at 10 min into the recovery period. Overall, the results showed that patients responded not only to music but also to silence in the PACU. Using music and/or noise reduction could decrease opioid administration, promote relaxation, and improve patient satisfaction.

  1. Decision-Based Transcription of Jazz Guitar Solos Using a Harmonic Bident Analysis Filter Bank and Spectral Distribution Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlow, Stanislaw; Ramona, Mathieu; Pachet, François

    2016-01-01

    Jazz guitar solos are improvised melody lines played on one instrument on top of a chordal accompaniment (comping). As the improvisation happens spontaneously, a reference score is non-existent, only a lead sheet. There are situations, however, when one would like to have the original melody lines in the form of notated music, see the Real Book. The motivation is either for the purpose of practice and imitation or for musical analysis. In this work, an automatic transcriber for jazz guitar so...

  2. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  3. 如何在语音教学中使用Jazz Chants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娜; 孟燕只

    2009-01-01

    Jazz Chants因其节奏活泼明快,内容贴近生活,又反映了一些语音朗读技巧,因此可以应用在语音教学中.它不仅可以活跃课堂气氛,还可以让学生更有效的掌握相关语音知识.

  4. 30th Detroit International Jazz Festival 向爵士家族致敬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙拉

    2009-01-01

    今年9月,底特律国际爵士音乐节(Detroit International Jazz Festival)迎来了自己的30岁生日。这个美国最大的免费爵士音乐节大概不会受到当地汽车业的影响,该庆祝的时候还是要庆祝。

  5. JAZZ, MÚSICA BRASILEIRA E FRICÇÃO DE MUSICALIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de minhas pesquisas sobre a música popular brasileira instrumental, ou jazz brasileiro, conhecido no Brasil pelo rótulo “música instrumental”. Para tratar deste tema, apresento uma reflexão sobre questões como imperialismo cultural, identidade nacional, globalização, regionalismo e musicalidade. Tenho pesquisado o tema baseando-me no discurso nativo e na análise de peças musicais, principalmente no âmbito das improvisações, e apresento aqui algumas características sócio-culturais da “música instrumental”, em especial no seu contraste com o jazz norte-americano. Procuro mostrar como, no interior do jazz brasileiro, constantemente emerge uma dialética do interno e do externo que tem implicações fundas, particularmente através de tópicos musicais nos temas e improvisações. Chamei de fricção de musicalidades esta marca do tenso diálogo da música instrumental, característica fundante deste gênero.

  6. Jazz of physics the secret link between music and the structure of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon

    2016-01-01

    More than fifty years ago, John Coltrane drew the twelve musical notes in a circle and connected them by straight lines, forming a five-pointed star. Inspired by Einstein, Coltrane had put physics and geometry at the core of his music. Physicist and jazz musician Stephon Alexander returns the favor, using jazz to answer physics’ most vexing questions about the past and future of the universe. Following the great minds that first drew the links between music and physics—a list including Pythagoras, Kepler, Newton, Einstein, and Rakim—The Jazz of Physics revisits the ancient realm where music, physics, and the cosmos were one. This cosmological journey accompanies Alexander’s own tale of struggling to reconcile his passion for music and physics, from taking music lessons as a boy in the Bronx to studying theoretical physics at Imperial College, London’s inner sanctum of string theory. Playing the saxophone and improvising with equations, Alexander uncovered the connection between the fundamental wave...

  7. Saaremaalt saab heinaseemet igale maitsele / Jana Rand ; kommenteerinud Hindrek Older

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Jana, 1963-

    2016-01-01

    Saaremaal Laadjala külas tegutsev OÜ Saaremaa Seeme on Eesti suurim heinaseemne kasvataja, aga mitte erakordselt head looduslikud tingimused pole ettevõtte edu taganud, vaid aastakümnetega omandatud kogemused ja terve Sauna pere pühendunud töö. Vestlusest Arli Saunaga

  8. Auditory risk assessment of college music students in jazz band-based instructional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakshi V Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that musicians are at risk for music-induced hearing loss, however, systematic evaluation of music exposure and its effects on the auditory system are still difficult to assess. The purpose of the study was to determine if college students in jazz band-based instructional activity are exposed to loud classroom noise and consequently exhibit acute but significant changes in basic auditory measures compared to non-music students in regular classroom sessions. For this we (1 measured and compared personal exposure levels of college students (n = 14 participating in a routine 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity (experimental to personal exposure levels of non-music students (n = 11 participating in a 50-min regular classroom activity (control, and (2 measured and compared pre- to post-auditory changes associated with these two types of classroom exposures. Results showed that the L eq (equivalent continuous noise level generated during the 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity ranged from 95 dBA to 105.8 dBA with a mean of 99.5 ± 2.5 dBA. In the regular classroom, the L eq ranged from 46.4 dBA to 67.4 dBA with a mean of 49.9 ± 10.6 dBA. Additionally, significant differences were observed in pre to post-auditory measures between the two groups. The experimental group showed a significant temporary threshold shift bilaterally at 4000 Hz (P < 0.05, and a significant decrease in the amplitude of transient-evoked otoacoustic emission response in both ears (P < 0.05 after exposure to the jazz ensemble-based instructional activity. No significant changes were found in the control group between pre- and post-exposure measures. This study quantified the noise exposure in jazz band-based practice sessions and its effects on basic auditory measures. Temporary, yet significant, auditory changes seen in music students place them at risk for hearing loss compared to their non-music cohorts.

  9. It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got Musicality: A Music-First Method for Teaching Historically Rooted Jazz Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Erinn

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for teaching jazz dance technique according to music concepts and prioritizing deep embodiment of music. This method addresses what can be seen as a disconnect between current practices and historical understanding in jazz dance today, a gap that can be bridged with education empowering students to make innovative…

  10. Penser la musique, Écouter les images. Lectures de Cahiers d’art, Jazz et Documents sur le jazz et le cinéma américains

    OpenAIRE

    Turquety, Diane

    2017-01-01

    De 1926 à 1931, les revues d’art ou plus largement d’actualité intellectuelle, Cahiers d’art, Jazz et Documents, couvrent de façon inédite l’actualité du jazz et du cinéma américains, notamment. Sous le signe du populaire, de l’Amérique et d’un apport « exotique » incarné par la communauté noire américaine, ces spectacles sont hissés en de nouvelles références artistiques vecteurs d’une modernité idéale. Le jazz et le cinéma parlant deviennent alors, progressivement et selon des orientations ...

  11. Auditory risk assessment of college music students in jazz band-based instructional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kamakshi V; Chesky, Kris; Beschoner, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Paul D; Stewart, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that musicians are at risk for music-induced hearing loss, however, systematic evaluation of music exposure and its effects on the auditory system are still difficult to assess. The purpose of the study was to determine if college students in jazz band-based instructional activity are exposed to loud classroom noise and consequently exhibit acute but significant changes in basic auditory measures compared to non-music students in regular classroom sessions. For this we (1) measured and compared personal exposure levels of college students (n = 14) participating in a routine 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity (experimental) to personal exposure levels of non-music students (n = 11) participating in a 50-min regular classroom activity (control), and (2) measured and compared pre- to post-auditory changes associated with these two types of classroom exposures. Results showed that the L eq (equivalent continuous noise level) generated during the 50 min jazz ensemble-based instructional activity ranged from 95 dBA to 105.8 dBA with a mean of 99.5 ± 2.5 dBA. In the regular classroom, the L eq ranged from 46.4 dBA to 67.4 dBA with a mean of 49.9 ± 10.6 dBA. Additionally, significant differences were observed in pre to post-auditory measures between the two groups. The experimental group showed a significant temporary threshold shift bilaterally at 4000 Hz (P music students place them at risk for hearing loss compared to their non-music cohorts.

  12. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  13. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  14. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  15. Negotiating Primitivist Modernisms: Louis Armstrong, Robert Goffin, and the Transatlantic Jazz Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “Dear Pal Goffin,” Louis Armstrong wrote to his Belgian acquaintance, the lawyer, hobby journalist, and jazz historian Robert Goffin, on July 19, 1944. “‘Man—I’ve been trying to get in touch with you […]. Here’s another hundred dollars toward the five hundred. […] So accept this hundred and I’ll send the other before a ‘Black Cat can ‘Lick his ‘Bu‘hind’ ….. haw haw haw…” (80. Sending Goffin a batch of money along with this playfully worded missive, Armstrong was hoping for quick results. He ...

  16. Race, identity and the meaning of Jazz in 1940s Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Tackley, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    During the Blitz, on 8 March 1941, a bomb fell on the Café de Paris, an exclusive London nightclub, just as the Guianaian-born bandleader Ken “Snakehips” Johnson and his West Indian Dance Orchestra were in full swing. Johnson and saxophonist Dave ‘Baba’ Williams were killed in the blast, which also marked the demise of this successful group. The Orchestra was dedicated to reproducing emergent American big band jazz, but contemporary reports (if not extant recorded performances) also suggest t...

  17. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. INVESTIGACIÓN CUALITATIVA COMO JAZZ. Variaciones prospectivas de una analogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván García Suárez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los desafíos futuros de la investigación cualitativa, a partir del análisis de algunas transiciones significativas que se evidencian hoy en dicho campo. Lo hace en cuatro movimientos: pluralidad, diálogo, rigor y expresividad, como ejes de una analogía entre la investigación cualitativa y el jazz, que combina escritura personal e intertextualidad. Se recomienda escuchar la discografía mínima indicada al final.

  19. Evénement culturel et dynamiques territoriales : le festival de jazz à Marciac

    OpenAIRE

    Fontorbes, Jean-Pascal; Granié, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Notre propos concerne des formes de rituels collectifs, de rites, de cérémonies interprétées comme maintien-construction de lien social et de nouvelles formes de sociabilités dans les campagnes c'est-à-dire de vie sociale, culturelle et économique en émergence. Nous considérons ici la culture comme « levain » de développement durable des territoires. L'exemple du festival de jazz à Marciac est pertinent car il renvoie à une pratique culturelle territorialisée.

  20. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication.

  1. Assessment of hearing and hearing disorders in rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärit, Kim; Zachau, Gunilla; Eklöf, Mats; Sandsjö, Leif; Möller, Claes

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hearing and hearing disorders among rock/jazz musicians. One hundred and thirty-nine (43 women and 96 men) musicians participated. The results are based on pure-tone audiometry and questionnaire responses. According to our definition of hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis as hearing disorders, we found disorders in 74%, of the rock/jazz musicians studied. Hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis were most common, and the latter two were found significantly more frequently than in different reference populations. The women showed bilateral, significantly better hearing thresholds at 3-6 kHz than the men. Hyperacusis, and the combination of both hyperacusis and tinnitus, were found to be significantly more frequent among women than among men. Hearing loss and tinnitus were significantly more common among men than among women. It is important to evaluate all kinds of hearing problems (other than hearing loss) in musicians, since they represent an occupational group especially dependent on optimal, functional hearing. On the basis of our results, we suggest that hearing problems such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis should, in addition to hearing loss, be defined as hearing disorders.

  2. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  3. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  4. The Youth Worker as Jazz Improviser: Foregrounding Education "In the Moment" within the Professional Development of Youth Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pete

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the foregrounding of improvisation and education "in the moment" within youth workers' professional development. Devised in collaboration with third-year Youth and Community Work students and lecturers at a university in Birmingham, this participatory action research project drew on work of jazz ethnomusicologists…

  5. The Effects of Aural versus Notated Instructional Materials on Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the…

  6. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N Halevi-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician′s hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician′s Questionnaire (PRJMQ in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  7. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  8. Amino Acid Jazz: Amplifying Biochemistry Concepts with Content-Rich Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Gregory J.; Davis, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Music is not typically used in teaching high school- and college-level chemistry. This may be attributable to instructors' perceptions of educational music as being solely for memorization, their uncertainty about how to incorporate music effectively, or because of a limited number of suitable songs in which the music and words reinforce each…

  9. A jazz-based approach for optimal setting of pressure reducing valves in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Francesco; Galdiero, Enzo; Giugni, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a model for valve setting in water distribution networks (WDNs), with the aim of reducing the level of leakage. The approach is based on the harmony search (HS) optimization algorithm. The HS mimics a jazz improvisation process able to find the best solutions, in this case corresponding to valve settings in a WDN. The model also interfaces with the improved version of a popular hydraulic simulator, EPANET 2.0, to check the hydraulic constraints and to evaluate the performances of the solutions. Penalties are introduced in the objective function in case of violation of the hydraulic constraints. The model is applied to two case studies, and the obtained results in terms of pressure reductions are comparable with those of competitive metaheuristic algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms). The results demonstrate the suitability of the HS algorithm for water network management and optimization.

  10. Bridging the Gap: Enriching YouTube Videos with Jazz Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Web services allow permanent access to music from all over the world. Especially in the case of web services with user-supplied content, e.g., YouTube™, the available metadata is often incomplete or erroneous. On the other hand, a vast amount of high-quality and musically relevant metadata has been annotated in research areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Although they have great potential, these musical annotations are often inaccessible to users outside the academic world. With our contribution, we want to bridge this gap by enriching publicly available multimedia content with musical annotations available in research corpora, while maintaining easy access to the underlying data. Our web-based tools offer researchers and music lovers novel possibilities to interact with and navigate through the content. In this paper, we consider a research corpus called the Weimar Jazz Database (WJD as an illustrating example scenario. The WJD contains various annotations related to famous jazz solos. First, we establish a link between the WJD annotations and corresponding YouTube videos employing existing retrieval techniques. With these techniques, we were able to identify 988 corresponding YouTube videos for 329 solos out of 456 solos contained in the WJD. We then embed the retrieved videos in a recently developed web-based platform and enrich the videos with solo transcriptions that are part of the WJD. Furthermore, we integrate publicly available data resources from the Semantic Web in order to extend the presented information, for example, with a detailed discography or artists-related information. Our contribution illustrates the potential of modern web-based technologies for the digital humanities, and novel ways for improving access and interaction with digitized multimedia content.

  11. A mídia e o jazz no Brasil: investigação em torno da recepção crítica dos festivais de jazz na imprensa paulistana

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Luiza Spínola

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é levantar o registro histórico da memória da música popular no Brasil, através de um acompanhamento da cobertura jornalística que os festivais de jazz recebem na mídia impressa paulistana. Trata-se também de enfocar as relações que se estabelecem entre a crítica e a indústria cultural, mostrando como nossa memória musical é inflexionada por certa visão sociológica a partir da qual se enxerga o jazz como mais um produto da indústria cultural norte-americana, e como a...

  12. Analisis Pengaruh Redesign Transmisi dan Final Drive Gear Terhadap Karakteristik Traksi Honda New Jazz RS 2010 Untuk Kejuaraan Dragrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gede Jaya Laksana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Catatan waktu adalah hal yang terpenting untuk menjadi juara pada kompetisi dragrace. Pada kelas bracket 10, kendaraan harus finish dengan waktu lebih dari 10 detik dan yang paling mendekati 10 detik akan menjadi pemenang. Untuk meraih itu, perlu dilakukan modifikasi sistem transmisi pada kendaraan, yaitu rasio transmisi dan final drive gear. Pada penelitian ini, pertama dilakukan pengujian dynotest untuk mendapatkan tenaga dan torsi aktual kendaraan. Tahapan kedua dilakukan pengolahan data secara aktual dan teoritis untuk setiap tingkatan transmisi dan rasio final drive gear. Kemudian analisa akhir merupakan komparatif studi antara karakteristik traksi desain baru sistem transmisi dengan parameter desain. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa rasio final drive gear memiliki pengaruh proporsional terhadap karaktersitik traksi dari kendaraan New Honda Jazz. Pada penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa kendaraan Honda New Jazz RS 2010 diprediksi finish dengan catatan waktu 10,08 detik tanpa mengalami fenomena slip.

  13. 美国语音教材Jazz Chants在英语语音课堂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐苏

    2014-01-01

    美国著名英语语音教材Jazz Chants出现在听说法仍然流行和交际法崭露头角的20世纪70年代,在近40年的发展中成为英语语音教学中最为广泛使用的教学手段之一。Jazz chants是由美国纽约大学英语教授Carolyn Graham提出的全新英语语音教学模式,并将其定义为“Rhythms of American English for Students of English as a Second Language”,而这一教学理念为新形势下的英语语音课堂教学指明了发展方向。

  14. The Rediscovery and Resurrection of Bunk Johnson – a Grounded Theory Approach: A case study in jazz historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written in the beginning phase of my transitioning from grounded theory sociologist (Ekins, 19971 to grounded theory musicologist (Ekins, 20102. In particular, it provides preliminary data for a grounded theory of ‘managing authenticity’, the core category/basic social process (Glaser, 1978 that has emerged from my ongoing grounded theory work in jazz historiography. It was written whilst I was ‘credentialising’ (Glaser, 2010 my transition to popular music studies and popular musicology. In consequence, it incorporates many aspects that are inimical to classic grounded theory. As with so much of Straussian and so-called constructivist grounded theory (Bryant and Charmaz, 2007, it roots itself in G.H. Mead and a social constructivist symbolic interactionism – inter alia, a legitimising (authenticating strategy. Moreover, as is typical of this mode of conceptualising, the paper fills the void of inadequate classic grounded theorising with less conceptual theorising and more conceptual description. Nevertheless, the article does introduce a number of categories that ‘fit and work’, and have ‘conceptual grab’ (Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992. In particular, in terms of my own continuing credentialising as a classic grounded theorist, it sets forth important categories to be integrated into my ongoing work on managing authenticity in New Orleans revivalist jazz, namely, ‘trailblazing’, ‘mythologizing’, ‘debunking’, and ‘marginalising’, in the context of the ‘rediscovering’ and ‘resurrecting’ of a jazz pioneer. More specifically, the paper is offered to classic grounded theorists as a contribution to preliminary generic social process analysis in the substantive area of jazz historiography.

  15. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda J. McPherson; Frederick S. Barrett; Monica Lopez-Gonzalez; Patpong Jiradejvong; Charles J. Limb

    2016-01-01

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvise...

  16. Automatic Assessment of Acoustic Parameters of the Singing Voice: Application to Professional Western Operatic and Jazz Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Barbagallo, Davide; Baracca, Giovanna; Orlandi, Silvia; Bandini, Andrea; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2015-07-01

    The obvious perceptual differences between various singing styles like Western operatic and jazz rely on specific dissimilarities in vocal technique. The present study focuses on differences in vibrato acoustics and in singer's formant as analyzed by a novel software tool, named BioVoice, based on robust high-resolution and adaptive techniques that have proven its validity on synthetic voice signals. A total of 48 professional singers were investigated (29 females; 19 males; 29 Western operatic; and 19 jazz). They were asked to sing "a cappella," but with artistic expression, a well-known musical phrase from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, in their own style: either operatic or jazz. A specific sustained note was extracted for detailed vibrato analysis. Beside rate (s(-1)) and extent (cents), duration (seconds) and regularity were computed. Two new concepts are introduced: vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer, by analogy with the traditional jitter and shimmer of voice signals. For the singer's formant, on the same sustained tone, the ratio of the acoustic energy in formants 1-2 to the energy in formants 3, 4, and 5 was automatically computed, providing a quality ratio (QR). Vibrato rates did not differ among groups. Extent was significantly larger in operatic singers, particularly females. Vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer were significantly smaller in operatic singers. Duration of vibrato was also significantly longer in operatic singers. QR was significantly lower in male operatic singers. Some vibrato characteristics (extent, regularity, and duration) very clearly differentiate the Western operatic singing style from the jazz singing style. The singer's formant is typical of male operatic singers. The new software tool is well suited to provide useful feedback in a pedagogical context. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Describing different styles of singing: a comparison of a female singer's voice source in "Classical", "Pop", "Jazz" and "Blues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, M; Sundberg, J

    2001-01-01

    The voice is apparently used in quite different manners in different styles of singing. Some of these differences concern the voice source, which varies considerably with loudness, pitch, and mode of phonation. We attempt to describe voice source differences between Classical, Pop, Jazz and Blues styles of singing as produced in a triad melody pattern by a professional female singer in soft, middle and loud phonation. An expert panel was asked to identify these triads as examples of either Classical, Pop, Jazz or Blues. The voice source was analysed by inverse filtering. Subglottal pressure Ps, closed quotient QClosed, glottal compliance (ratio between the air volume contained in a voice pulse and Ps), and the level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials were analysed in the styles and in four modes of phonation: breathy, flow, neutral, and pressed. The same expert panel rated the degree of pressedness in the entire material. Averages across pitch were calculated for each mode and style and related to their total range of variation in the subject. The glottogram data showed a high correlation with the ratings of pressedness. Based on these correlations a pressedness factor was computed from the glottogram data. A phonation map was constructed with the axes representing mean adduction factor and mean Ps, respectively. In this map Classical was similar to flow phonation, Pop and Jazz to neutral and flow phonation, and Blues to pressed phonation.

  18. 1945, Le jazz libère l’Allemagne... pour la seconde fois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Cohen-Avenel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available 1945, l’Allemagne vaincue est détruite, le régime en déroute, les morts innombrables, un grand nombre d’hommes faits prisonniers. La démocratie n’existe pas. Tout est à (reconstruire. Arrivent alors les troupes alliées et, avec les Américains, le jazz, une musique si prenante que bon nombre de jeunes d’Europe se laissent séduire immédiatement. Comme d’autres européens, les Allemands sont saisis par cette musique qui leur permet de se libérer, de s’exprimer et de le faire à l’unisson des autres États, vaincus ou vainqueurs. C’est au son de cette musique américaine, et plus tard du rock ‘n’ roll, qu’ils vont apprendre ou réapprendre la démocratie occidentale. Mais le triomphe de cette musique est-il seulement émancipateur ? N’est-il pas aussi le signe d’une domination du monde, nouvelle et sans partage, par le géant américain et sa puissance économique dont le plan Marshall incarne à la fois les bienfaits et la toute-puissance ? En fait, cette question est loin d’être inédite en Allemagne. Elle s’est déjà posée avec la même acuité en 1920, date à laquelle les Allemands furent confrontés pour la première fois au jazz dans des circonstances assez proches : une défaite humiliante, l’effondrement du régime, une démocratie imposée par les vainqueurs, la quête d’une culture et de valeurs démocratiques sans racines dans l’inconscient collectif, une possible émancipation des corps grâce à la danse après des années d’oppression et de militarisme. Car c’est dès 1920 que les Allemands découvrent le jazz, une musique alors non seulement américaine, mais noire, une musique qui semble primitive, mais qui incarne aussi les grandes villes les plus modernes du monde et une domination économique que les Allemands craignent depuis la fin du XXe siècle. D’économique, le « péril américain », se fait culturel par le biais de la danse. A moins qu’il n’offre enfin aux

  19. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  20. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals: What 'Jazz' and 'Symphony' Can Offer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)

  1. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Braun, Allen R

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  2. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  3. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Limb

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone. This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  4. La sociedad del espectáculo como posibilidad de construcción de sentido estético a partir de jazz al parque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ricardo Barrera Tacha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto plantea cómo, a partir del festival Jazz al Parque, pueden desentrañarse elementos estéticos diversos, como los planteados por la estética de la recepción, que obligan a repensar el carácter alienante de la sociedad de consumo planteado en las teorías marxistas y reivindican el carácter liberador de la experiencia estética, justificando la necesidad de fusionar la música colombiana y el jazz

  5. El Jam Session como un agente educador externo en el jazz. Una perspectiva desde el aprendizaje significativo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos López, Jorge Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Este estudio pretende ilustrar la importancia de la improvisación en el proceso de formación del músico, no sólo de Jazz sino también de todos los músicos de hoy; para esto, se resalta la importancia de los espacios informales de trabajo colectivo en los cuales los músicos improvisan, en los llamados "Jam sessions” y la manera en que, en estos espacios, se asimila la información con una teoría de aprendizaje en plena vigencia, llamada “aprendizaje significativo”

  6. 高校英语专业新生语音现状及Jazz Chants教学法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓惠

    2007-01-01

    随着英语教学理论的发展,语音教学方法也在不断地更新,但是语音习得收效依然不尽如人意.该文对高校英语专业新生在语音方面存在的问题、根源进行了分析,认为Jazz Chants作为一种全新的教学方式,值得一试.

  7. The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics | CERN at the Montreux Jazz Festival | 9 July

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be back at the Montreux Jazz Festival for its third annual workshop: ‘The Physics of Music and The Music of Physics’ on 9 July at 3 p.m. in Petit Palais.   The Physics of Music and the Music of Physics Petit Palais, Montreux Jazz Festival Thursday 9 July 2015 - 3.00 p.m. Free Entrance - for more information, visit the event site Run 2 of the LHC began this spring, bringing with it hopes and promise of new physics and discovery. One of many key items on the LHC shopping list is the existence of new spatial dimensions, a potential means to harmonise gravity in our theoretical understanding of nature. Robert Kieffer, of the CERN Beam Instrumentation Group and Gaëtan Parseihian, of the Laboratoire de Mécanique et d'Acoustique, CNRS, Marseille, will animate the Physics of Music half of the workshop with a demonstration of the physics behind acoustics. Their programme includes a lesson on sound sculpture and the addition of spatial dimensi...

  8. Anodal tDCS to Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Facilitates Performance for Novice Jazz Improvisers but Hinders Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S.; Erickson, Brian; Kim, Youngmoo E.; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy H.; Kounios, John

    2016-01-01

    Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5 mA for 15 min, except for sham) to modulate the quality of the pianists' performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, esthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production. PMID:27899889

  9. Musical genre-dependent behavioural and EEG signatures of action planning. A comparison between classical and jazz pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, R; Novembre, G; Keller, P E; Villringer, A; Sammler, D

    2018-04-01

    It is well established that musical training induces sensorimotor plasticity. However, there are remarkable differences in how musicians train for proficient stage performance. The present EEG study outlines for the first time clear-cut neurobiological differences between classical and jazz musicians at high and low levels of action planning, revealing genre-specific cognitive strategies adopted in production. Pianists imitated chord progressions without sound that were manipulated in terms of harmony and context length to assess high-level planning of sequence-structure, and in terms of the manner of playing to assess low-level parameter specification of single acts. Jazz pianists revised incongruent harmonies faster as revealed by an earlier reprogramming negativity and beta power decrease, hence neutralising response costs, albeit at the expense of a higher number of manner errors. Classical pianists in turn experienced more conflict during incongruent harmony, as shown by theta power increase, but were more ready to implement the required manner of playing, as indicated by higher accuracy and beta power decrease. These findings demonstrate that specific demands and action focus of training lead to differential weighting of hierarchical action planning. This suggests different enduring markers impressed in the brain when a musician practices one or the other style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anodal tDCS to Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Facilitates Performance for Novice Jazz Improvisers but Hinders Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S; Erickson, Brian; Kim, Youngmoo E; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy H; Kounios, John

    2016-01-01

    Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5 mA for 15 min, except for sham) to modulate the quality of the pianists' performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, esthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production.

  11. Anodal tDCS to right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex facilitates performance for novice jazz improvisers but hinders experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Rosen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1 or executive, controlled (Type-2 processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC, a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5mA for 15 min., except for sham to modulate the quality of the pianists’ performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, aesthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production.

  12. Analysing the Effects of an Industry-Based Jazz Education Performance Training Programme on the Development of Adjunct-Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Derrin; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, The Central Queensland Conservatorium of Music (CQCM) has maintained a partnership with Hamilton Island Enterprises (HIE). Within this partnership the Bachelor of Music (Jazz & Popular) students visit Hamilton Island (HI), an island resort located off the Australian east coast, 4-6 times annually to engage in 3-10 days of…

  13. Muse-Echo Blues de Xam Cartiér. El jazz como forma identitaria de estructuración del discurso novelesco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Lameiro Tenreiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available By means of an analysis of sense structures in the novel Muse-Echo Blues by African-American writer Xam Cartiér, we make an interpretation of her approach to jazz techniques in creative writing which relates her intense work in surface-leveled prose with her regard to Negro woman identity issues.

  14. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When musicians improvise freely together—not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or “referent”—to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements across multiple ratings—their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa—was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements

  15. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    When musicians improvise freely together-not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or "referent"-to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer) listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements) across multiple ratings-their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa-was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements. But these kinds of statements

  16. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Barrett, Frederick S; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-01-04

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvised music that they felt represented the emotion expressed in the photographs. Here we show that activity in prefrontal and other brain networks involved in creativity is highly modulated by emotional context. Furthermore, emotional intent directly modulated functional connectivity of limbic and paralimbic areas such as the amygdala and insula. These findings suggest that emotion and creativity are tightly linked, and that the neural mechanisms underlying creativity may depend on emotional state.

  17. El jazz: una aproximación a su estudio como producto artístico y como elemento argumental transmedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Sánchez Rodríguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New York, New York (1977 is the only audiovisual contribution to the musical genre from Martin Scorsese. This film can be understood as an update of a forgotten genre thanks to a big quantity of musical numbers with new and old songs, but these elements are almost the only memory to the classical Hollywood musical. The result is a modern and personal musical film where jazz acts beyond as an artistic product of a particular time and as an important element in the plot that unites and separates the life of the main characters. In fact, the improvisation spirit of jazz has an influence on the film and music has the same importance than Robert De Niro, Lisa Minnelli and New York City.

  18. (Reconstruyendo la identidad musical española: el jazz y el discurso cultural del franquismo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Iglesias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.   Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz

  19. (Reconstruyendo la identidad musical española: el jazz y el discurso cultural del franquismo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Iglesias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.   Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz

  20. The effect of a senior jazz dance class on static balance in healthy women over 50 years of age: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Harvey W; Gillis, Carrie B; Alpert, Patricia T; Miller, Sally K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the impact of a senior jazz dance class on static balance for healthy women over 50 years of age using the NeuroCom Smart Balance Master System (Balance Master). A total of 12 healthy women aged 54-88 years completed a 15-week jazz dance class which they attended 1 time per week for 90 min per class. Balance data were collected using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) at baseline (pre), at 7 weeks (mid), and after 15 weeks (post). An equilibrium score measuring postural sway was calculated for each of six different conditions. The composite equilibrium score (all six conditions integrated to 1 score) was used as an overall measure of balance. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to compare the means of each participant's SOT composite equilibrium score in addition to the equilibrium score for each individual condition (1-6) across the 3 time points (pre, mid, post). There was a statistically significant difference among the means, p jazz dance class 1 time per week was beneficial in improving static balance as measured by the Balance Master SOT.

  1. Recent developments using TowerJazz SiGe BiCMOS platform for mmWave and THz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Howard, David; Preisler, Edward J.; Racanelli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the highest speed 240GHz/340GHz FT/FMAX NPN which is now available for product designs in the SBC18H4 process variant of TowerJazz's mature 0.18μm SBC18 silicon germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology platform. NFMIN of ~2dB at 50GHz has been obtained with these NPNs. We also describe the integration of earlier generation NPNs with FT/FMAX of 240GHz/280GHz into SBC13H3, a 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS technology platform. Next, we detail the integration of the deep silicon via (DSV), through silicon via (TSV), high-resistivity substrate, sub-field stitching and hybrid-stitching capability into the 0.18μm SBC18 technology platform to enable higher performance and highly integrated product designs. The integration of SBC18H3 into a thick-film SOI substrate, with essentially unchanged FT and FMAX, is also described. We also report on recent circuit demonstrations using the SBC18H3 platform: (1) a 4-element phased-array 70-100GHz broadband transmit and receive chip with flat saturated power greater than 5dBm and conversion gain of 33dB; (2) a fully integrated W-band 9-element phase-controllable array with responsivity of 800MV/W and receiver NETD is 0.45K with 20ms integration time; (3) a 16-element 4x4 phased-array transmitter with scanning in both the E- and H-planes with maximum EIRP of 23-25 dBm at 100-110GHz; (4) a power efficient 200GHz VCO with -7.25dBm output power and tuning range of 3.5%; and (5) a 320GHz 16-element imaging receiver array with responsivity of 18KV/W at 315GHz, a 3dB bandwidth of 25GHz and a low NEP of 34pW/Hz1/2. Wafer-scale large-die implementation of the phased-arrays and mmWave imagers using stitching in TowerJazz SBC18 process are also discussed.

  2. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, C.; Backhaus, M.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Schaefer, D.; Snoeys, W.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS technologies, which include part or all of the readout chain, are also investigated offering a reduced cost as they are cheaper per unit area than traditional silicon detectors. If they contain the full readout chain, as for a fully monolithic approach, there is no need for the expensive flip-chip assembly, resulting in a further cost reduction and material savings. In the outer pixel layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, the pixel sensors must withstand non-ionising energy losses of up to 1015 n/cm2 and offer a timing resolution of 25 ns or less. This paper presents test results obtained on a monolithic test chip, the TowerJazz 180nm Investigator, towards these specifications. The presented program of radiation hardness and timing studies has been launched to investigate this technology's potential for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker.

  3. Radiation hardness and timing studies of a monolithic TowerJazz pixel design for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegel, C.; Backhaus, M.; Hoorne, J.W. Van; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Schaefer, D.; Snoeys, W.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    A part of the upcoming HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Detector is the construction of a new Inner Tracker. This upgrade opens new possibilities, but also presents challenges in terms of occupancy and radiation tolerance. For the pixel detector inside the inner tracker, hybrid modules containing passive silicon sensors and connected readout chips are presently used, but require expensive assembly techniques like fine-pitch bump bonding. Silicon devices fabricated in standard commercial CMOS technologies, which include part or all of the readout chain, are also investigated offering a reduced cost as they are cheaper per unit area than traditional silicon detectors. If they contain the full readout chain, as for a fully monolithic approach, there is no need for the expensive flip-chip assembly, resulting in a further cost reduction and material savings. In the outer pixel layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker, the pixel sensors must withstand non-ionising energy losses of up to 10 15 n/cm 2 and offer a timing resolution of 25 ns or less. This paper presents test results obtained on a monolithic test chip, the TowerJazz 180nm Investigator, towards these specifications. The presented program of radiation hardness and timing studies has been launched to investigate this technology's potential for the new ATLAS Inner Tracker.

  4. El jazz: una aproximación a su estudio como producto artístico y como elemento argumental transmedia

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Sánchez Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    New York, New York (1977) is the only audiovisual contribution to the musical genre from Martin Scorsese. This film can be understood as an update of a forgotten genre thanks to a big quantity of musical numbers with new and old songs, but these elements are almost the only memory to the classical Hollywood musical. The result is a modern and personal musical film where jazz acts beyond as an artistic product of a particular time and as an important element in the plot that unites and separat...

  5. 试论Jazz Chants作为一种有效的英语超音段音位习得方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娟

    2013-01-01

      该文从当今英语语音习得的趋势介绍英语超音段音位学习的重要性,对比分析了中英在超音段音位上的区别与联系,并将Jazz Chants作为促进英语超音段音位习得的一种方式进行了说明和解释,希望对于课堂语音超音段音位教学有一定的指导意义。

  6. Monolithic pixel development in TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdalovic, I.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Cardella, R.; Egidos Plaja, N.; Hemperek, T.; Hiti, B.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Solans Sanchez, C.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector (ITk) for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires the development of novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Latest developments in CMOS sensor processing offer the possibility of combining high-resistivity substrates with on-chip high-voltage biasing to achieve a large depleted active sensor volume. We have characterised depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which were produced in a novel modified imaging process implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process in the framework of the monolithic sensor development for the ALICE experiment. Sensors fabricated in this modified process feature full depletion of the sensitive layer, a sensor capacitance of only a few fF and radiation tolerance up to 1015 neq/cm2. This paper summarises the measurements of charge collection properties in beam tests and in the laboratory using radioactive sources and edge TCT. The results of these measurements show significantly improved radiation hardness obtained for sensors manufactured using the modified process. This has opened the way to the design of two large scale demonstrators for the ATLAS ITk. To achieve a design compatible with the requirements of the outer pixel layers of the tracker, a charge sensitive front-end taking 500 nA from a 1.8 V supply is combined with a fast digital readout architecture. The low-power front-end with a 25 ns time resolution exploits the low sensor capacitance to reduce noise and analogue power, while the implemented readout architectures minimise power by reducing the digital activity.

  7. Prevalence, risk factors, and effects of performance-related medical disorders (PRMD) among tertiary-trained jazz pianists in Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Graham C

    2014-03-01

    This study explores performance-related medical disorders (PRMD) among a sample of tertiary-trained jazz pianists. Participants included both Australian and US pianists (n=214), including current and former tertiary students, professional pianists, and teachers. This mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) exploratory and descriptive study used survey and case studies to provide baseline data for further research. Students reported a past and present period prevalence of 63% for pain and 41% for PRMD (injury attributed to practice or performance) with the forearm being the body part most affected, usually by fatigue. Diagnosis and treatment were reported as often unsatisfactory mainly due to lack of knowledge of PRMD by teachers and by professional health providers, and also to limited access to specialist PRMD services where these exist. Although teacher knowledge of PRMD is quite low, students still seek advice primarily from their teachers. The current study highlights a need to address the issue of PRMD among jazz pianists and their teachers more strategically, both in its prevention and in diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Jõekääru Jazz täitis eesmärgi nii korraldajate, esinejate kui publiku poolelt / Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan...[jt.] ; foto ja küsitl. Kaire Tensuda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Jõekääru Jazz'ile järgneval nädalal tõi ürituse peakorraldaja Allan Liik toimetusse seal esinenud muusikud. Vestlusringis olid: Allan Liik, Hedvig Hanson, Andre Maaker, Ain Agan, Raivo Tafenau ja Sergio Bastos

  9. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova IT 35131 (Italy); Aimo, I. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Bedda, C. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Perez, A. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Riggi, F. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati and Sezione di Roma 3, Roma IT 00146 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  10. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV

  11. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  12. We Insist! Freedom Now Suite: O Ativismo Político de Max Roach no Movimento de Direitos Civis através do Jazz (Estados Unidos, 1950-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Luciano Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo de sua história o jazz projetou-se como uma voz dos afroamericanos e, nos Estados Unidos, a partir do final dos anos 1950, a relação entre este gênero musical e a política se intensificou. O presente estudo elegeu o jazz como objeto e estabeleceu como recorte temporal o período que abrange de final os anos 1950 e 1960, momento de grande efervescência dos movimentos pelos direitos civis nos Estados Unidos, com destaque para a figura do baterista Max Roach e uma de suas obras: We Insist Freedom Now Suite. A partir desta escolha pretendemos compreender a atuação de Max Roach como ativista político e a forma como ele lançou mão da música para inserir-se no movimento dos direitos civis.

  13. More similarities than differences among elite music students in jazz, folk music and classical genre – Personality, practice habits, and self-rated music-related strengths and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Sandgren, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a) if music students have a unique personality profile, and b) if music students in different genres differ in practice habits and musical self-image. Participants were music students in different music genres (n=96; jazz n=31, folk music n=33, classical genre n=32) from two conservatories in Sweden. Results indicated that music students differed significantly from students in psychology on agreeableness and openness. Students in classical genre practic...

  14. Review of the ways of teaching pronunciation and analysis of Jazz Chants as an effective technique of English pronunciation teaching%外语语音教学的回顾与现状--兼评Jazz Chants作为英语语音教学的手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐金马; 韩天霖

    2006-01-01

    本文回顾了外语语音教学的发展,重点介绍了听说法、对比语言分析、交际语言教学、语意兼顾理论、英语作为国际语言、人文主义教育思想等主要教学流派对语音教学的影响.探讨了外语语音教学的原则,并将Jazz Chants作为一种有效的英语语音教学手段进行了分析介绍.

  15. Sonny in the Dark: Jazzing the Blues Spirit and the Gospel Truth in James Baldwin’s “Sonny’s Blues”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Tracy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The webs of musical connection are essential to the harmony and cohesion of James Baldwin’s “Sonny’s Blues.” As a result, we must explore the spectrum of musical references Baldwin makes to unveil their delicate conjunctions. It is vital to probe the traditions of African-American music—Spirituals, Blues, Jazz, and Pop—to get a more comprehensive sense of how Baldwin makes use of music from the sacred and secular continuum in the African-American community. Looking more closely at the variety of African-American musical genres to which Baldwin refers in the story, we can discern even more the nuances of unity that Baldwin creates in his story through musical allusions, and shed greater light on Baldwin’s exploration of the complexities of African-American life and music, all of which have as their core elements of human isolation, loneliness, and despair ameliorated by artistic expression, hope, and the search for familial ties. Through musical intertextuality, Baldwin demonstrates not only how closely related seemingly disparate (in the Western tradition musical genres are, but also shows that the elements of the community that these genres flow from and represent are much more in synchronization than they sometimes seem or are allowed to be. To realize kinship across familial (Creole, socio-economic (the brother, and most importantly for this paper appreciation and meanings of musical genres advances to Sonny the communal cup of trembling that is both a mode and an instance of envisioning and treating music in its unifying terms, seeing how they coalesce through a holistic vision.

  16. Saare Jazz toob valguse augustipimedusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    22. augustil Saaremaal Pidula Forelli puhkekülas toimuvast esimesest Saare Jazzist alapealkirjaga "Valgus pimeduses", peaesinejaks laulja Sofia Rubina koos ansambliga Club Eclectic, soojendusesinejaks laulja Teele Viira ja erikülaliseks Soome trompetist Kalevi Louhivuori, esinejatest

  17. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  18. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  19. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  20. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  1. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  3. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  4. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  5. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  6. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  7. Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs. Twins highlighted in the media include high-achieving identical female twins with nearly identical academic standing, tennis star Roger Federer's two sets of identical twin children, surgical separation of craniopagus conjoined twins, and the rare delivery of twins to a 23-year-old giant panda.

  8. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  9. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  10. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  11. Plaadid : Pop& rock. Retro. Jazz. Klassika

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest. Sisqo "Return Of Dragon", Alice Cooper "Dragontown", Kim Wilde "The Very Best Of", David Sanches "Travesia", Peter White "Glow". Eesti plaadid : Vennaskond "News From Nowhere", Erinevad esitajad "Tallinn. Psühhedeelne linn", Ivo Linna "Enne ja pärast päeva", Arne Oit & Margus Kappel "Unustuste jõel", Anu Tali "Swan Flight"

  12. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    2015-01-01

    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working...... in the fields of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics respond to challenges posed by these questions, not only in relation to the history of philosophy, but to philosophy itself. The book contains texts written by distinguished professors and in particular by young scholars. It is the result...

  13. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  14. Pop & rock, Retro, Etno, Jazz / Lauri Sommer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sommer, Lauri, 1973-

    2001-01-01

    John Frusciante heliplaadi To Record Only Water in Ten Days, Titiyo heliplaadi Come Along, Alizee heliplaadi Gourmandises, Mati Nuude heliplaadi Parimad I/II, Filmi "For Love Or Country" soundtrack-albumi, ansambli Cabaret Voltaire heliplaadi Remixed, Paolo Fresu heliplaadi Sonos' E Memoria, Michael Mantleri heliplaadi Hide and Seek lühitutvustus

  15. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  19. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  20. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  1. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  2. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  3. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  4. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  5. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  6. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  7. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  8. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  9. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  10. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  12. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  14. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  16. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  17. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  18. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  19. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  1. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  2. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  3. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  4. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  5. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  6. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  7. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  8. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  9. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  10. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  11. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  12. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  14. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  15. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  20. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  3. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  4. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  5. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  7. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  8. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  9. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  10. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  11. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  12. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  13. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  14. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  15. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  16. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  17. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  18. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  19. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  20. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  1. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  2. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  3. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  4. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  5. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  6. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  7. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  8. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  9. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  10. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  11. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  12. Shifting Fortunes: Jazz in (Post)Apartheid South Africa | Ramanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Music Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. On Jazz, Sociability and Symbolic Mobility in South Africa: Thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Music Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Julio Cortázar: Jazz and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Abras Daneri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Julio Cortazar`s literary corpus can be explained from the origin of his narrative in a context whose main feature it is the syncretic nature that it is grounded in the different origins and cultural influences that characterize the American cultural product. It is in music and literature where, to Cortazar, the different languages serve as a channel through which these influences of various kinds are transferred. This syncretic character by which others logical traditions are inherited from others, positions the american intellectual in the problem of identity, and in Cortazar case, in the field of commitment.

  15. Peter Rezant: Doyen of South African Jazz-Band Leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Music Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34-35, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Ammendes kõlab täna jazz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    21. mail Pärnu Ammende villas ansambliga John Doe esinevatest Soome dzässimuusikutest Jukkis Uotilast (trummar, pianist ja helilooja) ja Jussi Kannastest (tenorsaksofonist). Kontserdil liituvad nendega Virgo Sillamaa (kitarrid), Marti Tärn (bassid) ja Reigo Ahven (trummid)

  17. Towards improvisational governance? Jazz improvisation and networked complex governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades considerable amounts of power have shifted away from national governments. These shifts have occurred upwards, towards international organisations, sideways due to privatisation and the creation of quasi non-governmental organisations and downwards due to decentralisation of

  18. Initialization-free generalized Deutsche-Jazz's algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Dong Pyo [School of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dpchi@math.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Jinsoo [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)]. E-mail: jkim@ee.snu.ac.kr; Lee, Soojoon [School of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)]. E-mail: level@math.snu.ac.kr

    2001-06-29

    We generalize the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by exploiting summations of the roots of unity. The generalized algorithm distinguishes a wider class of functions promised to be either constant or many to one and onto an evenly spaced range. As previously, the generalized quantum algorithm solves this problem using a single functional evaluation. We also consider the problem of distinguishing constant and evenly balanced functions and present a quantum algorithm for this problem that does not require any initialization of an auxiliary register involved in the process of functional evaluation and after solving the problem recovers the initial state of an auxiliary register. (author)

  19. Compensation and translation: James Ellroy’s White Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Protopopescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the Romanian translation of James Ellroy’s text “White Jazz”, with a view to explaining away the translator’s choices. The main issues at hand are the solutions provided for the ellipsis present throughout the novel and the slang used by the author, which is typical of L.A.’s ’60’s. The paper provides theoretical data supporting the translator’s choice of rendering certain slang expressions by paraphrase, explanation or even coinage of new words. We also look into how much has been compensated for and what was lost during the process of translation.

  20. Everything I Know about Teaching I Learned from Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, Wade

    2015-01-01

    The instant availability of information has changed the paradigm of teaching. Whereas at one time teaching and learning was information being passed, memorized, and repeated, students can now find their own knowledge. Learning now consists of using information in creative ways and requires a shift in how students are taught. This is quite similar…

  1. Jazz Aesthetics and the Democratic Imperative in Education: A Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirón, Luis; Goines, Victor; Boselovic, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    What appeared decades ago as solely a European model--Thatcherism--is now a global trend with no apparent end in sight. Neoliberalism in the public sector, and within the educational sphere particularly, pervades within a larger pattern of hegemonic ideologies. In sum, market forces and global capitalism make it quite difficult for public…

  2. A capital cearense do Jazz & Blues: outros acordes desta melodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Lima de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tece considerações sobre o processo de mudança social desencadeado na população de moradores dos sítios cafeicultores de Guaramiranga, município serrano de 4.070 habitantes, situado a 110 km da capital cearense. Essencialmente ligado à agricultura até a década de 1980, a partir dos anos 1990 este município torna-se vetor de políticas públicas voltadas para a atividade turística local. O objetivo deste artigo é observar os efeitos da acelerada transformação socioespacial decorrente da nova atividade, graças a investimentos públicos e particulares, que reformulam monumentos e imóveis, conferindo-lhes novos usos e signos. Neste processo, evidenciou-se uma acelerada reformulação não apenas espacial, mas também da subjetividade destes lugares. Por exemplo, a alteração das características identitárias, relacionais e históricas destes ambientes em relação aos seus habitantes. Diante dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que a atividade turística na forma que foi inserida em Guaramiranga, reflete a atual conjuntura do capitalismo pós-moderno ou transnacional, que avança sobre mercados e populações, ampliando segregações e desigualdades sociais e a transformação dos seus referenciais de pertencimento.

  3. Compressible strips, chiral Luttinger liquids, and all that jazz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic compressible and incompressible strip models for microscopic chiral Luttinger liquid models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems. (author). 33 refs., 2 figs

  4. Om jazz og race i dansk jazzkritik: nogle eksempler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christen Kold

    2010-01-01

    'Race' bliver i dansk jazzkritik, især fra 50erne og frem, ignoreret som et ydre 'sociologisk' faktum, i modsætning til kulturradiklisternes idealisering før 2. verdenskrig af musikernes 'race' . Men faktisk fortsætter begrebet med at spille en uerkendt rolle, ofte som kvalitets- og stilmarkør i ...

  5. Organizational improvisation, jazz and the representations of time in organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo Alves Aranha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is possible to verify an  increase  of academic articles about the phenomenon of time on  Organizations  Studies   field  which  has  close relation  to change  management  in  organization. Recently, investigations about time are associated to organizational improvisation and some of these researches offer  organizational  formats  and models.  This  article  aims  to  verify  how  cyclical and  linear  perspectives of time are present in organizational improvisation. Therefore, this article was structured in the following segments: the  first is  an  introduction,  the  second  deals  with  some conceptual aspects of cyclical and linear perspectives  of  time;  the  third  describes  organizational improvisational  conceptual  frames;  the  fourth presents  a  description  of  the  relations  between cyclical  and linear perspectives of time and organizational improvisational conceptual frames; and the  fith presents the  final considerations.

  6. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vascular events. Resistance to the action of aspirin may decrease this benefit. Aspirin resistance has been defined by clinical and/or laboratory criteria; however, detection by laboratory methods prior to experiencing a clinical event will likely provide the greatest opportunity for intervention. Numerous laboratory methods with different cutoff points have been used to evaluate the resistance. Noncompliance with aspirin treatment has also confounded studies. A single assay is currently insufficient to establish resistance. Combinations of results to confirm compliance and platelet inhibition may identify "at-risk" individuals who truly have aspirin resistance. The most effective strategy for managing patients with aspirin resistance is unknown; however, studies are currently underway to address this issue.

  7. Compressible strips, chiral Luttinger liquids, and all that jazz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-03-01

    When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic compressible and incompressible strip models for microscopic chiral Luttinger liquid models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems. (author). 33 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Jazz-muusikud tulevad kevadet tooma / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Pärnus Jazzkaare festivalil esinejatest: norra laulja Solveig Slettahjell 19. aprillil Eliisabeti kirikus, Hedvig Hanson kontserdiga "Rahvaste hällilaulud" 21. apr. Pärnu kontserdimajas, duo Jaak Sooäär - Tuule Kann 22. apr. Pärnu raekojas ja Andy Emleri trio 23. apr. Ammende villas. Jazzkaare festivali ajaloost korraldaja Anne Ermi sõnul

  9. The development of improvisational expertise in jazz musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Improvisation is a complex musical skill that takes many years of practice to master. An interesting question is what it takes to start and maintain such long period of practice and which environmental factors influence commitment to practice. This study aims to reveal factors that affect successful

  10. Jazz Pharmaceuticals15亿美元收购Celator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    华尔街日报最近曝光,来自爱尔兰的生物医药公司有意以15亿美元的价格收购Celator公司。如今,两家公司对外正式承认了这一收购案。Jazz医药表示将以每股30.25美元的价格收购后者,这也使得这一收购案的价格达到了15亿美元之多。

  11. Compressible Strips, Chiral Luttinger Liquids, and All That Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. H.

    1996-03-01

    When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic {\\em compressible strip} models for microscopic {chiral Luttinger liquid} models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems.

  12. Jazz Pharmaceuticals 15亿美元收购Celator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    华尔街日报最近曝光,来自爱尔兰的生物医药公司有意以15亿美元的价格收购Celator公司。如今,两家公司对外正式承认了这一收购案。Jazz医药表示将以每股30.25美元的价格收购后者,这也使得这一收购案的价格达到了15亿美元之多。而作为回报,Jazz医药将会获得Celator公司旗下白血病产品Vyxeos。该药物此前刚刚被FDA授予了突破性疗法认证。

  13. 流行音乐里的jazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈四清

    2011-01-01

    正确的说法,应该是流行音乐里的Jazz元素。因为爵士乐(Jazz)属于古典音乐,和流行音乐是两种不同的音乐风格。但因为流行音乐的外延很宽泛.几乎包括了各种风格的音乐元素,所以流行音乐里也可以找到爵士乐的身影.

  14. Citric acid by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, R M

    1978-11-30

    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  15. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  16. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  17. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  18. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  19. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  20. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  1. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  2. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  3. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  4. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  5. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  6. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  7. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  8. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  9. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  10. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  11. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  13. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  14. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  15. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  16. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  17. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  18. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  1. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  2. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  3. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  4. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  5. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  6. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  8. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  9. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  10. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  12. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  13. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  14. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  15. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  16. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  17. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  18. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  19. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  20. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  1. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  2. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  3. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  4. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  5. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  6. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  7. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  8. Viikingite rünnakud algasid Eestist / Niels-Peter Granzow Busch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Granzow Busch, Niels-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Saaremaalt Salmelt kaevati välja kaks viikingilaeva koos 41 sõdalase skeletiga. Leidude kohta jagavad selgitusi antropoloog Raili Allmäe ja arheoloog Jüri Peets Tallinna Ülikooli Ajaloo Instituudist

  9. Geniaalne aines, hämmastav film / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Oktoobri algul Kuressaares peetud Saaremaalt pärit ameerika arhitekti Louis Kahni konverentsi raames Kuressaare Linnateatris näidatud dokumentaalfilmist "Minu arhitekt" ("My Architect") : režissöör Nathaniel Kahn : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003

  10. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  11. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  12. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  13. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  14. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  15. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  16. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  17. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  18. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  19. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  20. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  1. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  2. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  4. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  5. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  6. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  7. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  8. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  9. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  10. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  11. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  12. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  13. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  14. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  15. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  17. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  19. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  20. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  1. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  2. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  3. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  4. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  5. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  6. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  7. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  8. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  9. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  10. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  11. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  12. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  13. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella

    2000-11-01

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  14. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  15. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  16. catalyzed oxidation of some amino acids by acid bromate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic investigations on Pd(II) catalyzed oxidation of dl-serine and dl- ... A suitable mechanism in agreement with observed kinetics has been ..... In acidic solution of potassium bromate quick .... Annual Review of Biochemistry.

  17. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid exerts a selective anti-tumor activity on cultured human melanoma .... percentage of proliferation was calculated by the following formula: Proliferation ..... artificially imposing the cell cycle checkpoint. Among.

  18. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  20. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  1. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  2. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  3. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  4. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  5. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1977-01-01

    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  6. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  7. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  8. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  9. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  10. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  12. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  14. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  15. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  16. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  17. Uronic acids in oligosaccharide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Leendert Johannes van den

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis reports on research aimed at the assembly of acidic and zwitterionic polysaccharides of bacterial origin, using suitably protected 1-thioglycoside residues. Thioglycosides are attractive monosaccharide building blocks because of their high stability towards the diverse reaction

  18. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  19. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  20. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.