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Sample records for acid intakes decrease

  1. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  3. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

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    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  4. Predicting folic acid intake among college students.

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    Lane, Susan H; Hines, Annette; Krowchuk, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Annually in the United States, approximately 3,000 babies are born with neural tube defects (NTDs). Folic acid supplementation can reduce NTDs by 50% to 70%. Despite recommendations for folic acid intake, only 30% of women ages 18 to 24 report folic acid supplementation and 6% have knowledge of when to take folic acid. There is little information regarding lifestyle factors that correlate with consuming folic acid. The purpose was to describe folic acid consumption among college students; and explore the relationship between folic acid intake and the variables of: age, gender, year in college, alcohol and tobacco use, and vitamin supplement intake. This was a descriptive study with secondary analysis of data from 1,921 college-aged student participants in North Carolina who took part in a pretest/posttest-designed intervention to increase folic acid consumption and knowledge. Surveys included demographic, lifestyle, folic acid knowledge, and consumption questions adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention questionnaire. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 1,921 college students, 83.3% reported taking a vitamin supplement, but only 47.6% stated that the vitamin contained folic acid. A relationship was found between age, year in school, gender, and vitamin intake. Lifestyle variables were not significant predictors of folic acid consumption. Identification of variables associated with folic acid intake, marketing, and education can be focused to increase supplementation levels, and ultimately reduce the number of NTDs.

  5. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

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    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  6. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

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    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  7. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

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    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  8. Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?

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    Herman Adlercreutz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC. Objective: To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC. Design: A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries. Results: Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC. Conclusion: Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk.

  9. Folic acid intake from fortification in United States exceeds predictions.

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    Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Selhub, Jacob; Wilson, Peter W F; Rader, Jeanne I; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Jacques, Paul F

    2002-09-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a regulation requiring that all enriched cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid by January 1998. An average increase in folic acid intake of 100 micro g/d was projected as a result of this fortification. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of this fortification on the intake of folic acid and total folate, and on the prevalence of individuals with inadequate folate intake and with high folic acid intake. We used data on food and nutrient intake from 1480 individuals who participated in the 5th and 6th examinations of the Framingham Offspring Cohort Study. Fortification was instituted during the 6th examination so that 931 participants were examined before its implementation (nonexposed) and 549 after implementation (exposed). Published data on total folate in enriched cereal-grain products were used to correct folate content in these foods to reflect fortification. Among nonsupplement users, folic acid intake increased by a mean of 190 [95% confidence interval (CI): 176, 204] micro g/d (P folic acid supplements. This prevalence was approximately 1% or less for users of supplements both before and after fortification. Prevalence of individuals with folic acid intake above the upper tolerable intake level (1000 micro g folic acid/d) increased only among supplement users exposed to fortification (from 1.3 to 11.3%, P folic acid intake were observed over time in the nonexposed participants. By these estimations, folic acid fortification resulted in a mean increase in folic acid intake that was approximately twice as large as previously projected.

  10. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

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    Scharrer, E

    1999-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation seems to provide an important stimulus for metabolic control of food intake, because various inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, methyl palmoxirate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulated feeding in rats and/or mice, in particular when fed a fat-enriched diet, and long-term intravascular infusion of lipids reduced voluntary food intake in various species, including humans. The feeding response to decreased fatty acid oxidation was due to a shortening of the intermeal interval with meal size remaining unaffected. Thus, energy derived from fatty acid oxidation seems to contribute to control of the duration of postmeal satiety and meal onset. Since inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose affects feeding pattern similarly, and spontaneous meals were shown to be preceded by a transient decline in blood glucose in rats and humans, a decrease in energy availability from glucose and fatty acid oxidation seems to be instrumental in eliciting eating. Since the feeding response of rats to inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was abolished by total abdominal vagotomy and pretreatment with capsaicin destroying non-myelinated afferents and attenuated by hepatic branch vagotomy, fatty acid oxidation in abdominal tissues, especially in the liver, apparently is signalled to the brain by vagal afferents to affect eating. Brain lesions and Fos immunohistochemistry were employed to identify pathways within the brain mediating eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation. According to these studies, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata represents the gate for central processing of vagally mediated afferent information related to fatty acid oxidation. The lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons seems to be a major relay for pertinent ascending input from the NTS. In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating

  11. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

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    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Estimated intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Christensen, Tue; Larsen, I. K.

    2010-01-01

    for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were......-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years, and the 90th percentile for men up to 18 years and for women up to 10 years. Soft drinks, salads and dressings are the main contributors...... intakes of benzoic acid should not cause any concern for ill-effects. However, there must be a reason to reconsider the maximum limits especially for benzoic acid in soft drinks, dressings and salads and for sorbic acid in sliced bread....

  13. Antidepressants may lead to a decrease in niacin and NAD in patients with poor dietary intake.

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    Viljoen, Margaretha; Swanepoel, Annie; Bipath, Priyesh

    2015-03-01

    The term niacin is the generic name for the two compounds nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, the major dietary precursors for two important coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP. Niacin is important for the maintenance of cellular integrity and energy production and is involved in more than 500 intracellular reactions. Deficiencies of niacin may contribute to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Patients who develop nutritional deficiencies as a result of poor dietary intake, especially inadequate intake of proteins and vitamins, could potentially suffer from niacin deficiency and NAD depletion. However, de novo synthesis of niacin and NAD in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism may compensate for impaired dietary intake. The rate of synthesis of NAD and niacin from tryptophan oxidation depends on the induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Niacin synthesis is not limited by a decrease in tryptophan and excessive IDO activity may therefore lead to a decline in tryptophan levels. Antidepressants have an anti-inflammatory effect, including reduction of interferon-gamma and therefore inhibition of IDO, the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. In theory, this could account for increased serotonin as more tryptophan becomes available for serotonin synthesis. However, the downside may be that less NAD and niacin are synthesised downstream, which could exacerbate common psychiatric problems. It is our hypothesis that patients with poor dietary intake, who are treated with antidepressants, are at risk of developing niacin/NAD deficiency with possible development of associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. We therefore propose that niacin supplementation be considered in patients with inadequate diets who are treated with antidepressants. We believe that if this does not happen, a subclinical niacin deficiency may result

  14. Influence of coffee intake on urinary hippuric acid concentration.

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    Ogawa, Masanori; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yoko; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kayama, Fujio

    2011-01-01

    Intake of foods and drinks containing benzoic acid influences the urinary hippuric acid (HA) concentration, which is used to monitor toluene exposure in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to control the intake of benzoic acid before urine collection. Recently, some reports have suggested that components of coffee, such as chlorogenic, caffeic, and quinic acids are metabolized to HA. In this study, we evaluated the influence of coffee intake on the urinary HA concentration in toluene-nonexposed workers who had controlled their benzoic acid intake, and investigated which components of coffee influenced the urinary HA concentration. We collected urine from 15 healthy men who did not handle toluene during working hours, after they had consumed coffee, and we measured their urinary HA concentrations; the benzoic acid intake was controlled in these participants during the study period. The levels of chlorogenic, caffeic, and quinic acids in coffee were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Urinary HA concentration increased significantly with increasing coffee consumption. Spectrophotometric LC-MS/MS analysis of coffee indicated that it contained chlorogenic and quinic acids at relatively high concentrations but did not contain benzoic acid. Our findings suggest that toluene exposure in coffee-consuming workers may be overestimated.

  15. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

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    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  16. Fatty acids intake among diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia

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    Ratna D. Hatma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary pattern specifically fatty acids intake should prove to be an informative and powerful means to augment our understanding of the role of diet in chronic disease particularly CHD. Cross sectional study was implemented to describe the nutrients intake specifically fatty acids intake of 4 (four ethnic groups in Indonesia, such as Minangkabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Buginese. The percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA to total energy intakes were around 20%. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to the total energy were about 4.4% to 4.6% among the Sundanese and the Javanese.While among the other two ethnic groups, the percentage of PUFA to total energy were less, 2.6 % among the Minangkabau and 2.8% among the Buginese ethnic. The percentage of mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA to total energy intake were higher among the two ethnic groups, Sundanese and Javanese (6.1% vs. 5.5%. While the percentages of MUFA between the other two ethnic groups Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic were lower (2.6% vs. 2.8%. Based on the ratio of PUFA: MUFA: SAFA, we could consider that Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic groups both had poor quality of dietary fat pattern. Having the poor quality of dietary fat pattern and higher fat intake, we might take into consideration that the Minangkabau ethnic groups, had higher risk toward dyslipidemia compared to the other three ethnic groups. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:242-8Keywords: fatty acids intake, SAFA, MUFA, PUFA , ethnic Nutrient intake

  17. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  18. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  19. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

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    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  20. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-03-17

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  1. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

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    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  2. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches) or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs) modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effec...

  3. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  4. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  5. Fatty acids intake and immune parameters in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid increase on life-expectancy represents a major challenge and economic burden for modern societies. Several studies have focused on the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA upon the immune system; however less attention has been paid to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In this work we investigated the relationship of habitual consumption of different types of fatty acids with different immune parameters in the elderly. Subjects and methods: 40 institutionalized elderly (76-95 y and 35 home-living middle-age subjects (57-65 y were recruited. Dietary intakes of macronutrients, fiber and fatty acids, as well as immune parameters such as serum cytokines levels (IL-10, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-12, phagocytic activity and cytotoxic NK activity, were determined. Results: Elderly subjects had a lower intake of total lipids. MUFA intake was significantly lower in the elderly group than in middle-age adults whilst the contrary was true for PUFA. MUFA intake in the elderly was found to be positively associated with IL-12 (β = 0.879 and TNF-α (β = 0.789 serum concentrations, whilst PUFA intake was inversely related to levels of IL-12 (β = -0.534. These associations were not observed in the middle-age group. Conclusion: MUFA intake may contribute to the pro-inflammatory status present in the elderly. It may be advisable to develop future nutrient recommendations specific for elderly taking into account immune parameters.

  6. Relationship between Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of the Erythrocyte Membranes and Fatty Acid Intake during Pregnancy in Pregnant Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yohei; Kogomori, Chieko; Hamano, Hirokazu; Maekawa, Iwao; Shimizu, Takashi; Shiga, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important nutrient required by pregnant women and fetuses. Several studies suggest that fatty acid composition changes during pregnancy. However, the association of longitudinal changes in erythrocyte fatty acid composition and dietary fatty acid intake during pregnancy is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membranes and fatty acid intake at each trimester in pregnant Japanese women. We conducted a prospective hospital-based cohort study. We investigated fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membranes and intake of fatty acids during the three trimesters in 178 healthy, pregnant Japanese women. The eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid percentage of the erythrocyte membranes significantly decreased. The percentages of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid significantly increased during pregnancy. The DHA percentage in the erythrocyte membranes decreased from the second to the third trimester. The DHA percentage in the erythrocyte membranes positively correlated with DHA intake in the third trimester. In pregnant Japanese women, the fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membranes markedly changed throughout pregnancy. The DHA intake in the third trimester may be insufficient to maintain DHA percentage in the maternal erythrocyte membranes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Room Service Improves Nutritional Intake and Increases Patient Satisfaction While Decreasing Food Waste and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Sally; Maunder, Kirsty; Krikowa, Renee; MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen

    2017-07-01

    /day, P=0.003) intake, as well as energy and protein intake as a percentage of requirements (63% vs 75%; P=0.024 and 65% vs 85%; P=0.011, respectively). Total mean plate waste decreased from 29% (traditional foodservice model) to 12% (room service) (Pnutritional intake and enhance patient satisfaction in a budget constrained health care environment. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  9. Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine are associated with stroke mortality in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Konishi, Kie; Tsuji, Michiko; Nakamura, Kozue

    2015-04-01

    Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine have been reported to be associated with blood pressure. However, the link between intakes of these amino acids and stroke has not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between glutamic acid and glycine intakes and the risk of mortality from stroke in a population-based cohort study in Japan. The analyses included 29,079 residents (13,355 men and 15,724 women) of Takayama City, Japan, who were aged 35-101 y and enrolled in 1992. Their body mass index ranged from 9.9 to 57.4 kg/m(2). Their diets were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Deaths from stroke were ascertained over 16 y. During follow-up, 677 deaths from stroke (328 men and 349 women) were identified. A high intake of glutamic acid in terms of a percentage of total protein was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke in women after controlling for covariates; the HR (95% CI) for the highest vs. lowest quartile was 0.72 (0.53, 0.98; P-trend: 0.03). Glycine intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality from total and ischemic stroke in men without history of hypertension at baseline; the HRs (95% CIs) for the highest vs. lowest tertile were 1.60 (0.97, 2.51; P-trend: 0.03) and 1.88 (1.01, 3.52; P-trend: 0.02), respectively. There was no association between animal or vegetable protein intake and mortality from total and any subtype of stroke. The data suggest that glutamic acid and glycine intakes may be associated with risk of stroke mortality. Given that this is an initial observation, our results need to be confirmed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women.In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001), whereas dietary cholesterol increased across hs-CRP quartiles (P < 0.001)This study provides further evidence of an association between fatty acid intake and subclinical inflammation markers. hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials.

  11. Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2016-07-01

    The recent increase in the intake of folic acid by the general public through fortified foods and supplements, has raised safety concern based on early reports of adverse health outcome in elderly with low B12 status who took high doses of folic acid. These safety concerns are contrary to the 2015 WHO statement that "high folic acid intake has not reliably been shown to be associated with negative healeffects". In the folic acid post-fortification era, we have shown that in elderly participants in NHANES 1999-2002, high plasma folate level is associated with exacerbation of both clinical (anemia and cognitive impairment) and biochemical (high MMA and high Hcy plasma levels) signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Adverse clinical outcomes in association with high folate intake were also seen among elderly with low plasma B12 levels from the Framingham Original Cohort and in a study from Australia which combined three elderly cohorts. Relation between high folate and adverse biochemical outcomes were also seen in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (High Hcy, high MMA and lower TC2) and at an outpatient clinic at Yale University where high folate is associated with higher MMA in the elderly but not in the young. Potential detrimental effects of high folic acid intake may not be limited to the elderly nor to those with B12 deficiency. A study from India linked maternal high RBC folate to increased insulin resistance in offspring. Our study suggested that excessive folic acid intake is associated with lower natural killer cells activity in elderly women. In a recent study we found that the risk for unilateral retinoblastoma in offspring is 4 fold higher in women that are homozygotes for the 19 bp deletion in the DHFR gene and took folic acid supplement during pregnancy. In the elderly this polymorphism is associated with lower memory and executive scores, both being significantly worse in those with high plasma folate. These and other data strongly imply that

  12. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  13. Evidence of decreased muscle protein turnover in gilts selected for low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Harris, A J; Hollinger, K; Punt, R M; Grubbs, J K; Selsby, J T; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of muscle protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) to the biological basis for genetic differences in finisher pigs selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake is defined as the difference between expected feed intake (based on the achieved rate of BW gain and backfat depth of individual pigs) and the observed feed intake of the individual pig. We hypothesized that protein turnover would be reduced in pigs selected for low RFI. Twelve gilts from a line selected for 7 generations for low RFI and 12 from a contemporary line selected for 2 generations for high RFI were paired by age and BW and fed a standard corn-soybean diet for 6 wk. Pigs were euthanized, muscle and liver samples were collected, and insulin signaling, protein synthesis, and protein degradation proteins were analyzed for expression and activities. Muscle from low RFI pigs tended to have less μ- and m-calpain activities (P = 0.10 and 0.09, respectively) and had significantly greater calpastatin activity and a decreased μ-calpain:calpastatin activity ratio (P 0.05). Postmortem proteolysis was determined in the LM from the eighth generation of the low RFI pigs versus their high RFI counterparts (n = 9 per line). Autolysis of μ-calpain was decreased in the low RFI pigs and less troponin-T degradation product was observed at 3 d postmortem (P < 0.05), indicating slowed postmortem proteolysis during aging in the low RFI pigs. These data provide significant evidence that less protein degradation occurs in pigs selected for reduced RFI, and this may account for a significant portion of the increased efficiency observed in these animals.

  14. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Rezaei; Farahnaz Sadat Ahmadi; Shirin Niroomanesh; Shahram Ejtemaee Mehr; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Atefeh Aminian; Azizeh Ghaseminejad; Soleiman Abbasi; Fariba Yarandi

    2013-01-01

    The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs) is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2...

  15. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries....... TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3...

  16. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  17. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  18. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Reduced food intake is a frequent problem at a hospital setting, being a cause and/or consequence of malnutrition. Food presentation can affect food intake and induce nutritional benefit. To investigate the effect of improved meal presentation supported by gastronomy expertise on the food intake in adults hospitalized in internal medicine departments. Controlled before and after study. Two hundred and six newly hospitalized patients in internal medicine departments were included and divided in two groups, a) control: receiving the standard lunch from the hospital and b) experimental: receiving a lunch improved in terms of presentation by the advices received by the Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, Lyon, France together with the hospital kitchen of the Beilinson Hospital, without change in the composition of the meal. The amount of food left at the participants' plates was estimated using the Digital Imaging Method, which consisted in photographing the plates immediately to previous tray collection by the researcher. In addition, the nutritionDay questionnaire was used to measure other variables concerned to their food intake during hospitalization. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demography or Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients who received the meal with the improved presentation showed significantly higher food intake than those who received the standard meal, despite reported loss in appetite. Participants from the experimental group left on their plate less starch (0.19 ± 0.30 vs. 0.52 + 0.41) (p  0.05). Both of the groups were asked how hungry they were before the meal and no significance was shown. More participants from the experimental group reported their meal to be tasty in comparison to those in the control group (49.5% vs. 33.7% p < 0.005). Length of stay was not different but readmission rate decreased significantly in the study group (p < 0.02) from 31.2% to 13

  19. Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan S. Naughton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR are a current research focus in the area of obesity due to the system’s role in food intake and glucose and lipid metabolism. Importantly, overweight and obese individuals often have higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG and an altered pattern of receptor expression. Consequently, this leads to an increase in orexigenic stimuli, changes in fatty acid synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose utilisation, with preferential energy storage in adipose tissue. As endocannabinoids are products of dietary fats, modification of dietary intake may modulate their levels, with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid based endocannabinoids being able to displace arachidonic acid from cell membranes, reducing AEA and 2-AG production. Similarly, oleoyl ethanolamide, a product of oleic acid, induces satiety, decreases circulating fatty acid concentrations, increases the capacity for β-oxidation, and is capable of inhibiting the action of AEA and 2-AG in adipose tissue. Thus, understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.

  20. Intake of freshwater fish and associated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chang-Ming; Ding, Jian-Hua; Li, Su-Ping; Liu, Yan-Ting; Tang, Jin-Hai; Tajima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total freshwater fish intake was linked to decrease in the adjusted OR for breast cancer, but without dose-dependence. Analyses by freshwater fish species showed that consumption of black carp and silver carp was inversely related to breast cancer risk, with adjusted-ORs for the highest intake category of black carp (≥500g/month) of 0.54 (95%CI=0.33-0.92; P trendcarp (≥1000g/month) of 0.19 (95%CI=0.11-0.33; P trendcarp was positively related to breast cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for the highest intake category (≥1000g/month) of 6.09 (95%CI=3.04-12.2; P trend<0.001). Moderate intakes of SFA, PUFA, n3-PUFA and n6-PUFA from freshwater fish may decrease the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that intake of freshwater fish and their fatty acids may modify risk of breast cancer, and that different species of freshwater fish could have a different actions on breast cancer risk. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to know the effects of freshwater fish intake on breast cancer risk and the cause of these effects.

  1. Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease in elderly adults: Protein and potassium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byung-Joon; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Kim, Eun Mi; Lee, Mi Yeon; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu-Beck

    2017-01-01

    Dietary net endogenous acid production (NEAP), which represents total dietary load of nonvolatile acid, may affect kidney function. Estimated NEAP (eNEAP) is calculated indirectly by the ratio of protein and potassium intake. A few studies are available assessing the association between eNEAP and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its relation to dietary protein and potassium intake in the elderly. A total 1,369 community-dwelling elderly Koreans in the Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study (KSCS) were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and comprehensive health examination. We evaluated the association between eNEAP and the CKD. We also examined their relation to protein and potassium intake. eNEAP was correlated with potassium intake (r = -0.410, P < 0.001), but was not correlated with protein intake (r = -0.004, P = 0.879). In a full multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic factors, dietary factors, and comorbidities, the participants with higher eNEAP quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) had higher odds of CKD compared to the lowest eNEAP quartile (Q1); OR (95% CI) were 1.47 (0.78-2.72), 1.66 (0.85-3.23), and 2.30 (1.16-4.60) respectively (P for trend = 0.019). The odds of CKD decreased for participants with higher potassium intake quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) compared to the lowest potassium intake quartile (Q1); OR (95% CI) were 0.52 (0.28-0.95), 0.50 (0.26-0.96), and 0.50 (0.21-0.99) respectively (P for trend = 0.050). Protein intake was not associated with CKD. The association between eNEAP and CKD was similar in subgroup analysis. Dietary acid load was associated with CKD. Among the nutrients related to dietary acid load, potassium intake was negatively associated with CKD, but protein intake was not associated with CKD in elderly adults.

  2. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  4. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Marianne; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Leeuw, de Peter W.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were com

  5. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compar

  6. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  7. Impact of the dietary fatty acid intake on C-reactive protein levels in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Vatanparast, Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Growing evidence suggests that the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed whether reported dietary fatty acid intake correlates with a serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration in a population-based sample of US men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights by using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Of the 17,689 participants analyzed, 8607 (48.3%) were men. The mean age was 45.8 years in the overall sample, 44.9 years in men, and 46.5 years in women (P = 0.047). The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted mean dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFAs 18:2 (octadecadienoic), and PUFAs 18:3 (octadecatrienoic) monotonically decreased across hs-CRP quartiles (P hs-CRP quartiles (P hs-CRP concentrations are likely modulated by dietary fatty acid intake. However, the causality of this association needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:28207502

  8. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  9. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  10. Life style risks of Parkinson's disease: association between decreased water intake and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Akira; Otsuka, Mieko

    2004-10-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction, especially constipation, is one of the major problems in the daily life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). About 60 to 80% of PD patients suffer from constipation. Several studies have proven that constipation appears about 10 to 20 years prior to motor symptoms. More recently, Abbott et al. have found from a large scale prospective study that lower frequency bowel movements predict the future risk of PD. Furthermore, Braak et al. have found that Lewy neuritis and Lewy bodies, the hallmarks of PD pathology, appear in the dorsal nucleus of vagus in the earliest stage of the disease and then extend upward through the brain stem to reach the substantia nigra in the third stage. They also hypothesize that some yet undefined toxins break through the mucosal barrier of the intestine and are incorporated into the axon terminal of the vagus nerve and transported in a retrograde manner to the vagus nucleus. In this study, we assessed bowel movements and nutritional status in Japanese patients with PD. We found that intake of water was significantly decreased in PD patients from early life and associated with their constipation. Ninety four patients with PD (M 50, F 44) were enrolled. Nutritional status was assessed using the Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Total water intake was calculated from the consumption of coffee, green tea, and tea. We also questioned the behavior of water drinking from the early stage of life. The questionnaire for bowel movements concerned the frequency of defecation, age of onset of constipation, and age of onset of motor dysfunction. Less than one bowel movement in 3 days was defined as constipation. The nutritional status of PD patients did not differ significantly from those of controls though several studies have shown excess intake of animal fats or reduced consumption of coffee are risks in PD. In contrast, water intake was significantly lower in PD patients than controls (604

  11. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  12. Captopril intake decreases body weight gain via angiotensin-(1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Folate and folic acid intake estimation and food enrichment requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Martínez, Ana Belén; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Bernal Cava, M José; Martínez Graciá, Carmen; Periago Castón, M Jesús

    2005-03-01

    The term "folate" is a generic way to name the different forms derived from folic acid, one of the B vitamins (specifically B9 vitamin). They are essential in the metabolism when they act as cofactors in the transfer reactions of one carbon. However, only plants and microorganisms are able to synthesize them de novo, in such a way that both animals and human beings have to intake them through their diet. Folic acid is widely spread in nature, mainly in vegetables, liver ans cereals. However, nowadays, the lack of folates in the diet is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world, and it has serious consequences on human health. There is evidence that even in developed countries folate intake is usually low; and even, is some cases, below optima levels. The authorities in several countries have adapted different norms related to folic acid, fortifying staple food such as dairy products or cereals, mandatory (U.S.A., Canada or Chile) or voluntary (most of the European countries).

  15. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  16. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  17. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  18. Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carla; Buyken, Anette; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Schikowski, Tamara; Koletzko, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie

    2017-02-11

    The relevance of dietary fatty acids (FA) for blood lipids should be assessed in the context of substituting nutrients. Such evidence is lacking for adolescents. This study describes prospective associations of dietary FA with changes in serum lipids during adolescence, and considers the theoretical isocaloric replacements of saturated FA (SFA) with other FA or carbohydrates (CHO). Children from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, with data on FA intakes (at age 10 years) and serum lipids (at age 10 and 15 years), were included (n = 1398). Associations of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA, with changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (TOTAL:HDL), were assessed by linear regression. Substitution models assessed isocaloric replacements of SFA with MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA or CHO. Higher SFA intakes were associated with decreasing TAG. No associations were observed for fatty acid intakes with LDL, HDL or TOTAL:HDL. In females, replacing SFA with CHO was associated with increasing LDL, TAG and TOTAL:HDL. Our findings confirm observations in adults, although sex-specific determinants seem relevant in our adolescent population. Overlooking the nutrient context when limiting SFA intakes might have detrimental consequences appreciable as early as adolescence.

  19. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  20. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  1. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  2. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  3. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and obesity : increased energy intake or decreased physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Postma, A.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamps, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well-known problem in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL), and it might be the result of an excess in energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. The aim of this study is to describe energy intake and physical activity during treatment for ALL with inter

  5. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  6. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (Pintake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  10. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress.

  11. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake.

  12. Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increases food intake and brown adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Alan A; Rayner, D Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-Heun; Wahle, Klaus W; Morris, Amanda C; Williams, Lynda M

    2009-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  13. The effect of Iron Folic Acid Supplementation and Dietary Iron Intake in High Schools Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Iron deficiency is one of the major public health problems imposing significant effect on the body and mind which has negative impacts on humans’ capability of. Increasing demand of the body, inadequate intake and decrease of absorbency are the major causes of anemia among teenage girls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary iron folic acid supplementation and dietary iron intake in high school girls. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on sixty female high school students at grade one and three in Yasuj, Iran. Biochemical markers of iron status were measured beforehand and afterwards of folic acid supplementation for 16 weeks. Food consumption patterns and iron intake were determined by frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test by means of N4 analysis software. Results: Anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in grade one were 9.7%, 32.3% and 9.9% respectively, in addition to in grade three were 19.4% , 41.9% and 3.2% respectively. After iron folic acid supplementation, these indicators were 9.7%, 16.1% and 3.3% in grade one and in grade three were 9.7%, 22.6%, 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Overall, it appeared that weekly iron folic acid supplementation in duration of 16 weeks per year, with dietary modification, could improve the indices of blood in high school girls. Key words: Anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, iron folic acid supplementation

  14. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  15. Intestinal fatty acid infusion modulates food preference as well as calorie intake via the vagal nerve and midbrain-hypothalamic neural pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Nobuya; Ito, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Shiki; Wakitani, Korekiyo; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2012-09-01

    The intestine plays important roles in the regulation of feeding behavior by sensing macronutrients. Intestinal fatty acids strongly suppress food intake, but little is known about whether intestinal fatty acids affect food preference. We investigated the effects of jejunal fatty acids infusion on food preference by conducting two-diet choice experiments in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD). Jejunal linoleic acid (18:2) infusion reduced HFD intake dose-dependently, while HCD intake increased with the middle dose of the infusion we examined (100 μL/h) and reduced to the control level with the higher doses (150 and 200 μL/h). α-Linolenic acid (18:3), but not caprylic acid (8:0), altered the food preference and total calorie intake in the same manner as linoleic acid. Linoleic acid infusion dose-dependently increased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY and cholecystokinin levels, but not ghrelin levels. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or midbrain transection prevented the change in food preference and total calorie intake by linoleic acid infusion. Jejunal linoleic acid infusion increased norepinephrine turnover in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, while intracerebroventricular injection of idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, suppressed the increased HCD intake, but did not affect the decreased HFD intake. These findings indicated that intestinal long-chain fatty acids modulated food preference as well as total calorie intake via the vagal nerve and midbrain-hypothalamic neural pathways. The effects of the α2-AR antagonist in the brain suggested that the brain distinctly controlled HCD and HFD intake in response to jejunal linoleic acid infusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey on awareness of folic acid recognition and intake by female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takuya; Kagohashi, Yukiko; Senga, Yasuko; Fukuda, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keiko; Takemori, Kumiko; Otani, Hiroki; Kondo, Atsuo

    2017-09-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, studies have been conducted on female students of medical services, nutritional science, and nursery education that investigated the awareness of folic acid by using questionnaires. Many investigators have suggested the need to provide detailed information about the awareness of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid intake and neural tube defect risk reduction. The dietary habits of female students showed a positive correlation with their estimated folic acid intake, suggesting that improvements in dietary habits are associated with the consumption of folic acid. The importance of folic acid intake must be more aggressively promoted among female students. Thus, many learning opportunities should be provided for such students to help increase their folic acid intake. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Design: Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P < 0.05). Translocation frequency was not associated with the intake of vitamin E, α-carotene, or lycopene from food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for ≥median compared with intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). Conclusion: High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons. PMID:19793852

  18. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, and supplemental intakes of EPA alone up to 1.8 g/day, do not raise safety concerns for adults. Dietary recommendations for EPA and DHA based on cardiovascular risk considerations for European adults are between 250 and 500 mg/day. Supplemental intakes of DHA alone up to about 1 g/day do not raise safety concerns for the general population. No data are available for DPA when consumed alone. In the majority of the human studies considered, fish oils, also containing DPA in generally unknown (but relatively low amounts, were the source of EPA and DHA.

  19. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  20. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and umam

  1. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and u

  2. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376283718; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an

  3. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  4. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  5. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  6. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  7. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Karibari, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; Van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late preg...

  8. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  9. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  10. Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Josua; Herzog, Brigitte; Camargo, Simone M R; Boyle, Christina N; Lutz, Thomas A; Verrey, François

    2013-11-15

    To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal to control food intake. Here, we show that food intake was most potently reduced by oral L-arginine (Arg), L-lysine (Lys) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) compared to all other 17 proteogenic amino acids in rats. These three amino acids induced neuronal activity in the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Surgical lesion of the area postrema abolished the anorectic response to Arg and Glu, whereas vagal afferent lesion prevented the response to Lys. These three amino acids also provoked gastric distension by differentially altering gastric secretion and/or emptying. Importantly, these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids' effect on food intake. Thus, Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. Overall, this study reveals novel amino acid-specific mechanisms for the control of food intake and of gastrointestinal function.

  11. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Couet, C.; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.; Steingrimsdottir, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.; Moreiras, O.; Becker, W.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Vidal-Jessel, S.; Salminen, I.; Moschandreas, J.; Sigfússon, N.; Martins, I.; Carbajal, A.; Ytterfors, A.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Background: High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undersirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Design: Cross-sectional study in ei

  12. Association between the intake of α-linolenic acid and the risk of CHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lauritzen, Lotte;

    2014-01-01

    The intake of the mainly plant-derived n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of CHD. However, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the association between the intake of ALA and the risk of CHD...

  13. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between trans fatty acids (TFA) intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA. Some of these studies indicate an inverse association between ruminant TFA (R-TFA) intake and CHD implying...

  14. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustme...

  15. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  16. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  17. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  18. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Sugimoto, Minami; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.Methods: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).Conclusion: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and

  19. Antidepressant treatment decreases daily salt intake and prevents heart dysfunction following subchronic aortic regurgitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Omoto, Ana Carolina Mieko; Siqueira, Tamires Ferreira; Matsubara, Luiz Shigueto; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2015-05-15

    Depression is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve these outcomes. Left ventricular volume overload induced hypertrophy that is associated with aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the SSRI paroxetine on cardiac function, as well as on fluid intake and excretion, in subchronic AR. Male Wistar rats (260 to 280g) received sham (SH) surgery or AR induced by retrograde puncture of the aortic valve leaflets. The presence of AR was confirmed by echocardiography (ECHO) exams. Four weeks after AR surgery, subcutaneous injections of paroxetine (PAR: 10mg/kg 3 times in a week) or saline were administered. The rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups and treated for 4 weeks: AR-PAR, ARsaline, SH-PAR and SH-saline. At the end of the treatment period, fractional shortening was preserved in AR-PAR, compared to AR-saline (46.6±2.7% vs 38.3±2.2%, respectively). Daily 0.3 M NaCl intake was reduced in PAR-treated rats. Natriuresis was increased in weeks 2-3 after PAR treatment. Our results suggest that augmentation of central 5-HT neurotransmission has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular remodeling following volume overload. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown.

  20. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  1. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  2. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], paffect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], pfatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect.

  3. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P.; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M.; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E.; Peterson, Jonathan M.; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A.; Townsend, Craig A.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2011-01-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:21490364

  6. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P; Aja, Susan; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E; Peterson, Jonathan M; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A; Townsend, Craig A; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2011-07-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

  7. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  8. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone.

  9. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  10. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... dairy fat in general and phytanic acid on metabolic parameters, we performed several studies. First, we investigated effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and circulating metabolic markers, of high fat diets based on butter from high- or low-yield production, a diet based on high...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...

  11. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    phosphate buffers in saliva which neutralize these acids. ... determine the effect of different levels of NaHCO3 on dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein (CP), neutral ..... increased the post-ruminal supply of amino acids by accelerating rumen ...

  12. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and triglycerides as well as accumulation of saturated fatty acids in the liver of the experimental rats.

  13. Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    O. Daglioglu; Tasan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fat...

  14. Fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the role of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on depression during adolescence is sparse. We examined the association between fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and depressive symptoms in a group of adolescents. This cross-sectional study, conducted in all public junior high schools in Naha City and Nago City, Okinawa, Japan, included 3067 boys and 3450 girls aged 12 to 15 years (52.3% of the eligible sample). Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated, self-administered diet-history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when participants had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score of >or=16. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.97]; P for trend=.04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54-0.94]; P=.04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59-1.05]; P=.11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55-0.96]; P=.08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls. Higher intake of fish, EPA, and DHA was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in early male, but not female, adolescents.

  15. The impact of folic acid intake on the association among diabetes mellitus, obesity, and spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spina bifida and 2 established risk factors (pregestational diabetes mellitus and obesity) in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Cases of spina bifida (n = 1154) and control subjects (n = 9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976-2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes mellitus (collected 1976-2011) and obesity (collected 1993-2011), defined as a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2), was collected through interviews that were conducted within 6 months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated with both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400 μg/day of folic acid; food folate was included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models that were adjusted for maternal age, race, education, and study site were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes mellitus or obesity. Case mothers were more likely to have diabetes mellitus or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes mellitus and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.56-10.00) than that of diabetes mellitus and higher folic acid intake (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.17-10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, although does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida that is associated with diabetes mellitus than the risk with obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of nutritional habits and intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in veterans with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V; Bartel, Kevin; Chong, Karen C; Alley, Hugh F; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Grenon, S Marlene

    2015-10-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study's aim was to assess intake of essential fatty acids and nutrients among veterans with PAD. All 88 subjects had ankle-brachial indices of Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC), as well as the AHA/ACC endorsed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. The mean age was 69 ± 8 years. Compared to the AHA/ACC guidelines, subjects with PAD had an inadequate intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA; 59% consumed >1 gram daily). Our subjects with PAD had an increased intake of cholesterol (31% met the cut-off established in the DASH plan), total fat (5%) and sodium (53%). They had an inadequate intake of magnesium (3%), calcium (5%), and soluble fiber (3%). Dietary potassium intake met the recommended guidelines. In our subjects with PAD, intake of critical nutrients deviated substantially from the recommended amounts. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether PAD patients experience clinical benefit if diets are modified to meet the AHA/ACC recommendations.

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Morris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  18. Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Palacin, A; Lopez, M; Lorenzo, M L; Olea-Serrano, F

    2013-08-01

    An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400μg/day, with an additional 200μg/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) μg. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI.

  19. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and vegetab

  20. Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signaling--a lipidomics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence of the multiple beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but physiological mechanisms behind these effects are not completely known. Little information is available on the effects of consumption of different type of fish. The aim of this study was to investigate how fatty fish or lean fish in a diet affect serum lipidomic profiles in subjects with coronary heart disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pilot study was designed which included altogether 33 subjects with myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack in an 8-week parallel controlled intervention. The subjects were randomized to either fatty fish (n = 11, lean fish (n = 12 or control (n = 10 groups. Subjects in the fish groups had 4 fish meals per week and subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork and chicken. A fish meal was allowed once a week maximum. Lipidomics analyses were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Multiple bioactive lipid species, including ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerols, decreased significantly in the fatty fish group, whereas in the lean fish group cholesterol esters and specific long-chain triacylglycerols increased significantly (False Discovery Rate q-value <0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 8-week consumption of fatty fish decreased lipids which are potential mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be related to the protective effects of fatty fish on the progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases or insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00720655.

  1. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S F; Hansen, H S; Secher, N J; Jensen, B; Sandström, B

    1995-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids ingested during pregnancy prolong duration of pregnancy and increase fetal growth rate in humans. By a combined self-administered questionnaire and interview applied in the 30th week of gestation we assessed dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy in a population-based sample of 965 pregnant Danish women; in a random 14% subsample we also measured marine n-3 fatty acids relative to arachidonic acid (FA-ratio) in erythrocytes. Mean intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was 0.25 (95% range 0-0.75) g/d. We could detect no association between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate.

  2. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  3. Periconceptional intake of folic acid and food folate and risks of preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2011-12-01

    We investigated multiple sources of folate and folic acid to determine whether their periconceptional intakes were associated with preterm delivery. Studied were controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered September 1998 to December 2005. Telephone interviews were conducted with 5952 (68% of eligible) mothers. Women were queried about intake of vitamin supplements in the 12 weeks before conception through delivery. A version of the Nurse's Health Study food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food sources. Eight percent of infants ( N = 487) were preterm (folic acid before pregnancy, those who began any time during pregnancy had an ~20% lowered risk of preterm delivery. Lower dietary intakes showed a modest increased risk of preterm delivery: odds ratios were 1.44 (1.01 to 2.04) for lowest quartile intake of folate and 1.27 (0.95 to 1.69) for lowest quartile intake of folic acid compared with the highest. Findings suggest some evidence that folates influenced risks; however, an interpretation of results was also consistent with no association between intake of folates and preterm delivery.

  4. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; Benedict, Christian; Lehnert, Hendrik; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    .... We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of energy homeostasis toward weight gain...

  5. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  6. Statin Intake Is Associated With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity During Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Carvalho, George; Sato, Tamaki; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph; Codere-Maruyama, Takumi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Schricker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical trauma impairs intraoperative insulin sensitivity and is associated with postoperative adverse events. Recently, preprocedural statin therapy is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease. However, statin therapy is reported to increase insulin resistance and the risk of new-onset diabetes. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative statin therapy and intraoperative insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients taking lipophilic statins were assigned to the statin group and hypercholesterolemic patients not receiving any statins were allocated to the control group. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp technique during surgery. The mean, SD of blood glucose, and the coefficient of variation (CV) after surgery were calculated for each patient. The association between statin use and intraoperative insulin sensitivity was tested by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS We studied 120 patients. In both groups, insulin sensitivity gradually decreased during surgery with values being on average ∼20% lower in the statin than in the control group. In the statin group, the mean blood glucose in the intensive care unit was higher than in the control group (153 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 20 mg/dL; P statin group (SD, P statin use was independently associated with intraoperative insulin sensitivity (β = −0.16; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative use of lipophilic statins is associated with increased insulin resistance during cardiac surgery in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients. PMID:22829524

  7. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Cho, Jacob; Kim, Ronald; Michaelides, Michael; Primeaux, Stefany; Bray, George; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-02-02

    Dopamine (DA) and DA D₂ receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  9. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  10. A specific protein-enriched enteral formula decreases cortisolemia and improves plasma albumin and amino acid concentrations in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de la Cruz Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Old age is associated with an involuntary and progressive but physiological loss of muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exclusive consumption for 6 months of a protein-enriched enteral diet with a relatively high content of branched-chain amino acids on albuminemia, cortisolemia, plasma amino acids, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-two patients from the Clinical Nutrition Outpatient Unit at our hospital exclusively consumed a protein-enriched enteral diet for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months on anthropometric and biochemical parameters and on plasma concentrations of amino acids, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, urea, creatinine, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers. Results The percentage of patients with albumin concentration below normal cut-off values decreased from 18% to 0% by the end of the study. At 6 months, concentrations of total plasma (p = 0.008 and essential amino acids (p = 0.011, especially branched-chain amino acids (p = 0.031, were higher versus baseline values, whereas 3-methylhistidine (p = 0.001, cortisol (p = 0.001 and adrenocorticotropic hormone (p = 0.004 levels were lower. Conclusions Regular intake of specific protein-enriched enteral formula increases plasma essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, and decreases cortisol and 3-methylhistidine, while plasma urea and creatinine remain unchanged.

  11. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  12. Reproducibility and relative validity of a FFQ to estimate the intake of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praagman, Jaike; Adolphs, Anda P J; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sluijs, Ivonne; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Dutch European Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in order to rank subjects according to intakes of fatty acid classes and individual fatty acids. In total, 121 men and women (23-72 years) filled out three FFQ at 6-month intervals between 1991 and 1992. As a reference method, they filled out twelve monthly 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) during the same year. Intra-class correlation coefficients for the FFQ showed moderate to good reproducibility across all fatty acids (classes and individual) in men (0·56-0·81) and women (0·57-0·83). In men, Spearman's correlation coefficients (r s) for the FFQ compared with the 24HDR indicated moderate to good relative validity (r s=0·45-0·71) for all fatty acids, except for arachidonic acid and marine PUFA (r sfatty acids (TFA) and the majority of SFA (r s=0·40-0·66), was fair for the short-chain SFA and lauric acid (r s=0·30-0·33) and was fair to moderate for PUFA (r s=0·22-0·47). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the FFQ and 24HDR, and proportional bias for fatty acids with very low intakes. In conclusion, the FFQ showed good reproducibility for subject ranking based on intakes of fatty acids (classes and individual). The relative validity measures indicated that the FFQ is an adequate tool to rank subjects according to intakes of high-abundant fatty acids, but less for low-abundant fatty acids.

  13. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv......Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  14. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: the TRANSFAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, L P; Kardinaal, A F; Couet, C; Aro, A; Kafatos, A; Steingrimsdottir, L; Amorim Cruz, J A; Moreiras, O; Becker, W; van Amelsvoort, J M; Vidal-Jessel, S; Salminen, I; Moschandreas, J; Sigfússon, N; Martins, I; Carbajal, A; Ytterfors, A; Poppel, G

    2000-02-01

    High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undesirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Cross-sectional study in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) among 327 men and 299 women (50-65 y). Using a dietary history method, food consumption was assessed and TFA intake was calculated with recent figures on TFA levels of foods, collected in the TRANSFAIR study. Mean (+/-s.d.) TFA intake was 2.40+/-1.53 g/day for men and 1.98+/-1.49 g/day for women (0.87+/-0.48% and 0. 95+/-0.55% of energy, respectively), with the highest consumption in Iceland and the lowest in the Mediterranean countries. No associations were found between total TFA intake and LDL, HDL or LDL/HDL ratio after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustment for other fatty acid clusters resulted in a significant inverse trend between total TFA intake and total cholesterol (PtrendDanone Group, McDonalds Deutschland Inc, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Valio Ltd, Raisio Group. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 126-135

  15. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  16. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  17. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (ARA metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  18. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...... (MR) imaging, and liver fat by (1)H MR spectroscopy.Results:Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted...

  19. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids decrease leptin in porcine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Rossi, Raffaella; Vitari, Francesca; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo; Domeneghini, Cinzia

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) in heavy pigs. Twelve pigs were assigned to 1 of 2 groups supplemented with either 0 or 0.75% of a CLA preparation (isomeric mixture) and were slaughtered at 159 +/- 2.3 kg live weight. Their subcutaneous WAT was analyzed by both chemical and microanatomical methods. The WAT of CLA-fed pigs tended to have a higher protein content (P = 0.064) and smaller adipocytes (P = 0.053) than that of control (CTR) pigs. The number of proliferating preadipocytes tended to be greater (P = 0.076) in pigs fed CLA, whereas the number of apoptotic adipocytes was greater (P leptin (Ob) expression was lower (P = 0.048) in adipocytes from treated pigs and Western blot quantification of Ob revealed lower levels (P tissue.

  1. Chronic caffeine intake decreases circulating catecholamines and prevents diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Silvia V; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Gonzalez, Constancio; Mota Carmo, Miguel; Monteiro, Emilia C; Guarino, Maria P

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term caffeine intake prevents the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in two pathological animal models: the high-fat (HF) and the high-sucrose (HSu) diet rat. We used six groups of animals: control; caffeine-treated (Caff; 1 g/l in drinking water during 15 d); HF; caffeine-treated HF (HFCaff); HSu; caffeine-treated HSu (HSuCaff). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the insulin tolerance test. Blood pressure, weight gain, visceral fat, hepatic glutathione, plasma caffeine, insulin and NO, and serum NEFA and catecholamines were measured. Caffeine reversed insulin resistance and hypertension induced by both the HF and HSu diets. In the HF-fed animals caffeine treatment restored fasting insulin levels to control values and reversed increased weight gain and visceral fat mass. In the HSu group, caffeine reversed fasting hyperglycaemia and restored NEFA to control values. There were no changes either in plasma NO or in hepatic glutathione levels. In contrast, caffeine totally prevented the increase in serum catecholamines induced by HF and HSu diets. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system prevents the development of diet-induced insulin resistance we administered carvedilol, an antagonist of β1, β2 and also α1 adrenoceptors, to HF and HSu rats. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension, mimicking the effect of caffeine. We concluded that long-term caffeine intake prevented the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in HF and HSu models and that this effect was related to a decrease in circulating catecholamines.

  2. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduces the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldink, J.H.; Kalmijn, S.; Groeneveld, G.J.; Wunderink, W.; Köster, B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Luyt, van der J.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Berg, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether the premorbid dietary intake of fatty acids, cholesterol, lutamate, or anti- oxidants was associated with the risk of developing ALS. Methods: Patients referred to our clinic during the one-year period, 2001-2002, who had definite, probable or possible ALS according to

  3. Moderately high intake of folic acid has a negative impact on mouse embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of neural tube defects has diminished considerably since the implementation of food fortification with folic acid (FA). However, the impact of excess FA intake, particularly during pregnancy, requires investigation. In a recent study, we reported that a diet supplemented with 20-fold h...

  4. Comparison of amino acid oxidation and urea metabolism in haemodialysis patients during fasting and meal intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Stellaard, F; de Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    2004-01-01

    Background. The PNA (protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance) is used to calculate protein intake from urea kinetics. One of the essential assumptions in the calculation of PNA is that urea accumulation in haemodialysis (HD) patients is equivalent to amino acid oxidation. However, urea is hydrolys

  5. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact ...... of TFA intake on plasma metabolites....

  6. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  7. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Niels Lyhne;

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong direct (positive) association between the intake of trans fatty acids (TRA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA). However, comparisons, between ruminant TEA (R-TFA) and IP-TFA and risk...

  8. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;

    1995-01-01

    dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  9. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Morawin, B.; Turowski, D; M Naczk; Siatkowski, I.; A. Zembron-Lacny

    2014-01-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS) represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO) expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric ...

  10. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  11. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  12. [Attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and folic acid intake for the prevention of neural tube defects: a nationwide Internet survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid intake is recommended for pregnant women because it significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in the fetus. However, the risk of NTD remains medium in Japan. In this study, the attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and factors related to folic acid intake for the prevention of NTD were evaluated using a nationwide survey. An Internet-based questionnaire was conducted on 2,367 pregnant Japanese women who were registrants of a Japanese social research company in January 2012; 1,236 of these women responded. In the questionnaires, the knowledge regarding the folate intake (i.e., name of folic acid, the risk of NTD, recommended doses, and timing), actual intake of folic acid, demographic factors (i.e., age, geographical area, gestational age, and birth order), and intake of dietary supplements were surveyed. Eighty-five percent of respondents consumed folate, which was mostly obtained through dietary folic acid supplements during the first month of pregnancy or after. Factors associated with loss of folic acid intake until 3 months of pregnancy included lack of knowledge, failure to consume dietary supplements, younger age, and multigravida. Many pregnant women in Japan consumed folic acid. However, most of them started supplementation after pregnancy recognition, which is too late to reduce the risk of NTD. Alternative strategies to increase the efficacy of folic acid intake, such as recommending folic acid-enriched foods, promoting folic acid fortification efforts, and providing access to practical information, are necessary.

  13. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  14. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily ...

  15. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (Pfolic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (Pfolic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  16. Dietary intake and food sources of total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Belgian population over 15 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2013-07-01

    Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  18. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  19. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods.

  20. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  1. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  2. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  3. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  4. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-06-23

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  5. Considerations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M

    2009-01-01

    Adverse neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes have been established as signs of nutrient deficiencies and may be applicable to insufficient dietary intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs). Consider if statistical definitions for Daily Reference Intakes can be applied to n-3 HUFAs intakes during pregnancy for maternal and neurodevelopmental deficiencies. Data were prospectively collected from women during pregnancy and children up to age 8 years participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Statistical analyses took social and lifestyle factors into account. During pregnancy, n-3 HUFA intakes from seafood that putatively meet statistical definitions of an estimated average requirement ranged from 0.05 to 0.06 en% (111-139 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal fine motor control at 42 m and 0.065-0.08 en% (114-181 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal verbal IQ at age 8 years and 0.18-0.22 en% (389-486 mg/d/2000 Cal) for maternal depression at 32 weeks. Intakes of n-3 ranging from 0.2 to 0.41 en% (445-917 mg/d/2000 Cal) prevented both increased risk of maternal depression and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for children among 97.5% of the population. No upper limit for safety was found. During pregnancy, a n-3 HUFA intake of 0.40 en% (900 mg/d/2000 Cal) from seafood is likely to meet the nutritional requirements for 97.5% of the mothers and children of this population. These considerations do not constitute DRI's for docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 HUFAs, but may contribute to their formulation.

  6. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  7. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (p<0.05) on the ileal flows of endogenous leucine, phenylalanine and cysteine. The present results implied that the duodenal flows of endogenous N and AA decreased when the dietary RDP to RUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  8. Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine treatment on food intake and body weight in association with changes in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/3R) availability of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Four groups of 15 DIO rats were randomized to one of the following treatments for 28 days: 1. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg), 2. vehicle, 3. vehicle+restricted diet isocaloric to caloric intake of group 1, and 4. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg)+ a treatment-free period of 28 days. Caloric intake and weight gain decreased significantly more in the tesofensine-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats, which confirms previous findings. After treatment discontinuation, caloric intake and body weight gain gradually increased again. Tesofensine-treated rats showed significantly lower D2/3R availability in nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum than both vehicle-treated rats and vehicle-treated rats on restricted isocaloric diet. No correlations were observed between food intake or body weight and D2/3R availability. Thus, chronic tesofensine treatment leads to decreased food intake and weight gain. However, this appears not to be directly related to the decreased striatal D2/3R availability, which is mainly a pharmacological effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  10. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  11. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient. It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, lipid peroxides (LPO and protein carbonyls (PC. α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r=0.718, P<0.01. Serum total creatine kinase (CK activity, as a marker of muscle damage, reached a peak at 24 h after exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L-1, α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L-1, and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P<0.01 in the α-lipoic acid group. In conclusion, the intake of high α-lipoic acid modulates RN/OS generation, enhances EPO release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise.

  12. High dietary consumption of trans fatty acids decreases brain docosahexaenoic acid but does not alter amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phivilay, A; Julien, C; Tremblay, C; Berthiaume, L; Julien, P; Giguère, Y; Calon, F

    2009-03-03

    Dietary consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased during the 20th century and is a suspected risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. More recently, high TFA intake has been associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the impact of TFA on an animal model genetically programmed to express amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau pathological markers of AD, we have fed 3xTg-AD mice with either control (0% TFA/total fatty acid), high TFA (16% TFA) or very high TFA (43% TFA) isocaloric diets from 2 to 16 months of age. Effects of TFA on plasma hepatic enzymes, glucose and lipid profile were minimal but very high TFA intake decreased visceral fat of non-transgenic mice. Importantly, dietary TFA increased brain TFA concentrations in a dose-related manner. Very high TFA consumption substantially modified the brain fatty acid profile by increasing mono-unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Very high TFA intake induced a shift from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) toward n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) without altering the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the cortex of both control and 3xTg-AD mice. Changes in levels of Abeta(40), Abeta(42), tau protein, phosphorylated tau protein and synaptic markers were not statistically significant in the three groups of 3xTg-AD mice, despite a trend toward decreased insoluble tau in very high TFA-fed 3xTg-AD animals. In summary, TFA intake modulated brain fatty acid profiles but had no significant effect on major brain neuropathological hallmarks of AD in an animal model.

  13. The Effects of Hempseed Meal Intake and Linoleic Acid on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hempseed is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which have potential as therapeutic compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular dis-ease. However, the effect of hempseed meal (HSM) intake on the animal models of these diseases has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of the intake of HSM and PUFAs on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and neurological phenotypes, and cholesterol uptake, using Drosophila models. HSM intake was shown to reduc...

  14. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Castagnino, Pablo S; Lage, Josiane F; Arcuri, Pedro B; Berchielli, Telma T

    2015-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (ptype of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.

  15. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduces the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Veldink, J. H.; Kalmijn, S; Groeneveld, G J; Wunderink, W.; Köster, B.; de Vries; Luyt, van der, J.; Wokke, J. H. J.; Berg, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether the premorbid dietary intake of fatty acids, cholesterol, lutamate, or anti- oxidants was associated with the risk of developing ALS. Methods: Patients referred to our clinic during the one-year period, 2001-2002, who had definite, probable or possible ALS according to El Escorial criteria, without a familial history of ALS, were asked to participate in a case-control study (132 patients and 220 healthy controls). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess...

  16. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  17. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery...

  18. Long term ingestion of a preload containing fructo-oligosaccharide or guar gum decreases fat mass but not food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Chaumontet, Catherine; Fromentin, Gilles; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Rasoamanana, Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Fermentable dietary fibre such as fructo-oligosaccharide and viscous dietary fibers such as guar gum and alginate affect energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of long term intake of these three dietary fibers on food intake, meal pattern, body weight and fat accumulation in mice. Over a period of 3weeks, the mice were fed daily with a preload containing 32mg of fructo-oligosaccharide or alginate or 13mg of guar gum. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly, while meal patterns, adiposity and the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were evaluated at the end of the study period. The 3 dietary fibers produced a similar decrease in total daily food intake (14 to 22%) at the end of the first week, and this effect disappeared over time. The 3 dietary fibers induced a slight variation in satiation parameters. Body weight and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were not affected by any of the treatment. Preload of fructo-oligosaccharide and guar gum induced a similar and substantial decrease in the development of adiposity (17% and 14%, respectively), while alginate had no effect. Our results demonstrate mainly that the inhibitory effect of dietary fiber on food intake is lost over time, and that guar gum limits fat storage.

  19. Trans fatty acid intake is associated with insulin sensitivity but independently of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Angelieri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated and trans fatty acid intake, the typical dietary pattern of Western populations, favors a proinflammatory status that contributes to generating insulin resistance (IR. We examined whether the consumption of these fatty acids was associated with IR and inflammatory markers. In this cross-sectional study, 127 non-diabetic individuals were allocated to a group without IR and 56 to another with IR, defined as homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR >2.71. Diet was assessed using 24-h food recalls. Multiple linear regression was employed to test independent associations with HOMA-IR. The IR group presented worse anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory profiles. Energy intake was correlated with abdominal circumference and inversely with adiponectin concentrations (r = -0.227, P = 0.002, while saturated fat intake correlated with inflammatory markers and trans fat with HOMA-IR (r = 0.160, P = 0.030. Abdominal circumference was associated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.430, P < 0.001. In multiple analysis, HOMA-IR remained associated with trans fat intake (β = 1.416, P = 0.039 and body mass index (β = 0.390, P < 0.001, and was also inversely associated with adiponectin (β = -1.637, P = 0.004. Inclusion of other nutrients (saturated fat and added sugar or other inflammatory markers (IL-6 and CRP into the models did not modify these associations. Our study supports that trans fat intake impairs insulin sensitivity. The hypothesis that its effect could depend on transcription factors, resulting in expression of proinflammatory genes, was not corroborated. We speculate that trans fat interferes predominantly with insulin signaling via intracellular kinases, which alter insulin receptor substrates.

  20. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids in children aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, A. (Alexander); Gimenez-Monzo, D. (Daniel); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Garcia-De-la-Hera, M. (Manuela); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); A. Tardón (Adonina); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); Irazabal, A. (Amaia); Romaguera, D. (Dora); M. Guxens (Mònica ); Julvez, J. (Jordi); S. Llop (Sabrina); M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); J. Vioque (Jesus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTrans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demograp

  1. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Dirksen, C; Nielsen, S; Kristiansen, V B; Toräng, S; Wewer Albrechtsen, N J; Rehfeld, J F; Hartmann, B; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J

    2016-11-01

    Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery through combined actions from GLP-1 and PYY. GLP-1 actions can be blocked using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Exendin 9-39 (Ex-9), whereas PYY actions can be inhibited by the administration of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor preventing the formation of PYY3-36. Appetite-regulating gut hormones and appetite ratings during a standard mixed-meal test and effects on subsequent ad libitum food intake were evaluated in two studies: in study 1, nine patients with type 2 diabetes were examined prospectively before and 3 months after RYGB with and without Ex-9. In study 2, 12 RYGB-operated patients were examined in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design on four experimental days with: (1) placebo, (2) Ex-9, (3) the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, to reduce formation of PYY3-36 and (4) Ex-9/sitagliptin combined. In study 1, food intake decreased by 35% following RYGB compared with before surgery. Before surgery, GLP-1 receptor blockage increased food intake but no effect was seen postoperatively, whereas PYY secretion was markedly increased. In study 2, combined GLP-1 receptor blockage and DPP-4 inhibitor mediated lowering of PYY3-36 increased food intake by ~20% in RYGB patients, whereas neither GLP-1 receptor blockage nor DPP-4 inhibition alone affected food intake, perhaps because of concomitant marked increases in the unblocked hormone. Blockade of actions from only one of the two L-cell hormones, GLP-1 and PYY3-36, resulted in concomitant increased secretion of the other, probably explaining the absent effect on food intake on these experimental days. Combined blockade of GLP-1 and PYY actions increased food intake after RYGB, supporting that these hormones have a role in

  2. Dietary stearic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: intake, sources, digestion, and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Griel, Amy E; Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Zhang, Jun; Etherton, Terry D

    2005-12-01

    Individual FA have diverse biological effects, some of which affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the context of food-based dietary guidance designed to reduce CVD risk, fat and FA recommendations focus on reducing saturated FA (SFA) and trans FA (TFA), and ensuring an adequate intake of unsaturated FA. Because stearic acid shares many physical properties with the other long-chain SFA but has different physiological effects, it is being evaluated as a substitute for TFA in food manufacturing. For stearic acid to become the primary replacement for TFA, it is essential that its physical properties and biological effects be well understood.

  3. Maternal knowledge, attitude and practice on folic acid intake among Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Maadid, Mohammed G A; Al-Bast, Daoud A E; Al-Marri, Saleh

    2006-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is effective in preventing primary and secondary neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital defects. It is important to estimate folate intake and knowledge in women of child-bearing age, in relation to risk of congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge about the usefulness of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in a sample of women in the child-bearing age. This is a cross-sectional survey. Eleven primary health care centers and women's hospital in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,800 Qatari women aged between 18 and 45 years were surveyed during the period June to November 2004. One thousand four hundred and eighty women (82.2%) expressed their consent to participate in this study. A confidential, anonymous questionnaire was completed by the selected subjects assessing folic acid awareness. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centers and Women's Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements, pregnancy intention, and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Factors affecting study outcomes were examined individually by computing crude odd ratios and adjusted for other covariates using unconditional logistic regression. Out of 1480 women surveyed, 53.7% of them reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only half of the subjects knew that folate was something important. Overall, 20.3% of the respondents took folic acid. The most common information sources on folate were physicians (63.4%), and newspapers/magazine/books (21.7%). From those who heard of folate, only 14% knew that it can prevent birth defects. 40.6% of the subjects who heard folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, awareness of folic acid was significantly associated with education of mother. Again, higher

  4. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Aysan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs in the white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (: 0.0317, BAT (: 0.014, and SMT (: 0.0159 and UCP1 in BAT (: 0.026 were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1% while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, . Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  5. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  6. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  7. The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Hanbauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which α-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, whose activity is correlated to plasma triglyceride levels. In total liver lipid and phospholipid extracts, the sum of n-3 fatty acids and the individual longer carbon chain acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 were significantly decreased whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n6 was significantly increased. In addition, low n-3 fatty acid-fed mice had liver steatosis, heart, and kidney hypertrophy. Hence, reducing dietary α-linolenic acid, from 1.02 energy% to 0.16 energy% combined with raising linoleic acid intake resulted in obesity and had detrimental consequences on organ function.

  8. Intake of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to coronary calcification: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; Vliegenthart, P.R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification

  9. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  10. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  11. Biomarkers of fish oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Barazzoni, Rocco; Singer, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    A biomarker is a measured characteristic that may be used as an indicator of some biological state or condition. In health and disease, biomarkers have been used not only for clinical diagnosis purposes but also as tools to assess effectiveness of a nutrition or drug intervention. When considering nutrition studies, evaluating the appropriate biomarker is a useful tool to assess compliance and incidence of a particular dietary component in the biochemistry of the organism. Fish oil is rich in ω-3 fatty acids that have well-known beneficial effects on human health mainly through its anti-inflammatory properties. It has been widely use to improve health and as a nutrition supplement in different pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, neurological, and critically ill related diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels present in different biological moieties (plasma, cellular membranes, adipose tissue, etc) are the best biomarkers of fish oil intake. Each biological source of fatty acids has its own advantages and disadvantages, thus which biomarker to choose and where to measure it requires a comprehension of the objectives of the investigation. In this article we will review key facts about fish oil intake biomarkers to evaluate how components of a specific diet could be monitored and identified in biological samples. Having an accurate assessment of nutrition patterns could provide effective targets for intervention aimed at modifying eating habits and lifestyle towards the improvement of health.

  12. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of folic acid intake during preconception and in early pregnancy by mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Taiwo Akeem; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify targets for primary preventive strategies, we explored possible predictors of periconceptional folic acid (pFA) intake in a Nigerian population of reproductively active women. A cross sectional study of mothers attending immunization clinics at two hospitals was conducted between May and November 2012. Information obtained included sociodemographic and obstetric details and periconceptional usage of FA. Independent variables were analysed as predictors of pFA intake using chi-square statistical test and multinomial logistic regression. The study involved 602 mothers aged 17 to 42 years; 23% had a university degree and 66% were in the working class. Preconceptional usage was proven in only 15 (2.5%). Periconceptional usage was more likely among professionals (X2=41.194, pknowledge of its health benefits are poor amongst mothers--in working class, with limited education, and who present late for antenatal care.

  14. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  15. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  16. Reported Action to Decrease Sodium Intake Is Associated with Dining Out Frequency and Use of Menu Nutrition Information among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-08-03

    Restaurant foods have been shown to be high in sodium and limited sodium content information provided through menu nutrition information (MNI) is available at the point of purchase. Dining out and use of MNI are behaviors that can be altered by consumers who are trying to decrease their sodium intake. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reported consumer actions to decrease sodium intake and dining out frequency and awareness and use/or intended use of MNI. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from 5,588 US adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the 2013-2014 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey household interview. The main outcomes were dining out frequency and seeing MNI, using MNI if seen, or would use MNI if provided. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of consumers reporting and not reporting action to decrease sodium intake and the outcome measures. Reported consumer action to decrease sodium intake compared to no action was associated with an overall decreased dining out frequency of approximately one meal per week (mean±standard error=3.12±0.10 compared to 4.11±0.14; Pdecrease their sodium intake compared to those who were not for both fast-food or pizza establishments and restaurants with wait staff (odds ratio ranged from 1.17 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.32] to 2.24 [95% CI 1.82 to 2.76]; P values ranged from decrease sodium intake, consumers reporting actions indicate they dine out less frequently, specifically at fast-food or pizza restaurants and report they are more likely to use MNI. These results may inform the restaurant industry of the actions of a potentially growing consumer group and provide insights for future public health initiatives targeting population sodium reduction. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  18. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  19. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  20. Intake of trans fatty acids causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and reduces adipose tissue fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta M; Stefano, José T; Oliveira, Claudia P M S; Mello, Evandro S; Ferreira, Fabiana D; Nunes, Valeria S; de Lima, Vicência M R; Quintão, Eder C R; Catanozi, Sergio; Nakandakare, Edna R; Lottenberg, Ana Maria P

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  2. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

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    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  3. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

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    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  4. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  5. Fecal lactic acid bacteria increased in adolescents randomized to whole-grain but not refined-grain foods, whereas inflammatory cytokine production decreased equally with both interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Nieves, Carmelo; Culpepper, Tyler; Radford, Allyson; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Hughes, Christine; Christman, Mary C; Mai, Volker; Dahl, Wendy J; Boileau, Thomas; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Thielecke, Frank

    2012-11-01

    The intake of whole-grain (WG) foods by adolescents is reported to be approximately one-third the recommended intake of 48 g/d. This 6-wk randomized interventional study determined the effect of replacing grains within the diet with refined-grain (RG; n = 42) or WG (n = 41) foods/d on gastrointestinal and immune health in adolescents (aged 12.7 ± 0.1 y). A variety of grain-based foods were delivered weekly to participants and their families. Participants were encouraged to eat 3 different kinds of study foods (e.g., bread, cereals, snacks)/d with goals of 0 g/d (RG) and 80 g/d (WG). Stool samples were obtained during the prebaseline and final weeks to measure bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using qPCR. Stool frequency was recorded daily. Blood was drawn at baseline and at final visits for immune markers. Across groups, total-grain intake increased by one serving. The intake of WG was similar at baseline (18 ± 3 g) between groups but increased to 60 ± 5 g in the WG group and decreased to 4 ± 1 g in the RG group. Fecal bifidobacteria increased from baseline with both interventions, but LAB increased (P foods increased serum antioxidant concentrations and decreased inflammatory cytokine production; however, WG study foods had more of an effect on aspects of gastrointestinal health.

  6. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein 1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.

  7. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles.

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    Gözde Gürdeniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, 52 overweight postmenopausal women received either partially hydrogenated soybean oil, providing 15.7 g/day of TFA (trans18:1 or control oil with mainly oleic acid for 16 weeks. Subsequent to the intervention period, the subjects participated in a 12-week dietary weight loss program. Before and after the TFA intervention and after the weight loss programme, volunteers participated in an oral glucose tolerance test. PLSDA revealed elevated lipid profiles with TFA intake. NMR indicated up-regulated LDL cholesterol levels and unsaturation. LC-MS profiles demonstrated elevated levels of specific polyunsaturated (PUFA long-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs and a sphingomyelin (SM which were confirmed with a lipidomics based method. Plasma levels of these markers of TFA intake declined to their low baseline levels after the weight loss program for the TFA group and did not fluctuate for the control group. The marker levels were unaffected by OGTT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that intake of TFA affects phospholipid metabolism. The preferential integration of trans18:1 into the sn-1 position of PCs, all containing PUFA in the sn-2 position, could be explained by a general up-regulation in the formation of long-chain PUFAs after TFA intake and/or by specific mobilisation of these fats into PCs. NMR supported these findings by revealing increased unsaturation of plasma lipids in the TFA group. These specific changes in membrane lipid species may be related to the mechanisms of TFA-induced disease but

  8. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid and risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Rosner, Bernard A; Sastry, Srinivas M; Schaumberg, Debra A; Willett, Walter C

    2017-06-01

    Background: The relation between α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. European researchers reported that ≤40% of ALA can be present as trans forms.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between intake of ALA and intermediate and advanced AMD.Design: Seventy-five thousand eight hundred eighty-nine women from the Nurses' Health Study and 38,961 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were followed up from 1984 to 2012 and from 1986 to 2010, respectively. We assessed dietary intake by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 y thereafter. One thousand five hundred eighty-nine incident intermediate and 1356 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) were confirmed by medical record review.Results: The multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate AMD comparing ALA intake at the top quintile to the bottom quintile was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.56; P-trend = 0.01) in the analyses combining 2 cohorts. The HR in each cohort was in the positive direction but reached statistical significance only in the women. However, the positive association was apparent only in the pre-2002 era in each cohort and not afterward (P-time interaction = 0.003). ALA intake was not associated with advanced AMD in either time period. Using gas-liquid chromatography, we identified both cis ALA (mean ± SD: 0.13% ± 0.04%) and trans ALA isomers (0.05% ± 0.01%) in 395 erythrocyte samples collected in 1989-1990. In stepwise regression models, mayonnaise was the leading predictor of erythrocyte concentrations of cis ALA and one isomer of trans ALA. We also found trans ALA in mayonnaise samples.Conclusions: A high intake of ALA was associated with an increased risk of intermediate AMD before 2002 but not afterward. The period before 2002 coincides with the same time period when trans ALA was found in food and participants' blood; this finding deserves further study. © 2017

  9. Monounsaturated fatty acid, carbohydrate intake, and diabetes status are associated with arterial pulse pressure

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    Vaccaro Joan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global epidemic. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the most prevalent consequences of diabetes. Nutrition is considered a modifiable risk factor for CVD, particularly for individuals with diabetes; albeit, there is little consensus on the role of carbohydrates, proteins and fats for arterial health for persons with or without diabetes. In this study, we examined the association of macronutrients with arterial pulse pressure (APP, a surrogate measure of arterial health by diabetes status and race. Methods Participants were 892 Mexican Americans (MA, 1059 Black, non-Hispanics (BNH and 2473 White, non-Hispanics (WNH with and without diabetes of a weighted sample from the National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. The cross-sectional analysis was performed with IBM-SPSS version 18 with the complex sample analysis module. The two-year sample weight for the sub-sample with laboratory values was applied to reduce bias and approximate a nationally, representative sample. Arterial stiffness was assessed by arterial pulse pressure (APP. Results APP was higher for MA [B = 0.063 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.111, p = 0.013] and BNH [B = 0.044 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.082, p = 0.018] than WNH, controlling for diabetes, age, gender, body mass index (BMI, fiber intake, energy intake (Kcal and smoking. A two-way interaction of diabetes by carbohydrate intake (grams was inversely associated with APP [B = -1.18 (95% CI -0.178 to -0.058, p = 0.001], controlling for race, age, gender, BMI, Kcal and smoking. BNH with diabetes who consumed more mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than WNH with diabetes had lower APP [B = -0.112 (95%CI-0.179 to -0.045, p = 0.003] adjusting for saturated fatty acids, Kcal, age, gender, BMI and smoking. Conclusion Higher MUFA and carbohydrate intake for persons with diabetes reflecting lower APP may be due to replacement of saturated fats with CHO and MUFA. The associations of APP with

  10. Intake of small-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids is associated with peripheral leukocyte telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Song, Yiqing; Kang, Mo K; Hou, Lifang; Wallace, Robert; Eaton, Charles B; Tinker, Lesley F; Liu, Simin

    2013-06-01

    Dietary factors, including dietary fat, may affect the biological aging process, as reflected by the shortening of telomere length (TL), by affecting levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the direct relations of total and types of dietary fats and fat-rich foods to peripheral leukocyte TL. In 4029 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative, intakes of total fat, individual fatty acids, and fat-rich foods were assessed by a questionnaire. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intake of short-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SMSFAs; aliphatic tails of ≤ 12 carbons) was inversely associated with TL. Compared with participants in other quartiles of SMSFA intake, women who were in the highest quartile (median: 1.29% of energy) had shorter TLs [mean: 4.00 kb (95% CI: 3.89, 4.11 kb)], whereas women in the lowest quartile of intake (median: 0.29% of energy) had longer TLs [mean: 4.13 kb (95% CI: 4.03, 4.24 kb); P-trend = 0.046]. Except for lauric acid, all other individual SMSFAs were inversely associated with TL (P saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, we found that higher intakes of SMSFAs and SMSFA-rich foods were associated with shorter peripheral leukocyte TL among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest the potential roles of SMSFAs in the rate of biological aging.

  11. Reduced neural response to food cues following exercise is accompanied by decreased energy intake in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S N; Silvert, L; Keller, K L; Genin, P M; Morio, B; Pereira, B; Duclos, M; Boirie, Y; Thivel, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise has been found to favor a transient anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. Although the role of some gastro-peptides has been suggested as an explanation for this observed reduced energy intake after exercise, it is unknown whether neural pathways involved in the regulation of food intake are modulated in youth. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and aerobic capacities were assessed in 19 obese adolescent boys. Participants were randomized to remain at rest in a sitting position (CON condition) or to exercise 45 min at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX condition) by the end of the morning. An attentional computer task with electroencephalography recording was completed immediately after the exercise or sitting period to measure an event-related component (P3b) reflecting the level of cognitive engagement in the processing of food cues. A lunch test-meal was offered ad libitum and appetite feelings assessed at regular intervals using visual analog scales. The 45-min cycling exercise set at 65% VO2max induced a mean energy expenditure of 399±75 kcal. Both absolute (Pintake were significantly reduced after EX (1037±260 and 639±256 kcal, respectively) compared with CON (1116±243 and 1011±239 kcal, respectively). The energy ingested derived from each macronutrient and self-reported appetite remained unchanged. Although the amplitudes of the P3b component evoked by food and non-food visual stimuli were not significantly different during CON, the response to food cues was significantly reduced compared with non-food stimuli after exercise (Pfood cues compared with non-food ones in obese adolescents that may contribute to their subsequently reduced energy intake.

  12. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  13. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids increase plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin and may decrease premeal ghrelin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, B J; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2008-04-01

    Previous reports have indicated that dietary unsaturated fat can decrease energy intake of lactating dairy cattle. However, the mechanism for this response is unclear. To evaluate the potential role of gut peptides, periprandial concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and ghrelin were measured. From a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, 4 cows from a single square were selected for analysis of responses to 3 treatments: a control diet (5.5% total fatty acids, 65% unsaturated), a diet with added saturated fat (SAT, 8.3% fatty acids, 47% unsaturated), and a diet with added unsaturated fat (UNS, 7.8% fatty acids, 63% unsaturated). The SAT treatment increased duodenal flow of saturated fatty acids compared with UNS and control and, despite the fact that ruminal biohydrogenation altered fatty acid profiles of digesta, UNS increased duodenal flow of unsaturated fatty acids compared with SAT and control. Blood samples were collected at 8-min intervals through the first 2 meals of the day and analyzed by commercial radioimmunoassays. The UNS treatment increased plasma CCK concentration relative to SAT and control, and increased plasma GLP-1 concentration compared with control. Furthermore, fat treatments tended to suppress the prandial ghrelin surge that was evident for control. Suppression of feed intake by unsaturated fats is likely mediated in part by increased secretion of CCK and GLP-1, and dietary fat may also inhibit ghrelin release before conditioned meals.

  14. Lipid malnutrition of patients with liver cirrhosis: effect of low intake of dietary lipid on plasma fatty acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Misako

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma fatty acid composition of cirrhotic patients and their dietary intake of fatty acids were determined. Significantly lower plasma arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were observed in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls. A remarkably low dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied from fish, vegetable oil and pulses was shown in cirrhotic patients. Positive correlations were observed between plasma arachidonic acid concentrations and clearance rate of indocyanine green (KICG (r = 0.826, p less than 0.05 and between dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels and cholinesterase activities (r = 0.841, p less than 0.05. From these results, we conclude that a supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids is necessary for the nutritional treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  15. It is more important to increase the intake of unsaturated fats than to decrease the intake of saturated fats: evidence from clinical trials relating to ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M F

    1997-10-01

    The evidence from formal, controlled, long-term clinical trials that changes in dietary fats reduce the incidence of ischemic (coronary) heart disease (IHD) is unimpressive. Mostly these trials were underpowered and in several the rigor of dietary control in the intervention and control groups was inadequate. Six controlled clinical trials in healthy people of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol, also accompanied by changes in other risk factors, were unsuccessful in reducing the incidence of IHD. An exception was the Oslo trial in which concurrent cigarette smoking was almost halved. Similarly, in the only two clinical trials of the secondary prevention of IHD through use of diets low in saturated fats and cholesterol there was no significant effect on IHD recurrence rate. This may relate to poor compliance outside strict clinic conditions. In contrast, five of six secondary prevention trials in which diets low in saturated fats were supplemented with polyunsaturated fats reduced IHD deaths and, to a lesser extent, all-cause mortality. No formal trial has been reported of the effects on IHD of diets high in monounsaturated fats. The greatest benefit for patients with IHD has come from diets supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (two trials), and this benefit was independent of changes in plasma lipoproteins. The evidence from these clinical trials indicates that more emphasis should be given in national and international dietary recommendations to supplementation with polyunsaturated fats, particularly foods rich in n-3 fatty acids, than to diets low in total and saturated fats.

  16. [Folic acid and cobalamine intake in daily food rations of women from the region of Lower Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkowska, Monika; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2008-01-01

    The aim of paper was to assess the folic acid and cobalamine women (n = 960). The information about vitamins intake were collected using 24-hour recall and diet history questionnaire. The intake of vitamins folic acid and cobalamine was too low. The mean folic acid content in the diets of 100 women from Lower Silesia was 221.5 mcg and complied in 79% recommended level. The mean cobalamine content in the diets of 100 women from Lower Silesia was 2.9 mcg and complied in 97% recommended level. In examined group low knowledge about importance role of folic acid and cobalamine in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women and to increase its intake among them.

  17. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Hadis Sabour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods: Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results: Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score. The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively. Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores. Conclusions: We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD.

  18. Odd Chain Fatty Acids; New Insights of the Relationship Between the Gut Microbiota, Dietary Intake, Biosynthesis and Glucose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Benjamin J.; Seyssel, Kevin; Chiu, Sally; Pan, Pin-Ho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Stanley, Elizabeth; Ament, Zsuzsanna; West, James A.; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Vetter, Walter; Autio, Kaija J.; Hiltunen, Kalervo; Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Stepankova, Renata; Chen, Chun-Jung; Alligier, Maud; Laville, Martine; Moore, Mary; Kraft, Guillaume; Cherrington, Alan; King, Sarah; Krauss, Ronald M.; de Schryver, Evelyn; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Ronis, Martin; Koulman, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have shown an inverse association between circulating C15:0/C17:0 fatty acids with disease risk, therefore, their origin needs to be determined to understanding their role in these pathologies. Through combinations of both animal and human intervention studies, we comprehensively investigated all possible contributions of these fatty acids from the gut-microbiota, the diet, and novel endogenous biosynthesis. Investigations included an intestinal germ-free study and a C15:0/C17:0 diet dose response study. Endogenous production was assessed through: a stearic acid infusion, phytol supplementation, and a Hacl1−/− mouse model. Two human dietary intervention studies were used to translate the results. Finally, a study comparing baseline C15:0/C17:0 with the prognosis of glucose intolerance. We found that circulating C15:0/C17:0 levels were not influenced by the gut-microbiota. The dose response study showed C15:0 had a linear response, however C17:0 was not directly correlated. The phytol supplementation only decreased C17:0. Stearic acid infusion only increased C17:0. Hacl1−/− only decreased C17:0. The glucose intolerance study showed only C17:0 correlated with prognosis. To summarise, circulating C15:0 and C17:0 are independently derived; C15:0 correlates directly with dietary intake, while C17:0 is substantially biosynthesized, therefore, they are not homologous in the aetiology of metabolic disease. Our findings emphasize the importance of the biosynthesis of C17:0 and recognizing its link with metabolic disease. PMID:28332596

  19. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian

  20. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallard Simonette R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d. If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37% of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d. Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed

  1. Fish, n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake and breast cancer risk: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyabu, Grace Y; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-12-15

    Limited and inconsistent studies exist on the association between the intake of fish, n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n - 6 PUFA and breast cancer. Fish and n - 3 PUFA support various body functions and are thought to reduce the carcinogenesis risk while n - 6 PUFA may have a positive association with cancer risk. We examined the association between intake of fish, n - 3 PUFA [including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)] and n - 6 PUFA and breast cancer with subanalyses on estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. We investigated 38,234 Japanese women aged 45-74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study), and during 14.1 years of follow-up time, 556 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Breast cancer risk was not associated with the intake of total fish, n - 3 PUFA and n - 6 PUFA when analyzed in totality through multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time scale. Intake of total n - 6 was positively associated with the development of ER+PR+ tumors [multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1  = 2.94 (95% CI: 1.26-6.89; ptrend  = 0.02)]. Intake of EPA was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk for ER+PR+ tumors [multivariable-adjusted HR Q2 vs. Q1  = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.89; ptrend =0.47)]. While the overall association between the intake of total fish, n - 3 PUFA and n - 6 PUFA and breast cancer risk is null, for ER+PR+ tumors, a positive association was seen between n - 6 intake and breast cancer, and a marginally significant inverse association was observed for EPA intake.

  2. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  3. Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study : a prospective population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, C.M.; Ocké, M.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Erp-Baart, M.A. J. van; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the relation between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease is limited. We investigated this relation in a Dutch population with a fairly high trans fatty acid intake, including trans fatty acids from partly hydrogenated fish oils. Methods: We prospectively studie

  4. Folate/folic acid knowledge, intake, and self-efficacy of college-aged women: impact of text messaging and availability of a folic acid-containing supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C; Kauwell, Gail P A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. The protocol included 3 study visits and a 6-week intervention for 4 groups: control; TM only; supplement only; and TM+supplement. Supplement groups received folic acid-containing supplements. TM groups received 18 folate-related TMs. Participants completed knowledge quizzes, supplement intake questions, a self-efficacy scale, and dietary recalls. Despite receiving the same folic acid education, intake of folic acid and total folate was greater in the supplement groups compared with the non-supplement groups at mid- and post-study. TMs had no impact on any study measure. Provision of a folic acid-containing supplement enhanced short-term folic acid intake, supporting the provision of supplements to this population group.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children: The Ryukyus Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic disorders might be a consequence of increased intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and reduced intake of n-3 PUFAs. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between intake levels and the prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children. Methods Subjects were 23,388 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years residing in Okinawa. The presence of eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis was determined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A brief diet history questionnaire for children and adolescents was administered to acquire information on dietary factors. Adjustment was made for age, sex, residential municipality, number of siblings, smoking in the household, body mass index, paternal and maternal history of allergic diseases, and paternal and maternal educational level. Results The prevalences of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in the previous 12 months were 7.0% and 8.0%, respectively. Consumption of PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFAs, and linoleic acid was positively associated with the prevalence of eczema: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs between extreme quintiles (95% confidence intervals [CIs], P for trend were 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.04, 1.31 (1.11-1.54, 0.009, 1.31 (1.12-1.55, 0.003, 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.01, and 1.27 (1.08-1.49, 0.01, respectively. Arachidonic acid intake was independently inversely related to eczema: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.81 (0.69-0.95, 0.0008. Eczema was not associated with eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid intake, or with the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA intake. Only arachidonic acid intake was statistically significantly related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis, showing a clear inverse linear trend: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.86 (0.74-0.997, 0.03. Conclusions Consumption of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, especially

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children: the Ryukyus Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-05-21

    The recent increase in the prevalence of allergic disorders might be a consequence of increased intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and reduced intake of n-3 PUFAs. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between intake levels and the prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children. Subjects were 23,388 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years residing in Okinawa. The presence of eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis was determined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A brief diet history questionnaire for children and adolescents was administered to acquire information on dietary factors. Adjustment was made for age, sex, residential municipality, number of siblings, smoking in the household, body mass index, paternal and maternal history of allergic diseases, and paternal and maternal educational level. The prevalences of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in the previous 12 months were 7.0% and 8.0%, respectively. Consumption of PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFAs, and linoleic acid was positively associated with the prevalence of eczema: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between extreme quintiles (95% confidence intervals [CIs], P for trend) were 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.04), 1.31 (1.11-1.54, 0.009), 1.31 (1.12-1.55, 0.003), 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.01), and 1.27 (1.08-1.49, 0.01), respectively. Arachidonic acid intake was independently inversely related to eczema: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.81 (0.69-0.95, 0.0008). Eczema was not associated with eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid intake, or with the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA intake. Only arachidonic acid intake was statistically significantly related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis, showing a clear inverse linear trend: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.86 (0.74-0.997, 0.03). Consumption of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, especially α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, may be positively

  7. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major a

  8. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

     To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide.  Global modeling study.  183 countries.  Full adult population in each country.  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years.  Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world

  9. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Design Global modeling study. Setting 183 countries. Population Full adult population in each country. Intervention A “soft regulation” national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Results Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction

  10. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  11. Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssten, Sofia D; Korczyńska, Marta Z; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Noordman, Wouter H; Madetoja, Mari; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2013-12-01

    A negative energy balance can be accomplished by reducing the caloric intake which results in an increased feeling of hunger. This physiological state is regulated by secretion of satiety hormones. The secretion of these hormones can be influenced by ingestion of e.g. fat. Fat, dairy beverage and synbiotic mixture have been found to have satiety-inducing effects in humans and rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the change of satiety hormone concentration in rats in response to feeding of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria. Two studies were conducted with Wistar rats randomly allocated into groups receiving Lactobacillus fermented (2 L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus) milk. A single isocaloric oral dose with the test item or control was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken after dosing with the test product and the satiety hormones were measured. For the test groups, significant changes could be detected in PYY concentrations after 60 min, although some groups had a significant lower feed intake. In conclusion, some probiotic Lactobacillus strains may modify satiety hormones production. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their potential of prolonging satiety.

  12. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA, which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men, but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL. In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  13. Treatment of genetically obese mice with the iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin reduces body weight by decreasing food intake and increasing fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Bijl, Nora; Bijland, Silvia; van Roomen, Cindy P; Houben-Weerts, Judith H; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Houten, Sander M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Romijn, Johannes A; Groen, Albert K; Aerts, Johannes M; Voshol, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on substrate oxidation patterns, food intake, and body weight gain in obese mice. Eight ob/ob mice treated with 100 mg/(kg d) AMP-DNM mixed in the food and 8 control ob/ob mice were placed in metabolic cages during the first, third, and fifth week of the experiment for measurement of substrate oxidation rates, energy expenditure, activity, and food intake. Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment. Initiation of treatment with AMP-DNM resulted in a rapid increase in fat oxidation by 129% (P = .05), a decrease in carbohydrate oxidation by 35% (P = .01), and a reduction in food intake by approximately 26% (P fat oxidation rates, increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a expression. Treatment with AMP-DNM increased plasma levels of the appetite-regulating peptide YY compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM rapidly reduces food intake and increases fat oxidation, resulting in improvement of the obese phenotype. These features of AMP-DNM, together with its insulin-sensitizing capacity, make it an attractive candidate drug for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of Trans-Fatty Acid Intake to Coronary Heart Disease Burden in Australia: A Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Y. Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs intake has been consistently associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. We provided an updated assessment of TFA intake in Australian adults in 2010 and conducted modeling to estimate CHD mortality attributable to TFA intake. Data of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was used to assess TFA intake. The CHD burden attributable to TFA was calculated by comparing the current level of TFA intake to a counterfactual setting where consumption was lowered to a theoretical minimum distribution of 0.5% energy. The average TFA intake among adults was 0.59% energy, and overall 10% of adults exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO recommended limit of 1% energy. Education and income were moderately and inversely associated with TFA intake (p-value ≤ 0.001, with one in seven adults in the lowest income and education quintile having >1% energy from TFA. Australia had 487 CHD deaths (95% uncertainty interval, 367–615 due to TFA exposure, equivalent to 1.52% (95% uncertainty limits: 1.15%–1.92% of all CHD mortality. The relative impact of TFA exposure on CHD mortality in Australia is limited, but, in absolute terms, still substantial. Policies aimed at reducing industrial TFA exposure can reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health and may therefore be desirable.

  15. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  16. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids reflect intakes of saturated and n-6 PUFA within a similar time frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Leanne; Eyles, Helen C; McLachlan, Kirsten J; Bell, Melanie L; Green, Timothy J; Skeaff, C Murray

    2014-01-01

    Erythrocytes, compared with plasma, are considered more robust markers of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, because dietary-induced change in fatty acid (FA) composition takes longer to complete. The extent to which this applies to intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) or n-6 PUFA is unclear. We compared the pattern of change over time in the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, buccal cell, and adipose tissue lipids when changing between diets high in SFA or n-6 PUFA. Twenty-four (n = 7 male) healthy participants were instructed to consume either an SFA-rich (18% energy) or n-6 PUFA-rich (10% energy) diet for 8 wk before crossing over, without washout, to the alternate diet. The FA composition of plasma triacylglycerol (TG), nonesterified FAs, cholesterol ester, total phospholipids, erythrocyte total phospholipids, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine, and buccal cell total phospholipids was measured every 2 wk and adipose tissue TG every 4 wk during the 16-wk intervention. Linoleic acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, and buccal cell lipids increased (P acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte lipids; however, the pentadecanoic acid composition of buccal cell lipids did not differ between the diet periods. There were no differences in linoleic or pentadecanoic acid composition of adipose tissue TG. These results suggest plasma and erythrocyte FAs reflect intakes of SFA and n-6 PUFA over a similar period of time.

  17. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Zhao, Yu; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-05-01

    Sigma-Receptors (SigRs) have been implicated in behavioral and appetitive effects of psychostimulants and may also modulate the motivating properties of ethanol. This study tested the hypothesis that SigRs modulate ethanol reinforcement and contribute to excessive ethanol intake. The effects of subcutaneous treatment with the potent, selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on operant ethanol self-administration were studied in two models of excessive drinking-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats and acutely withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats-and compared to ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of BD-1063 on self-administration of an equally reinforcing saccharin solution were determined in Wistar and sP rats. Gene expression of Sig-1R in reward-related brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was compared between ethanol-naive sP and Wistar rats and withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. BD-1063 dose dependently reduced ethanol self-administration in sP rats (3.3-11 mg/kg) and withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats (4-11 mg/kg) at doses that did not modify mean ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. BD-1063 did not reduce concurrent water self-administration and did not comparably suppress saccharin self-administration, suggesting selectivity of action. BD-1063 also reduced the breakpoints of sP rats to work for ethanol under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule. Ethanol-naive sP rats and 24-h withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. The results suggest that SigR systems may contribute to innate or ethanol-induced increases in susceptibility to self-administer high ethanol levels, identifying a potential neuroadaptive mechanism contributing to excessive drinking and a therapeutic target for alcohol abuse and dependence.

  18. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10......,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within...

  19. Fatty acid dietary intake and the risk of ischaemic stroke: a multicentre case-control study. UFA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Celani, M G; Righetti, E; Caruso, A; De Medio, G; Trovarelli, G; Romoli, S; Stragliotto, E; Spizzichino, L

    1997-06-01

    A low dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids has been found in male patients with stroke as compared with controls in Italy, and a high consumption of meat has been associated with an increased risk of stroke in Australia. We present a case-control study, comparing the unsaturated and saturated fatty acids content of red cell membranes (which reflects the dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats) in 89 patients with ischaemic stroke and 89 controls matched for age and sex. In univariate analysis, besides hypertension, atrial fibrillation, ischaemic changes in ECG and hypercholesterolaemia, stroke patients showed a lower level of oleic acid (P = 0.000), but a higher level of eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.009). Conditional logistic regression (dependent variable; being a case) showed that the best model included atrial fibrillation, hypertension, oleic acid and eicosatrienoic acids. These results confirm a possible protective role of unsaturated fatty acids against vascular diseases; however, we did not find any difference in the content of omega3 acids, which have been considered in the past to protect against coronary heart disease. We conclude that the preceding diet of patients with ischaemic stroke may be poor in unsaturated fatty acids (namely, oleic acid), and this defect is independent of other vascular risk factors. Only further studies will show whether changes in diet and/or supplement of unsaturated fatty acids might reduce the incidence of ischaemic stroke.

  20. Knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women towards folic acid intake for neural tube defect prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Sepideh Bakhshande; Sedehi, Maliheh; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women regarding periconceptional folic acid intake for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. The population-based study was done on 676 primiparous women in an urban area in Golestan province in northern Iran from June to November, 2008. A questionnaire was completed by the subjects regarding their knowledge of folic acid. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centres, private gynaecological clinic and the Dezyani Gynaecologic and Obstetric Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Out of the 676 women surveyed, 96.2% reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only 27.6% knew that folate was something important in the prevention of neural tube defects. Overall, 20.12% of the total women took folic acid during periconceptional period. The most common information sources on folate were healthcare service (54.5%). Besides, 37.6% of the subjects who heard about folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, knowledge and intake of folic acid was not associated with education and the age of women. A healthcare plan for intervention to increase the knowledge and intake of folic acid by pregnant women during the protective period is required.

  1. [Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects: awareness and folate intake among pregnant women in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Shimosuga, Yoichi; Oguchi, Hidenori; Shibata, Kanemitsu; Kurauchi, Osamu; Ichiko, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiromi; Tada, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Manshou; Kaseki, Nariaki; Narita, Osamu; Kusanishi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Ooura, Kuniaki; Takemura, Masahiko; Watanabe, Takanori; Ishihara, Osamu; Takeda, Akihiro; Watanabe, Junichiro; Wakita, Katsuji; Itoh, Kunihiko; Katoh, Sentoyo; Koyama, Masayasu; Oota, Shunji; Ninomiya, Keiu; Matsuzawa, Katsuji; Hujishima, Yoshiko; Ishida, Shoutarou; Okai, Ikuyo; Hayakawa, Chisa; Gotoh, Tohru

    2008-08-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in proliferating cells and tissues of the fetus. A randomized control trial demonstrated in 1991 that 4 mg of folic acid supplements successfully prevented 72% of recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in women who had had afflicted pregnancy. In 2000, the Japanese Government recommended women of childbearing age to take 400 microgram of folate supplements per day from 4 weeks prior to and 12 weeks after conception. A questionnaire study was performed in pregnant women by post on their awareness of the role folic acid plays, their life style, and folate intake by dietary consumption. Thirty-five percent of 1,251 pregnant women were aware of the important role of folic acid in the critical stage of fetal development and 31% actually took the supplement. Information on folic acid was obtained through mass media in 47% of the women, through the internet in 17%, through healthcare providers in 13% and so forth. The food record analysis revealed that the dietary intake of folic acid averaged 341 microg/day that was 60 microg less than what was recommended by the Government and that 33 of 86 women took the supplement. Overall, a half of pregnant women are required to take 400 microg folate supplement per day. It is to be stressed that primary prevention of NTDs by periconceptional intake of folic acid is a major public health opportunity and that prevention is more important than cure in the management of NTDs.

  2. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  3. Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-04-01

    Membrane phospholipids make up a substantial portion of the human brain, and changes in their amount and composition are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the changes that phospholipids undergo during normal adult aging. This study examined changes in phospholipid composition in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over the adult life span. The largest age-related changes were an increase in the abundance of both mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6 by approximately one-third from age 20 to 100 years and a 25% decrease in mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_20:4. Generally, increases were seen with age in phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid across both membrane fractions, whereas phospholipids containing either arachidonic or adrenic acid decreased with age. These findings suggest a gradual change in membrane lipid composition over the adult life span.

  4. Low Na intake suppresses expression of CYP2C23 and arachidonic acid-induced inhibition of ENaC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Tong; Babilonia, Elisa; Wang, Zhijian; Jin, Yan; Kemp, Rowena; Nasjletti, Alberto; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2006-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that arachidonic acid (AA) inhibits epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase-dependent pathway (34). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low Na intake suppresses the expression of CYP2C23, which is mainly responsible for converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) in the kidney (11) and attenuates the AA-induced inhibition of ENaC. Immunostaining showed that CYP2C23 is expressed in the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP)-positive and aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-positive tubules. This suggests that CYP2C23 is expressed in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and collecting duct (CD). Na restriction significantly suppressed the expression of CYP2C23 in the TAL and CD. Western blot also demonstrated that the expression of CYP2C23 in renal cortex and outer medulla diminished in rats on Na-deficient diet (Na-D) but increased in those on high-Na diet (4%). Moreover, the content of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) decreased in the isolated cortical CD from rats on Na-D compared with those on a normal-Na diet (0.5%). Patch-clamp study showed that application of 15 microM AA inhibited the activity of ENaC by 77% in the CCD of rats on a Na-D for 3 days. However, the inhibitory effect of AA on ENaC was significantly attenuated in rats on Na-D for 14 days. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP epoxygenase with MS-PPOH increased the ENaC activity in the CCD of rats on a control Na diet. We also used microperfusion technique to examine the effect of MS-PPOH on Na transport in the distal nephron. Application of MS-PPOH significantly increased Na absorption in the distal nephron of control rats but had no significant effect on Na absorption in rats on Na-D for 14 days. We conclude that low Na intake downregulates the activity and expression of CYP2C23 and attenuates the inhibitory effect of AA on Na transport.

  5. Experimental warming decreases the average size and nucleic acid content of marine bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Megan Huete-Stauffer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6ºC range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively. Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 µm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per ºC. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and nucleic acid content compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  6. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  7. Serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a short-term marker of dairy food intake, is inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes and its underlying disorders123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that dairy consumption is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk. However, observational studies have reported inconsistent results, and few have examined dairy's association with the underlying disorders of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Objective: We investigated the association of the dairy fatty acid biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and trans-palmitoleic acid (trans 16:1n−7) with type 2 diabetes traits by evaluating 1) prospective associations with incident diabetes after 5 y of follow-up and 2) cross-sectional associations with directly measured insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Design: The study analyzed 659 adults without diabetes at baseline from the triethnic multicenter Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Diabetes status was assessed by using oral-glucose-tolerance tests. Frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests measured insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function [disposition index (DI)]. Serum fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Results: Serum 15:0 was a significant biomarker for total dairy intake in the IRAS cohort. It was associated with a decreased incident diabetes risk (OR: 0.73, P = 0.02) and was positively associated with log SI (β: 0.84, P = 0.03) and log DI (β: 2.21, P = 0.02) in fully adjusted models. trans 16:1n−7 was a marker of total partially hydrogenated dietary fat intake and was not associated with outcomes in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Serum 15:0, a marker of short-term intake of this fatty acid, was inversely associated with diabetes risk in this multiethnic cohort. This study may contribute to future recommendations regarding the benefits of dairy products on type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:25411288

  8. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M

    2017-03-06

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18-25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10(-4)) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  9. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  10. Intake of folic acid by Polish women with higher education - a survey research: can we do more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowska-Kuncman, Malwina; Zasina-Olaszek, Dorota; Łukasz, Kuncman; Niedźwiecka, Marta; Szaflik, Krzysztof; Maroszyńska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine efficacy of the Primary Prevention Program of Neural Tube Defects in Polish women with higher education in 5-year interval. Survey research was conducted twice (in 2008 and 2013) in 630 female students of universities: 305 female medical students and 325 female non-medical students. The survey was also done among women aged 27- 35 who graduated from medical or non-medical universities and have at least one child. Questions concerned knowledge about prophylaxis and periconceptional folic acid intake. Chi square test was used to assess the significance. Knowledge concerning prophylaxis was significantly higher in female medical students comparing to non-medical ones, both in 2008 (p folic acid intake. Awareness of female non-medical students was lower (2008 - 35.3% and 2013 - 41.1%) and did not change in the 5-year long period (p = 0.3). There was no significant difference in preconceptional folic acid intake among mothers with medical and non-medical education (53.3% vs. 45% p = 0.4). However, the highest folic acid intake was among mothers -medical doctors who treat children with neural tube defect. Difference between medical and non-medical students shows that better educational programs may improve knowledge about prophylaxis. Aside from knowledge, compliance with recommendations of Primary Prevention Program of Neural Tube Defects is unsatisfactory.

  11. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Zerbi, V.; Wiesmann, M.; Noordman, R.H.J.; Bolijn, S.; Mutsaers, M.P.C.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Gross, G.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Wieling, P.Y.; Kilian, A.

    2016-01-01

    orldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid

  12. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Zerbi, V.; Wiesmann, M.; Noordman, R.H.J.; Bolijn, S.; Mutsaers, M.P.C.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Gross, G.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Wieling, P.Y.; Kilian, A.

    2016-01-01

    orldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid

  13. Lithium Decreases Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in a Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Paffenroth, Elizabeth; Austin, Elizabeth V; Glebov, Konstantin; Lewis, Diana; Walter, Jochen; Messing, Albee

    2015-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by elevated levels of GFAP and the formation of protein aggregates, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. Lithium has previously been shown to decrease protein aggregates by increasing the autophagy pathway for protein degradation. In addition, lithium has also been reported to decrease activation of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a regulator of GFAP transcription and astrogliogenesis. Here we tested whether lithium treatment would decrease levels of GFAP in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Mice with the Gfap-R236H point mutation were fed lithium food pellets for 4 to 8 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with LiCl at 0.5% in food pellets decreased GFAP protein and transcripts in several brain regions, although with mild side effects and some mortality. Extending the duration of treatment to 8 weeks resulted in higher mortality, and again with a decrease in GFAP in the surviving animals. Indicators of autophagy, such as LC3, were not increased, suggesting that lithium may decrease levels of GFAP through other pathways. Lithium reduced the levels of phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting this as one pathway mediating the effects on GFAP. In conclusion, lithium has the potential to decrease GFAP levels in Alexander disease, but with a narrow therapeutic window separating efficacy and toxicity.

  14. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients.

  16. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  17. The emulsified lipid Fabuless (Olibra) does not decrease food intake but suppresses appetite when consumed with yoghurt but not alone or with solid foods: a food effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y-K; Strik, C M; Budgett, S C; McGill, A-T; Proctor, J; Poppitt, S D

    2012-02-01

    The lipid emulsion Fabuless (Olibra) has been shown in some studies to decrease short/medium term energy intake (EI) and prevent weight regain. The purported mechanism is the ileal brake. Whether Fabuless is efficacious under a range of dietary conditions is unknown since studies have administered the emulsion within a fermented, semi-liquid dairy yoghurt, and outcomes have been inconsistent. To determine whether Fabuless suppresses post-ingestive satiety and short-term food intake under a range of dietary conditions and forms we administered the emulsion co-presented with 185 mL water, stirred into a semi-liquid dairy yoghurt, and co-presented with a solid food breakfast muffin. This was a cross-over study in 18 lean men randomised to 6 treatments: (i) lipid emulsion, LE (15 g Fabuless, containing 4.2g lipid, 0.2 MJ)+water, (ii) lipid control, LC (15 g non-emulsified lipid/water, containing 4.2g lipid, 0.2 MJ)+water, (iii) lipid emulsion+yoghurt, LE+Y (1.2 MJ), (iv) lipid control+yoghurt, LC+Y (1.2 MJ), (v) lipid emulsion+muffin, LE+M (1.2 MJ), (vi) lipid control+muffin, LC+M (1.2 MJ), each given as a test breakfast at 8.30 am. Participants rated postprandial appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS), and ad libitum energy intake was measured at a lunch meal 3.5h later. The lipid emulsion increased fullness compared with an energy-matched lipid control but only when administered within the semi-liquid fermented yoghurt (P<0.05). There were no effects on satiety ratings when co-presented with water or with the solid food muffin. Energy and macronutrient intake were not significantly decreased by any of the emulsion treatments. We conclude that effects are small, the format in which lipid emulsions are consumed influences postprandial satiety, and there is no evidence that this emulsion alters eating behaviour at the subsequent meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  19. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  20. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  1. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids.

  3. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  5. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-19

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  6. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  7. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  8. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013.

  9. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  10. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  11. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  12. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  13. Benefit-risk ratio of canned pacific saury (Cololabis saira) intake: Essential fatty acids vs. heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, O V; Sushchik, N N; Makhutova, O N; Kalachova, G S; Gribovskaya, I V; Morgun, V N; Gladyshev, M I

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acid (FA) and element contents were studied in 14 brands of canned (in its own juice and with sunflower oil) saury (Cololabis saira), a popular product of Russian market. Canned saury is a valuable source of essential polyunsaturated FA - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). To obtain personal daily dose of EPA + DHA of 1 g for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, neural and inflammatory disorders one needs to intake from 26 to 76 g of canned saury, as was calculated for studied brands. ICP-OES analysis of 24 elements showed that Pb concentration in one brand and Cd content in most of studied saury samples exceeded standards for fish meat established by the European Commission. However, values of hazard quotient, HQEFA, which estimate benefit-risk ratio of fish intake, indicate that canned saury is safe product for human nutrition.

  14. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  15. Decreased solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers by humic acids under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lin, Jianfeng; Liang, Wei; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2016-11-01

    Pu(IV) polymer has a very low solubility (log[Pu(IV)aq]total = -10.4 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). However, some aspects of their environmental fate remain unclear. Humic acids are able to complex with Pu4+ ions and their dissolved species (EDTA ligands. In contrast, the dissolved humic acids did not solubilize the polymers but in fact decreased their solubility by one order of magnitude. The humic coatings were responsible for the decreased solubilization. Such coatings limited the contact between the polymers and EDTA ligands, especially at the relatively high concentrations of humic acids (>0.57 mg/L). Solubilization of the humic-coated polymers was thus inhibited to a significant extent although EDTA, having the great complexation ability, was present in the humic solutions. Reduction of Pu(IV) polymers by the humic acids was also not observed in the absence of EDTA. In the presence of EDTA, the polymers were partially reduced to Pu(III)aq by the humic acids of 0.57 mg/L and the percentage of Pu(III)aq accounted for 51.7% of the total aqueous Pu. This demonstrates that the humic acids were able to reduce the aqueous Pu(IV), instead of the polymeric Pu(IV). Such a demonstration is supported by the very positive redox potential of aqueous Pu(IV)-EDTA complex: Eho ‧ (PuL24-/PuL25-) = 154.3 mV >>Eh (PuO2 (am) /Pu3+) = -182.7 mV calculated at 10-10 mol/L Pu3+ and pH 7.2. At the higher humic concentrations (>0.57 mg/L), the polymers were reduced to a lesser extent because the much denser humic coatings resulted in lower concentrations of the aqueous Pu(IV). Consequently, humic acids make Pu(IV) polymers pretty stable unless the artificial ligands such as EDTA are present in the groundwater.

  16. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food IntakeBrown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Amanda C.; Williams, Lynda M.; Wahle, Klaus W.; Jung-Heun Ha; Shabina Bashir; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Alan A. Sneddon; D. Vernon Rayner

    2009-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression ...

  17. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  18. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elisângela Olegário; Gerez, Juliana Rubira; do Carmo Drape, Thalisie; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM), and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83%) and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3%) expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7%) and Cox-2 (48%) expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47%) compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  19. Lipase inhibitor orlistat decreases incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Oliveira, Manuel; Pescia, Grégory; Moulin, Julie; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Orlistat is a gastric and pancreatic lipases inhibitor that is often prescribed to obese subjects. Orlistat has been shown to decrease the absorption of biologically important lipophilic micronutrients such as liposoluble vitamins. We hypothesized that long-term administration of orlistat may lower the incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in blood lipids and tissues. This hypothesis was tested in rats fed a diet supplemented with fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental high-fat diets containing fish oil (control diet) or fish oil plus orlistat (200 and 400 mg/kg of diet) over the course of 3 weeks. Fat absorption and the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, among other fatty acids, in red blood cells, plasma, liver, and spleen, were measured at the end of the experimental period. The results show that at 200 mg and 400 mg/kg of diet orlistat lowers fat absorption by 9% (P = .008) and 54% (P = .008). Orlistat given at the higher level induced a reduction of the incorporation of EPA in red blood cell (-45%; P = .006) and in plasma (-34%; P = .026) compared to the control group. Our results confirmed that administration of orlistat reduces incorporation of n-3 LC-PUFA in blood lipids and tissues in a rat model.

  20. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: polyacrylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankur J; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-04-20

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clearance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of apparent viscosity (eta) and complex modulus (G*) were found to be the most useful parameters in the identification of polyacrylic acid formulations capable of decreasing mucociliary transport rate (MTR). A narrow range of eta and G* values suitable for reducing mucociliary clearance, while remaining sufficiently fluid for intranasal administration, were identified. The correlations between the rheologic parameters of the polycarbophil gels and their mucociliary transport rates were used to identify other polyacrylic acid gels that also had suitable mucociliary clearance properties, demonstrating that these parameters can be used to direct the optimization of formulations using simple in vitro rheologic testing.

  1. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  2. Metabolite Profiling for Leaf Senescence in Barley Reveals Decreases in Amino Acids and Glycolysis Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a long developmental phase important for plant performance and nutrient management. Cell constituents are recycled in old leaves to provide nutrients that are redistributed to the sink organs. Up to now, metabolomic changes during leaf senescence have been mainly studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.. The metabolite profiling conducted in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during primary leaf senescence under two nitrate regimes and in flag leaf shows that amino acids, hexose, sucrose and glycolysis intermediates decrease during senescence, while minor carbohydrates accumulate. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA compounds changed with senescence only in primary leaves. The senescence-related metabolite changes in the flag leaf were globally similar to those observed in primary leaves. The effect of senescence on the metabolite changes of barley leaves was similar to that previously described in Arabidopsis except for sugars and glycolysis compounds. This suggests a different role of sugars in the control of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis and in barley.

  3. Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mary; Moss, Charlotte; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bottin, Jeanne; Frost, Gary

    2016-10-01

    With ageing there is frequently a loss of appetite, termed anorexia of ageing, which can result in under-nutrition. We do not know how appetite control alters with ageing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in the release of, and response to, gastrointestinal appetite hormones is altered in young compared to old healthy volunteers. We hypothesised that an increase in PYY and GLP-1 or a decrease ghrelin may result in a decreased appetite. A comparative experimental design, using a cross-sectional sample of ages from a healthy population, matched for sex and BMI was used. The study compared total ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and subjective appetite responses to ingestion of a standardised 2781kj (660 kcal) test meal. 31 female volunteers aged between 21 and 92yrs took part. Multiple linear regression showed that both age and sex had an independent effect on energy intake. Subjective appetite scores showed that hunger, pleasantness to eat, and prospective food intake were significantly lower in the older age groups. PYY incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was greater in the oldest old compared to younger ages f(3,27) = 2.9, p = 0.05. No differences in GLP-1, ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin were observed in the older compared to younger age groups. Our data suggest that there may be increases in postprandial PYY(3-36) levels in female octogenarians, potentially resulting in reduced appetite. There does not appear to be any change in ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin concentrations with ageing.

  4. XANTHINE OXYDASE INHIBITION OF KOMBUCHA TEA IN HYPERURICEMIA INDUCED WISTAR RAT: decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. M. Sukrama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia is a condition of high level of uric acid in the body due to distortion of purine nucleoside metabolism through hipoxanthin, xanthin, and guanin of basic purine. Objective: to find a cure of hyperuricemia base on the utilization of kombucha tea. Methods: This is a true experimental study by applying posttest only control group design to determine whether kombucha tea inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat reveales by decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. In this study, hyperuricemia rat was achieved by intake of high purine diet. Rats were fed with a mixture of 4 g/kg BW of Gnetum gnemon with 50 mL/kg BW of chicken liver ad libitum for 9 days. Treatments in this research are combination of fermentation time of Kombucha tea and volume of this tea, i.e fermentation time 4, 8, and 12 days and the volume are 1 mL and 4 mL. Therefore, there would be seven groups of treatment including control group. ANOVA was then applied to determine the treatment effect with p < 0.05 was concidered significant. Results: This study indicates that kombucha tea has an ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat and decrease uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG. This ability was achieved with combination treatment of 12 days fermentation and 4 mL of kombucha intake. Xanthine oxidase, uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG levels by this treatment were obtained significantly lower compare to control group. Conclusion: This study proved that kombucha tea was potent to cure hyperuricemia of wistar rat via inhibition of xanthine oxidase produced.

  5. Tranexamic Acid Decreases Incidence of Blood Transfusion in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagsby, Deren T; Samujh, Christopher A; Vissing, Jacqueline L; Empson, Janene A; Pomeroy, Donald L; Malkani, Arthur L

    2015-12-01

    Blood management for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is more challenging than in unilateral arthroplasty. We examined if administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA would reduce blood loss and decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. A retrospective review of 103 patients, 57 in the control and 46 in the TXA group, was performed. There was higher postoperative day 1 hemoglobin in patients receiving TXA (2.95±1.33 versus 4.33±1.19, Ptransfusion incidence with administration of TXA (17.4% versus 57.9%, Ptransfusion rates by almost 70% in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  6. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation and reduces energy intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Gudrun; Arnold, Myrtha; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Turnbull, Andrew V; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-05-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding-16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eating-inhibitory effect.

  7. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and incident stroke and coronary heart disease in Japanese communities: the JPHC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Saito, Isao; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Junko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-04-01

    Aims Although dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered atherogenic, associations between SFAs intake and stroke and coronary heart disease are still debated. We sought to test the hypothesis that SFA intake is associated inversely with risk of stroke and its subtypes and positively with coronary heart disease among Japanese, whose average SFA intake is lower than that of Westerners. Methods and results The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study involves two subcohorts: Cohort I, aged 45-64 in 1995 and followed-up through 2009, and Cohort II, aged 45-74 in 1998 and followed-up through 2007. A total of 38 084 men and 43 847 women were included in this report. Hazards ratios for incident total stroke, ischaemic stroke, intraparhenchymal haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death across quintiles of dietary SFAs were examined. We found inverse associations between SFA intake and total stroke [multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest vs. lowest quintiles = 0.77 (0.65-0.93), trend P = 0.002], intraparenchymal haemorrhage [0.61 (0.43-0.86), P for trend = 0.005], and ischaemic stroke [0.84 (0.67-1.06), trend P = 0.08], primarily for deep intraparenchymal haemorrhage [0.67 (0.45-0.99), P for trend = 0.04] and lacunar infarction [0.75 (0.53, 1.07), trend P = 0.02]. We also observed a positive association between SFAs intake and myocardial infarction [1.39 (0.93-2.08), trend P = 0.046] primarily among men. No associations were observed between SFAs intake and incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage or sudden cardiac death. Conclusions In this Japanese population, SFAs intake was inversely associated with deep intraparenchymal haemorrhage and lacunar infarction and positively associated with myocardial infarction.

  8. Ozone oxidation of oleic acid surface films decreases aerosol cloud condensation nuclei activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-08-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of aerosols composed of pure oleic acid (C18H34O2, an unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in continental and marine aerosol) by gas-phase O3 is known to increase aerosol hygroscopicity and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Whether this trend is preserved when the oleic acid is internally mixed with other electrolytes is unknown and addressed in this study. We quantify the CCN activity of sodium salt aerosols (NaCl and Na2SO4) internally mixed with sodium oleate (SO) and oleic acid (OA). We find that particles containing roughly one monolayer of SO/OA show similar CCN activity to pure salt particles, whereas a tenfold increase in organic concentration slightly depresses CCN activity. O3 oxidation of these multicomponent aerosols has little effect on the critical diameter for CCN activation for unacidified particles at all conditions studied, and the activation kinetics of the CCN are similar in each case to those of pure salts. SO-containing particles which are acidified to atmospherically relevant pH before analysis in order to form oleic acid, however, show depressed CCN activity upon oxidation. This effect is more pronounced at higher organic concentrations. The behavior after oxidation is consistent with the disappearance of the organic surface film, supported by Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA). The κ-Köhler calculations show a small decrease in hygroscopicity after oxidation. The important implication of this finding is that oxidative aging may not always enhance the hygroscopicity of internally mixed inorganic-organic aerosols.

  9. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  10. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors.

  11. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, A; Calomme, M; Timchenko, A; De Paepe, K; Paepe, K De; Demeester, N; Rogiers, V; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D

    2005-10-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin to sunlight causes damage to the underlying connective tissue with a loss of elasticity and firmness. Silicon (Si) was suggested to have an important function in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to increase the hydroxyproline concentration in the dermis of animals. The effect of ch-OSA on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with photodamaged facial skin were administered orally during 20 weeks, 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA pellets (n=25) or a placebo (n=25). Noninvasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief (forearm), hydration (forearm) and mechanical anisotropy (forehead). Volunteers evaluated on a virtual analog scale (VAS, "none=0, severe=3") brittleness of hair and nails. The serum Si concentration was significantly higher after a 20-week supplementation in subjects with ch-OSA compared to the placebo group. Skin roughness parameters increased in the placebo group (Rt:+8%; Rm: +11%; Rz: +6%) but decreased in the ch-OSA group (Rt: -16%; Rm: -19%; Rz: -8%). The change in roughness from baseline was significantly different between ch-OSA and placebo groups for Rt and Rm. The difference in longitudinal and lateral shear propagation time increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA group suggesting improvement in isotropy of the skin. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores. Oral intake of ch-OSA during the 20 weeks results in a significant positive effect on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on brittleness of hair and nails.

  12. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  13. Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2014-12-01

    The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than

  14. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  15. The toxicity and decreased concentration of aflatoxin B in natural lactic acid fermented maize meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, M P; Chelule, P K; Gqaleni, N

    2006-04-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin which is known to frequently contaminate poorly stored food products destined for human consumption. This study was carried out to investigate the potential activity of lactic acid fermentation in reducing AFB(1) level in fermented maize meal products. Maize meal was spiked with 60 mug g(-1) AFB(1) and fermented, with or without starter culture, for 4 days at 25 degrees C. Unbound AFB(1) in solution and the pH of the media were monitored daily. A significant decrease (P level of unbound AFB(1) was observed (75% in the fourth day). Simultaneously, a progressive decrease in the pH of the media from 6.5 to 3.1 was also observed. AFB(1) was below the detection limit in commercial fermented porridge (amahewu) samples. Cytotoxicity tests on AFB(1)-spiked fermented extracts showed that those with a starter culture were comparatively less toxic (30-36%) than those with no added starter culture (24-30%). However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). These results indicate that lactic acid fermentation can significantly reduce the concentration of AFB(1) in maize to trace levels. However, the safety of fermented products has not been well studied, as the mechanism of AFB(1) removal is not well understood. Natural fermentation may potentially reduce exposure to natural toxins occurring in food.

  16. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  17. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  18. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  19. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  20. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  1. Estimation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea by using a self-administered diet history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Yatsuki, Yuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes during pregnancy affect fetal development and maternal mental health; therefore, an accurate assessment of EPA and DHA intakes is required. We hypothesized that a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed for non-pregnant adults could be used for estimating EPA and DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women; thus, we evaluated the validity and reproducibility of the DHQ during pregnancy. We recruited 262 healthy participants with singleton pregnancies during their second trimester at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were measured as reference values. Fifty-eight women completed the DHQ twice, within a 4- to 5-week period to assess the reproducibility of the results. Among the participants without pregnancy-associated nausea (n = 180), significantly positive correlations were observed between energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA (r(s) = 0.388), DHA (r(s) = 0.264), and EPA + DHA (r(s) = 0.328). More than 60% of the participants without nausea fell into the same or adjacent quintiles according to energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA. Meanwhile, among the participants with nausea, a low correlation for EPA and no correlation for DHA and EPA + DHA were found. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the 2-time DHQ measurements were 0.691 (EPA) and 0.663 (DHA). The results indicate that the DHQ has an acceptable level of validity and reproducibility for assessing EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  3. Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease Attributable to Low Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake in Iran: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nejatinamini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary risk factors constitute some of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Iran. The current study reports the burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in Iran using the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study 2010.Methods: We used data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 derived from the GBD Study conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME in 2010. Using the comparative risk assessment, we calculated the proportion of death, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs caused by IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the GBD studies from 1990 to 2010. Results: In 1990, a dietary pattern low in seafood omega-3 fatty acids intake was responsible for 423 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 300 to 559, 3000 (95% UI, 2182 to 3840, and 4743 (95% UI, 3280 to 6047 DALYs per 100000 persons in the age groups of 15 to 49 years, 50 to 69 years, and 70+ years — respectively — in both sexes.  The DALY rates decreased to 250 (95% UI, 172 to 331, 2078 (95% UI, 1446 to 2729, and 3911 (95% UI, 2736 to 5142 in 2010. The death rates per 100000 persons in the mentioned age groups were 9 (95% UI, 6 to 12, 113 (95% UI, 82 to 144, and 366 (95% UI, 255 to 469 in 1990 versus 6 (95% UI, 4 to 7, 76 (95% UI, 53 to 99, and 344 (95% UI, 241 to 453 in 2010. The burden of IHD attributable to diet low in seafood omega-3 was 1.3% (95% UI, 0.97 to 1.7 of the total DALYs in 1990 and 2.0% (95% UI, 1.45 to 2.63 in 2010 for Iran.Conclusion: The findings of the GBD Study 2010 showed a declining trend in the burden of IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in a period of 20 years. Additional disease burden studies at national and sub-national levels in Iran using more data sources are suggested for public health priorities and planning public health strategies.

  4. Retinoic acid decreases ATF-2 phosphorylation and sensitizes melanoma cells to taxol-mediated growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Minigh, Jennifer; Miles, Sarah; Niles, Richard M

    2008-02-12

    Cutaneous melanoma is often resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. This resistance has recently been demonstrated to be due, at least in part, to high activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) activity in these tumors. In concordance with these reports, we found that B16 mouse melanoma cells had higher levels of ATF-2 than immortalized, but non-malignant mouse melanocytes. In addition, the melanoma cells had a much higher amount of phosphorylated (active) ATF-2 than the immortalized melanocytes. In the course of determining how retinoic acid (RA) stimulates activating protein-1 (AP-1) activity in B16 melanoma, we discovered that this retinoid decreased the phosphorylation of ATF-2. It appears that this effect is mediated through p38 MAPK, because RA decreased p38 phosphorylation, and a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) also inhibited the phosphorylation of ATF-2. Since ATF-2 activity appears to be involved in resistance of melanoma to chemotherapy, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of the melanoma cells with RA would sensitize them to the growth-inhibitory effect of taxol. We found that pretreatment of B16 cells with RA decreased the IC50 from 50 nM to 1 nM taxol. On the basis of these findings and our previous work on AP-1, we propose a model in which treatment of B16 cells with RA decreases the phosphorylation of ATF-2, which results in less dimer formation with Jun. The "freed-up" Jun can then form a heterodimer with Fos, resulting in the increased AP-1 activity observed in RA-treated B16 cells. Shifting the balance from predominantly ATF-2:Jun dimers to a higher amount of Jun:Fos dimers could lead a change in target gene expression that reduces resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and contributes to the pathway by which RA arrests proliferation and induces differentiation.

  5. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUPA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUPA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet

  6. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  7. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  8. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynnelle; Cockerham, Kimberly

    2011-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal is to review the current literature on HA fillers and compare outcomes with and without lidocaine. We found adjunctive lidocaine significantly decreases pain during injection and postinjection with corresponding increased patient satisfaction. The efficacy and safety profile appears unchanged. Rare complications with HA fillers and those associated with constituents of the product, contaminants, and lidocaine are reviewed. The corrective effects of HA fillers are temporary; repeat treatment is required to maintain results. Minimizing pain is crucial to optimize patient satisfaction.

  9. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuates the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Bobadilla, Karen; Torres, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H(2)O(2) in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20  μ M) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H(2)O(2). These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  10. Folic acid awareness and intake among women in areas with high prevalence of neural tube defects in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.

  11. Neuropeptide FF analog RF9 is not an antagonist of NPFF receptor and decreases food intake in mice after its central and peripheral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletínská, Lenka; Tichá, Anežka; Nagelová, Veronika; Spolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Elbert, Tomáš; Zelezná, Blanka

    2013-03-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to the RF-amide family of peptides bearing the identical C-terminal amino acid sequence (R-F-NH2). In addition to NPFF, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), another RF-amide, binds to NPFF receptors with high affinity. A selective antagonist of PrRP has not yet been identified, but a selective antagonist of NPFF, 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9), was recently reported to antagonize the hyperalgesic effect of NPFF after central administration to mice. In the present study, RF9 competed with NPFF analog D-Y-L-(N-Me)-F-Q-P-Q-R-F-NH2 (1DMe) in binding to CHO-K1 cell membranes transfected with the human NPFF2 receptor. In rat pituitary RC-4B/C cells, where the expression of the NPFF2 receptor was proved by immunodetection, RF9 did not reverse the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 induced by [Tyr(1)]NPFF. In vivo experiments with fasted mice confirmed that centrally injected [Tyr(1)]NPFF significantly lowered food intake. However, RF9, a putative NPFF2 antagonist, did not reverse the anorectic effect of [Tyr(1)]NPFF. Paradoxically, RF9 itself exhibited an anorectic effect in fasted mice not only after intracerebroventricular but also after subcutaneous administration. This finding casts doubt on claims that RF9 is an NPFF antagonist.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA...... 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA...

  13. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we evaluated whether treatment with NaPBA leads to a decrease in plasma BCAA levels. Our analysis shows that NaPBA use independently affects the plasma BCAA levels even after accounting for multiple confounding covariates. Moreover, NaPBA use increases the risk for BCAA deficiency. This effect of NaPBA seems specific to plasma BCAA levels, as levels of other essential amino acids are not altered by its use. Our study, in an unselected population of UCD subjects, is the largest to analyze the effects of NaPBA on BCAA metabolism and potentially has significant clinical implications. Our results indicate that plasma BCAA levels should to be monitored in patients treated with NaPBA since patients taking the medication are at increased risk for BCAA deficiency. On a broader scale, these findings could open avenues to explore NaPBA as a therapy in maple syrup urine disease and other common complex disorders with dysregulation of BCAA metabolism.

  14. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  15. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnelle Smith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lynnelle Smith1, Kimberly Cockerham21Ophthalmology Department, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Ophthalmology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal is to review the current literature on HA fillers and compare outcomes with and without lidocaine. We found adjunctive lidocaine significantly decreases pain during injection and postinjection with corresponding increased patient satisfaction. The efficacy and safety profile appears unchanged. Rare complications with HA fillers and those associated with constituents of the product, contaminants, and lidocaine are reviewed. The corrective effects of HA fillers are temporary; repeat treatment is required to maintain results. Minimizing pain is crucial to optimize patient satisfaction.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, lidocaine, drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, collagen, herpes simplex

  16. Arachidonic acid incorporation and turnover is decreased in sympathetically denervated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Casey B; McHowat, Jane; Rosenberger, Thad A; Rapoport, Stanley I; Murphy, Eric J

    2005-06-01

    Heart sympathetic denervation can accompany Parkinson's disease, but the effect of this denervation on cardiac lipid-mediated signaling is unknown. To address this issue, rats were sympathetically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 mg/kg ip) and infused with 170 muCi/kg of either [1-(14)C]palmitic acid ([1-(14)C]16:0) or [1-(14)C]arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C]20:4 n-6), and kinetic parameters were assessed using a steady-state radiotracer model. Heart norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were decreased 82 and 85%, respectively, in denervated rats, and this correlated with a 34% reduction in weight gain in treated rats. Fatty acid tracer uptake was not significantly different between groups for either tracer, although the dilution coefficient lambda was increased in [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, which indicates that less 20:4 n-6 was recycled in denervated rats. In [1-(14)C]16:0-infused rats, incorporation rate and turnover values of 16:0 in stable lipid compartments were unchanged, which is indicative of preservation of beta-oxidation. In [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, there were dramatic reductions in incorporation rate (60-84%) and turnover value (56-85%) in denervated rats that were dependent upon the lipid compartment. In addition, phospholipase A(2) activity was reduced 40% in treated rats, which is consistent with the reduction observed in 20:4 n-6 turnover. These results demonstrate marked reductions in 20:4 n-6 incorporation rate and turnover in sympathetic denervated rats and thereby suggest an effect on lipid-mediated signal transduction mediated by a reduction in phospholipase A(2) activity.

  17. Gastrointestinal bleeding after high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, cortisone and antibiotic therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Papamikos, Vasilios

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids exert a plethora of physiological actions including triglycerides lowering, reduction of inflammatory indices, immunomodulation, anti- thrombotic effects and possibly promotion of exercise performance. Their use is widespread and for commonly ingested doses their side- effects are minimal. We report a case of a 60 y amateur athlete who consumed about 20 g omega-3 fatty acids daily from supplements and natural sources for a year. After the intake of cortisone and antibiotics he presented duodenum ulcer and bleeding although he had no previous history of gastrointestinal problems. Although several animal data support gastro-protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the present case they were not able to prevent ulcer generation. The present observation may be explained by (i) the high dose of omega-3 fatty acids and their effect on bleeding, (ii) the fact that cortisone increases their oxidation and may render them proinflammatory, (iii) other antithrombotic microconstituents included in the consumed cod-oil and/or the diet of the subject and (iv) the differences in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems of well- trained subjects. Further studies are needed to substantiate any possible interaction of cortisone and omega-3 fatty acids in wide ranges of intake.

  18. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake modulates impact of Insertion/Deletion polymorphism of ApoB gene on obesity risk in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Masoumeh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Alvandi, Ehsan; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Sojoudi, Fereshteh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the study described here was to determine whether dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake modulates the association between ApoB Ins/Del polymorphism and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, 700 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in Tehran. Weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. ApoB genotyping was performed with 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We observed a significant interaction between Ins/Del genotype and dietary ω-3 PUFA intake with respect to BMI, WC, and obesity risk in both unadjusted (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, and P = 0.021, respectively) and adjusted (P = 0.007, P = 0.04, and P = 0.002, respectively) samples. Thus, the carriers of the Del allele were only associated with lower BMI (P = 0.01) and WC (P = 0.002) among individuals with high ω-3 PUFA intake (≥0.6% of energy), but not in those with low ω-3 PUFA intake (obesity risk in carriers of the Del allele was about 1.6 times higher than that of Ins/Ins homozygotes (odds ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.52, P = 0.039). But with high ω-3 PUFA intake (≥0.6%), the risk was 0.46 times lower (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.79, P = 0.003). Moreover, a similar interaction was observed in central obesity only in men after adjustment for confounder variables (P = 0.041). These findings support the hypothesis that a diet high in ω-3 PUFA (≥0.6%) can decrease the obesity risk in carriers of the Del allele of ApoB gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of fatty acids n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Mondragón, M.G; Oliart Ros, R. M. ; Angulo Guerrero, J. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS increa -ses the odds of dying for cardiovascular disease, theworld’s leading cause of death. It has been shown thatpolyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective role in cardiovascular disease and its comorbidities.Objective: To assess the effect of three kinds ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on the chronic inflammation in MS.Methods: The study group was 45 adults with MSdiagnose according to IDF criteria. Each group of treatment was assigned cuasi-randomly to 15 subjects during six weeks: a 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08 g eicosapentoaenoicacid EPA + 0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid DHA, b 2.0g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11,trans10:cis12, c 40 g/d walnut Juglans regia. The results at the beginning and the end of the essay werecompared in each group, using the t-Student test and p <0.01 as statistical signification value.Results:In the patients supplemented with n-3 fattyacids, significantly decreased the level of IL-6 (from9.81 ±1.28 to 8.47 ±0.81 pg/ml, p=0.002, leptin(from 25.94 ±5.06 ng/ml to 20.53 ±3.96 ng/ml,p=0.003 and homocysteine (from 18.80 ±1.95 to16.72 ±1.99 µmol/l, p=0.007, in erythrocytes decreased the percentage α-linolenic content (from 1.90±0.77 to 1.26 ±0.17 %, p=0.004 and the n6/n3 rate(from 4.48 ±1.06 to 3.11 a ±0.60, p=0.000, while increased the percentage of EPA (from 1.13 ±0.45 to1.58 ±0.42 %, p=0.009 and DHA (from 2.61 ±0.36 to4.64 ±0.91 %, p=0.000. In the group that consumedwalnut declined the levels of TNF-α (from 8.75 ±2.06pg/ml to 6.68 ±0.97 pg/ml, p=0.002 and IL-6 (from10.61 ±1.45 to 8.72 ±0.79 pg/ml, p=0.000, in erythrocytes increased the α-linolenic content (from 1.86±0.65 to 2.62 ±0.72 %, p=0.005. In the group thatconsumed CLA decreased the level of homocysteine(from 18.01 ±2.65 to 15.34 ±2.26 µmol/l, p=0.006.Conclusions: The groups that consumed n-3 fattyacids in supplements (EPA/DHA and in walnut, becameevident the modification in

  1. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  2. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  3. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations – Focus on Specific Population Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C.; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. Summary The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. Results The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6–12 months, 6 in children 1–3 years, 11 in children 4–9 years, 8 in adolescents 10–18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. PMID:28190013

  4. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations - Focus on Specific Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages: Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6-12 months, 6 in children 1-3 years, 11 in children 4-9 years, 8 in adolescents 10-18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Fujita, Misuzu; Yamato, Takako; Oumi, Masayo; Holst, Jens Juul; Seino, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. To clarify the effect of ingested fatty acid composition on glucose levels, we conducted an intervention study to investigate the insulin and plasma GIP responses in 11 healthy women, including a dietary control. Subjects were provided daily control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20 and FB-30 or F-30. However, insulin levels were higher after the FB-30 than after the F-20 (P saturated fatty acid content stimulates postprandial insulin release via increased GIP secretion.

  6. Ascorbic acid decreases morphine self-administration and withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, H; Esmaeili, M; Nasimi, A; Pourshanazari, A

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the glutamatergic system is involved in the motivational aspects during the initiation of drug self-administration. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant vitamin, is released from glutamatergic neurons, and it modulates the synaptic action of dopamine and glutamate. In this study the AA effects on the self-administration of morphine and on the morphine withdrawal syndrome have been investigated. Wistar rats were allowed to self-administer morphine (1 mg/infusion) during 10 consecutive days for 2 h/session. The number of lever pressings was recorded. An intrapritoneal AA injection (500 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before morphine self-administration produced a significant decrease in the initiation of morphine self administration during all sessions. After the last test session morphine withdrawal symptom signs (MWS) were recorded after naloxone precipitation. Most of MWS (but not all) were decreased by AA application. In conclusion, AA may change the motivational processes underlying the morphine self-administration.

  7. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  8. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  9. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  10. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  11. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavo

  12. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  13. Fatty acid intake and rumen fatty acid composition is affected by pre-grazing herbage mass and daily herbage allowance in Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Palladino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of level of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM and daily herbage allowance (DHA on the fatty acid (FA intake and composition of ruminal content of grazing dairy cows. Four rumen fistulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to either a high or low HM (1700 vs 2600 kg DM ha-1 and within herbage mass treatment further allocated to a high or low DHA (20 vs 16 kg of DM cow-1 day-1 in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Total FA intake and linolenic acid (LNA intake was higher for cows on high DHA (p<0.05. Ruminal oleic acid, linoleic and LNA were not affected by treatments. Ruminal stearic acid (C18:0 and vaccenic acid (VA concentrations were higher at low HM (43.6 and 14.8 g/100 gof FA respectively; p<0.01 compared to high HM (42.0 and 12.5 g/100 gof FA respectively for C18:0 and VA. Cows grazing high DHA had higher ruminal concentration of VA (15.3 g/100 gof FA; p<0.01 than low DHA (12.1 g/100 gof FA. Regarding milk FA composition, only some of the milk FA varied across treatments, being the VA and LNA concentrations higher at low HM (p<0.05. These data suggest that low HM and high DHA, at least within the range studied here, promotes the accumulation of ruminal VA which could be available for subsequent conversion within the mammary gland to the human health promoting c9,t11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid.

  14. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

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    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  15. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  16. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Nickel, Daniela; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Schulze, Matthias B; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway.Design: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy individuals were supplemented with cellulose (30 g/d), inulin (30 g/d), or propionate (6 g/d) for 7 d. In addition, human hepatoma cells were incubated with different propionate concentrations. OCFAs were determined in plasma phospholipids and hepatoma cells by gas chromatography.Results: Cellulose did not affect plasma OCFA levels, whereas inulin and propionate increased pentadecanoic acid by ∼17% (P dietary fiber intake and not only dairy fat. This trial was registered at www.germanctr.de as DRKS00010121. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Increased apparent oral clearance of valproic acid during intake of combined contraceptive steroids in women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Arbasino, Carla; Canevini, Maria Paola; Fattore, Cinzia; Perucca, Emilio

    2006-09-01

    To determine potential changes in total and unbound serum valproic acid (VPA) concentrations at steady-state during a cycle of intake of combined hormonal contraceptive (HC) steroids. Blood samples were collected from nine women stabilized on VPA monotherapy on two separate randomized occasions: (i) at the end of the 4- to 7-day HC-free interval, and (ii) on the last day of the HC intake period. Trough concentrations of VPA in serum and serum ultrafiltrates were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In all women, total and unbound VPA concentrations were higher during the HC-free interval than during HC intake (means +/- SD: 425 +/- 184 vs. 350 +/- 145 micromol/L, respectively, for total VPA, p = 0.002, and 55 +/- 37 vs. 39 +/- 25 micromol/L, respectively, for unbound VPA, p = 0.005). Compared with the HC-free interval, HC intake was associated with a mean 21.5% increase in VPA total apparent oral clearance (from 8.0 +/- 5.2 to 9.7 +/- 6.4 ml/h/kg, p = 0.01) and a 45.2 % increase in VPA unbound apparent oral clearance (from 79 +/- 81 to 115 +/- 121 ml/h/kg, p = 0.029). The apparent oral clearance of total and unbound VPA increases during the HC intake period compared with the HC-free interval, probably due to induction of glucuronosyltransferase by ethinylestradiol. The magnitude of the change varies across individuals, being potentially clinically relevant in some cases. Serum VPA concentrations should be monitored when adding or discontinuing HC steroids, and possibly during the on-off intervals of a HC cycle.

  18. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doak Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  19. EFFECT OF DECREASING DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH OPTIMAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kamran, M. Aslam Mirza, Ahsan-ul-Haq1 and S. Mahmood1

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A six-week trial was conducted to study the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP level on the performance of broilers in hot climatic conditions. Four experimental rations having CP 23 (control group, 22, 21 and 20%, with optimal amino acid balance were prepared. All the four rations were isocaloric having ME 3200 kcal/kg with Energy: Protein (E:P 139.0, 146.5, 152.4 and 160 in diets A, B, C and D respectively. One hundred and twenty day-old chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units, each having 10 chicks. Rations were randomly allotted to experimental units such that each unit received three replicates. The experimental diets were fed to birds from day 1st to 42nd. Performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR. At the end of experiment, two birds per each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to record the data on carcass yield, breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat. Results of the trial suggested that weight gain was significantly (P<0.01 increased in birds on diets with CP 20 and 21%. Feed consumption and FCR remained un-changed for all the treatment groups. Eviscerated carcass yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher for the group fed on diet with 20% CP. Breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat also remained un-changed. Economic evaluation of the trial revealed that decreasing CP levels from 23 to 20% resulted in reduced feed cost per kg of live weight gain, which clearly indicated that this approach was useful especially in severe summer conditions. The overall picture of the study suggests that dietary protein level of broilers could be reduced from 23 to 20%, with beneficial effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics and increased economic returns in hot environmental conditions, provided that levels of essential amino acids are closely looked after.

  20. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Dayot, Stéphanie; Duby, Cécile; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i) growth hormone (GH) secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured (ii) adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption.

  1. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  2. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P emissions (P emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P emissions, but DMI was also decreased, which could have potentially negative effects on animal performance.

  3. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    regulates the lipogenic pathway by activating genes involved in triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis. The present study showed significant downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC levels in the CR group. These results indicated that maternal resveratrol intake during lactation suppressed SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP-1c target gene expression such as FAS and ACC in the livers of adult male offspring. These changes attenuate hepatic triacylglycerol and fatty acid synthesis in adult male offspring.

  4. Retinoic acid reverses the PTU related decrease in neurogranin level in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, V; Vallortigara, J; Alfos, S; Féart, C; Pallet, V; Higueret, P

    2004-09-01

    Recent data have shown that fine regulation of retinoid mediated gene expression is fundamentally important for optimal brain functioning in aged mice. Nevertheless, alteration of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway may be a limiting factor, which impedes retinoic acid (RA) from exerting its modulating effect. Mild hypothyroidism is often described in the elderly. Thus, in the present study, it was of interest to determine if RA exerts its neurological modulating effect in mild hypothyroidism. To obtain further insight into this question, mice were submitted to a low propylthiouracyl (PTU) drink (0.05%) in order to slightly reduce the serum level of triiodothyronine (T3). A quantitative evaluation of RA nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR), T3 nuclear receptor (TR) and of neurogranin (RC3, a RA target gene which codes for a protein considered as a good marker of synaptic plasticity) in PTU treated mice injected with vehicle or RA or T3 was carried out. The PTU-related decrease in expression of RAR, RXR and RC3 was restored following RA or T3 administration, as observed in aged mice. The amount of TR mRNA, which was not affected in PTU treated mice, was increased only after T3 treatment as observed in overt hypothyroidism. These results suggest that neurobiological alterations observed in aged mice are probably related to RA and T3 signalling pathway modifications associated, in part, with mild changes in thyroid function.

  5. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where ���metabolic sensing neurons��� integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these s...

  6. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases...... control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated...... fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20...

  7. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Bakker, M.K.; Nijenhuis, C.M.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Women with child wish are advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for spina bifida. However, there is less evidence for this protective effect in women using valproic acid (VPA). We investigated the effect of folic acid in women exposed to VPA in the first trimester of preg

  8. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bai, Yanqing; Verwei, Miriam; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-06-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH(i)) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH(i)in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH(i) of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+)-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH(i) in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH(i) may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

  9. Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Wiking, Lars; Bjerring, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk....... Correction of the cooling faults caused FFA to decrease by 0.52 mEq/L in the AMS herds. We concluded that air intake during automatic milking is not the most important factor in reducing FFA, whereas milk yield per milking matters the most. More attention should be paid to the cooling and stirring of milk...

  10. Predicting fatty acid profiles in blood based on food intake and the FADS1 rs174546 SNP

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmann, Jacqueline; Kolossa, Silvia; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Forster, Hannah; O’Donovan, Clare B.; Woolhead, Clara; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Efstathopoulou, Eirini; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Godlewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    SCOPE:\\ud A high intake of n-3 PUFA provides health benefits via changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio in blood. In addition to such dietary PUFAs, variants in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene are also associated with altered PUFA profiles.\\ud METHODS AND RESULTS:\\ud We used mathematical modelling to predict levels of PUFA in whole blood, based on MHT and bolasso selected food items, anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and the rs174546 genotypes in FADS1 from 1,607 participants (Food4Me Stud...

  11. Fatty acid dietary intake in the general French population: are the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) national recommendations met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Moulin, Philippe; Vergès, Bruno; Le Guillou, Céline; Simon, Noémie; Pasteau, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Quantity and quality of fatty acids (FA) in diet influence CVD risk. Consequently, health authorities promote recommended dietary intakes for FA, looking for optimal intakes in a primary prevention of CVD perspective. In parallel, a few data are available detailing intakes in national populations. The objective of the present study was to perform a large analysis combining the data of the French National Survey INCA 2 on food consumption performed in 2006 and 2007, and the nutritional content of food consumed in France updated in 2013 by the French Information Centre on Food Quality, to explore in details the FA intakes in French adults using the most recent available data. To compare the discrepancies in the observed intake levels with the French recommended levels, a weighted fat adherence score was built combining intakes of the different FA. Individual scores were computed in relation to official recommendations, and potential explanatory factors were identified. These data show that SFA intakes are persistently higher than national recommendations, combined with low intakes of MUFA and PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3 FA. Only 14·6 % of the French population met DHA intake recommendation, 7·8 % for EPA and 21·6 % for SFA. This situation remains unfavourable in terms of primary prevention of CVD. Consuming fish and other sources of n-3 FA, living in the south of France, being female, having a higher education level, and low alcohol consumption were associated with a healthier fat adherence score.

  12. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood.

  13. Impact of alcohol intake on the relationships of uric acid with blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Shingo; Oki, Yoshitsugu; Tsunoda, Seiko; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-11-01

    Hyperuricemia, which is frequently associated with hypertension, can be caused by alcohol intake. To date, limited data have shown the link between alcohol intake and hyperuricemic hypertension. We retrospectively examined the influence of alcohol intake on the relationship between the uric acid level and blood pressure or cardio-metabolic parameters in 171 untreated non-failing hypertensive patients (mean 59.3±10.7 years). Cross-sectional analysis was separately performed in regular alcohol drinkers (more than 25g/day ethanol, n=74, 82.4% men) and non-drinkers (n=97, 33.0% men). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (101.6±11.5mmHg vs. 96.8±8.2mmHg, puric acid level (mean 6.3±1.7mg/dL) was positively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (r=0.270/p=0.020 and r=0.354/p=0.0020, respectively), and with the markers of cardiac hypertrophy, including electrocardiographic voltage (V1S+V5R, r=0.244/p=0.042) and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (r=0.270/p=0.026). These correlations were also observed in the male drinker sub-group. In the non-drinkers, the uric acid level (mean 5.0±1.4mg/dL) was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.369/p=0.0002) but not with blood pressure or the markers of cardiac hypertrophy. The results suggest that the role of uric acid in blood pressure might differ between hypertensive drinkers and non-drinkers. In regular alcohol drinkers, there was a positive association of uric acid level with blood pressure and the severity of cardiac hypertrophy. In non-regular drinkers, an increased uric acid level is likely to be closely associated with increased BMI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  15. β-Lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, attenuates ethanol intake and increases glial glutamate transporters expression in alcohol preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Sari, Youssef

    2017-09-14

    Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression. We found that clavulanic acid, at 5mg/kg (i.p.) dose, significantly attenuated ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in P rats as compared to vehicle-treated group. This effect was associated with a significant increase in water intake in clavulanic acid treated group. Importantly, we found that clavulanic acid increased the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in nucleus accumbens. However, there was no effect of clavulanic acid on GLAST expression in the nucleus accumbens. Clavulanic acid treatment did not upregulate the expression of GLT-1, xCT and GLAST in prefrontal cortex. These findings revealed that clavulanic acid at 20-40 fold lower dose than ceftriaxone can attenuate ethanol consumption, in part through upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, we suggest that clavulanic acid might be used as an alternative option to ceftriaxone to attenuate ethanol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pdiet-induced obese (DIO) rats, chronic ODT8-SST increased cumulative 2-week food intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  18. Modeling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid: the potential impact on exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for folic acid, NHANES 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Hamner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Institute of Medicine set a tolerable upper intake level (UL for usual daily total folic acid intake (1,000 µg. Less than 3% of US adults currently exceed the UL. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if folic acid fortification of corn masa flour would increase the percentage of the US population who exceed the UL. Design: We used dietary intake data from NHANES 2001–2008 to estimate the percentage of adults and children who would exceed the UL if corn masa flour were fortified at 140 µg of folic acid/100 g. Results: In 2001–2008, 2.5% of the US adult population (aged≥19 years exceeded the UL, which could increase to 2.6% if fortification of corn masa flour occurred. With corn masa flour fortification, percentage point increases were small and not statistically significant for US adults exceeding the UL regardless of supplement use, sex, race/ethnicity, or age. Children aged 1–8 years, specifically supplement users, were the most likely to exceed their age-specific UL. With fortification of corn masa flour, there were no statistically significant increases in the percentage of US children who were exceeding their age-specific UL, and the percentage point increases were small. Conclusions: Our results suggest that fortification of corn masa flour would not significantly increase the percentage of individuals who would exceed the UL. Supplement use was the main factor related to exceeding the UL with or without fortification of corn masa flour and within all strata of sex, race/ethnicity, and age group.

  19. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  20. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. First identification of dimethoxycinnamic acids in human plasma after coffee intake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Williamson, Gary; Rezzi, Serge; Dionisi, Fabiola; Longet, Karin; Destaillats, Frédéric; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-01-21

    There is a substantial amount of published literature on the bioavailability of various coffee components including the most abundant metabolites, caffeic and ferulic acids. Surprisingly, to date, the appearance of dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives in humans has not been reported despite the fact that methylated form of catechol-type polyphenols could help maintain, modify or even improve their biological activities. This study reports an LC-MS method for the detection of dimethoxycinnamic acid in human plasma after treatment with an esterase. Liquid chromatography, including the combination of methanol and acetonitrile as organic eluent, was optimized to resolve all interferences and enable reliable detection and identification of 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic and 3,4-dimethoxy-dihydrocinnamic acids. In addition to the good mass accuracy achieved (better than 5 ppm), tandem mass spectrometric and co-chromatography experiments further confirmed the identity of the compounds. The optimized method was applied to analyze samples obtained immediately, 1 and 10 h after coffee ingestion. The results show that in particular 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid appears in high abundance (∼380 nM at 60 min) in plasma upon coffee intake, indicating that it is important to consider these derivatives in future bioavailability and bioefficacy studies.

  2. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...... regression with cubic spline modelling was used to analyse the data. SETTING: Copenhagen County, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven men and women aged 35-65 years from the Danish MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular diseases) cohort. RESULTS: The median R-TFA intake...

  3. INHIBITION OF BILE ACID ACCUMULATION DECREASED THE EXCESSIVE HEPATOCYTE APOPTOSIS AND IMPROVED THE LIVER SECRETION FUNCTIONS ON OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Taher

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis induced by bile acid accumulation occurred in severe obstructive jaundice, and impair the liver secretion function. The objective of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of bile acid accumulation through bile duct decompression affect the excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and caused improvement the liver secretion functions on human model. In this study we use a before and after study on severe obstructive jaundice patients due to extra hepatic bile duct tumor was decompressed. Bile duct decompression was performed as a model of the role of inhibition of bile acid accumulation inhibition bile acid accumulation and excessive hepatocyte apoptosis. Bile acid and marker of liver secretion functions were serially measured. Liver biopsy pre and post decompression was performed for Hepatocyte apoptosis pathologic examination by TUNEL fluorescing, which measured by 2 people in double blinded system. Total bile acid, and liver secretion functions were measured by automated chemistry analyzer. The result of this study shows that twenty one severe obstructive jaundice patients were included. After decompression the hepatocyte apoptosis index decreased from an average of 53.1 (SD 105 to 11.7 (SD 13.6 (p < 0.05. Average of bile acid serum decreased from 96.4 (SD 53.8 to 19.9 (SD 39.5 until 13.0 (SD 12.6 μmol/L (p < 0.05 Total ilirubin decreased from 20.0 (SD 8.9 to 13.3 (SD 5.0 until 6.2 (SD 4.0 mg/dL (p < 0.05, while the phosphates alkaline (ALP and γ-glutamil transpeptidase (γ-GT activities also decreased ignificantly. In conclusion, bile acids accumulation and excessive hepatocyte poptosis through bile duct decompression improve the liver secretion functions by inhibition mechanism.

  4. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  5. A decrease of the rabbit's physiologic IOP after the application of specific amino acids and double combination of antiglaucomatics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Z; Veselovsky, J

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effect of amino acids mixtures to a double combination of antiglaucomatics on the physiologic intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits. Experimental evaluations were performed on 5 female rabbits of the New Zealand White species. 1) After instillation of 10 % L-arginine. HCl in the double combination of antiglaucomatics: a) 0.5 % Timolol with 0.005 % Xalatan mixture, the biphasic IOP decrease was measured. The mean decrease in 24 hours was - 2.9 torr; b) 2 % Trusopt with 0.005 % Xalatane mixture in 24 hours, the biphasic decrease of the IOP was measured. The mean decrease in 24 hours was - 4.2 torr; c) Fixed combination COSOPT the mean IOP value decrease was - 1.8 torr. 2) The IOP decrease achieved during 24 hours by instillation of the amino acid 10 % L-taurine.HCl and the double combination of antiglaucomatics: 0.5% Timolol with 0.005% Xalatane mixture was in average - 2.8 torr. The pupilar diameter was not changed. We assume that after the interaction of the selected amino acids 10 % L-arginin or 10 % L-taurin with the double combination of antiglaucomatics (Trusopt and Xalatan, COSOPT or Timoptol and Xalatan) a new substance was formed. The effect of this substance is not separate or additive but acts as a newly formed substance. In vivo, it is only a weak interaction with the free amino acids of the conjunctival sac and the antiglaucomatics. The amino acids interacted in vitro with the double combination of antiglaucomatics resulting in a new "bio-antiglaucomatic" better penetrating into the target area. This new substance was responsible for a more significant decrease and regulation IOP after the mixture application compared to the antiglaucomatics alone (Fig. 1, Ref. 23).

  6. Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson, Johanna; Arnlöv, Johan; Larsson, Anders; Basu, Samar

    2009-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including CVD. A part of these effects seen could be linked to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, although this has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on in vivo biomarkers of inflammation (PGF2alpha, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 formation) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane formation), the two important factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The dietary intake of 704 participants in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) at age 70 years was registered and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified 7 years later. The registered dietary intakes of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were negatively associated linearly and in quartiles with both PGF2alpha, hsCRP, IL-6 and F2-isoprostanes, where ascorbic acid intake generally was more strongly associated. Dietary intake of beta-carotene was only significantly negatively associated with F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, the present study is the first to suggest that the intake of food rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced cyclo-oxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress at 7 years of follow-up. These associations could be linked to the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables observed on CVD.

  7. APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism interacts with saturated fatty acids intake to affect anthropometric and hormonal variables in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Marjan Ghane; Sotoudeh, Gity; Alvandi, Ehsan; Djalali, Mahmood; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Noorshahi, Neda; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have established the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and dietary saturated fatty acids intake in relation to obesity on healthy individuals. In the current study, we investigate the effects of this interaction on anthropometric variables and serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 737 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (290 males and 447 females) were recruited from diabetes clinics in Tehran. The usual dietary intake of all participants during the last year was obtained by validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. APOA2 genotyping was performed by real-time PCR on genomic DNA. No significant relation was obtained by univariate analysis between anthropometric variables and APOA2 genotypes. However, after adjusting for age, gender, physical activity and total energy intake, we identified a significant interaction between APOA2-saturated fatty acids intake and body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for potential confounders, serum levels of ghrelin in CC genotype patients were significantly higher than T allele carriers (p = 0.03), whereas the case with leptin did not reveal a significant difference. The result of this study confirmed the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and SFAs intake with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. In fact, homozygous patients for the C allele with high saturated fatty acids intake had higher BMI. The APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism was associated with elevated levels of serum ghrelin.

  8. Measurement error adjustment in essential fatty acid intake from a food frequency questionnaire: alternative approaches and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Jessie A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed at assessing the degree of measurement error in essential fatty acid intakes from a food frequency questionnaire and the impact of correcting for such an error on precision and bias of odds ratios in logistic models. To assess these impacts, and for illustrative purposes, alternative approaches and methods were used with the binary outcome of cognitive decline in verbal fluency. Methods Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, we conducted a sensitivity analysis. The error-prone exposure – visit 1 fatty acid intake (1987–89 – was available for 7,814 subjects 50 years or older at baseline with complete data on cognitive decline between visits 2 (1990–92 and 4 (1996–98. Our binary outcome of interest was clinically significant decline in verbal fluency. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were compared between naïve and measurement-error adjusted odds ratios of decline with every SD increase in fatty acid intake as % of energy. Two approaches were explored for adjustment: (A External validation against biomarkers (plasma fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and (B Internal repeat measurements at visits 2 and 3. The main difference between the two is that Approach B makes a stronger assumption regarding lack of error correlations in the structural model. Additionally, we compared results from regression calibration (RCAL to those from simulation extrapolation (SIMEX. Finally, using structural equations modeling, we estimated attenuation factors associated with each dietary exposure to assess degree of measurement error in a bivariate scenario for regression calibration of logistic regression model. Results and conclusion Attenuation factors for Approach A were smaller than B, suggesting a larger amount of measurement error in the dietary exposure. Replicate measures (Approach B unlike concentration biomarkers (Approach A may lead to imprecise odds ratios due to larger

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a mutation that confers a decreased raffinosaccharide and phytic acid phenotype on soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, William D; Carlson, Thomas J; Kerr, Phil S; Sebastian, Scott A

    2002-02-01

    A single, recessive mutation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), which confers a seed phenotype of increased inorganic phosphate, decreased phytic acid, and a decrease in total raffinosaccharides, has been previously disclosed (S.A. Sebastian, P.S. Kerr, R.W. Pearlstein, W.D. Hitz [2000] Soy in Animal Nutrition, pp 56-74). The genetic lesion causing the multiple changes in seed phenotype is a single base change in the third base of the codon for what is amino acid residue 396 of the mature peptide encoding a seed-expressed myo-inositol 1-phospate synthase gene. The base change causes residue 396 to change from lysine to asparagine. That amino acid change decreases the specific activity of the seed-expressed myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase by about 90%. Radio tracer experiments indicate that the supply of myo-inositol to the reaction, which converts UDP-galactose and myo-inositol to galactinol is a controlling factor in the conversion of total carbohydrate into the raffinosaccharides in both wild-type and mutant lines. That same decrease in myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthetic capacity leads to a decreased capacity for the synthesis of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (phytic acid) and a concomitant increase in inorganic phosphate.

  10. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The sec

  11. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The

  12. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  13. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Steven D; Elmore, Christopher J; Bongers, Kale S; Ebert, Scott M; Fox, Daniel K; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Adams, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  14. The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mari; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Brody, Lawrence C; Parle-McDermott, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is essential for the conversion of folic acid to active folate needed for one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variation within DHFR is restricted to the noncoding regions, and previous studies have focused on a 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism (rs70991108) within intron 1. Reports of an association between this polymorphism and blood folate biomarker concentrations are conflicting. In this study, we evaluated whether the DHFR 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism affects circulating folate biomarkers in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to address this question to date. Healthy young Irish individuals (n = 2507) between 19 and 36 y of age were recruited between February 2003 and February 2004. Folic acid intake from supplements and fortified foods was assessed with the use of a customized food intake questionnaire. Concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B-12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression models. Folic acid intake was positively associated with serum (P folic acid intake (>326 μg folic acid/d; P = 0.96). A nonsignificant trend toward lower RBC folate by genotype (P = 0.09) was observed in the lowest folic acid intake quintile (0-51 μg/d). In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Sawada; Hiroshi Kitagaki

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked ...

  16. Decreased serum essential and aromatic amino acids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krystian; Adrych; Marian; Smoczynski; Magdalena; Stojek; Tomasz; Sledzinski; Ewa; Slominska; Elzbieta; Goyke; Ryszard; Tomasz; Smolenski; Julian; Swierczynski

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the influence of chronic pancreatitis(CP) on serum concentrations of amino acids.METHODS:Thirty-five male patients with alcoholic CP and 21 healthy male subjects were examined.Serum concentrations of amino acids were assayed by ionpair high-performance liquid chromatography with mass detection.RESULTS:Serum glutamate concentration was increased in CP patients as compared to controls.In contrast,serum concentrations of glutamine,histidine,tyrosine,proline,tryptophan and threonine were sign...

  17. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: Polyacrylic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ankur J.; Donovan, Maureen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clerance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of app...

  18. Decreased vitamin B12 and folic Acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, Ma

    2014-11-01

    Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  19. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  20. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth.

  1. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  2. Effects of caffeine intake during gestation and lactation on the acid solubility of enamel in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P E; Alonzo, G; Nakamoto, T; Falster, A U; Simmons, W B

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary caffeine during gestation and lactation on the acid solubility of molar teeth of weanling rats. Nineteen pregnant dams were divided into two groups. The 9 dams in the control group were fed a 20% protein diet supplemented with caffeine (2 mg/100 g BW) throughout the experiment. At birth, 8 pups were randomly assigned to each dam. Pups were killed on day 22. The 1st and 2nd molars were removed from each pup's maxilla and mandible. Four randomly selected molars from each litter were placed in a chamber and bathed with a flow of acid solution and the amount of mineral dissolved from the enamel was determined. The results showed that the amount of dissolved Ca and Mg from enamel surfaces of 1st molars from rats in the caffeine group after exposure to acid was consistently greater than that of the non caffeine group. In the 2nd molars there was no significant difference between caffeine and noncaffeine groups. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an alteration of the enamel surface of the 1st molars of the caffeine group after acid exposure. These results indicate that caffeine intake during gestation and lactation would have a deleterious effect on dental enamel of 1st molars in newborn rats.

  3. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai Dong; LI Jian Wen; LIU Zhao Ping; ZHOU Ping Ping; MAO Wei Feng; LI Ning; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.

  4. An increase in dietary n-3 fatty acids decreases a marker of bone resorption in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilpert Kirsten F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human, animal, and in vitro research indicates a beneficial effect of appropriate amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on bone health. This is the first controlled feeding study in humans to evaluate the effect of dietary plant-derived n-3 PUFA on bone turnover, assessed by serum concentrations of N-telopeptides (NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP. Subjects (n = 23 consumed each diet for 6 weeks in a randomized, 3-period crossover design: 1 Average American Diet (AAD; [34% total fat, 13% saturated fatty acids (SFA, 13% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, 9% PUFA (7.7% LA, 0.8% ALA], 2 Linoleic Acid Diet (LA; [37% total fat, 9% SFA, 12% MUFA, 16% PUFA (12.6% LA, 3.6% ALA], and 3 α-Linolenic Acid Diet (ALA; [38% total fat, 8% SFA, 12% MUFA, 17% PUFA (10.5% LA, 6.5% ALA]. Walnuts and flaxseed oil were the predominant sources of ALA. NTx levels were significantly lower following the ALA diet (13.20 ± 1.21 nM BCE, relative to the AAD (15.59 ± 1.21 nM BCE (p

  5. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in decreasing aluminium phytotoxicity in acidic soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Alex; Cumming, Jonathan R; Klugh-Stewart, Katrina; Cornejo, Pablo; Borie, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Soil acidity is an impediment to agricultural production on a significant portion of arable land worldwide. Low productivity of these soils is mainly due to nutrient limitation and the presence of high levels of aluminium (Al), which causes deleterious effects on plant physiology and growth. In response to acidic soil stress, plants have evolved various mechanisms to tolerate high concentrations of Al in the soil solution. These strategies for Al detoxification include mechanisms that reduce the activity of Al3+ and its toxicity, either externally through exudation of Al-chelating compounds such as organic acids into the rhizosphere or internally through the accumulation of Al-organic acid complexes sequestered within plant cells. Additionally, root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increases plant resistance to acidity and phytotoxic levels of Al in the soil environment. In this review, the role of the AM symbiosis in increasing the Al resistance of plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems under phytotoxic conditions of Al is discussed. Mechanisms of Al resistance induced by AM fungi in host plants and variation in resistance among AM fungi that contribute to detoxifying Al in the rhizosphere environment are considered with respect to altering Al bioavailability.

  6. Dietary trans fatty acids intake and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of adults in Depok city, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Ratu Ayu Dewi

    2011-12-01

    The Basic Health Research of the Ministry of Health Indonesia in 2008 reported that the single most important cause of death was stroke, in both urban and rural populations. The risk factors underlying the cause of death are associated with hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the mean intake of trans fatty acids and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of Indonesian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 180 adult male and female respondents aged 35-60 years living in rural and urban areas of Depok city, West Java. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative FFQ. The mean intake of trans fatty acids was 0.48% of total calories (urban 0.40% and rural 0.55%). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in the rural and urban subjects were 61.1% and 66.7%, respectively. There was a statistically significant relationship between trans fatty acids intake and hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The intake of trans fatty acid among the Indonesian adults studied was half the recommended level. The high prevalence of dyslipidemia found indicates the need for intervention to reduce the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Indonesia.

  7. Fat intake leads to differential response of rat adipocytes to glucose, insulin and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Diego F; Campion, Javier; Arellano, Arianna V; Milagro, Fermin I; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Antioxidant-based treatments have emerged as novel and interesting approaches to counteract fat accumulation in obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Adipocytes from rats that were fed on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 50 d were isolated (primary adipocytes) and incubated (72 h) on low (LG; 5.6 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose levels, in the presence or absence of 1.6 nmol/L insulin and 200 μmol/L vitamin C (VC). Adipocytes from HFD-fed animals presented lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, lower lactate and glycerol release, and lower insulin-induced secretion of some adipokines as compared with controls. HG treatment restored the blunted response to insulin regarding apelin secretion in adipocytes from HFD-fed rats. VC treatment inhibited the levels of nearly all variables, irrespective of the adipocytes' dietary origin. The HG treatment reduced adipocyte viability, and VC protected from this toxic effect, although more drastically in control adipocytes. Summing up, in vivo chow or HFD intake determines a differential response to insulin and glucose treatments that appears to be dependent on the insulin-resistance status of the adipocytes, while VC modifies some responses from adipocytes independently of the previous dietary intake of the animals.

  8. Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, H. E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the awareness of and the behaviour towards folic acid in 2003 and the trend of folic acid use among pregnant Dutch women between 1995 and 2003 with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Method: We conducted 2-yearly cross-sectional studies among pregnant

  9. The Effects of Various Levels of Ascorbic Acid Intake Upon Oral Wound Healing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Carotene, ppm 3 Thiamin, ppm 5 Ribof’lavin, ppm 6 Niacin, ppm 50 Pantothenic Acid, ppm 19 Choline, ppm X 100 18 Folic Acid, ppm 4 Pyridoxines ppm 4...Overnutrition in Prenatal and Neonatal Life: A Problem? Can. Ned. Assoc. J. .Us 893, 1965. 814. Lowry, O.H., Bessey, O.A., and Burch, R.B.s Effects of Prolonged

  10. Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, H. E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the awareness of and the behaviour towards folic acid in 2003 and the trend of folic acid use among pregnant Dutch women between 1995 and 2003 with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Method: We conducted 2-yearly cross-sectional studies among pregnant wom

  11. Insufficient folic acid intake in the Netherlands : What about the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, HEK; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2002-01-01

    Background: in 1993 all women of childbearing age in the Netherlands were advised to take a daily 0.5 mg folic acid pill to reduce the risk for neural tube defects. This study describes both recent and past awareness and use of folic acid supplements in relation to socioeconomic status in the Northe

  12. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g heavier ( sows than for gilts. Preweaning mortality was decreased ( = 0.034) for females fed high AA intake compared with females fed low AA intake regardless of energy level. In conclusion, 1) BW gain of gilts and sows depended not only on energy but also on AA intake, 2) sows fed

  13. Lowered fasting chenodeoxycholic acid correlated with the decrease of fibroblast growth factor 19 in Chinese subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huating; Zhou, Hu; Fang, Li; Xu, Jingjing; Yan, Han; Chen, Shuqin; Song, Qianqian; Zhang, Yinan; Xu, Aimin; Fang, Qichen; Ye, Yang; Jia, Weiping

    2017-07-20

    The gut-derived hormone Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) could regulate glucose metabolism and is induced by bile acids (BAs) through activating Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 was found to decrease in subjects with isolated-impaired fasting glucose (I-IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the reason for the change of FGF19 in subjects with different glucometabolic status remained unclear. Here we measured six BAs including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, their glycine conjugates and FGF19 levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated-impaired glucose tolerance, I-IFG, combined glucose intolerance (CGI) and T2DM subjects. After OGTT, serum FGF19 peaked at 120 min in all subjects. Glycine conjugated BAs peaked at 30 min, while free BAs did not elevated significantly. Consistent with the decrease trend in FGF19 levels, fasting serum CDCA levels in subjects with I-IFG, CGI and T2DM were significantly lower than NGT subjects (P decrease of FGF19 in subjects with I-IFG was at least partially due to their decrease of CDCA acting via FXR.

  14. The uptake transporter OATP8 expression decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis: correlation with gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Yoneda, Norihide; Kozaka, Kazuto; Shinmura, Rieko; Koda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa (Japan); Zen, Yoh [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan); King' s College Hospital, Institute of Liver Studies, London (United Kingdom); Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Shuichi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Gastroenterology, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakanuma, Yasuni [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    To clarify the changes in organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression and enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular nodules during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. In imaging analysis, we focused on 71 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinomas (well, moderately and poorly differentiated HCCs) and 1 dysplastic nodule (DN). We examined the enhancement ratio in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging [(1/postcontrast T1 value-1/precontrast T1 value)/(1/precontrast T1 value)], then analysed the correlation among the enhancement ratio, tumour differentiation grade and intensity of immunohistochemical OATP8 expression. In pathological analysis, we focused on surgically resected 190 hepatocellular nodules: low-grade DNs, high-grade DNs, early HCCs, well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated HCCs, including cases without gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. We evaluated the correlation between the immunohistochemical OATP8 expression and the tumour differentiation grade. The enhancement ratio of HCCs decreased in accordance with the decline in tumour differentiation (P < 0.0001, R = 0.28) and with the decline of OATP8 expression (P < 0.0001, R = 0.81). The immunohistochemical OATP8 expression decreased from low-grade DNs to poorly differentiated HCCs (P < 0.0001, R = 0.15). The immunohistochemical expression of OATP8 significantly decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, which may explain the decrease in enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

  15. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Brant, Lívia Hipólito Cardozo; Mafra, Denise; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In Denmark prevention to reduce Spina bifida birth rate has focused in two areas: Folic acid supplementation (1997) and changes in national ultrasonography screening programme (2004). Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most severe malformation among Spina Bifida. Taken into consideration...... the potential negative effect of high dose folic acid consumption, we found a need to look into the effectiveness of these two strategies in our complete MMC population. Methods: All Spina Bifida patients born in the western part of Denmark are differentiated into proper subgroups based on MR-Imaging, giving us...

  17. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  18. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  19. Identification of a potential biomarker panel for the intake of the common dietary trans fat elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroager, Toke Peter; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Bak, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Trans fatty acid intake has been correlated to an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile and an increased cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to identify a plasma protein biomarker panel related to human intake of elaidic acid. The human liver cell line HepG2-SF was used as a model...... (DIGE) and gene expression microarray analysis. Twelve proteins were found to be differentially regulated based on SILAC data (>1.3 fold change, P-value1.3 fold change, P-value1.3 fold change, P-value...

  20. Peripheral injections of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist S38151 decrease food intake and body weight in rodent obesity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile eDella-Zuana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound S38151 is a nanomolar antagonist that acts at the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1. S38151 is more stable than its purely peptide counterpart, essentially because of the blockade of its N-terminus. Therefore, , its action on various models of obesity was studied. Acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. administration of S38151 in wild-type rats counteracted the effect of the stable precursor of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, NEI-MCH, in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.5 to 50 nmol/kg. In genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats, daily i.c.v. administration of S38151 induced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 20 nmol/kg inhibition of food intake, water intake, and body weight gain, as well as increased motility (maximal effect observed at 20 nmol/kg. In Zucker fa/fa rats, intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (30 mg/kg induced complete inhibition of food consumption within 1 h. Daily intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (10 and 30 mg/kg into genetically obese ob/ob mice or diet-induced obese mice is able to limit body weight gain. Furthermore, S38151 administration (10 and 30 mg/kg does not affect food intake, water intake, or body weight gain in MCHR1-deleted mice, demonstrating that its effects are linked to its interaction with MCH1. These results validate MCH1 as a target of interest in obesity. S38151 cannot progress to the clinical phase because it is still too poorly stable in vivo.

  1. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish, other nutrient intake, and lifestyle factors: exploring the relationship in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hai V; Iversen, Cara S; Lai, Morris; Saka, Susan; Mahabub-ul Anwar, Md; Nigg, Claudio R

    2014-09-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids found mostly in seafood are essential nutrients that may help prevent or control a number of diseases; however, the evidence for this is not conclusive. The positive effects may be because of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, we investigated the association between fish intake and other nutrition indicators and lifestyle and demographic factors among children. The study employed grade-4 student data of the 2000-2004 Hawaii Nutrition Education Needs Assessment Survey. In a sample 666 children (mean age = 9.57 ± 0.06 years, 55.6% female, 62.4% Asian/Pacific Islander), analysis indicated that fish consumption is positively associated with healthy lifestyle indicators, such as physical activity and a healthy body mass index. Fish consumption is also positively associated with protein and kilocalories intake but not with fruits and vegetables consumption. Findings suggest that the positive health behaviors linked to fish consumption may lie more in physical activity than in diet behaviors. Given that fish consumption is important for children, interventions promoting fish consumption in a balanced diet with fruit and vegetable, as well as other positive lifestyle behaviors are warranted.

  3. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  4. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues.

  5. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0 Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lemarié

    Full Text Available Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0, this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat. A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i growth hormone (GH secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 was measured (ii adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption.

  6. Branched Chain Fatty Acids (BCFA) in the neonatal gut, and estimated dietary intake in infancy and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Glahn, Raymond P; Bae, SangEun; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are primarily saturated fatty acids (FA) with a methyl branch, usually near the terminal methyl group. BCFA are abundant in bacteria, skin, and vernix caseosa but have seldom been studied with respect to human nutrition. They are constituents of the term newborn infant gut lumen, being swallowed as vernix particulate components of amniotic fluid in the last trimester of normal pregnancy. We recently showed that BCFA protect against Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) in the rat pup model. Dietary BCFA at levels similar to those found in human vernix reduced NEC incidence by more than 50%, increased the abundance of BCFA-containing bacteria, and increased the expression of ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10. The few published reports of BCFA in human milk enable an estimate that breast fed infants consume 19 mg BCFA per 100ml milk. Dietary BCFA consumption from milkfat and other ruminant products, the main sources of dietary BCFA, is more than 400 mg BCFA per day in adult Americans. This estimate exceeds by several fold the average dietary intake of bioactive FA, such as docosahexaenoic acid. BCFA are bioactive, abundant but neglected components of the human food supply. PMID:24107503

  7. Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fontana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein-restricted (PR, high-carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Furthermore, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderate PR diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet.

  8. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Decreases Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Burrage, Lindsay C.; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H.; Nagamani, Sandesh CS

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle...

  9. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcak Kayhan; Digdem Ozer; Meral Akdogan; Ersan Ozaslan; Osman Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain.METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups.RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control.CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain.

  10. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by decreasing iron and uranium using white silica sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bayaa, A.A., E-mail: amina.elbayaa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Badawy, N.A.; Gamal, A.M.; Zidan, I.H.; Mowafy, A.R. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Natural white silica sand as an adsorbent has been developed to reduce the concentration of iron and uranium ions as inorganic impurities in crude Egyptian phosphoric acid. Several parameters such as adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, volume to weight ratio and temperature, were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm studies were used to evaluate the maximum sorption capacity of adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters showed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative entropy reflects the affinity of the adsorbent material towards each metal ion.

  11. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynnelle Smith; Kimberly Cockerham

    2011-01-01

    Lynnelle Smith1, Kimberly Cockerham21Ophthalmology Department, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Ophthalmology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal ...

  12. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Burcak; Ozer, Digdem; Akdogan, Meral; Ozaslan, Ersan; Yuksel, Osman

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control. CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain. PMID:18567081

  13. Maternal protein and folic acid intake during gestation does not program leptin transcription or serum concentration in rat progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa

    2012-04-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby determining its phenotype, including nutrient metabolism, appetite, and feeding behavior. The control of appetite is a very complex process and can be modulated by orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators such as leptin, which is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin transcription and secretion are regulated by numerous factors, nutrition being one of them. The present study was designed to test whether maternal nutrition can permanently affect leptin gene transcription and leptin serum concentration in rat progeny. Moreover, we analyzed whether leptin expression and secretion in response to high-fat postweaning feeding depends on the maternal diet during gestation. Pregnant rats were fed either a normal protein, normal folic acid diet (the AIN-93 diet); a protein-restricted, normal folic acid diet; a protein-restricted, folic acid-supplemented diet; or a normal protein, folic acid-supplemented diet. After weaning, the progeny was fed either the AIN-93 diet or a high-fat diet. Neither maternal nutrition nor the postweaning diet significantly affected Lep transcription. High-fat feeding after weaning was associated with higher serum leptin concentration, but the reaction of an organism to the fat content of the diet was not determined by maternal nutrition during gestation. There was no correlation between Lep mRNA level and serum leptin concentration. Global DNA methylation in adipose tissue was about 30% higher in rats fed postnatally the high-fat diet (P folic acid content in the maternal diet had no significant programming effect on Lep transcription and serum leptin concentration in the rats.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  15. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  16. Silencer-of-Death Domain Mediates Acid-Induced Decrease in Cell Apoptosis in Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hong, Jie; Cao, Weibiao

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX)5-S may mediate the acid-induced decrease in cell apoptosis. However, mechanisms of NOX5-S-dependent decrease in cell apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study, we found that silencer-of-death domain (SODD) was significantly increased in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) tissues, EA cell lines FLO and OE33, and a dysplastic cell line CP-B. Strong SODD immunostaining was significantly higher in low-grade dysplasia (66.7%), high-grade dysplasia (81.2%), and EA (71.2%) than in Barrett's mucosa (10.5%). Acid treatment significantly increased SODD protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in FLO cells, an increase that was significantly decreased by the knockdown of NOX5-S and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)1 p50 with their small interfering RNAs. Similarly, acid-induced increase of SODD mRNA was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S and p50 in a BE cell line CP-A. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased SODD protein expression in FLO cells. Moreover, overexpression of NOX5-S or p50 significantly increased the SODD promoter activity and decreased the caspase 9 activity or apoptosis. NOX5-S overexpression-induced increase in SODD promoter activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of p50. In addition, acid treatment significantly decreased the caspase 9 activity, a decrease that was significantly inhibited by knockdown of SODD. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB1 p50 bound to SODD genomic DNA containing a NF-κB-binding element GGGGACACCCT. This binding element was further confirmed by a gel mobility shift assay. We conclude that acid-induced increase in SODD expression and decrease in cell apoptosis may depend on the activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50 in FLO cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. A high intake of trans fatty acids has little effect on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.; Katan, M.B.; Wanders, A.J.; Basu, S.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and

  18. A high intake of trans fatty acids has little effect on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.; Katan, M.B.; Wanders, A.J.; Basu, S.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and

  19. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  20. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in

  1. FADS2 Genetic Variance in Combination with Fatty Acid Intake Might Alter Composition of the Fatty Acids in Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.S. Rizzi (Thais); S. van der Sluis (Sophie); C. Derom (Catherine); E. Thiery (Evert); R.E. Kesteren (Ronald); N. Jacobs (Nele); S. van Gestel (Sofie); R. Vlietinck (Robert); M. Verhage (Matthijs); P. Heutink (Peter); D. Posthuma (Danielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMultiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA) play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between brea

  2. The question is whether intake of folic acid from diet alone during pregnancy is sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjari Ines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and Folic Acid. Pregnancy is the most important period in life of every woman, partially for the number of physiological adaptations she is going through, partially for the expectance of new life. In addition, pregnancy is the “critical window” for development later in childhood, as a period of foetal programming during which nutrition plays one of crucial roles. Despite the general belief that nutrition through pregnancy is adequate and characterized by better nutritional habits, a number of studies do not corroborate this belief. Role of Folic Acid. An adequate folate blood level is necessary for normal cell growth, synthesis of several compounds including deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, proper brain and neurologic functions; it is included in the regulation of homocysteine level, and closely related to the vitamin B12 metabolism. Folate deficiency in pregnancy is related to neural tube defects, other neurological disorders, preterm delivery and low birth weight. Food sources. A correlation between folate and the prevention of broad spectrum of chronic diseases has been confirmed. Emerging evidence from the epigenetic studies is now bringing even more light on the level of significance of folic acid. A wide range of plant and animal foods are the natural sources of folate; liver, yeast, mushrooms, and green leafy vegetables being the most significant. Different ways of food preparation influence the folate stability and its bioavailability varies from 25 to 50% from foods, 85% from enriched foods or 100% from supplements. Conclusion. A great amount of scientific results has led to official recommendations for folic acid supplementation in pregnant women as well as in a number of obligatory or voluntary fortification programmes in order to prevent the folate deficiency on the level of different population groups. Nevertheless, there must be a certain level of precaution for elderly because folate can mask the vitamin B

  3. Decreased vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B 12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002, but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566. A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 /folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  4. Comparison of Intravenous Ranitidine with Pantoprazole in Decreasing Gastric Fluid Acidity in Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peri-operative aspiration of gastric contents is a problem that causes certain respiratory problems including ARDS. Prophylaxis against aspiration of gastric contents is performed routinely in elective surgeries, but there is rare evidence on the efficacy of this method in emergency cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. 60 parturients undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. They were allocated into two study and one placebo groups. The study group one and two received intravenous ranitidine (IV 50 mg or IV pantoprazole 40 mg, half an hour before induction of GA, respectively. The placebo group was administered just 5 ml of isotonic saline half an hour before GA induction. After intubation and confirmation of endotracheal tube insertion, the gastric contents were aspirated through a nasogastric tube for evaluation of acidity and volume. Results: A statistical difference between group one and two with the control group was observed in the acidity of gastric contents, but there was no difference in volume. Also, the PH level of gastric contents in patients receiving pantoprazole was significantly higher than the isotonic saline (p

  5. Flufenamic acid decreases neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated sodium channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Baranauskas, Gytis; Martina, Marco

    2010-10-15

    The electrophysiological phenotype of individual neurons critically depends on the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated channels they express. Differences in sodium channel gating are instrumental in determining the different firing phenotypes of pyramidal cells and interneurons; moreover, sodium channel modulation represents an important mechanism of action for many widely used CNS drugs. Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been long used as a blocker of calcium-dependent cationic conductances. Here we show that FFA inhibits voltage-gated sodium currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons; this effect is dose-dependent with IC(50) = 189 μm. We used whole-cell and nucleated patch recordings to investigate the mechanisms of FFA modulation of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium current. Our data show that flufenamic acid slows down the inactivation process of the sodium current, while shifting the inactivation curve ~10 mV toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The recovery from inactivation is also affected in a voltage-dependent way, resulting in slower recovery at hyperpolarized potentials. Recordings from acute slices demonstrate that FFA reduces repetitive- and abolishes burst-firing in CA1 pyramidal neurons. A computational model based on our data was employed to better understand the mechanisms of FFA action. Simulation data support the idea that FFA acts via a novel mechanism by reducing the voltage dependence of the sodium channel fast inactivation rates. These effects of FFA suggest that it may be an effective anti-epileptic drug.

  6. Preconceptional and Prenatal Supplementary Folic Acid and Multivitamin Intake and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A.; Catov, Janet M.; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Methods: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We estimated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorders for…

  7. Preconceptional and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake and autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    .76-1.84; multivitamin-adjusted risk ratio: 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.87-1.69), Asperger's syndrome (folic acid-adjusted risk ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-1.53; multivitamin-adjusted risk ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.46), or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified...

  8. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  9. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AYELESO

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... were extracted by adding 25 ml of diethyl ether and 25 ml of petroleum ether. The organic phase was dried and the residue was derivatized using 2 ml of 2% sulphuric acid in methanol and 1 ml of toluene at 100°C for 45 min. ... sodium sulphate and transferred into a vial for gas chromatographic analyses.

  10. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn infant

  11. Linoleic acid intake, plasma cholesterol and 10-year incidence of CHD in 20.000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the associations of a difference in linoleic acid or carbohydrate intake with plasma cholesterol levels and risk of CHD in a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Data on diet (FFQ) and plasma total and HDL-cholesterol were available at baseline (1993–7) of 20 069 men and women,

  12. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  13. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  14. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue...

  15. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and en

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and

  17. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni;

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...

  18. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H;

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre......-s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...

  19. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.;

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre......-s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...

  20. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  1. [Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: decrease in 4-OH-butyric acid levels with low doses of vigabatrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, G Iglesias; Ferrer, I; Marina, Ll Carrasco; Sala, P Ruiz; Salomons, G S; Jakobs, C; Pérez-Cerdá, C

    2010-02-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) is a rare neurometabolic disease caused by a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric degradation, resulting in an increase in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biological fluids. The clinical spectrum is heterogeneous, including a variety of neurological manifestations and psychiatric symptoms. The treatment usually used is vigabatrin, but its clinical efficacy is under discussion. We present two affected siblings. The older brother was examined when he was 2.5 years old due to psychomotor and developmental delay, disturbances in motor coordination, axial hypotonia and language disability. His younger brother had mild axial hypotonia when 5 months old. Metabolic studies demonstrated a high plasma and urine concentration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Mutation analysis of the gene ALDH5A1 confirmed the disease. After 1 year of treatment with low-doses of vigabatrin of the older patient, a decrease in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid plasma levels and a slow clinical improvement were observed.

  2. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid promotes excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic mice via Toll-like receptor 3 mediated inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-nan; LIU Feng-hua; YU Xiu-jie; LIU Ze-bing; LI Qing-xin; YUAN Ji-hong; ZANG Xiao-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive iodine intake and viral infection are recognized as both critical factors associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases.Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported to play an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.In this study,we aimed to clarify the possible mechanism of TLR3 involved in polyinosinepolycytidylic acid (poly(l:C)) promoting excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.Methods Both NOD and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups:control group (n=5),high iodine intake (HI) group (n=7),poly(l:C) group (n=7) and combination of excessive iodine and poly(l:C) injection (HIP) group (n=7).After 8 weeks,mice were weighed and blood samples were collected.All the mice were sacrificed before dissection of spleen and thyroid gland.Then,thyroid histology,thyroid secreted hormone,expression of CD3+ cells and TLR3 as well as inflammatory mRNA level were evaluated.Results Both NOD and BALB/c mice from HI and HIP group represented goiter and increasing thyroid relative weight.Thyroid histology evidence indicated that only HIP group of NOD mice showed severe thyroiditis with lymphocytes infiltration in majority of thyroid tissue,severe damage of follicles and general fibrosis.Immunofluorescence staining results displayed a large number of CD3+ cells in HIP NOD mice.Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results suggested interferon (IFN)-αincreased over 30 folds and IFN-γ expression was doubled compared with control group,but interleukin (IL)-4 remained unchanged in HIP group of NOD mice thyroid.Meanwhile,over one third decrease of blood total thyroxine (TT4) and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was observed in HIP group of NOD mice.Only HIP group of NOD mice represented significantly elevation of TLR3 expression.Conclusion Poly(l:C) enhanced excessive dietary iodine induced thyroiditis in NOD mice through increasing TLR3 mediated inflammation.

  4. Decreases in Phospholipids Containing Adrenic and Arachidonic Acids Occur in the Human Hippocampus over the Adult Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    One of the biggest risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease is advanced age. Despite several studies examining changes to phospholipids in the hippocampus during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, little is known regarding changes to phospholipids in this region during normal adult aging. This study examined the phospholipid composition of the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the human hippocampus from post-mortem tissue of neurologically normal subjects aged between 18 and 104 years. Many of the age-related changes found were in low-to-moderately abundant phospholipids in both membrane fractions, with decreases with age being seen in many phospholipids containing either adrenic or arachidonic acid. The most abundant phospholipid of this type was phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_22:4, which decreased in both the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes by approximately 20% from ages 20 to 100. Subsequent decreases with age were seen in total adrenic and arachidonic acid in the phospholipids of both membrane fractions, but not in either fatty acid specifically within the phosphatidylethanolamine class. Increases with age were seen in the hippocampus for mitochondrial phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6. This is the first report of changes to molecular phospholipids of the human hippocampus over the adult lifespan, with this study also providing a comprehensive profile of the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine phospholipids of the human hippocampus.

  5. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  6. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  7. The effects of oral amino acid intake on ambulatory capacity in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Roldano; Avogaro, Angelo; Negut, Christian; Piccolotto, Roberto; de Kreutzenberg, Saula Vigili; Tiengo, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    The combination of high prevalence of inactivity in the older population, and high risk of ill-health and disability associated with inactivity, suggests that interventions that are successful in increasing levels of activity may have a great impact on population health in later life. With advancing age, the risk of developing serious nutritional deficiencies also increases. This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary amino acid supplementation on effort tolerance in healthy elderly subjects with reduced physical activity. Forty-four subjects (age > 65 years) with sedentary life-style and lower health-related quality of life were studied. Subjects, in an open-label fashion, received an oral amino acid mixture (AAM, 12 g/day) containing essential and non-essential amino acids for a 3-month period. Ambulatory dysfunction resulting in sedentary life-style was assessed by a 6-min walk test. A walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) was used to evaluate self-perceived ambulatory dysfunction. Maximal isometric muscular strength of the right hand was measured during isometric exercise by a handgrip dynamometer. The 6-min walk distance increased from 214.5 +/- 32 to 262.8 +/- 34.8 m (p speed from 52 +/- 12.6 to 69.2 +/- 14.8% (p stairs from 74.4 +/- 22.6 to 94.2 +/- 25% (p < 0.001), as did maximal isometric muscular strength (16.6 +/- 2.4 vs 19.2 +/- 2.2 kg, p < 0.001). Changes in plasma glucose (+11 +/- 11 mg/dL), total cholesterol (0 +/- 39 mg/dL), HDL cholesterol (0 +/- 17 mg/dL), and triglycerides (-11 +/- 58 mg/dL) were not significant between baseline and AAM. An oral amino acid supplement, as used in this pilot study, improves ambulatory capacity and maximal isometric muscle strength in elderly subjects without affecting the main metabolic parameters. Amino acid supplementation may thus represent useful non-pharmacological intervention to maintain physical fitness in these subjects.

  8. Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe; Jackson, Alan A

    2004-05-01

    -limited, falling to 0.050 for 1-year-old children. The reference P/E ratio for men and women increases with age, is higher for females than males, is higher for small compared with large adults at any age and decreases with physical activity. Thus if a particular diet is potentially limiting in protein, protein deficiency is most likely in large, elderly sedentary women followed by the adolescent female and least likely in moderately active young children, the opposite of what has usually been assumed. Within the currently accepted framework, the diets do not meet the protein needs of the entire population of the UK, have a significant risk of deficiency throughout India for all except extremely active small adults, and are grossly inadequate for all population groups, apart from physically active young children in West Bengal, regardless of body weight or level of food intake. The lysine limitation of the cereal-based Indian diets is dependent on the choice of lysine requirement values from the published range. We consider that the value selected is too high, because of uncertainties and inconsistencies in the approaches used. A more appropriate choice from the lower end of the range would remove the lysine limitation of cereal-based diets, and reduce some of the perceived risk of deficiency. However, diets remain limited by the amount of digestible protein for many population groups, especially in West Bengal. In the context of risk management, one option would be to accept the current values and the conceptual metabolic framework within which they have been derived. This would have major implications for the supplies of high-quality protein to the developing countries. An alternative option would be to re-evaluate the currently proposed values for the requirements for protein and amino acids. We conclude that the choice of values for the adult lysine requirement should be re-evaluated and that serious consideration should be given to the extent to which adaptive mechanisms

  9. Improvement of regional cerebral blood flow after oral intake of branched-chain amino acids in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mika Yamamoto; Motoh Iwasa; Kaname Matsumura; Yuri Nakagawa; Naoki Fujita; Yoshinao Kobayashi; Masahiko Kaito; Kan Takeda; Yukihiko Adachi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral intake of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) on brain perfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis.METHODS: Single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed in 43 patients with cirrhosis and in 15 age-matched healthy subjects.Twenty-nine out of forty-three patients were randomly treated with either BCAA granules or placebo, and single photon emission computed tomography was performed before and after the treatment. We measured the regional cerebral blood flow values using a threedimensional stereotaxic region of interest template.RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had regions of significant hypoperfusion in the bilateral central (right P=0.039,P<0.05; left P = 0.006 P<0.01), parietal (right P=0.018, P<0.05;left P=0.009, P<0.01), angular (right P=0.039, P<0.05;left P = 0.008, P<0.01), and left pericallosal segments (P= 0.038 P<0.05) as compared with healthy subjects. A significant increase in cerebral perfusion was observed 70 min after the oral intake of BCAA in the angular (right P=0.012,P<0.05;left P=0.049, P<0.05), temporal (right P=0.012, P<0.05; left P=0.038, P<0.05), pericallosal segments (right P = 0.025,P<0.05; left P = 0.049, P<0.05) and left precentral (P=0.044, P<0.05), parietal (P=0.040, P<0.05) and thalamus (P=0.033, P<0.05). No significant change in perfusion was observed in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Administration of BCAA rapidly improves cerebral perfusion.

  10. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish consumption. However, the balance between health benefits and risks, due to the intake of chemical contaminants, is not well characterized. In the present study, edible samples of 14 marine species were analyzed for the concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a number of metals and organic pollutants. Daily intakes were specifically determined for a standard adult of 70kg, and compared with the tolerable/admissible intakes of the pollutants, if available. Salmon, mackerel, and red mullet were the species showing the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids. The daily intakes of cadmium, lead, and mercury through fish consumption were 1.1, 2.0, and 9.9microg, respectively. Dioxins and furans plus dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) intake was 38.0pg WHO-TEQ/day, whereas those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 20.8, 39.4, 1.53, and 1.50ng/day, respectively. In turn, the total intake of 16 analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 268ng/day. The monthly fish consumption limits for human health endpoints based on the intake of these chemical contaminants were calculated for a 70 years exposure. In general terms, most marine species here analyzed should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers. However, the type of fish, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential issues for the balance of the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption.

  11. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  12. Deletion of fabN in Enterococcus faecalis results in unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy and decreased release of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Duda, Katarzyna A; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Engel, Regina; Holst, Otto; Huebner, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis can cause life-threatening infections and is resistant to several commonly used antibiotics. The type II fatty acid pathway in bacteria is discussed as a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. However, it was shown that inhibition or deletion of its enzymes can be rescued in Gram-positive bacteria by supplementation with fatty acids. Here we show that by deletion of the fabN gene, which is essential for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthesis in E. faecalis, growth is impaired but can be rescued by supplementation with oleic acid or human serum. Nonetheless, we demonstrate alterations of the UFA profile after supplementation with oleic acid in the ΔfabN mutant using a specific glycolipid. In addition, we demonstrate that cytokine release in vitro is almost abolished after stimulation of mouse macrophages by the mutant in comparison to the wild type. The results indicate that fabN is not a suitable target for antimicrobials as UFA auxotrophy can be overcome. However, deletion of fabN resulted in a decreased inflammatory response indicating that fabN and resulting UFA synthesis are relevant for virulence.

  13. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. RESULTS: 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001. DISCUSSION: Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  14. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-02-01

    Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies are limited by self-reported measures of body weight and waist circumference or by a cross-sectional design. The objective of the present study was to investigate if R-TFA intake was associated with subsequent changes in anthropometry (body weight, waist and hip circumference) measured by technicians and body composition (body fat percentage). A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple regression with cubic spline modelling was used to analyse the data. Copenhagen County, Denmark. Two hundred and sixty-seven men and women aged 35-65 years from the Danish MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular diseases) cohort. The median R-TFA intake was 1.3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0.4, 2.7 g/d) or 0.6% of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0.2, 1.1%). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. R-TFA intake within the range present in the Danish population was not significantly associated with subsequent changes in body size, shape or composition and the 95% confidence intervals indicate that any relevant associations are unlikely to have produced these observations.

  15. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fanny Lemarié; Erwan Beauchamp; Stéphanie Dayot; Cécile Duby; Philippe Legrand; Vincent Rioux

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specif...

  16. Determining and surveying the role of carnitine and folic acid to decrease fatigue in β-thalassemia minor subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mazloom, Maryam; Shahriari, Mahdi; Zareifar, Soheila; Azimi, Ali; Hadaegh, Amirhossein; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-11-01

    Beta-thalassemia minor (BTM) patients usually experience fatigue, bone pain complaint, and muscle weakness. Carnitine is an essential protein for transportation of long-chain fatty acids to the matrix for beta-oxidation. BTM patients have abnormally low plasma carnitine concentrations, which results in deficient ATP production. Carnitine and folic acid together may have a role in preventing bone pain complaint and fatigue in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of carnitine and folic acid supplementation in subjects with BTM. Seventy three BTM (mean age 11.06 ± 5.46 years) and 23 healthy controls (mean age 8.48 ± 3.78 years) were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood was drawn to determine baseline free and total carnitine levels, red blood cell folate concentration, and hemoglobin level. BTM were divided into three groups and received different types of supplementation for 3 months: Group 1, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine; Group 2, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine plus 1 mg/day folic acid; and Group 3, 1 mg/day folic acid. Controls did not receive supplementation. Laboratory parameters were again evaluated after 3 months' supplementation. A detailed quality of life questionnaire was designed to investigate muscle symptoms before and after supplementation. Free and total plasma carnitine concentration and hemoglobin levels in BTM subjects increased significantly after carnitine supplementation (P carnitine. Red blood cell folate level increased after folic acid supplementation. Carnitine and folic acid supplementation resulted in a decrease in bone pain complaint and muscle weakness in cases with β-thalassemia minor.

  17. Not all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle induce tremor, neuronal damage and decreased dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Maribel; García-Mendoza, Esperanza; Farfán-García, Eunice D; Das, Bhaskar C; Ciprés-Flores, Fabiola J; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G; Tamay-Cach, Feliciano; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A

    2017-06-06

    Several striatal toxins can be used to induce motor disruption. One example is MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), whose toxicity is accepted as a murine model of parkinsonism. Recently, 3-Thienylboronic acid (3TB) was found to produce motor disruption and biased neuronal damage to basal ganglia in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of four boronic acids with a close structural relationship to 3TB (all having a five-membered cycle), as well as boric acid and 3TB. These boron-containing compounds were compared to MPTP regarding brain access, morphological disruption of the CNS, and behavioral manifestations of such disruption. Data was collected through acute toxicity evaluations, motor behavior tests, necropsies, determination of neuronal survival by immunohistochemistry, Raman spectroscopic analysis of brain tissue, and HPLC measurement of dopamine in substantia nigra and striatum tissue. Each compound showed a distinct profile for motor disruption. For example, motor activity was not disrupted by boric acid, but was decreased by two boronic acids (caused by a sedative effect). 3TB, 2-Thienyl and 2-furanyl boronic acid gave rise to shaking behavior. The various manifestations generated by these compounds can be linked, in part, to different levels of dopamine (measured by HPLC) and degrees of neuronal damage in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Clearly, motor disruption is not induced by all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle as substituent. Possible explanations are given for the diverse chemico-morphological changes and degrees of disruption of the motor system, considering the role of boron and the structure-toxicity relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rumen acid production from dairy feeds. 1. Effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows offered grass or corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Wadhwa, D; Borgida, L P; Fisher, W J

    2001-12-01

    Earlier studies developed a new approach to feed evaluation, measuring the net acid load that develops during rumen fermentation. Two concentrates were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, with extremes of rumen acid load. A third treatment comprised a 50:50 mixture of these concentrates. These concentrates were evaluated along with ryegrass silage and corn silage. The feeds were evaluated in a continuous culture system adapted to deliver and record the quantities of acid or alkali needed to maintain a constant pH (6.2 to 6.3). This study confirmed the anticipated ranking of concentrates for rumen acid load, as well as the highly acidogenic nature of corn silage. The concentrates were formulated to balance corn silage and were offered to early-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows at 50% of dry matter intake, with either ryegrass silage or corn silage. Feed intake was lower for animals offered corn silage-based diets (17.4 vs. 22.2 kg of dry matter/d). Increasing concentrate acid load led to a large decline in dry matter intake for corn silage, although not for grass silage. Feed intake effects were reflected in significant effects on yield of milk (31.0, 29.9, and 26.9 kg/d for low-, medium-, and high-acid load concentrates, respectively) and milk solids. Milk protein concentration was unaffected by concentrate type with corn silage diets but tended to be higher when high acid load concentrates were fed with grass silage. This may reflect the effect of the high starch concentrate rectifying a shortage of glucogenic precursors or microbial protein with the grass silage-based diet.

  19. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  20. Israeli 'cancer shift' over heart disease mortality may be led by greater risk in women with high intake of n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2007-10-01

    My hypothesis is that higher female sensitivity to increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their carcinogenic effect may contribute to the recent Israeli 'cancer shift' over heart disease mortality (23.1 vs. 22.3%, 1999). High n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was the presumed dietary risk underlying the 'Israeli paradox', the unexpected gap between 'ill' health and 'good' diet. Scientific literature and population health surveillance reports were reviewed. Cancer death rates for Israeli Arabs, who consumed a more traditional Mediterranean diet - more monounsaturated fatty acids, mostly olive oil, and less n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids - are still 1.1-1.7 times (men-women) lower than in Israeli Jews, but are increasing faster (23.6 and 5.1% vs. 5.3 and -3.3%, 1980-2000), concurrently with dietary 'Israelization' - specifically, increased intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Israeli-Jewish women attained an earlier, much larger (29 vs. 7%, 1999) 'cancer : heart disease mortality shift' (ratio >1.0), ranked much worse for cancer (15th/44 European countries) than men (37th) and heart disease (38th and 34th, respectively), and had much higher cancer prevalence (1 : 3) than Israeli-Arab women (1 : 6), though dietary compositions were similar, save for higher n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid : monounsaturated fatty acid ratio. Population studies of Israeli Jews, Arabs, and women support the association of high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with increased cancer risk and higher female sensitivity. Research findings suggest that gender and sex hormones may influence n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and carcinogenesis. This appears to be the first time gender has been proposed to modulate national cancer epidemiology, suggesting implications for differential nutritional prevention, warranting further research.