WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid induce lipid

  1. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ceftazidime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devbhuti P*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids which is a free radical related process and responsible for thedevelopment of many diseases and disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer etc. End products of lipid peroxidation aremalondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, etc. which are the ultimate mediator of toxicity. Antioxidants have the capability toinhibit lipid peroxidation. Keeping in mind this fact, the present in vitro study was carried out to evaluate lipid peroxidation induction potential of ceftazidime, a cephalosporin antibiotic and its suppression with ascorbic acid considering some laboratory markers of lipid peroxidation like MDA, 4-HNE and reduced glutathione (GSH. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. After treatment of the liver homogenate with drug and/or antioxidant the levels of 4-HNE, MDA and GSH were estimated in different samples at different hours of incubation. The results showed that the drug ceftazidime could significantly induce lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant ascorbic acid has the capability to inhibit ceftazidime-inducedlipid peroxidation.

  2. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  3. Palmitic acid induces central leptin resistance and impairs hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Licai; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Wu, Yizhen; Wang, Hongqin; Camer, Danielle; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of diets rich in saturated fat largely contributes to the development of obesity in modern societies. A diet high in saturated fats can induce inflammation and impair leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. However, the role of saturated fatty acids on hypothalamic leptin signaling, and hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism remains largely undiscovered. In this study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), on central leptin sensitivity, hypothalamic leptin signaling, inflammatory molecules and hepatic energy metabolism in C57BL/6J male mice. We found that the icv administration of PA led to central leptin resistance, evidenced by the inhibition of central leptin's suppression of food intake. Central leptin resistance was concomitant with impaired hypothalamic leptin signaling (JAK2-STAT3, PKB/Akt-FOXO1) and a pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-6 and pIκBa) in the mediobasal hypothalamus and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. Furthermore, the pre-administration of icv PA blunted the effect of leptin-induced decreases in mRNA expression related to gluconeogenesis (G6Pase and PEPCK), glucose transportation (GLUT2) and lipogenesis (FAS and SCD1) in the liver of mice. Therefore, elevated central PA concentrations can induce pro-inflammatory responses and leptin resistance, which are associated with disorders of energy homeostasis in the liver as a result of diet-induced obesity.

  4. Investigation of heat induced reactions between lipid oxidation products and amino acids in lipid rich model systems and hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Yeşim; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipid oxidation to non-enzymatic browning reactions in lipid rich model and actual food systems. Hazelnut oil and model reaction mixtures consisting of different amino acids were heated under certain conditions to determine possible lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reaction products. In model systems, the Schiff base of 2,4-decadienal, its decarboxylated form, and reaction products formed after hydrolytic cleavage of the Schiff base or decarboxylated form were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. No furosine was detected in hazelnuts after roasting at 160 °C while the concentration of free amino acids significantly decreased. 2,4-Decadienal reacted effectively with all amino acids studied through a Maillard type carbonyl-amine condensation pathway. (2E,4E)-Deca-2,4-dien-1-amine was identified as a typical reaction product in model systems and roasted hazelnuts. In lipid-rich foods like hazelnuts, lipid-derived carbonyls might be responsible for potential modifications of free and protein bound amino acids during heating.

  5. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to detect the effect of acanthoic acid (AA) on alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with single dose of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage or equal volume of saline, and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight, 25%, w/v) by gavage within 24 h. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after the last ethanol dosing. Serum and hepatic indexes were detected by western blot, RT-PCR, and histopathological assay. AML-12 cells were pretreated with AA (5, 10, 20 μM), or AICAR (500 μM), GW3965 (1 μM), SRT1720 (6 μM), Nicotinamide (20 mM) for 2 h, respectively, and then following treated with EtOH (200 mM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for additional 48 h. Cell protein and mRNA were collected for western blot and RT-PCR. Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release were detected by ELISA assay. Results: It was found that AA significantly decreased acute ethanol-induced increasing of the serum ALT/AST, LDH, ALP levels, and hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. AA significantly suppressed the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), IL-1β, and caspase-1 induced by ethanol. Furthermore, a significant decline of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and liver X receptors (LXRs) levels was observed in EtOH group, compared with normal group mice. And AA pretreatment increased the Sirt1 and LXRs levels, and also ameliorated phosphorylation of liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins, compared with EtOH group. However, the levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -α or -γ (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ) induced by acute ethanol were reversed by AA. In EtOH/LPS cultivated AML-12 cells, AA decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, lipid

  6. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Changes in Unsaturated Levels of Fatty Acids in Thylakoid PSⅡ Membrane Lipids During Chilling-induced Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qin Zhu; Chun-Mei Yu; Xin-Yan Liu; Ben-Hua Ji; De-Mao Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of plants. In the present work, the effect of low non-freezing temperature, as an inducer of "chilling resistance", was studied in three cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.), japonica cv. 9516 (j-9516), the two parental lines of superhigh-yield hybrid rice between subspecies,Peiai/E32 (ji-PE), and the traditional indica hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). Leaves of chill-treated rice showed chilling-induced resistance, as an increase of their low-temperature tolerance was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, revealing a change in photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) efficiency. After 5 d of exposure to 11℃ under low light (100 μ mol·m-2·s-1), levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids decreased during the initial 1-2 d, then increased slowly and reached 99.2%, 95.3% and 90.1% of the initial value (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63, respectively, on the fifth day. However, under medium light (600 μmol·m-2·s-1), all cultivars experienced similar substantial photoinhibition, which approached steady state levels after a decline in levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSII thylakoid membrane lipids to about 57.1%, 53.8% and 44.5% of the initial values (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63 on the fifth day. Under either chilling-induced resistance (the former) or low temperature photoinhibition (the latter) conditions, the changes of other physiological parameters such as D1 protein contents,electron transport activities of PSII (ETA), Fv/Fm, xanthophyl cycle activities expressed by DES (deepoxide state)were consistent with that of levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids. So there were negative correlations between saturated levels of fatty acids (16:1(3t), 16:0, 18:0), especially the 16:1(3t) fatty acid on thylakoid membrane and other physiological parameters, such as D1 protein contents, ETA and (A+Z)/(A+V+Z). A specific role of

  8. Nitrogen deprivation induces lipid droplet accumulation and alters fatty acid metabolism in symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from Aiptasia pulchella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; Lin, I-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-07-22

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations.

  9. Swertiamarin ameliorates oleic acid induced lipid accumulation and oxidative stress by attenuating gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Soni, Sanket; Gupta, Sarita

    2016-10-01

    Swertiamarin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, is an antidiabetic drug with lipid lowering activity meliorates insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes condition. Therefore, the study was designed to explore the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of swertiamarin in ameliorating NAFLD caused due to hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin resistance. Steatosis was induced in HepG2 cells by supplementing 1mM oleic acid (OA) for 24h which was marked by significant accumulation of lipid droplets. This was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining and triglyceride accumulation. Swertiamarin (25μg/ml) decreased triglyceride content by 2 folds and effectively reduced LDH release (50%) activity by protecting membrane integrity thus, preventing apoptosis evidenced by reduced cleavage of Caspase 3 and PARP1. We observed that swertiamarin significantly increased the expressions of major insulin signaling proteins like Insulin receptor (IR), PI(3)K, pAkt with concomitant reduction in p307 IRS-1. AMPK was activated by swertiamarin action, thus restoring insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. In addition, qPCR results confirmed OA up-regulated Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS), resulting in increased fatty acid synthesis. Swertiamarin effectively modulated PPAR-α, a major potential regulator of carbohydrate metabolism which, in turn, decreased the levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK, further restricting hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis. Cumulatively, swertiamarin targets potential metabolic regulators AMPK and PPAR-α, through which it regulates hepatic glycemic burden, fat accumulation, insulin resistance and ROS in hepatic steatosis which emphasizes clinical significance of swertiamarin in regulating metabolism and as a suitable candidate for treating NAFLD.

  10. Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function.

  11. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Chia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state. Results Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p Conclusion In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

  12. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Zajdel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (PA has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10–20% compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  13. Phytic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Alicja; Wilczok, Adam; Węglarz, Ludmiła; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II)/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10-20%) compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II)/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM) significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  14. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercis...

  15. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Zajdel; Adam Wilczok; Ludmiła Węglarz; Zofia Dzierżewicz

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the deca...

  16. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

  17. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  18. Chalcones suppress fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation through a LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianshun; Yamamoto, Norio; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-06-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation in the liver has been proposed to cause hyperlipidemia, diabetes and fatty liver disease. 4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD), xanthoangelol (XAG), cardamonin (CAR) and flavokawain B (FKB) are chalcones that have exhibited various biological effects against obesity, inflammation, and diabetes; however, little is known about the inhibitory effects of these chalcones on fatty liver disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 4HD, XAG, CAR, and FKB to reduce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. When HepG2 cells were treated with a mixture of fatty acids (FAs; palmitic acid : oleic acid = 1 : 2 ratio), significant lipid accumulation was observed. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of chalcones at 5 μM significantly suppressed the FA-induced lipid accumulation. We found that the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a key molecule involved in lipogenesis, was decreased in these chalcone-treated cells. We also found that these chalcones increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), which is involved in FA oxidation. Moreover, these chalcones increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1), upstream regulators of SREBP-1 and PPARα. We confirmed that an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, reversed chalcone-induced changes in SREBP-1 and PPARα expression in the HepG2 cells. Collectively, we found that 4HD, XAG, CAR, and XAG attenuated lipid accumulation through activation of the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

  19. Low-ω3 Fatty Acid and Soy Protein Attenuate Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver and Injury by Regulating the Opposing Lipid Oxidation and Lipogenic Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Reyes-Gordillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta (PGC1β affect hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis, respectively, leading to fatty liver injury. Low-ω3 fatty acid (Low-ω3FA that primarily regulates PGC1α and soy protein (SP that seems to have its major regulatory effect on PGC1β were evaluated for their protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli control or ethanol liquid diets with high or low ω3FA fish oil and soy protein. Low-ω3FA and SP opposed the actions of chronic ethanol by reducing serum and liver lipids with concomitant decreased fatty liver. They also prevented the downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 and PGC1α and their target fatty acid oxidation pathway genes and attenuated the upregulation of hepatic PGC1β and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c and their target lipogenic pathway genes via the phosphorylation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Thus, these two novel modulators attenuate ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and consequent liver injury potentially by regulating the two opposing lipid oxidation and lipogenic pathways.

  20. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 augments saturated fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Matsui

    Full Text Available Mismatch between the uptake and utilization of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium leads to abnormally high intracellular fatty acid concentration, which ultimately induces myocardial dysfunction. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1 is a rate-limiting enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs to monounsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies have shown that SCD1-deficinent mice are protected from insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity; however, the role of SCD1 in the heart remains to be determined. We examined the expression of SCD1 in obese rat hearts induced by a sucrose-rich diet for 3 months. We also examined the effect of SCD1 on myocardial energy metabolism and apoptotic cell death in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in the presence of SFAs. Here we showed that the expression of SCD1 increases 3.6-fold without measurable change in the expression of lipogenic genes in the heart of rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Forced SCD1 expression augmented palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation, but attenuated excess fatty acid oxidation and restored reduced glucose oxidation. Of importance, SCD1 substantially inhibited SFA-induced caspase 3 activation, ceramide synthesis, diacylglycerol synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Experiments using SCD1 siRNA confirmed these observations. Furthermore, we showed that exposure of cardiac myocytes to glucose and insulin induced SCD1 expression. Our results indicate that SCD1 is highly regulated by a metabolic syndrome component in the heart, and such induction of SCD1 serves to alleviate SFA-induced adverse fatty acid catabolism, and eventually to prevent SFAs-induced apoptosis.

  1. Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Potentiates Toxic Lipids-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Macrophages via Inhibition of Janus Kinase 2-dependent Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Shu, Lingling; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Wu, Xiaoping; Liao, Boya; Wu, Donghai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages. Over-expression of A-FABP impaired PA-induced autophagy associating with enhanced ER stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP reversed the conditions. PA-induced expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 was attenuated in A-FABP over-expressed macrophages, but was elevated in A-FABP-deficient macrophages. Mechanistically, A-FABP potentiated the effects of PA by inhibition of Janus Kinase (JAK)2 activity, thus diminished PA-induced Atg7 expression contributing to impaired autophagy and further augmentation of ER stress. These findings suggest that A-FABP acts as autophagy inhibitor to instigate toxic lipids-induced ER stress through inhibition of JAK2-dependent autophagy, which in turn triggers inflammatory responses in macrophages. A-FABP-JAK2 axis may represent an important pathological pathway contributing to obesity-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:28094778

  2. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  3. Effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on sexual difference of growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The effects of α-lipoic acid administration on sexual differences in growth performance, heat exposure-induced metabolic response and lipid peroxidation of raw meat in broiler chickens were studied. 2. Two-week-old male and female broiler chicks were divided into two groups each, as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Half the birds were fed on a diet supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and half on a control diet. All groups were reared to 6 weeks of age at 25°C and, thereafter, exposed to 33°C for 8 h per day for 3 d. 3. Under thermo-neutral conditions, α-lipoic acid decreased feed consumption and body weight gain of male chickens. However, the feed conversion rate and tissue mass of breast muscle and abdominal fat were unchanged. 4. In plasma metabolites, α-lipoic acid increased the molar ratio of non-esterified fatty acids to free glycerol, regardless of sex and heat exposure. A decrease in β-hydroxybutyrate was observed in the α-lipoic acid-fed male chickens. In the heat-exposed chickens, α-lipoic acid lowered the molar ratio of plasma lactate to pyruvate in relation to the enhanced concentrations of plasma pyruvate. However, no sexual difference was observed. 5. The value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in breast meat of heat-stressed chickens that was refrigerated for 3 or 7 d was higher in males than in females. An antioxidative effect of α-lipoic acid was observed in the meat of male chickens. 6. The present study suggests that the α-lipoic acid-inducing fatty acid metabolism and antioxidative effect persisted during the heat stress, even though a sexual difference in the responsiveness was seen in broiler chickens.

  4. A Feedback Regulatory Loop between G3P and Lipid Transfer Proteins DIR1 and AZI1 Mediates Azelaic-Acid-Induced Systemic Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshun Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR, a highly desirable form of plant defense, provides broad-spectrum immunity against diverse pathogens. The recent identification of seemingly unrelated chemical inducers of SAR warrants an investigation of their mutual interrelationships. We show that SAR induced by the dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AA requires the phosphorylated sugar derivative glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P. Pathogen inoculation induced the release of free unsaturated fatty acids (FAs and thereby triggered AA accumulation, because these FAs serve as precursors for AA. AA accumulation in turn increased the levels of G3P, which is required for AA-conferred SAR. The lipid transfer proteins DIR1 and AZI1, both of which are required for G3P- and AA-induced SAR, were essential for G3P accumulation. Conversely, reduced G3P resulted in decreased AZI1 and DIR1 transcription. Our results demonstrate that an intricate feedback regulatory loop among G3P, DIR1, and AZI1 regulates SAR and that AA functions upstream of G3P in this pathway.

  5. Folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Badary, Dalia M

    2017-03-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in cellular metabolic activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of folic acid against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, six animals each. Negative control group received the vehicle, positive control group received 1mg/kg folic acid for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks orally, lead-exposed group received 10mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally (IP) for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks, and lead-treated group received 10mg/kg lead acetate IP and 1mg/kg folic acid orally for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks concurrently. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ- glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured. Hepatic total peroxide and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also investigated. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and periodic acid shiff's (PAS) were carried out. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Serum AST, ALT and GGT and hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β were significantly increased in lead-exposed group and were positively correlated with hepatic lead level. Moreover, lead-exposed rats showed hydropic degeneration, nuclear vesiculation, high lymphocytic infiltration, depletion of glycogen content and NF-κB expression. Concomitant folic acid administration resulted in a significant alleviation of biochemical and structural alteration-induced by lead. This was associated with reduction of hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β and reduction of NF-κB expression. In conclusion, folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

  6. Nucleic acid-lipid membrane interactions studied by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrellis, Sarantis; Nounesis, George

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of nucleic acids with lipid membranes are of great importance for biological mechanisms as well as for biotechnological applications in gene delivery and drug carriers. The optimization of liposomal vectors for clinical use is absolutely dependent upon the formation mechanisms, the morphology, and the molecular organization of the lipoplexes, that is, the complexes of lipid membranes with DNA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has emerged as an efficient and relatively easy-to-operate experimental technique that can straightforwardly provide data related to the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the DNA-lipid complexation and especially to the lipid organization and phase transitions within the membrane. In this review, we summarize DSC studies considering nucleic acid-membrane systems, accentuating DSC capabilities, and data analysis. Published work involving cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic lipids as well as lipid mixtures interacting with RNA and DNA of different sizes and conformations are included. It is shown that despite limitations, issues such as DNA- or RNA-induced phase separation and microdomain lipid segregation, liposomal aggregation and fusion, alterations of the lipid long-range molecular order, as well as membrane-induced structural changes of the nucleic acids can be efficiently treated by systematic high-sensitivity DSC studies.

  7. Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Waanders, Jennifer; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-02-01

    Chia seeds contain the essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). This study has assessed whether chia seeds attenuated the metabolic, cardiovascular and hepatic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet [carbohydrates, 52% (wt/wt); fat, 24% (wt/wt) with 25% (wt/vol) fructose in drinking water] in rats. Diets of the treatment groups were supplemented with 5% chia seeds after 8 weeks on H diet for a further 8 weeks. Compared with the H rats, chia seed-supplemented rats had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced visceral adiposity, decreased hepatic steatosis and reduced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis without changes in plasma lipids or blood pressure. Chia seeds induced lipid redistribution with lipid trafficking away from the visceral fat and liver with an increased accumulation in the heart. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 products were depleted in the heart, liver and the adipose tissue of chia seed-supplemented rats together with an increase in the substrate concentrations. The C18:1trans-7 was preferentially stored in the adipose tissue; the relatively inert C18:1n-9 was stored in sensitive organs such as liver and heart and C18:2n-6, the parent fatty acid of the n-6 pathway, was preferentially metabolized. Thus, chia seeds as a source of ALA induce lipid redistribution associated with cardioprotection and hepatoprotection.

  8. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2004-06-01

    For a long time, aluminium (Al) has been considered an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders, such as dialysis dementia, the fulminant neurological disorder that can develop in patients on renal dialysis. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg AlCl3/kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3/kg BW (1/25 LD50); 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Evaluations were made for lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities and hemato-biochemical parameters. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (PAluminium treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total lipids (TL), blood haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), and increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and the concentrations of glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and cholesterol. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals, TL, cholesterol, glucose and creatinine, and increased the activity of GST, SH groups, Hb, TEC and PCV. While, the rest of the tested parameters were not affected. Also, the present study showed that ascorbic acid can be effective in the protection of aluminium-induced toxicity.

  9. Comparative effects of curcumin and its analog on alcohol- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alterations in circulatory lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake induces hyperlipidemia. Studies suggest that natural principles and their analogs are known to possess anti-hyperlipidemic properties. In the present work we tested the effect of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and a curcumin analog on alcohol- and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid (deltaPUFA)- induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of curcumin and curcumin analog was evaluated by analyzing the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids (PLs), and free fatty acids (FFAs). The results showed that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, PLs, and FFAs were increased significantly in alcohol-, deltaPUFA-, and alcohol + deltaPUFA-treated groups, which were brought down significantly on treatment with either of the curcuminoids. Curcumin analog treatment was found to be more effective than curcumin treatment. From the results obtained, we conclude that both curcumin and its analog effectively protect the system against alcohol- and deltaPUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and are possible candidates for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  10. Effect of Salvianolic Acid b and Paeonol on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Hemorrheology in Myocardial Ischemia Rabbits Induced by Pituitruin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wang, Siwang; Xie, Yanhua; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Liu, Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of salvianolic acid b and paeonol on coronary disease. The ischemia myocardial animal model is induced by administering pituitrin (20 μg·kg−1) intravenously via the abdominal vein. A combination of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (CSAP) (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) was administrated to experimental rabbits. Biochemical indices were evaluated during six weeks of intervention. We found that the compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can markedly and dose-dependently reduce fibrinogen and malonaldehyde levels, increase the HDL level, improve blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in rabbits. In addition, the medicine can still reduce the ratio of NO/ET and the contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can improve the blood hemorrheology, decrease oxidative injury and repair the function of blood vessel endothelium, and subsequently prevent the development of Coronary disease. PMID:21152295

  11. Effect of Salvianolic Acid b and Paeonol on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Hemorrheology in Myocardial Ischemia Rabbits Induced by Pituitruin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of salvianolic acid b and paeonol on coronary disease. The ischemia myocardial animal model is induced by administering pituitrin (20 μg·kg−1 intravenously via the abdominal vein. A combination of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (CSAP (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW was administrated to experimental rabbits. Biochemical indices were evaluated during six weeks of intervention. We found that the compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW can markedly and dose-dependently reduce fibrinogen and malonaldehyde levels, increase the HDL level, improve blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in rabbits. In addition, the medicine can still reduce the ratio of NO/ET and the contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW can improve the blood hemorrheology, decrease oxidative injury and repair the function of blood vessel endothelium, and subsequently prevent the development of Coronary disease.

  12. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on High Glucose-Induced Protein Glycation, Lipid Peroxidation, and Membrane Ion Pump Activity in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachat Sompong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is the ubiquitous phytochemical phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid. Experimental studies in diabetic models demonstrate that FA possesses multiple mechanisms of action associated with anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanism by which FA prevents diabetes-associated vascular damages remains unknown. The aim of study was to investigate the protective effects of FA on protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, membrane ion pump activity, and phosphatidylserine exposure in high glucose-exposed human erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that FA (10-100 μM significantly reduced the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c whereas 0.1-100 μM concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes exposed to 45 mM glucose. This was associated with increased glucose consumption. High glucose treatment also caused a significant reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte plasma membrane which could be reversed by FA. Furthermore, we found that FA (0.1-100 μM prevented high glucose-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism of FA for the prevention of vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  13. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  14. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated.......8 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 +/- 2 yr, 35.3 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2)) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-(14)C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin...... the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  15. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  16. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  17. Role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in omega 3 fatty acids induced suppression of breast cancer xenograft growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ivan L

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplementing mice with high levels of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs increases the n-3 PUFAs in cell membranes, increases the susceptibility of the cells for lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreases the growth rate of mammary and other tumors. However, the results of an earlier study indicated that a factor in addition to LPO was involved in the reduction in tumor growth in n-3 PUFAs fed mice. Athymic mice bearing MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma xenografts, were fed fish oil concentrate (FOC or control diets, with and without supplemental Vitamin E (2000 IU /kg diet and were sacrificed both before and after doxorubicin (DOX treatment to evaluate factors involved in tumor growth suppression. Results Prior to DOX, basal LPO in the tumor of 3% FOC fed mice was slightly higher than in the control fed mice and was decreased in mice consuming FOC with vitamin E. Vitamin E suppressed the DOX induced increase in LPO in the tumors of control mice, however, vitamin E was not sufficient to suppress a DOX induced increase in LPO in the tumors of FOC fed mice. The mean growth rate of tumors of FOC fed mice was significantly less than the mean growth rate of the tumors of control mice. Multiple regression analyses indicated that suppression of glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity by FOC prior to DOX therapy was more important than increased LPO as an explanation of tumor growth suppression. Tumor induced cachexia was decreased in mice consuming FOC. Conclusions It appears that the increased sensitivity to DOX was related to an FOC induced reduction in GPX activity. FOC reduced tumor induced cachexia.

  18. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In ch...

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid rigidifies a model lipid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüning, B.A.; Farago, B.

    2014-01-01

    We report a combined dynamic light scattering and neutron spin-echo (NSE) study on vesicles composed of the phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine under the influence of varying amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid. We study local lipid bilayer undulations using NSE on time scale

  20. Quantitative analysis of aberrant fatty acid composition of zebrafish hepatic lipids induced by organochlorine pesticide using stable isotope-coded transmethylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hongying; Dong, Linjie; Dong, Qingjian; Ke, Changshu; Fu, Jieying; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Cong; Dai, Ling

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used worldwide for agricultural purposes. Due to their resistance to metabolism, a major public health concern has been raised. Aberrant hepatic lipid composition has been a hallmark of many liver diseases associated with exposure to various toxins and chemicals. And thus lots of efforts have been focused on the development of analytical techniques that can rapidly and quantitatively determine the changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids. In this work, changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids in response to DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exposure were quantitatively analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric approach based on stable isotope-coded transmethylation. It has been quantitatively demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids including C20:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:6n3 decrease in response to DDT exposure. However, saturated long chain fatty acids including C16:0, C18:0, as well as monounsaturated long chain fatty acid C18:1n9 consistently increase in a DDT-concentration-dependent manner. In particular, much higher changes in the level of hepatic C16:0 and C18:0 for male fish were observed than that for female fish. These experimental results are in accordance with qualitative histopathological analysis that revealed liver morphological alterations. The stable isotope-coded mass spectrometric approach provides a reliable means for investigating hepatotoxicity associated with fatty acid synthesis, desaturation, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and lipid mobilization. It should be useful in elucidation of hepatotoxic mechanisms and safety assessment of environmental toxins.

  1. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  2. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol L Fischer; Katherine S Walters; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria;however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  3. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Isik, Ismail

    2008-01-10

    Today's world is increasingly seeking ways to replace the synthetic drugs with the therapeutic power of natural products. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats. The chemopreventive potential of the plant infusions were evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)] and lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 150-200 g, were randomly allotted into four experimental groups. While the control group (A) received only natural spring water, the treatment B group (0.2% TCA) supplied with the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA, the treatment C (TCA + FV infusion) and D (TCA + SO infusion) groups drank the drinking water containing 0.2% TCA and 2.5% the plant grains and leaves ad libitum for 50 days during experiment. At the end of the 50 days experiment, TCA and the plant's infusions caused different affect on the serum marker enzymes, tissues antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation against TCA-exposed in rats with comparison to those of TCA exposed and control rats. According to the results, both TCA and TCA + plants infusions caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT and CPK activity. Non-enzymic antioxidant GSH level significantly increased in the brain whereas reduced in the erythrocytes and kidney of TCA + FV and TCA + SO as compared to TCA group and control. While MDA content slightly increased in tissues of TCA group in comparison to those of control, significantly

  4. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    mice. In skeletal muscle, 98% of the lipase activity is accounted for by adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Give that inhibition or knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase does not impair lipolysis in muscle during contraction, the data point to an important role of adipose......Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid...... binding proteins, particularly fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), in the exercise- and contraction-induced increase in uptake of long-chain fatty acids in muscle. The FAT/CD36 translocates from intracellular depots to the surface membrane upon initiation of exercise/muscle...

  5. Acetylsalicylic Acid reduces the severity of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases the formation of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhnke, Thomas; Gomolka, Beate; Bilal, Süleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Sun, Yanping; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C; Weylandt, Karsten H

    2013-01-01

    The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  6. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  7. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  8. Enzymatic lipid removal from surfaces--lipid desorption by a pH-induced "electrostatic explosion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snabe, Torben; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Petersen, Steffen Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    Removal of lipidic molecules from surfaces can be accomplished using detergents containing lipases. Surface cleaning is usually performed under alkaline conditions due to increased solubility of the hydrolysis products, especially free fatty acids. This paper shows that removal of a triacylglycerol film from a surface can be dramatically enhanced in a sequential system where pH is shifted to alkaline conditions after an initial lipolytic reaction period at or below neutral pH. Data from three different biophysical techniques, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), and total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy (TIRF) clearly show the effects of such cleaning procedure. Initially the reaction is carried out at pH below the pKa value of the fatty acids formed upon triacylglycerol hydrolysis, and the protonated fatty acids accumulate in the film. The mechanism of lipid removal, induced by increasing pH to a value above the fatty acid pKa, is explained by a burst caused by electrostatic repulsion between rapidly ionised fatty acids, i.e. by an "electrostatic explosion". Performing the initial hydrolysis at pH 6 and the subsequent rinse at pH 10, using triolein as model substrate, lipid removal from surfaces by both commercial detergent lipases and non-commercial lipases was significantly improved compared to a reaction at constant pH 10.

  9. Diapause induces remodeling of the fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids in overwintering larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukašinović, Elvira L; Pond, David W; Worland, M Roger; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids prepared from the whole bodies of non-diapausing and diapausing fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were determined to evaluate the role of these lipids in diapause. Substantial changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids were triggered by diapause development. This led to a significant increase in the overall FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio), attributable to an increase in the relative proportion of MUFAs and the concomitant decrease in PUFAs and SFAs. In triacylglycerols, the significant changes in the FAs composition are the result of an increase in the relative proportions of MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), and a concomitant reduction in the composition of SFAs and PUFAs, mainly palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6), respectively. Changes in the composition of phospholipids were more subtle with FAs contributing to the overall increase of FA unsaturation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the melt transition temperatures of total lipids prepared from whole larvae, primarily attributable to the triacylglycerol component, were significantly lower during the time course of diapause compared with non-diapause. These observations were correlated to the FA composition of triacylglycerols, most likely enabling them to remain functional during colder winter conditions. We conclude that O. nubilalis undergoes remodeling of FA profiles of both energy storage triacylglycerols and membrane phospholipids as an element of its overwintering physiology which may improve the ability to cold harden during diapause.

  10. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  11. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  12. The efficacy of trivalent cyclic hexapeptides to induce lipid clustering in PG/PE membranes correlates with their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Sebastian; Kerth, Andreas; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

    2015-11-01

    Various models have been proposed for the sequence of events occurring after binding of specific antimicrobial peptides to lipid membranes. The lipid clustering model arose by the finding that antimicrobial peptides can induce a segregation of certain negatively charged lipids in lipid model membranes. Anionic lipid segregation by cationic peptides is initially an effect of charge interaction where the ratio of peptide and lipid charges is thought to be the decisive parameter in the peptide induced lipid demixing. However, the sequence of events following this initial lipid clustering is more complex and can lead to deactivation of membrane proteins involved in cell division or perturbation of lipid reorganization essential for cell division. In this study we used DSC and ITC techniques to investigate the effect of binding different cyclic hexapeptides with varying antimicrobial efficacy, to phosphatidylglycerol (PG)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid membranes and their ability to induce lipid segregation in these mixtures. We found that these cyclic hexapeptides consisting of three charged and three aromatic amino acids showed indeed different abilities to induce lipid demixing depending on their amino acid composition and their sequence. The results clearly showed that the cationic amino acids are essential for electrostatic binding but that the three hydrophobic amino acids in the peptides and their position in the sequence also contribute to binding affinity and to the extent of induction of lipid clustering. The efficacy of these different hexapeptides to induce PG clusters in PG/PE membranes was found to be correlated with their antimicrobial activity.

  13. Impact of UV-B on drought- or cadmium-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of membrane lipid fractions in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Szalai, Gabriella; Kovács, Viktória; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-10-01

    UV-B radiation may have either a positive or negative impact under the same conditions in wheat, depending on the type of secondary abiotic stressor: Cd or drought. Supplemental UV-B prevented the wilting and leaf rolling induced by PEG treatment. In contrast, combined UV-B and Cd treatment resulted in pronounced oxidative stress. The opposite effect of UV-B radiation in the case of drought or cadmium stress may be related to the alteration induced in the fatty acid composition. UV-B caused changes in the unsaturation of leaf phosphatidylglycerol fractions, and the accumulation of flavonoid in the leaves may prevent the stress induced by subsequent drought treatment. However it resulted in pronounced injury despite the increased flavonoid content in roots exposed to Cd. This was manifested in a drastic decrease in the unsaturation of the leaf monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and the root phosphatidylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol fractions. Data on the flavonoid content and fatty acid composition showed that oxidative stress was induced by drought in the leaves, by Cd in the roots, and interestingly, by UV-B radiation in both the leaves and roots. The additive effect of the combined stresses was also detected in the roots. The results presented here suggest a relationship between the capacity of the plant to remodel the fatty acid composition and its resistance to various stress factors.

  14. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

  15. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  16. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Wen, Yanmei; Yang, Yuhui; Mi, Shumei; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Xin; Ding, Sheng; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and fatty acid β-oxidation were increased in chlorogenic acid-LD group compared to LD rats, whereas levels of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased. These findings demonstrate that chlorogenic acid effectively improves hepatic lipid dysregulation in rats by regulating fatty acid metabolism enzymes, stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and modulating levels of hepatic fatty acids.

  17. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-03-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals.

  18. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation.

  19. Acid test: lipid antigens get into the groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Mitchell; Sullivan, Barbara A

    2008-06-01

    How do CD1 molecules load lipid antigens? In this issue of Immunity, Relloso et al. (2008) uncover how lysosomal pH targets amino acids in CD1b, causing it to open and attain a conformation more receptive to lipid antigens.

  20. Tuning molecular interactions in lipid-oligonucleotides assemblies via locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Amit; Salgado, Gilmar; Dole, François; Navailles, Laurence; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2013-11-07

    Hybrid nucleotide-lipids containing locked nucleic acid (LNA) show enhanced hybridization properties with complementary single strand RNAs compared to DNA lipid analogues. The LNA adenosine lipid features unique binding properties with a high binding affinity for poly-uridine and the entropically driven formation of a stable complex (K(d) ≈ 43 nM). Enhanced hybridization properties of LNA-based lipids should be applicable for the development of oligonucleotide (ON) delivery systems or as small molecule binders to RNA for novel therapeutic strategies.

  1. Peroxide-induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Arne; Gülden, Michael; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund; Seibert, Hasso

    2008-08-01

    Peroxides are often used as models to induce oxidative damage in cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation in peroxide-induced cell death. To this end (i) the ability to induce lipid peroxidation in C6 rat astroglioma cells of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) (ii) the relation between peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death in terms of time and concentration dependency and (iii) the capability of the lipid peroxidation chain breaking alpha-tocopherol to prevent peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and/or cell death were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was characterised by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and, by HPLC, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hexanal. Within 2 h CHP, t-BuOOH and H2O2 induced cell death with EC50 values of 59+/-9 microM, 290+/-30 microM and 12+/-1.1 mM, respectively. CHP and t-BuOOH, but not H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation in C6 cells with EC50 values of 15+/-14 microM and 130+/-33 microM, respectively. The TBARS measured almost exclusively consisted of MDA. 4-HNE was mostly not detectable. The concentration of hexanal slightly increased with increasing concentrations of organic peroxides. Regarding time and concentration dependency lipid peroxidation preceded cell death. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol (10 microM, 24 h) prevented both, peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. The results strongly indicate a major role of lipid peroxidation in the killing of C6 cells by organic peroxides but also that lipid peroxidation is not involved in H2O2 induced cell death.

  2. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  3. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (Pamla extract (Pamla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  4. A potential mechanism underlying atypical antipsychotics-induced lipid disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H L; Tan, Q Y; Jiang, P; Dang, R L; Xue, Y; Tang, M M; Xu, P; Deng, Y; Li, H D; Yao, J K

    2015-10-20

    Previous findings suggested that a four-protein complex, including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), SREBP-cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), insulin-induced gene (INSIG) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), within the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be an important regulator responsible for atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD)-induced lipid disturbances. In the present study, effects of typical antipsychotic drug and AAPDs as well as treatment outcome of steroid antagonist mifepristone (MIF) on the PGRMC1/INSIG/SCAP/SREBP pathway were investigated in rat liver using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. In addition, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, free fatty acids and various hormones including progesterone, corticosterone and insulin were measured simultaneously. Following treatment with clozapine or risperidone, both lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis were enhanced via inhibition of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and activation of SCAP/SREBP expressions. Such metabolic disturbances, however, were not demonstrated in rats treated with aripiprazole (ARI) or haloperidol (HAL). Moreover, the add-on treatment of MIF was effective in reversing the AAPD-induced lipid disturbances by upregulating the expression of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and subsequent downregulation of SCAP/SREBP. Taken together, our findings suggest that disturbances in lipid metabolism can occur at an early stage of AAPD treatment before the presence of weight gain. Such metabolic defects can be modified by an add-on treatment of steroid antagonist MIF enhancing the PGRMC1 pathway. Thus, it is likely that PGRMC1/INSIG-2 signaling may be a therapeutic target for AAPD-induced weight gain.

  5. Myoglobin-induced lipid oxidation : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Andersen, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of myoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation in simple model systems, muscle, and muscle-based foods is presented. The potential role of myoglobin spin and redox states in initiating lipid oxidation is reviewed. Proposed mechanisms for myoglobin- initiated lipid oxidation in muscle tissue (p...

  6. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  7. Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used.

  8. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupin Antonio Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.

  9. Effect of Lipid Raft on Cardiovascular Diseases Induced by Trans Fatty Acids%脂筏在反式脂肪酸诱导心血管疾病过程中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青; 邱斌

    2013-01-01

    The effects of lipid raft on the TFA-induced cardiovascular diseases was studied to provide scientific data for the research on the relation between lipid raft and cardiovascular diseases.%探讨脂筏在反式脂肪酸诱导心血管疾病过程中的作用机制,为研究脂筏和心血管疾病的关系提供科学依据.

  10. Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera, E-mail: jcervini@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Cuajimalpa, México City (Mexico); Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nieto-Camacho, Antonio [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Gomez-Vidales, Virginia [Laboratorio de Resonancia Paramagnética Electrónica, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención [Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Kaufhold, Stephan [BGR Bundesansaltfür Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Respirable volcanic ash induces oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes. • Respirable volcanic ash triggers cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. • Oxidative stress is surface controlled but not restricted by surface- Fe{sup 3+}. • Surface Fe{sup 3+} acts as a stronger inductor in allophanes vs phyllosilicates or oxides. • Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%. - Abstract: This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe{sup 3+}, and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot{sup −1}. LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe{sup 3+}, because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe{sup 3+} soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe{sup 3+} or small-sized Fe{sup 3+} refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe{sup 3+} located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell

  11. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  12. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  13. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Hoek-van den Hil

    Full Text Available Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG were decreased with 14% (p<0.001 and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were increased with 13% (p<0.01. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05 in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3. Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3 were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  14. Insulin-induced lipid binding to hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA NIKETIC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Under hypoglycemic conditions, concomitant hyperinsulinism causes an apparent modification of hemoglobin (Hb which is manifested by its aggregation (Niketi} et al., Clin. Chim. Acta 197 (1991 47. In the present work the causes and mechanisms underlying this Hb modification were studied. Hemoglobin isolated from normal erythrocytes incubated with insulin was analyzed by applying 31P-spectrometry and lipid extraction and analysis. To study the dynamics of the plasma membrane during hyperinsulinism, a fluorescent lipid-analog was applied. In the presence of insulin, phosphatidylserine (PS, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and cholesterol were found to bind to Hb. Lipid binding resulted in Hb aggregation, a condition that can be reproduced when phospholipids are incubated with Hb in vitro. Using a fluorescent lipid-analog, it was also shown that exposing erythrocytes to supraphysiological concentrations of insulin in vitro resulted in the internalization of lipids. The results presented in this work may have relevance to cases of diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia.

  15. 染料木素对油酸诱导的HEⅡ4肝细胞脂质沉积的影响%Effect of genistein on lipid accumulation in H4Ⅱ E cell induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦灵灵; 徐暾海; 周静鑫; 刘铜华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of genistein(GEN)on oleic acid(OA)induced lipid accumulationin in H4 ⅡE cells and to discuss the possible mechanism of GEN in the pointof AMPK.Methods H4ⅡE cells were cultured in vitro.The control group(NOR),OA treatment group(MOD group)and GEN treatment group were established according to the experimental requirements.The effects of GEN on the proliferation of H4 Ⅱ E cells were measured with MTT assay.The intraeellular TG mass was quantified spectrophotometrically using TG test kit.Cell protein was determined by DCTM Protein Assay kit.The intracellular TG concentration which was used to evaluate lipid accumulation was corrected using protein content as an internal standard.Western blotting was applied to determine the expression of AMPK and P-AMPK (Thr172).Accordingly the phosphorylation levels of AMPK was by means of P-AMPK(Thr172)/AMPK.Results OA treatment can induce lipid accumulation in H4 Ⅱ E cells while GEN treatment can decrease the intracellular TG concentration through up-regulate the phosphorylation levels of AMPK,though the effect was blocked by Compound C that is the inhibitor of AMPK.Conclusion GEN has anti-accumulation of lipid effect in H4ⅡE cell.The mechanism of GEN protective effect is partially due to AMPK.%目的 观察染料木素(GEN)对油酸(oleic acid)诱导的HEⅡ4肝细胞脂质沉积细胞模型的作用,以及对腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)磷酸化的影响.方法 采用MTT法检测不同浓度的GEN对细胞的毒性;以0.2 mmol/L油酸诱导HEⅡ4肝细胞内脂质大量沉积,给予GEN干预后以GPO·DAOS法检测细胞内甘油三酯(TG)含量,以DCTM法检测细胞内总蛋白含量,用蛋白含量校正细胞内TG含量(TG/蛋白)来评估细胞内脂质沉积情况;Western blotting法检测肝细胞内AMPK及P-AMPK (Thr172)蛋白表达水平,以P-AMPK (Thr172)/AMPK表示AMPK的磷酸化水平.结果 GEN可减少肝细胞内脂质沉积(分别为139.64±18.60、192.20±34

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  17. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  18. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  19. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

    2013-10-01

    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen.

  20. Season-induced variation in lipid composition is associated with semen quality in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov-Argaman, N; Mahgrefthe, K; Zeron, Y; Roth, Z

    2013-05-01

    Season-induced variation in fatty acid and cholesterol composition in bovine semen has been associated with semen quality. Given the specific roles of the various semen compartments (seminal fluids, sperm head, and sperm tail) in fertilization, we hypothesized that environmental-stress-induced alterations in the lipid composition of a specific compartment might impair semen quality and sperm function. Semen samples were collected from five mature Holstein-Friesian bulls during the summer (August to September) and winter (December to January). Semen was evaluated by computerized sperm-quality analyzer, calibrated for bulls' semen, and centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa from the seminal fluids. The spermatozoal fraction was sonicated to separate the sperm head and tail compartments. Cold lipid extraction was performed with chloroform:methanol (2:1, vol/vol). Lipids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Seasonal variation was found in both physiological and structural parameters. The proportion of spermatozoa defined as morphologically normal was higher in the winter, with higher motility, progressive motility, and velocity relative to summer samples. Lipid composition within fractions varied between seasons with prominent impairment in the tail compartment, characterized by high saturated fatty acid, low polyunsaturated fatty acid, and low cholesterol concentrations during the summer. Given the association between alterations in lipid composition and reduced sperm motility and velocity during the summer, it is suggested that lipid composition might serve to predict sperm quality.

  1. Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez M Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Aggregation behavior plays an important role in their survival by facilitating the location of refuges and cohesion of aggregates, helping to keep them safely assembled into shelters during daylight time, when they are vulnerable to predators. There are evidences that aggregation is mediated by thigmotaxis, by volatile cues from their faeces, and by hexane-extractable contact chemoreceptive signals from their cuticle surface. The epicuticular lipids of Triatoma infestans include a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols. Results We analyzed the response of T. infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual lipid fractions. Assays were performed in a circular arena, employing a binary choice test with filter papers acting as aggregation attractive sites; papers were either impregnated with a hexane-extract of the total lipids, or lipid fraction; or with the solvent. Insects were significantly aggregated around papers impregnated with the epicuticular lipid extracts. Among the lipid fractions separately tested, only the free fatty acid fraction promoted significant bug aggregation. We also investigated the response to different amounts of selected fatty acid components of this fraction; receptiveness varied with the fatty acid chain length. No response was elicited by hexadecanoic acid (C16:0, the major fatty acid component. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0 showed a significant assembling effect in the concentration range tested (0.1 to 2 insect equivalents. The very long chain hexacosanoic acid (C26:0 was significantly attractant at low doses (≤ 1 equivalent, although a repellent effect was observed at higher doses. Conclusion The detection of contact aggregation pheromones has practical

  2. Oleic acid disorders stratum corneum lipids in Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guangru; VanWyck, Dina; Xiao, Xin; Mack Correa, M Catherine; Gunn, Euen; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Walters, Russel M

    2013-04-16

    Oleic acid (OA) is well-known to affect the function of the skin barrier. In this study, the molecular interactions between OA and model stratum corneum (SC) lipids consisting of ceramide, cholesterol, and palmitic acid (PA) were investigated with Langmuir monolayer and associated techniques. Mixtures with different OA/SC lipid compositions were spread at the air/water interface, and the phase behavior was tracked with surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) isotherms. With increasing OA levels in the monolayer, the films became more fluid and more compressible. The thermodynamic parameters derived from π-A isotherms indicated that there are preferential interactions between OA and SC lipids and that films of their mixtures were thermodynamically stable. The domain structure and lipid conformational order of the monolayers were studied through Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), respectively. Results indicate that lower concentrations of OA preferentially mix with and disorder the ceramide-enriched domains, followed by perturbation of the PA-enriched domains and disruption of SC lipid domain separation at higher OA levels.

  3. Fatty acids, lipid mediators, and T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E M; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research.

  4. Effect of gender on lipid-induced insulin resistance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Hellgren, Lars; Vadset, T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In obese subjects, chronically elevated plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) exert a marked risk to contract insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. When NEFA is acutely increased due to i.v. infusion of lipid, glucose disposal during...... a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is reduced. This effect has been explained by a NEFA-induced decrease in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity caused by accumulation of the lipid intermediates Such as ceramide and diacylglycerol in the myocytes. However, neither the lipid-induced reduction of glucose disposal nor...... the clamp was similar in females and males (46+/-10 and 60+/-4%,, respectively, NS). However, whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as non-oxidative glucose disposal was higher in obese females compared with obese males both during lipid and saline infusion (P...

  5. Stimuli responsive charge-switchable lipids: Capture and release of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Joseph S; LaManna, Caroline M; Lusic, Hrvoje; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-03-01

    Stimuli responsive lipids, which enable control over the formation, transformation, and disruption of supramolecular assemblies, are of interest for biosensing, diagnostics, drug delivery, and basic transmembrane protein studies. In particular, spatiotemporal control over a supramolecular structure can be achieved using light activated compounds to induce significant supramolecular rearrangements. As such, a family of cationic lipids are described which undergo a permanent switch in charge upon exposure to 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) light to enable the capture of negatively charged nucleic acids within the self-assembled supramolecular structure of the lipids and subsequent release of these macromolecules upon exposure to UV light and disruption of the assemblies. The lipids are composed of either two different tripeptide head groups, Lysine-Glycine-Glycine (KGG) and Glycine-Glycine-Glycine (GGG) and three different hydrocarbon chain lengths (C6, C10, or C14) terminated by a UV light responsive 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanol (NPE) protected carboxylic acid. The photolysis of the NPE protected lipid is measured as a function of time, and the resulting changes in net molecular charge are observed using zeta potential analysis for each head group and chain length combination. A proof of concept study for the capture and release of both linear DNA (calf thymus) and siRNA is presented using an ethidium bromide quenching assay where a balance between binding affinity and supramolecular stability are found to be the key to optimal nucleic acid capture and release.

  6. Effects of perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length on fatty acid profiles of hepatic lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Yamazaki, Tohru; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tadashi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Alterations by perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with a chain length of 6-9 carbons in the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids of mice were investigated. The characteristic changes caused by all the PFCAs examined were increases in the contents and proportions of oleic acid (18 : 1), palmitoleic acid (16 : 1) and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (20 : 3) in hepatic lipids. Hepatic contents of palmitic acid were also increased by the treatments with the PFCAs. These effects were almost dependent on the hepatic concentrations of PFCA molecules regardless of their carbon chain length. Perfluorooctanoic acid elevated the expressions of mRNA encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) (SCD1 and 2), chain elongase (ELOVL5), Δ6 desaturase (Fads2), 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) (LPCAT3). The four PFCAs examined induced microsomal SCD and LPCAT in hepatic concentration-dependent manners regardless of carbon chain length. One linear regression line was confirmed between LPCAT activity and hepatic concentration of PFCA at wide range of the concentration, whereas the induction of SCD was saturable at relatively low concentration of PFCAs. These results suggest (i) that PFCAs with a chain length of 6-9 carbons change the fatty acid profile of hepatic lipids by increasing contents and proportions of 16 : 1, 18 : 1 and 20 : 3, (ii) that these alterations in fatty acid profile are caused by up-regulation of SCD, de novo fatty acid synthesis, chain elongase and Δ6 desaturase and (iii) that the mechanism underlying SCD induction is, in part, mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

  7. Lipids and lipoteichoic acid of autolysis-defective Streptococcus faecium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, D L; Cornett, J B; Shockman, G D

    1980-06-01

    Two of four previously isolated autolysis-defective mutants of Streptococcus faecium (Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790) incorporated substantially more [14C]glycerol into lipids and lipoteichoic acid than did the parent strain. Consistent with increased accumulation of lipids and lipoteichoic acid, significantly higher levels of phosphorus were found in the corresponding fractions of the two mutant strains than in the wild type. Although the autolysis-defective mutant strains contained the same assortment of lipids as the wild type, the relative amount of [14C]glycerol incorporated into diphosphatidylglycerol increased, accompanied by a decreased fraction of phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggested that increased cellular content of two types of substances, acylated lipoteichoic acid and lipids (notably diphosphatidylglycerol), which previously had been shown to be potent inhibitors of the N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase of this species, contributed to the autolysis-defective phenotype of these mutants. Consistent with this interpretation are observations that (i) cerulenin inhibition of fatty acid synthesis increased the rates of benzylpenicillin-induced cellular lysis and that (ii) Triton X-100 or Zwittergent 3-14 treatment could reveal the presence of otherwise cryptic but substantial levels of the active form of the autolysin in cells of three of four mutants and of the proteinase-activable latent form in all four mutants.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  9. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Lipid Microclusters, and Vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Wassall, Stephen R; Brown, David A; Kosaraju, Rasagna

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of long-chain marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has potential health benefits for the general population and for select clinical populations. However, several key limitations remain in making adequate dietary recommendations on n-3 PUFAs in addition to translating the fatty acids into clinical trials for select diseases. One major constraint is an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of n-3 PUFAs. In this review, we highlight studies to show n-3 PUFA acyl chains reorganize the molecular architecture of plasma membrane sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and potentially sphingolipid-rich cholesterol-free domains and cardiolipin-protein scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We also discuss the possibility that the effects of n-3 PUFAs on membrane organization could be regulated by the presence of vitamin E (α-tocopherol), which is necessary to protect highly unsaturated acyl chains from oxidation. Finally, we propose the integrated hypothesis, based predominately on studies in lymphocytes, cancer cells, and model membranes, that the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs disrupt signaling microclusters is highly dependent on the type of lipid species that incorporate n-3 PUFA acyl chains. The current evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA acyl chains disrupt lipid raft formation by incorporating primarily into phosphatidylethanolamines but can also incorporate into other lipid species of the lipidome.

  10. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, pascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation.

  11. Lipid oxidation induced oxidative degradation of cereal beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2016-04-15

    In food systems, lipid oxidation can cause oxidation of other molecules. This research for the first time investigated oxidative degradation of β-glucan induced by lipid oxidation using an oil-in-water emulsion system which simulated a multi-phased aqueous food system containing oil and β-glucan. Lipid oxidation was monitored using peroxide value and hexanal production while β-glucan degradation was evaluated by viscosity and molecular weight measurements. The study showed that while lipid oxidation proceeded, β-glucan degradation occurred. Emulsions containing β-glucan, oil and ferrous ion showed significant viscosity and molecular weight decrease after 1 week of oxidation at room temperature. Elevated temperature (40°C) enhanced the oxidation reactions causing higher viscosity drop. In addition, the presence of β-glucan appeared to retard the hexanal production in lipid oxidation. The study revealed that lipid oxidation may induce the degradation of β-glucan in aqueous food systems where β-glucan and lipids co-exist.

  12. Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy is associated with muscle carnitine deficiency and lipid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C; Leon-Monzon, M E; Bernardini, I; Gahl, W A; Jay, C A

    1994-04-01

    The use of zidovudine (AZT) for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) induces a DNA-depleting mitochondrial myopathy, which is histologically characterized by the presence of muscle fibers with "ragged-red"-like features, red-rimmed or empty cracks, granular degeneration, and rods (AZT fibers). Because dysfunctioning muscle mitochondria may lead to defects of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, we examined the degree of neutral fat accumulation and muscle carnitine levels in the muscle biopsy specimens from 21 patients with AZT-induced myopathic symptoms of varying severity. Six patients with no AZT fibers had normal endomyofibrillar lipid deposits and muscle carnitine levels; 7 patients with fewer than 5 AZT fibers per field had a mild (+) to moderate (++) increase in lipid droplets, and reduced muscle carnitine levels (3 patients); and 8 patients with more than 5 AZT fibers had severe muscle changes, a ++ to marked ( ) increase in lipid droplets, and reduced muscle carnitine levels (6 patients). Serial sections showed lipid globules often within "cracks" or vacuoles of the abnormal muscle fibers. We conclude that the muscle mitochondrial impairment caused by AZT results in (1) accumulation of lipid within the muscle fibers owing to poor utilization of long-chain fatty acids, (2) reduction of muscle carnitine levels probably due to decreased carnitine uptake by the muscle, and (3) depletion of energy stores within the muscle fibers. The findings may have potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of AZT-induced myopathic symptoms using oral carnitine supplementation.

  13. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N of essential amino acids (EAAs to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  14. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  15. Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products derived from linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, P; Kern, W; Reiner, J; Spiteller, G

    2001-04-30

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes observed in diseases connected with inflammation involve mainly linoleic acid. Its primary LPO products, 9-hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HPODE) and 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), decompose in multistep degradation reactions. These reactions were investigated in model studies: decomposition of either 9-HPODE or 13-HPODE by Fe(2+) catalyzed air oxidation generates (with the exception of corresponding hydroxy and oxo derivatives) identical products in often nearly equal amounts, pointing to a common intermediate. Pairs of carbonyl compounds were recognized by reacting the oxidation mixtures with pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine. Even if a pure lipid hydroperoxide is subjected to decomposition a great variety of products is generated, since primary products suffer further transformations. Therefore pure primarily decomposition products of HPODEs were exposed to stirring in air with or without addition of iron ions. Thus we observed that primary products containing the structural element R-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=O add water and then they are cleaved by retroaldol reactions. 2,4-Decadienal is degraded in the absence of iron ions to 2-butenal, hexanal and 5-oxodecanal. Small amounts of buten-1,4-dial were also detected. Addition of m-chloroperbenzoic acid transforms 2,4-decadienal to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. 4,5-Epoxy-2-decenal, synthetically available by treatment of 2,4-decadienal with dimethyldioxirane, is hydrolyzed to 4,5-dihydroxy-2-decenal.

  16. A role for lipid rafts in the protection afforded by docosahexaenoic acid against ethanol toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliche-Djoudi, Fatiha; Podechard, Normand; Collin, Aurore; Chevanne, Martine; Provost, Emilie; Poul, Martine; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.

  17. EDTA-induced Membrane Fluidization and Destabilization: Biophysical Studies on Artificial Lipid Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virapong PRACHAYASITTIKUL; Chartchalerm ISARANKURA-NA-AYUDHYA; Tanawut TANTIMONGCOLWAT; Chanin NANTASENAMAT; Hans-Joachim GALLA

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced membrane destabilization has been studied using a combination of four biophysical techniques on artificial lipid membranes.Data from Langmuir film balance and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the fluidization and expansion effect of EDTA on phase behavior of monolayers of either 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or mixtures of DPPC and metal-chelating lipids, such as Nα,Nα-Bis[carboxymethyl]-Nε-[(dioctadecylamino)succinyl]-L-lysine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N-(5-amino- 1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid) succinyl]. A plausible explanation could be drawn from the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups of EDTA and the positively charged choline head group of DPPC.Intercalation of EDTA into the lipid membrane induced membrane curvature as elucidated by atomic force microscopy. Growth in size and shape of the membrane protrusion was found to be time-dependent upon exposure to EDTA. Further loss of material from the lipid membrane surface was monitored in real time using a quartz crystal microbalance. This indicates membrane restabilization by exclusion of the protrusions from the surface. Loss of lipid components facilitates membrane instability, leading to membrane permeabilization and lysis.

  18. EDTA-induced membrane fluidization and destabilization: biophysical studies on artificial lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2007-11-01

    The molecular mechanism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-induced membrane destabilization has been studied using a combination of four biophysical techniques on artificial lipid membranes. Data from Langmuir film balance and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the fluidization and expansion effect of EDTA on phase behavior of monolayers of either 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or mixtures of DPPC and metal-chelating lipids, such as N(alpha),N(alpha)-Bis[carboxymethyl]-N(epsilon)-[(dioctadecylamino)succinyl]-L-lysine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl iminodiacetic acid) succinyl]. A plausible explanation could be drawn from the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups of EDTA and the positively charged choline head group of DPPC. Intercalation of EDTA into the lipid membrane induced membrane curvature as elucidated by atomic force microscopy. Growth in size and shape of the membrane protrusion was found to be time-dependent upon exposure to EDTA. Further loss of material from the lipid membrane surface was monitored in real time using a quartz crystal microbalance. This indicates membrane restabilization by exclusion of the protrusions from the surface. Loss of lipid components facilitates membrane instability, leading to membrane permeabilization and lysis.

  19. Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glisezinski, I; Moro, C; Pillard, F; Marion-Latard, F; Harant, I; Meste, M; Berlan, M; Crampes, F; Rivière, D

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance training improves lipid mobilization and oxidation in overweight subjects. Eleven young men (25.6 +/- 1.4 yr and body mass index 27.7 +/- 0.2) performed a 4-mo training program consisting of practicing aerobic exercise 5 days/wk. Before and after the training period, lipid oxidation was explored during a 60-min exercise at 50% of peak O2 consumption by use of indirect calorimetry. Lipid mobilization and antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect were also studied using the microdialysis method in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). After training, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, at rest and during exercise, were significantly lower than before (P < 0.001). Lipolysis in SCAT was significantly higher after than before training. An antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT was underlined during exercise before training and disappeared after. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower after training, i.e., the percentage of lipid oxidation was higher only at rest. The amount of lipid oxidized was higher after training, at rest, and during exercise. Although exercise power was higher after training, the relative intensity was equivalent, as suggested by a similar increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations before and after training. In conclusion, 4-mo training in overweight men improved lipid mobilization through a decrease of antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT and lipid oxidation during moderate exercise. Training induced a decrease of blood NEFA, predicting better prevention of obesity.

  20. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  1. Fish Lipids as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, Albena; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Dobreva, Diana A.; Makedonski, Lyubomir

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information about omega-3 (h-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in a broad range of commercially important fish species available on Bulgarian fish markets. The aim is to raise consumers' awareness and encourage them to eat fish. Fish species from the Black Sea coast have relatively high proportion of n-3 PUFAs, of which more than 80% is by EPf (eicosapentaenoic acid, C 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C 22:6 n-3). Extensive epidemiological studies show that fish consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), stroke and the functioning of the brain. About 0.5 g of omega-3 (EPA+DHA) a day or two savings of oily fish a week are required to reduce the risk of death from CVD. PUFAs needs should be satisfied not only with food additives but with fish lipids containing food.

  2. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  3. Role of dyslipidaemia and lipid peroxidation in pregnancy induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH contributes greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality. Altered lipid profile and increased lipid peroxidation activate endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombosis leading to PIH. Therefore, estimation of lipid profile with serum malondialdehyde (MDA in pregnancy may be helpful in predicting the development of PIH and further progression. Material and methods: In this prospective case-control study, serum lipid profile and MDA were estimated in 70 PIH subjects with gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia; and 70 normotensive pregnant women aged 18 - 40 years, with gestational age of over 20 weeks. Results: A statistically significant higher serum total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and MDA, and a significantly lower HDL-C was noted in PIH subjects as compared to control subjects. When compared with the severity of PIH, all the lipoproteins (except HDL-C along with MDA were found to be higher in women with eclampsia when compared with gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and normotensive pregnant women. Conclusions: An abnormal lipid metabolism along with oxidative stress may add to the promotion of vascular dysfunction leading to PIH. Lipoproteins and MDA alter significantly in eclampsia. Therefore, during pregnancy, early diagnosis and management of dyslipidaemia may prevent lipid peroxidation and progression of PIH thereby preventing obstetric complications.

  4. Retinoic acid treatment enhances lipid oxidation and inhibits lipid biosynthesis capacities in the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jaume; Ribot, Joan; Bonet, M Luisa; Palou, Andreu

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin A, mainly as retinoic acid (RA), is known to affect the development and function of adipose tissues. Treatment with RA reduces body weight and adiposity independent of changes in food intake in mice. Lipid metabolism in liver can have a major impact on whole body adiposity. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an in vivo treatment with RA on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. Adult, standard diet-fed mice were treated with different doses of all-trans RA or vehicle (subcutaneous injection) for 4 days before sacrifice. Food intake and body weight changes during treatment were determined, as well as adiposity, liver composition, levels of circulating metabolites and lipoproteins and expression levels of key mRNA species in liver following sacrifice. RA treatment resulted in reduced body weight and adiposity, as expected. In the liver, RA treatment triggered an increase in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, uncoupling protein 2, liver-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier, and a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase. Consistent with the changes in gene expression, hepatic triacylglycerol content and circulating VLDL fraction were reduced and levels of circulating ketone bodies increased after RA treatment. These results point to a capacity of active vitamin A forms to shift liver lipid metabolism in vivo towards increased catabolism and reduced lipogenesis. These effects might contribute to the reduction of adiposity brought about by RA treatment.

  5. Pectin-lipid self-assembly: influence on the formation of polyhydroxy fatty acids nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guzman-Puyol

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10,16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin.

  6. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José Jesús; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Ilker Sefik; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin. PMID:25915490

  7. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  8. Ocean Warming and CO2-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Valles-Regino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO2-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52% with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO2 on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO2 acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted.

  9. Ocean Warming and CO₂-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Regino, Roselyn; Tate, Rick; Kelaher, Brendan; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2015-09-24

    Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO₂-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO₂ on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO₂ acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted.

  10. Effects of rapeseed oil on fatty acid oxidation and lipid levels in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, M G; Cighetti, G; Spagnuolo, C; Galli, C

    1976-09-01

    The comparative rates of oxidation of erucic and oleic acids and of their CoA esters were studied in heart and liver mitochondria of rats fed a standard diet or semisynthetic diets containing 25% of the calories as either rapeseed oil (46.6% erucic and 10.4% eicosenoic acid) or olive oil, for a period of 5 months. The long exposure to the diet containing 25% rapeseed oil did not alter the oxidative activity of mitochondria and did not induce morphological changes in the heart. It is confirmed that erucic acid is oxidized in mitochondria at lower rates than other long chain fatty acids and that its activation as CoA derivative may be one of the rate limiting steps of the overall oxidationprocess. Total lipids and triglycerides do not significantly change in the heart whereas they increase in the liver of rats fed the diet containing rapeseed oil.

  11. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s......The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration......-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lyso......PPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein...

  12. Cholesterylbutyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Butyric Acid Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mauro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterylbutyrate (Chol-but was chosen as a prodrug of butyric acid.Butyrate is not often used in vivo because its half-life is very short and therefore too largeamounts of the drug would be necessary for its efficacy. In the last few years butyric acid'santi-inflammatory properties and its inhibitory activity towards histone deacetylases havebeen widely studied, mainly in vitro. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs, whose lipid matrixis Chol-but, were prepared to evaluate the delivery system of Chol-but as a prodrug and totest its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Chol-but SLNs were prepared using the microemulsionmethod; their average diameter is on the order of 100-150 nm and their shape is spherical.The antineoplastic effects of Chol-but SLNs were assessed in vitro on different cancer celllines and in vivo on a rat intracerebral glioma model. The anti-inflammatory activity wasevaluated on adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to vascular endothelial cells. In thereview we will present data on Chol-but SLNs in vitro and in vivo experiments, discussingthe possible utilisation of nanoparticles for the delivery of prodrugs for neoplastic andchronic inflammatory diseases.

  13. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Wang

    Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART. The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants.

  14. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  15. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  16. Self-assembled multicompartment liquid crystalline lipid carriers for protein, peptide, and nucleic acid drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Angelina; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, Rada; Lesieur, Sylviane; Couvreur, Patrick

    2011-02-15

    Lipids and lipopolymers self-assembled into biocompatible nano- and mesostructured functional materials offer many potential applications in medicine and diagnostics. In this Account, we demonstrate how high-resolution structural investigations of bicontinuous cubic templates made from lyotropic thermosensitive liquid-crystalline (LC) materials have initiated the development of innovative lipidopolymeric self-assembled nanocarriers. Such structures have tunable nanochannel sizes, morphologies, and hierarchical inner organizations and provide potential vehicles for the predictable loading and release of therapeutic proteins, peptides, or nucleic acids. This Account shows that structural studies of swelling of bicontinuous cubic lipid/water phases are essential for overcoming the nanoscale constraints for encapsulation of large therapeutic molecules in multicompartment lipid carriers. For the systems described here, we have employed time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution freeze-fracture electronic microscopy (FF-EM) to study the morphology and the dynamic topological transitions of these nanostructured multicomponent amphiphilic assemblies. Quasi-elastic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy can provide additional information at the nanoscale about the behavior of lipid/protein self-assemblies under conditions that approximate physiological hydration. We wanted to generalize these findings to control the stability and the hydration of the water nanochannels in liquid-crystalline lipid nanovehicles and confine therapeutic biomolecules within these structures. Therefore we analyzed the influence of amphiphilic and soluble additives (e.g. poly(ethylene glycol)monooleate (MO-PEG), octyl glucoside (OG), proteins) on the nanochannels' size in a diamond (D)-type bicontinuous cubic phase of the lipid glycerol monooleate (MO). At body temperature, we can stabilize long-living swollen states, corresponding to a diamond cubic phase

  17. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  18. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  19. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  20. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...... (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3...

  1. Long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives of quercetin-3-o-glucoside as antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-11-06

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  2. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu N. Warnakulasuriya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA, oleic acid (OLA, linoleic acid (LNA, α-linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA, using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL, in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators and T cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eNicolaou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are involved in T cell biology both as nutrients important for energy production as well as signalling molecules. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events, although the molecular mechanisms of these actions have not yet been fully elucidated. Some of these immune activities are linked to polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alteration of the composition of cellular membranes and the consequent changes in signalling pathways linked to membrane raft associated proteins. However, significant aspects of the polyunsaturated fatty acid bioactivities are mediated through their transformation to specific lipid mediators, products of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or cytochrome P450 enzymatic reactions. Resulting bioactive metabolites including prostaglandins, leukotrienes and endocannabinoids are produced by and/or act upon T leukocytes through cell surface receptors and have been shown to alter T cell activation and differentiation, proliferation, cytokine production, motility and homing events. Detailed appreciation of the mode of action of these lipids presents opportunities for the design and development of therapeutic strategies aimed at regulating T cell function.

  4. Steatosis-induced proteins adducts with lipid peroxidation products and nuclear electrophilic stress in hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Anavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that fatty livers are particularly more susceptible to several pathological conditions, including hepatic inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer. However the exact mechanism of such susceptibility is still largely obscure. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of hepatocytes lipid accumulation on the nuclear electrophilic stress. Accumulation of intracellular lipids was significantly increased in HepG2 cells incubated with fatty acid (FA complex (1 mM, 2:1 oleic and palmitic acids. In FA-treated cells, lipid droplets were localized around the nucleus and seemed to induce mechanical force, leading to the disruption of the nucleus morphology. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS was significantly increased in FA-loaded cells and was further augmented by treatment with moderate stressor (CoCl2. Increased ROS resulted in formation of reactive carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones, derived from lipid peroxidation with a strong perinuclear accumulation. Mass-spectroscopy analysis indicated that lipid accumulation per-se can results in modification of nuclear protein by reactive lipid peroxidation products (oxoLPP. 235 Modified proteins involved in transcription regulation, splicing, protein synthesis and degradation, DNA repair and lipid metabolism were identified uniquely in FA-treated cells. These findings suggest that steatosis can affect nuclear redox state, and induce modifications of nuclear proteins by reactive oxoLPP accumulated in the perinuclear space upon FA-treatment.

  5. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms.

  6. α-Synuclein senses lipid packing defects and induces lateral expansion of lipids leading to membrane remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouberai, Myriam M; Wang, Juan; Swann, Marcus J; Galvagnion, Celine; Guilliams, Tim; Dobson, Christopher M; Welland, Mark E

    2013-07-19

    There is increasing evidence for the involvement of lipid membranes in both the functional and pathological properties of α-synuclein (α-Syn). Despite many investigations to characterize the binding of α-Syn to membranes, there is still a lack of understanding of the binding mode linking the properties of lipid membranes to α-Syn insertion into these dynamic structures. Using a combination of an optical biosensing technique and in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the binding strength of α-Syn is related to the specificity of the lipid environment (the lipid chemistry and steric properties within a bilayer structure) and to the ability of the membranes to accommodate and remodel upon the interaction of α-Syn with lipid membranes. We show that this interaction results in the insertion of α-Syn into the region of the headgroups, inducing a lateral expansion of lipid molecules that can progress to further bilayer remodeling, such as membrane thinning and expansion of lipids out of the membrane plane. We provide new insights into the affinity of α-Syn for lipid packing defects found in vesicles of high curvature and in planar membranes with cone-shaped lipids and suggest a comprehensive model of the interaction between α-Syn and lipid bilayers. The ability of α-Syn to sense lipid packing defects and to remodel membrane structure supports its proposed role in vesicle trafficking.

  7. Polystyrene nanoparticle exposure induces ion-selective pores in lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoda, Alexander; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.; Worden, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse range of molecular interactions can occur between engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and biomembranes, some of which could lead to toxic outcomes following human exposure to ENM. In this study, we adapted electrophysiology methods to investigate the ability of 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP) to induce pores in model bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) that mimic biomembranes. PNP charge was varied using PNP decorated with either positive (amidine) groups or negative (carboxyl) groups, and BLM charge was varied using dioleoyl phospholipids having cationic (ethylphosphocholine), zwitterionic (phosphocholine), or anionic (phosphatidic acid) headgroups. Both positive and negative PNP induced BLM pores for all lipid compositions studied, as evidenced by current spikes and integral conductance. Stable PNP-induced pores exhibited ion selectivity, with the highest selectivity for K+ (PK/PCl ~ 8.3) observed when both the PNP and lipids were negatively charged, and the highest selectivity for Cl− (PK/PCl ~ 0.2) observed when both the PNP and lipids were positively charged. This trend is consistent with the finding that selectivity for an ion in channel proteins is imparted by oppositely charged functional groups within the channel’s filter region. The PK/PCl value was unaffected by the voltage-ramp method, the pore conductance, or the side of the BLM to which the PNP were applied. These results demonstrate for the first time that PNP can induce ion-selective pores in BLM, and that the degree of ion selectivity is influenced synergistically by the charges of both the lipid headgroups and functional groups on the PNP. PMID:23747366

  8. Icariin Is A PPARα Activator Inducing Lipid Metabolic Gene Expression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fu Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Icariin is effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. To understand the effect of icariin on lipid metabolism, effects of icariin on PPARα and its target genes were investigated. Mice were treated orally with icariin at doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, or clofibrate (500 mg/kg for five days. Liver total RNA was isolated and the expressions of PPARα and lipid metabolism genes were examined. PPARα and its marker genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 were induced 2-4 fold by icariin, and 4-8 fold by clofibrate. The fatty acid (FA binding and co-activator proteins Fabp1, Fabp4 and Acsl1 were increased 2-fold. The mRNAs of mitochondrial FA β-oxidation enzymes (Cpt1a, Acat1, Acad1 and Hmgcs2 were increased 2-3 fold. The mRNAs of proximal β-oxidation enzymes (Acox1, Ech1, and Ehhadh were also increased by icariin and clofibrate. The expression of mRNAs for sterol regulatory element-binding factor-1 (Srebf1 and FA synthetase (Fasn were unaltered by icariin. The lipid lysis genes Lipe and Pnpla2 were increased by icariin and clofibrate. These results indicate that icariin is a novel PPARα agonist, activates lipid metabolism gene expressions in liver, which could be a basis for its lipid-lowering effects and its beneficial effects against diabetes.

  9. Salinity stress induced lipid synthesis to harness biodiesel during dual mode cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Devi, M Prathima

    2014-08-01

    Influence of salinity as a stress factor to harness biodiesel was assessed during dual mode cultivation of microalgae by integrating biomass growth phase (BGP) and salinity induced lipid induction phase (LIP). BGP was evaluated in mixotrophic mode employing nutrients (NPK) and carbon (glucose) source while LIP was operated under stress environment with varying salt concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2gNaCl/l). Salinity stress triggered both biomass growth and lipid synthesis in microalgae significantly. BGP showed higher increments in biomass growth (2.55g/l) while LIP showed higher lipid productivity (1gNaCl/l; total/neutral lipid, 23.4/9.2%) than BGP (total/neutral lipid, 15.2/6%). Lower concentrations of salinity showed positive influence on the process while higher concentrations showed marked inhibition. Salinity stress also facilitated in maintaining saturated fatty acid methyl esters in higher amounts which associates with the improved fuel properties. Efficient wastewater treatment was observed during BGP operation indicating the assimilation of carbon/nutrients by microalgae.

  10. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  11. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  12. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes induces fibrogenic activation of hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hella Wobser; Christoph Dorn; Thomas S Weiss; Thomas Amann; Cornelius Bollheimer; Roland Büttner; Jürgen Sc(o)lmerich; Claus Hellerbrand

    2009-01-01

    Despite the initial belief that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a benign disorder, it is now recognized that fbrosis progression occurs in a significant number of patients. Furthermore, hepatic steatosis has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of hepatic fibrosis in a wide range of other liver diseases. Here, we established an in vitro model to study the effect of hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the central mediators of liver fibrogenesis. Primary human hepatocytes were incubated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate to induce intracellular lipid accumulation. Subsequently, human HSCs were incubated with conditioned media (CM) from steatotic or control hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes induced the release of factors that accelerated the activation and proliferation of HSC, and enhanced their resistance to apoptosis, largely mediated via activation of the PI-3-kinase pathway. Furthermore, CM from steatotic hepatocytes induced the expression of the profibrogenic genes TGF-β, tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and matrix-metallo-proteinase-2, as well as nuclear-factor Κb-dependent MCP-1 expression in HSC. In summary, our in vitro data indicate a potential mechanism for the pathophysiological link between hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis in vivo. Herewith, this study provides an attractive in vitro model to study the molecular mechanisms of steatosis-induced fibrogenesis, and to identify and test novel targets for antifibrotic therapies in fatty liver disease.

  13. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  14. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious...... deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic...

  15. Unraveling the impact of hydroxylation on interactions of bile acid cationic lipids with model membranes by in-depth calorimetry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Bajaj, Avinash

    2014-09-28

    We used eight bile acid cationic lipids differing in the number of hydroxyl groups and performed in-depth differential scanning calorimetry studies on model membranes doped with different percentages of these cationic bile acids. These studies revealed that the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids modulate the phase transition and co-operativity of membranes. Lithocholic acid based cationic lipids having no free hydroxyl groups gel well with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes. Chenodeoxycholic acid lipids having one free hydroxyl group at the 7'-carbon position disrupt the membranes and lower their co-operativity. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid based cationic lipids have free hydroxyl groups at the 12'-carbon position, and at 7'- and 12'-carbon positions respectively. Doping of these lipids at high concentrations increases the co-operativity of membranes suggesting that these lipids might induce self-assembly in DPPC membranes. These different modes of interactions between cationic lipids and model membranes would help in future for exploring their use in DNA/drug delivery.

  16. Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of

  17. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  18. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated lipid-bound sialic acid as a "marker" in cancer patients and assessed the individual and combined value of lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen determinations in these patients. Plasma was sampled from 62 normal subjects and 125 cancer patients. Lipid-bound sialic acid was determined by the resorcinol method after total lipid extraction and isolation of the sialolipid fraction from plasma. Neither marker was increased in many breast cancer patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen was increased more commonly and to a greater degree in colon cancer patients and seems to be the preferred marker. Both markers were increased in lung cancer patients and their combined evaluation improved the rate of detection. Lipid-bound sialic acid was increased in more patients with leukemias, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and melanomas, suggesting that it may be a useful biochemical marker in these types of cancer.

  19. [Effect of acute stress on the fatty acid composition of lipids of adrenal and heart mitochondria in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, K A; Doroshkevich, N A; Buko, V U; Vinogradov, V V

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit heart and adrenal mitochondria was carried out after acute (1h) immobilization stress. In heart mitochondria the stress induced a decrease in the content of capric, lauric, myristic and pentadecanic acids. A statistically significant reduction of the amount of heptadecanoic, linoleic, arachidonic acids and an increase in the level of palmitic acid was noted in adrenal mitochondria. The acute stress resulted in differently directed shifts in the saturation of fatty acids. An elevation of the sum of unsaturated fatty acids was observed in the heart, and a decrease was detected in the adrenal glands. The above shifts in the fatty acid composition of adrenal and heart mitochondria provide evidence for different directions of lipid metabolism in these organs following stress.

  20. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P. (Estee Lauder Research and Development, Melville, NY (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation.

  1. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury: Implications for temporal homeostasis of lipid metabolism and eicosanoid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Maria; Gruia, Alexandra T; Nica, Dragos V; Azghadi, Seyed M R; Mic, Ani A; Mic, Felix A

    2015-12-05

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used drug that induces serious hepatotoxicity when overdosed, leading to increased levels of serum aminotransferases. However, little knowledge exists linking acetaminophen to liver free fatty acids and the eicosanoid-mediated signaling pathway. To this end, adult NMRI mice injected with a dose of 400 mg/kg acetaminophen were monitored for one week post-treatment. Consistent changes were observed in serum transaminases, profile of hepatic free fatty acids, expression of cyclooxygenase, elongase, lipogenesis, and lipolysis genes; as well as in expression patterns of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the liver. Both linoleic acid and arachidonic acid--substrates in eicosanoid biosynthesis--were significantly influenced by overdose, and the latter peaked first among the free fatty acids examined here. There was a close similarity between the temporal dynamics of linoleic acid and aspartate aminotransferases. Moreover, serum transaminases were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, but not by cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. Our results hence attest to the hazard of acetaminophen overdose on the temporal homeostasis of hepatic concentrations of free fatty acids and expression of key genes underlying liver lipid metabolism. There is also evidence for activation of a cyclooxygenase-mediated signaling pathway, especially the cyclooxygenase 2-prostanoid pathway, during acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Therefore, the results of the present study should provide valuable information to a wide audience, working to understand the health hazard of this drug and the implications of the eicosanoid signaling pathway in liver pathophysiology.

  2. TORC1 inhibition induces lipid droplet replenishment in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Juliana B; Masuda, Claudio A; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Matos, Gabriel Soares; Montero-Lomelí, Mónica; Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L

    2015-02-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular structures that regulate neutral lipid homeostasis. In mammals, LD synthesis is inhibited by rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mTORC1 pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LD dynamics are modulated by the growth phase; however, the regulatory pathways involved are unknown. Therefore, we decided to study the role of the TORC1 pathway on LD metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, rapamycin treatment resulted in a fast LD replenishment and growth inhibition. The discovery that osmotic stress (1 M sorbitol) also induced LD synthesis but not growth inhibition suggested that the induction of LDs in yeast is not a secondary response to reduced growth. The induction of LDs by rapamycin was due to increased triacylglycerol but not sterol ester synthesis. Induction was dependent on the TOR downstream effectors, the PP2A-related phosphatase Sit4p and the regulatory protein Tap42p. The TORC1-controlled transcriptional activators Gln3p, Gat1p, Rtg1p, and Rtg3p, but not Msn2p and Msn4p, were required for full induction of LDs by rapamycin. Furthermore, we show that the deletion of Gln3p and Gat1p transcription factors, which are activated in response to nitrogen availability, led to abnormal LD dynamics. These results reveal that the TORC1 pathway is involved in neutral lipid homeostasis in yeast.

  3. Computer Simulation of Cytoskeleton-Induced Blebbing in Lipid Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Spangler, Eric J; Revalee, Joel D; Kumar, P B Sunil; Laradji, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Blebs are balloon-shaped membrane protrusions that form during many physiological processes. Using computer simulation of a particle-based model for self-assembled lipid bilayers coupled to an elastic meshwork, we investigated the phase behavior and kinetics of blebbing. We found that blebs form for large values of the ratio between the areas of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton. We also found that blebbing can be induced when the cytoskeleton is subject to a localized ablation or a uniform compression. The results obtained are qualitatively in agreement with the experimental evidence and the model opens up the possibility to study the kinetics of bleb formation in detail.

  4. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Hardy, R E

    1990-01-15

    Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) was assayed in normal volunteers, patients with non-malignant diseases, and a variety of cancer patients. Mean plasma LSA in 50 normal volunteers, 16 patients with non-malignant diseases, 54 breast cancer, 17 lung cancer, 15 colon cancer, 7 ovarian cancer, 5 prostate cancer, 4 leukemia, 4 gastrointestinal, 3 thyroid cancer, 3 pancreas cancer and 2 adrenal cancer patients were 17.7, 23.2, 58, 85, 56.7, 46.2, 56.7, 53.3, 31.1, 33.2 and 119.5 mg/dl, respectively. None of the normal volunteers had elevated plasma LSA values. Plasma LSA level was not significantly different in male and female volunteers. Two out of 114 different cancer patients had plasma LSA levels within normal range exhibiting 98.2% sensitivity of the assay. Plasma LSA, which is relatively simple to assay, may be used as a tumor marker in wide variety of neoplastic diseases.

  5. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (pIra rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  6. Shiga toxin induces membrane reorganization and formation of long range lipid order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Johannes, Ludger; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2015-01-01

    membrane reordering. When Shiga toxin was added above the lipid chain melting temperature, the toxin interaction with the membrane induced rearrangement and clustering of Gb3 lipids that resulted in the long range order and alignment of lipids in gel domains. The toxin induced redistribution of Gb3 lipids...... microscopy. A content of 1% of glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor lipids in a bilayer was used to bind the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the surface of gel domains. Binding of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to lipids led to the modulation of orientational membrane texture in gel domains and induced...... inside gel domains is governed by the temperature at which Shiga toxin was added to the membrane: above or below the phase transition. The temperature is thus one of the critical factors controlling lipid organization and texture in the presence of Shiga toxin. Lipid chain ordering imposed by Shiga toxin...

  7. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  8. Model studies on the pattern of volatiles generated in mixtures of amino acids, lipid-oxidation-derived aldehydes, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, An; Kitryté, Vaida; Venskutonis, Rimantas; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2011-02-23

    The development of flavor and browning in thermally treated foods results mainly from the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation but also from the interactions between both reaction pathways. To study these interactions, we analyzed the volatile compounds resulting from model reactions of lysine or glycine with aldehydes originating from lipid oxidation [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, or (2E,4E)-decadienal] in the presence and absence of glucose. The main reaction products identified in these model mixtures were carbonyl compounds, resulting essentially from amino-acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions. Several 2-alkylfurans were detected as well. Only a few azaheterocyclic compounds were identified, in particular 5-butyl-2-propylpyridine from (E)-2-hexenal model systems and 2-pentylpyridine from (2E,4E)-decadienal model reactions. Although few reaction products were found resulting from the condensation of an amino acid with a lipid-derived aldehyde, the amino acid plays an important role in catalyzing the degradation and further reaction of these carbonyl compounds. These results suggest that amino-acid-induced degradations and further reactions of lipid oxidation products may be of considerable importance in thermally processed foods.

  9. Oleic and vaccenic acid levels in lipid clases of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R

    1976-07-01

    The isomeric octadecenoate composition of triglyceride, phosphatidyicholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine classes from a variety of rat and mouse tumors was examined. Phosphatidylethanolamine from the tumors contained a higher percentage of octadecenoate than reported for many normal tissues. The octadecenoate fractions of the three lipid classes from various tumors consisted of ca. 75% or greater oleate, with vaccenate making up the balance. These data indicate that the loss of lipid class specificity for isomeric octadecenoates reported in hepatomas (Lipids 10:746, 1975, and Lipids 9:987, 1974) also occurs in other tumors.

  10. Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Marina V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of fatty acids (FA composition in erythrocytes lipids as an early indicator of the development of arterial hypertension (AH and lipid disorders. Methods We included 34 patients with arterial hypertension and 11 healthy individuals. Each patient was examined the lipid composition of serum. From erythrocytes by gas chromatography were identified fatty acids. The quantitative composition of the erythrocyte lipids FA in patients with AH presented with saturated and polyunsaturated monoenic acids with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C22. Results In all hypertensive patients is disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes. The patients with a normal level of serum lipids revealed deficiency of polyunsaturated acids n6-linoleic (18:2 n6, arachidonic (20:4 n6, dokozatetraenic 14,4% (22:4 n6. The patients with dislipidemia installed more profound restructuring of the lipid matrix of the membrane of erythrocytes. A decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3: dokozapentaenovoy (22:5 n3, docosahexaenoic PUFA (22:6 n3, the total value of n3 PUFA in 1,3 times was revealed. Conclusion Thus, modification of erythrocyte FA are fairly subtle indicator of pathology of lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves much earlier than changes in the lipoprotein of blood plasma.

  11. Fatty acids modulate Toll-like receptor 4 activation through regulation of receptor dimerization and recruitment into lipid rafts in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Scott W; Kwon, Myung-Ja; Choi, Augustine M K; Kim, Hong-Pyo; Nakahira, Kiichi; Hwang, Daniel H

    2009-10-02

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies demonstrated that saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4. However, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Here, we report for the first time that the saturated fatty acid lauric acid induced dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts, however, dimerization was not observed in non-lipid raft fractions. Similarly, LPS and lauric acid enhanced the association of TLR4 with MD-2 and downstream adaptor molecules, TRIF and MyD88, into lipid rafts leading to the activation of downstream signaling pathways and target gene expression. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, inhibited LPS- or lauric acid-induced dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid raft fractions. Together, these results demonstrate that lauric acid and DHA reciprocally modulate TLR4 activation by regulation of the dimerization and recruitment of TLR4 into lipid rafts. In addition, we showed that TLR4 recruitment to lipid rafts and dimerization were coupled events mediated at least in part by NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. These results provide a new insight in understanding the mechanism by which fatty acids differentially modulate TLR4-mediated signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses which are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  12. Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces plasma lipid peroxidation induced by haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2011-07-01

    Since oxidative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of beta-d-glucan, polysaccharide derived from the yeast cell walls of species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the antipsychotics (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA) - haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA) - amisulpride) action on plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with haloperidol or amisulpride in the presence of beta-glucan (4 μg/ml). The action of beta-d-glucan was also compared with the properties of a well characterized commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, the final concentration - 4 μg/ml). The two-way analysis variance showed that the differences in TBARS levels were depended on the type of tested drugs (p=7.9 × 10(-6)). We observed a statistically increase of the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation such as TBARS after 1 and 24h incubation of plasma with haloperidol compared to the control samples (p0.05). We showed that in the presence of beta-glucan, lipid peroxidation in plasma samples treated with haloperidol was significantly decreased. Moreover, we did not observe the synergistic action of beta-glucan and amisulpride on the inhibition of plasma lipid peroxidation. However, the beta-d-glucan was found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. The presented results indicate that beta-glucan seems to have distinctly protective effects against the impairment of plasma lipid molecules induced by haloperidol.

  13. Effect of TGR5 Agonist-Oleanolic Acid on Glucose and Lipid Metabo-lism in High Fat Diet Induced Obesity Mice%胆汁酸G-蛋白偶联受体激动剂齐墩果酸对高脂饮食小鼠体内糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张闻宇; 胡晨; 娄桂予

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察胆汁酸G-蛋白偶联受体(G protein-coupled receptor for bile acids,TGR5) 激动剂齐墩果酸 (oleanolic acid,OA)对肥胖小鼠体重及糖、脂代谢的影响,探讨齐墩果酸减轻肥胖小鼠体重的机制.方法 建立高脂饮食诱导的肥胖小鼠动物模型,并喂食 OA 进行干预.动态测定体重及第17周后内脏脂肪、肝脏重量,并进行葡萄糖耐量实验(glucose tolerence test,GTT);肝脏组织石蜡切片HE染色,光镜观察病理变化;Realtime PCR 检测肝脏组织糖代谢相关基因的表达及白色脂肪组织脂肪合成酶 (fatty acid syn-thase,FAS) 的表达.结果 OA 减轻肥胖小鼠的体重、内脏脂肪及肝脏的重量;改善肝脏脂质沉积;增强胰岛素敏感性.OA 抑制肝脏内葡萄糖-6-酸酶(glucose-6-phosphalase,G6Pc)的表达,并下调肥胖小鼠脂肪组织 FAS 的 mRNA 水平的表达.结论 TGR5 激动剂 OA 能减少高脂诱导的肥胖小鼠的脂肪堆积,其机制可能与 OA 能改善肥胖小鼠胰岛素抵抗,减少脂质合成有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of the agonist for G protein-coupled receptor of bile acids ( TGR5 ) -Oleanolic acid ( OA) on the weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in high fat induced obesity mice and explore the mechanism of weight loss effect of Oleanolic acid . Methods Obesity mice models were established by high fat diet feeding with or without OA . Body weight at each week and visceral fat mass , liver weight after seventeen-week feeding were recorded. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) was also detected at the time. Paraffin sections and routine HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes in liver tissues . Expression of genes that are related to glu -cose metabolism in liver and fatty acid synthase ( FAS) mRNA level in white adipose tissue was measured by Real-time PCR. Results OA reduced the body weight, visceral fat mass and liver weight in obesity mice. OA improved lipid deposition and enhanced insulin se

  14. Lipidic compounds associated with peat humic acids. Turpeen humushappoihin sitoutuneet lipidiyhdisteet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketola, M.; Lehtonen, K. (Turku Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry and Biochemistry); Haenninen, K. (Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry)

    1988-01-01

    Humic acids were extracted from a high-decomposed peat (H 6-7) and oxidized by CuO. The oxidation products, after methylation and silylation, were further analyzed for their lipid monomers by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The hydrophobic lipidic matter was found to account for 4 % of the oxidized humic acids soluble in ethyl acetate. The predominating constituents (90 %) were cyclic compounds, mainly hydroxy, oxo and carboxylic acid derivatives of triterpenoids with the lupane and friedelane skeletons. Triterpenoids are not previously reported in literature to be associated with humic acids. The minor part of identified lipids (10 %) consisted of aliphatics which mainly were fatty acids ranged from Cl4 to C30 with even-carbon predominance. Other lipidic compounds were {beta}-sitosterol and normal C24-alcohol. No n-alkanes were detected.

  15. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanille, Pierre; Kumar, Vinod; Christophe, Gwendoline; Nouaille, Régis; Larroche, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The valorization of volatile fatty acids into microbial lipids by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was investigated. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch strategy was designed: the yeast was initially grown on glucose or glycerol as carbon source, then sequential additions of acetic acid under nitrogen limiting conditions were performed after glucose or glycerol exhaustion. The typical values obtained with an initial 40 g/L concentration of glucose were close to 31 g/L biomass, a lipid concentration of 12.4 g/L, which correspond to a lipid content of the biomass close to 40%. This cultivation strategy was also efficient with other volatile fatty acids (butyric and propionic acids) or with a mixture of these three VFAs. The lipids composition was found quite similar to that of vegetable oils. The study demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous biovalorization of volatile fatty acids and glycerol, two cheap industrial by-products.

  16. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  17. Lipid binding protein response to a bile acid library: a combined NMR and statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Simona; Pagano, Katiuscia; Boulton, Stephen; Zanzoni, Serena; Melacini, Giuseppe; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Primary bile acids, differing in hydroxylation pattern, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and, once formed, can undergo extensive enzyme-catalysed glycine/taurine conjugation, giving rise to a complex mixture, the bile acid pool. Composition and concentration of the bile acid pool may be altered in diseases, posing a general question on the response of the carrier (bile acid binding protein) to the binding of ligands with different hydrophobic and steric profiles. A collection of NMR experiments (H/D exchange, HET-SOFAST, ePHOGSY NOESY/ROESY and (15) N relaxation measurements) was thus performed on apo and five different holo proteins, to monitor the binding pocket accessibility and dynamics. The ensemble of obtained data could be rationalized by a statistical approach, based on chemical shift covariance analysis, in terms of residue-specific correlations and collective protein response to ligand binding. The results indicate that the same residues are influenced by diverse chemical stresses: ligand binding always induces silencing of motions at the protein portal with a concomitant conformational rearrangement of a network of residues, located at the protein anti-portal region. This network of amino acids, which do not belong to the binding site, forms a contiguous surface, sensing the presence of the bound lipids, with a signalling role in switching protein-membrane interactions on and off.

  18. Effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) and of DL-(2-/sup 14/C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated. 19 refs.

  19. Effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on lipid raft model at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Uto, Takuhiro; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an interfacial behavior of the aglycon of glycyrrhizin (GC), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), with a lipid raft model consisting of equimolar ternary mixtures of N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (CHOL), Langmuir monolayer techniques were systematically conducted. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms showed that the adsorbed GA at the air/water interface was desorbed into the bulk upon compression of the lipid monolayer. In situ morphological analysis by Brewster angle microscopy and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the raft domains became smaller as the concentrations of GA in the subphase (CGA) increased, suggesting that GA promotes the formation of fluid networks related to various cellular processes via lipid rafts. In addition, ex situ morphological analysis by atomic force microscopy revealed that GA interacts with lipid raft by lying down at the surface. Interestingly, the distinctive striped regions were formed at CGA=5.0 μM. This phenomenon was observed to be induced by the interaction of CHOL with adsorbed GA and is involved in the membrane-disrupting activity of saponin and its aglycon. A quantitative comparison of GA with GC (Sakamoto et al., 2013) revealed that GA interacts more strongly with the raft model than GC in the monolayer state. Various biological activities of GA are known to be stronger than those of GC. This fact allows us to hypothesize that differences in the interactions of GA/GC with the model monolayer correlate to their degree of exertion for numerous activities.

  20. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on interleukin-2 receptor signaling pathway in lipid rafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulated the functions of membrane receptors in T cells and suppressed T cell -mediated immune responses. But the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation are not yet elucidated. Lipid rafts are plasma membrane microdomains, in which many receptors localized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts. We isolated lipid rafts by discontinuous sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and found that DHA could change the composition of lipid rafts and alter the distribution of key molecules of IL-2R signaling pathway, which transferred from lipid rafts to detergent-soluble membrane fractions. These results revealed that DHA treatment increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n(3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid rafts and changed the lipid environment of membrane microdomains in T cells. Compared with controls, DHA changed the localization of IL-2R, STAT5a and STAT5b in lipid rafts and suppressed the expression of JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine phosphotyrosine in soluble membrane fractions. Summarily, this study concluded the effects of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts and explained the regulation of PUFAs in T cell-mediated immune responses.

  1. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  2. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  3. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  4. Olive leaf extract from Sicilian cultivar reduced lipid accumulation by inducing thermogenic pathway during adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa ePalmeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Olive leaf extract (OLE from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein UCP1, SIRT-1, PPARα and Pgc-1α. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  5. Olive Leaf Extract from Sicilian Cultivar Reduced Lipid Accumulation by Inducing Thermogenic Pathway during Adipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Rosa; Monteleone, Julieta I.; Spagna, Giovanni; Restuccia, Cristina; Raffaele, Marco; Vanella, Luca; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Olive leaves contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids, and include also many other pharmacological active compounds. They could play an important role in human diet and health because of their ability to lower blood pressure, increase coronary arteries blood flow and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) from Sicilian cultivar on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism. We showed that OLE treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein uncoupling protein 1, sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and coactivator 1 alpha. Furthermore, OLE significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that OLE may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27303302

  6. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  7. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2015-12-17

    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  8. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States); Moreau, Régis [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Hagen, Tory, E-mail: Tory.Hagen@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  9. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  10. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  11. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  12. Stabilization of polymer lipid complexes prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria upon preservation and internalization into eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P; Hugo, A A; Szymanowski, F; Tymczyszyn, E E; Pérez, P F; Coelho, J F J; Simões, P N; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2014-11-01

    The physicochemical characterization of polymer liposome complexes (PLCs) prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) covalently bound to cholesterol (CHO-PDMAEMA) was carried out in an integrated approach, including their stability upon preservation and incorporation into eukaryotic cells. PLCs were prepared with different polymer:lipid molar ratios (0, 0.05 and 0.10). Zeta potential, particle size distribution and polydispersity index were determined. The optimal polymer:lipid ratio and the stability of both bare liposomes and PLCs were evaluated at 37 °C and at different pHs, as well as after storage at 4 °C, -80 °C and freeze-drying in the presence or absence of trehalose 250 mM. Internalization of PLCs by eukaryotic cells was assessed to give a complete picture of the system. Incorporation of CHO-PDMAEMA onto bacterial lipids (ratio 0.05 and 0.10) led to stabilization at 37 °C and pH 7. A slight decrease of pH led to their strong destabilization. Bacteria PLCs showed to be more stable than lecithin (LEC) PLCs (used for comparison) upon preservation at 4 and -80 °C. The harmful nature of the preservation processes led to a strong decrease in the stability of PLCs, bacterial formulations being more stable than LEC PLCs. The addition of trehalose to the suspension of liposomes stabilized LEC PLC and did not have effect on bacterial PLCs. In vitro studies on Raw 264.7 and Caco-2/TC7 cells demonstrated an efficient incorporation of PLCs into the cells. Preparations with higher stability were the ones that showed a better cell-uptake. The nature of the lipid composition is determinant for the stability of PLCs. Lipids from lactic acid bacteria are composed of glycolipids and phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of negatively charged lipids strongly improves the interaction with the positively charged CHO-PDMAEMA, thus stabilizing liposomes. In addition, glycolipids and

  13. Resveratrol ameliorates methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaklioglu, S; Genc, G E; Aksoy, N H; Akcit, F; Gumuslu, S

    2013-06-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the major complications of methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This study was carried out to evaluate the possible protective effect of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, RVT) against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as control, MTX treated (7 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.), once daily for 3 consecutive days), MTX + RVT treated (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and RVT treated. First dose of RVT was administrated 3 days before the MTX injection and continued for 3 days. Histopathology of liver was evaluated by light microscopy. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used as biochemical markers of MTX-induced hepatic injury. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used to analyze the oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation in liver sections. Our results showed that MTX administration significantly increased ALT, ASP, and ALP levels. TBARS, CAT, and GST levels were also markedly increased in liver after MTX administration. RVT treatment significantly prevented MTX-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by AST, ALT, and ALP levels and liver histopathology. Moreover, administration of RVT significantly decreased the elevated levels of TBARS and activities of CAT and GST in the liver compared to MTX-treated group. These results revealed that RVT may have a protective effect against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation. Consequently, RVT treatment might be a promising strategy against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.

  14. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-07-01

    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway.

  15. Exposure to TBT increases accumulation of lipids and alters fatty acid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Gemma; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Porte, Cinta

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that organotin compounds affect lipid homeostasis in vertebrates, probably through interaction with RXR and/or PPARgamma receptors. Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), particularly to masculinization, and TBT has been recently shown to bind to molluscs RXR. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to TBT could affect lipid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis. For comparative purposes, the synthetic androgen methyl-testosterone (MT) was included in the study due to its masculinization effects, but its lack of binding to the RXR receptor. M. cornuarietis was exposed to different concentrations of TBT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) and MT (30, 300 ng/L) for 100 days. Females exposed to 500 ng/L TBT showed increased percentage of lipids and increased levels of fatty acids in the digestive gland/gonad complex (2- to 3-fold). In addition, fatty acid profiles were altered in both males and females exposed to 125 and 500 ng/L TBT. These effects were not observed in females exposed to MT. Overall, this work suggest that TBT acts as a potent inducer of lipid and fatty acid accumulation in M. cornuarietis as shown in vertebrate studies earlier, and that sex differences in sensitivity do exist.

  16. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acids in Ophryotrocha cyclops, a Dorvilleid from Newfoundland Aquaculture Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Flora; Dufour, Suzanne C; Hamoutene, Dounia; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    A new opportunistic annelid (Ophryotrocha cyclops) discovered on benthic substrates underneath finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (NL) may be involved in the remediation of organic wastes. At those aquaculture sites, bacterial mats and O. cyclops often coexist and are used as indicators of organic enrichment. Little is known on the trophic strategies used by these annelids, including whether they might consume bacteria or other aquaculture-derived wastes. We studied the lipid and fatty acid composition of the annelids and their potential food sources (degraded flocculent organic matter, fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats) to investigate feeding relationships in these habitats and compared the lipid and fatty acid composition of annelids before and after starvation. Fish pellets were rich in lipids, mainly terrestrially derived C18 fatty acids (18:1ω9, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3), while bacterial samples were mainly composed of ω7 fatty acids, and flocculent matter appeared to be a mixture of fresh and degrading fish pellets, feces and bacteria. Ophryotrocha cyclops did not appear to store excessive amounts of lipids (13%) but showed a high concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids, as well as a high proportion of the main fatty acids contained in fresh fish pellets and bacterial mats. The dorvilleids and all potential food sources differed significantly in their lipid and fatty acid composition. Interestingly, while all food sources contained low proportions of 20:5ω3 and 20:2ω6, the annelids showed high concentrations of these two fatty acids, along with 20:4ω6. A starvation period of 13 days did not result in a major decrease in total lipid content; however, microscopic observations revealed that very few visible lipid droplets remained in the gut epithelium after three months of starvation. Ophryotrocha cyclops appears well adapted to extreme environments and may rely on lipid-rich organic matter for survival and dispersal in cold environments.

  17. Physical activity-induced alterations on tissue lipid composition and lipid metabolism in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; Rey, A I; Olivares, A; Cordero, G; Toldrá, F; López-Bote, C J

    2009-04-01

    In a first experiment one group of pigs was maintained in free-range conditions according to the traditional way in a Mediterranean forest (exercised-1) and another group was housed individually and received acorns (sedentary-1). In a second experiment two groups of pigs were fed a mixed diet for the whole experimental period. One of these groups was housed individually in 8m(2) pens (sedentary-2). The other group was housed in a corridor and forced to walk daily (exercised-2). The subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids of muscle from the exercised pigs fed acorns had higher C18:1n-9, MUFA, C18:1/C18:0, MUFA/SAT and lower C16:0 and SAT when compared with the fat from the pigs fed acorns in confinement. Those exercised animals fed the mixed diet had also lower C16:0 and SAT in subcutaneous fat and lower SAT and higher C18:2, C18:3, PUFA and MUFA/SAT in neutral lipids when compared with the sedentary pigs, which may indicate that delta-9-desaturase activity was higher in exercised than in sedentary pigs. Exercised pigs had higher acid and neutral esterases and lower neutral lipase activity than sedentary pigs. No differences in the α-tocopherol concentration and TBARS values of meat samples among the pigs that received a mixed diet either exercised or sedentary were observed. The moderate exercise reduced the postprandrial concentrations of triglycerides in plasma, but did not reduce other plasma levels.

  18. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  19. Bile-acid-induced cell injury and protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria J Perez; Oscar Briz

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have characterized the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepatocyte injury caused by the retention of hydrophobic bile acids (BAs) in cholestatic diseases. BAs may disrupt cell membranes through their detergent action on lipid components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen species that, in turn, oxidatively modify lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and eventually cause hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Several pathways are involved in triggering hepatocyte apoptosis. Toxic BAs can activate hepatocyte death receptors directly and induce oxidative damage, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. When these compounds are taken up and accumulate inside biliary cells, they can also cause apoptosis. Regarding extrahepatic tissues, the accumulation of BAs in the systemic circulation may contribute to endothelial injury in the kidney and lungs. In gastrointestinal cells, BAs may behave as cancer promoters through an indirect mechanism involving oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as acting as selection agents for apoptosis-resistant cells. The accumulation of BAs may have also deleterious effects on placental and fetal cells. However, other BAs, such as ursodeoxycholic acid, have been shown to modulate BA-induced injury in hepatocytes. The major beneficial effects of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid are protection against cytotoxicity due to more toxic BAs; the stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion; antioxidant activity, due in part to an enhancement in glutathione levels; and the inhibition of liver cell apoptosis. Other natural BAs or their derivatives, such as cholyl-Nmethylglycine or cholylsarcosine, have also aroused pharmacological interest owing to their protective properties.

  20. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  2. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety.

  3. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production.

  4. Retinoic acid regulates several genes in bile acid and lipid metabolism via upregulation of small heterodimer partner in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, Abulkhair; Subauste, Angela; Subauste, Maria C; Subauste, Jose

    2014-10-25

    Retinoic acid (RA) affects multiple aspects of development, embryogenesis and cell differentiation processes. The liver is a major organ that stores RA suggesting that retinoids play an important role in the function of hepatocytes. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated the involvement of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in RA-induced signaling in a non-transformed hepatic cell line AML 12. In the present study, we have identified several critical genes in lipid homeostasis (Apoa1, Apoa2 and ApoF) that are repressed by RA-treatment in a SHP dependent manner, in vitro and also in vivo with the use of the SHP null mice. In a similar manner, RA also represses several critical genes involved in bile acid metabolism (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Mdr2, Bsep, Baat and Ntcp) via upregulation of SHP. Collectively our data suggest that SHP plays a major role in RA-induced potential changes in pathophysiology of metabolic disorders in the liver.

  5. Electron spectroscopic analysis of the human lipid skin barrier: cold atmospheric plasma-induced changes in lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschewski, Marcel; Hirschberg, Joanna; Omairi, Tarek; Höfft, Oliver; Viöl, Wolfgang; Emmert, Steffen; Maus-Friedrichs, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The lipids of the stratum corneum comprise the most important components of the skin barrier. In patients with ichthyoses or atopic dermatitis, the composition of the skin barrier lipids is disturbed resulting in dry, scaly, itching erythematous skin. Using the latest X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technology, we investigated the physiological skin lipid composition of human skin and the effects of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on the lipid composition. Skin lipids were stripped off forearms of six healthy volunteers using the cyanoacrylate glue technique, plasma treated or not and then subjected to detailed XPS analysis. We found that the human lipid skin barrier consisted of 84.4% carbon (+1.3 SEM%), 10.8% oxygen (+1.0 SEM%) and 4.8% nitrogen (+0.3 SEM%). The composition of physiological skin lipids was not different in males and females. Plasma treatment resulted in significant changes in skin barrier lipid stoichiometry. The total carbon amount was reduced to 76.7%, and the oxygen amount increased to 16.5%. There was also a slight increase in nitrogen to 6.8%. These changes could be attributed to reduced C-C bonds and increased C-O, C=O, C-N and N-C-O bonds. The moderate increase in nitrogen was caused by an increase in C-N and N-C-O bonds. Our results show for the first time that plasma treatment leads to considerable changes in the human skin lipid barrier. Our proof of principle investigations established the technical means to analyse, if plasma-induced skin lipid barrier changes may be beneficial in the treatment of ichthyotic or eczematous skin.

  6. Regulation of amino-acid metabolism controls flux to lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Baker, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial cell factory for the production of lipids to be used as fuels and chemicals, but there are few studies on regulation of its metabolism. Here we performed the first integrated data analysis of Y. lipolytica grown in carbon and nitrogen limited chemostat...... cultures. We first reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model and used this for integrative analysis of multilevel omics data. Metabolite profiling and lipidomics was used to quantify the cellular physiology, while regulatory changes were measured using RNAseq. Analysis of the data showed that lipid...... accumulation in Y. lipolytica does not involve transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism but is associated with regulation of amino-acid biosynthesis, resulting in redirection of carbon flux during nitrogen limitation from amino acids to lipids. Lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica at nitrogen limitation...

  7. Alternation in Lipid Composition of Wheat Leaves Induced by Phosphate Deficiency Is Related to Both Lipid Biosynthesis and Phosphatidylglycerol Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWen; FENGFu-Ying; HOUHai-Tong; JIANGGui-Zhen; XUYi-Nong; KUANGTing-Yun

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the causes of the changes in lipid composition induced by different phosphatenutrient levels were investigated. Wheat plants were grown in phosphate-deficient and phosphate-suffcient conditions, respectively, and lipid compositions in the leaves of 9-day-old and 16-day-old plants wereanalyzed. We found that phosphate deficiency induced a dramatic change at the lipid levels in photosyntheticmembranes of wheat leaves and the extent of changes in lipid composition depended on the leaf ages.Phosphate deficiency induced a gradual decrease in PG and MGDG and a concomitant increase in DGDGand SQDG from the first leaf to the second and the third leaf on 16-day-old plants. In addition, as comparedto leaves grown under phosphate sufficient solution, PG content in the first leaf of 16-day-old plants wassignificantly lower than that of 9-day-old leaf with 2.5 mol% versus 5.5 mol% when these plants were grownunder phosphate deficient condition. From these results, it is suggested that the alternation in lipidcomposition in wheat leaves induced by phosphate deficiency is related to both lipid biosynthesis and PGdegradation. PG decrease in younger leaves is mainly due to insufficient phosphate supply for PG biosynthesis,while PG degradation mainly resulted in the PG decrease in older leaves.

  8. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....

  9. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  10. Bisphenol A Exposure May Induce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation via Reprogramming the DNA Methylation Patterns of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Polyphenols from Berries of Aronia melanocarpa Reduce the Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ziprasidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with antipsychotics. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of polyphenol compounds derived from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in vitro. Methods. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml alone and with Aronox (5 ug/ml; 50 ug/ml. Results. We observed a statistically significant increase of TBARS level after incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml (after 24 h incubation: P=7.0 × 10−4, P=1.6 × 10−3, and P=2.7 × 10−3, resp. and Aronox lipid peroxidation caused by ziprasidone was significantly reduced. After 24-hour incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml in the presence of 50 ug/ml Aronox, the level of TBARS was significantly decreased: P=6.5 × 10−8, P=7.0 × 10−6, and P=3.0 × 10−5, respectively. Conclusion. Aronox causes a distinct reduction of lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone.

  13. Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Heredia, José M; Hervás, Manuel; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Navarro, José A

    2008-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a derivative from the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA), is a commonly used drug that has a dual role in animal organisms as an anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. It acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs), which catalyze prostaglandins production. It is known that ASA serves as an apoptotic agent on cancer cells through the inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. Here, we provide evidences that ASA also behaves as an agent inducing programmed cell death (PCD) in cell cultures of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in a similar way than the well-established PCD-inducing agent H(2)O(2), although the induction of PCD by ASA requires much lower inducer concentrations. Moreover, ASA is herein shown to be a more efficient PCD-inducing agent than salicylic acid. ASA treatment of Arabidopsis cells induces typical PCD-linked morphological and biochemical changes, namely cell shrinkage, nuclear DNA degradation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and induction of caspase-like activity. However, the ASA effect can be partially reverted by jasmonic acid. Taking together, these results reveal the existence of common features in ASA-induced animal apoptosis and plant PCD, and also suggest that there are similarities between the pathways of synthesis and function of prostanoid-like lipid mediators in animal and plant organisms.

  14. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam.

  15. Delivery of retinoic acid to LNCap human prostate cancer cells using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mushfiq H; Rai, Rajeev; Slipper, Ian J; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Lamprou, Dimitrios; Getti, Giulia; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-09-30

    In this study retinoic acid (RTA) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were optimized by tuning the process parameters (pressure/temperature) and using different lipids to develop nanodispersions with enhanced anticancer activity. The RTA-SLN dispersions were produced by high-pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, stability, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in vitro drug release. Thermal and X-ray analysis showed the RTA to be in the amorphous state, whilst microscopic images revealed a spherical shape and uniform particle size distribution of the nanoparticles. Anticancer efficiency was evaluated by incubating RTA-SLNs with human prostate cancer (LNCap) cells, which demonstrated reduced cell viability with increased drug concentrations (9.53% at 200 ug/ml) while blank SLNs displayed negligible cytotoxicity. The cellular uptake of SLN showed localization within the cytoplasm of cells and flow cytometry analysis indicated an increase in the fraction of cells expressing early apoptotic markers, suggesting that the RTA loaded SLNs are able to induce apoptosis in LNCap cells. The RTA-SLN dispersions have the potential to be used for prostate anticancer treatment.

  16. D-Xylose suppresses adipogenesis and regulates lipid metabolism genes in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunjin; Lim, Ji Ye; Shin, Jae-Ho; Seok, Pu Reum; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2015-07-01

    D-Xylose, a natural pentose, has been reported to reduce postprandial glucose levels, although its effect on lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Therefore, this study hypothesized that d-xylose, as an alternative sweetener, suppresses adipogenesis and lipid metabolism by regulating blood lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and related gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal diet, a 60% HFD diet, or an HFD with 5% or 10% of the total sucrose content supplemented with d-xylose (Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 diets, respectively). Weight gain, food intake, and serum lipid levels for each group were measured. After 12 weeks, histopathology of liver sections and assays of gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in visceral fat and liver tissues were analyzed. Body weight gain; fasting blood glucose levels; weights of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues; and serum biochemical markers, including total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-/high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, were significantly lowered in the Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 groups. In addition, d-xylose supplementation resulted in the down-regulation of adipogenesis-related genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte protein 2, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in visceral adipose tissues. Histopathologically, Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 supplementation reduced HFD-induced fat accumulation in the liver and decreased expressions of fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. D-Xylose supplementation also enhanced lipid oxidation by increasing expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A; cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 10; and acyl-CoA oxidase. In conclusion, our finding suggests that d-xylose may help prevent or attenuate the progression of obesity-related metabolic disorders by alleviating adipogenesis

  17. Associations of human retinal very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with dietary lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Liu, Aihua; Hageman, Gregory S; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series. Eyes from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donors have significantly decreased levels of VLC-PUFAs and low n-3/n-6 ratios. These results are consistent with the protective role of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs against AMD and emphasize the importance of monitoring systemic biomarkers of lipid intake when undertaking clinical trials of lipid supplements for prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  18. Role of Nrf2 in preventing ethanol-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai Connie [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress and lipid accumulation play important roles in alcohol-induced liver injury. Previous reports showed that, in livers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-activated mice, genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced, whereas genes involved in lipid biosynthesis are suppressed. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in ethanol-induced hepatic alterations, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation, were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg, po). Blood and liver samples were collected 6 h thereafter. Ethanol increased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in serum of Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. After ethanol administration, mitochondrial glutathione concentrations decreased markedly in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicates that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. Ethanol increased serum triglycerides and hepatic free fatty acids in Nrf2-null mice, and these increases were blunted in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In addition, the basal mRNA and nuclear protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(Srebp-1) were decreased with graded Nrf2 activation. Ethanol further induced Srebp-1 mRNA in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation prevented alcohol-induced oxidative stress and accumulation of free fatty acids in liver by increasing genes involved in antioxidant defense and decreasing genes involved in lipogenesis. -- Highlights: ► Ethanol depleted mitochondrial GSH in Nrf2-null mice but not in Keap1-KD mice. ► Ethanol increased ROS in hepatocytes isolated from Nrf2-null and wild

  19. Lipid metabolism is differentially modulated by salicylic acid and heptanoyl salicylic acid during the induction of resistance in wheat against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Christine; Randoux, Béatrice; Bourdon, Natacha; Reignault, Philippe

    2013-12-15

    Heptanoyl salicylic acid (HSA) is a salicylic acid (SA) derivative obtained by esterification of 2-OH benzoic acid with heptanoic acid. In wheat, the protection levels obtained against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) increased from 50% with SA to 95% with HSA. Using molecular, biochemical and cytological approaches, we investigated here how wheat lipid metabolism is differentially activated by SA and HSA in both infectious and non-infectious conditions, and how Bgt infectious process is altered by both inducers. First, in the absence of Bgt, continuous lipoxygenase (LOX)-encoding gene expression and corresponding activity were specifically induced by HSA. Moreover, compared to SA, HSA treatment resulted in earlier up-regulations of the phospholipase C2-encoding gene expression and it specifically affected the expression of a lipid transfer protein-encoding gene. In infectious context, both HSA and SA sprayings impaired penetration events and therefore haustorium formation, leading to less frequent fungal colonies. While this alteration only slowed down the evolution of Bgt infectious process in SA-sprayed leaves, it completely impaired the establishment of successful infectious events in HSA-sprayed leaves. In addition, HSA induced continuous increases of a LOX-encoding gene expression and of the corresponding LOX activity when compared to SA-sprayed leaves. Lipid metabolism is therefore overall highly responsive to HSA spraying and could represent effective defence mechanism triggered during the induction of resistance in wheat toward Bgt. The concepts of priming and energy costs of the defences induced by SA and HSA are also discussed.

  20. Quinolinic acid induces oxidative stress in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, A; Galván-Arzate, S; Lisý, V; Ali, S F; Duhart, H M; Osorio-Rico, L; Ríos, C; St'astný, F

    2001-03-26

    The oxidative action of quinolinic acid (QUIN), and the protective effects of glutathione (GSH), and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), were tested in rat brain synaptosomes, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified after the exposure of synaptosomes to increasing concentrations of QUIN (25-500 microM). The potency of QUIN to induce lipid peroxidation (LP) was tested as a regional index of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production, and the antioxidant actions of both GSH (50 microM) and APV (250 microM) on QUIN-induced LP were evaluated in synaptosomes prepared from different brain regions. QUIN induced concentration-dependent increases in ROS formation and TBARS in all regions analyzed, but increased production of fluorescent peroxidized lipids only in the striatum and the hippocampus, whereas both GSH and APV decreased this index. These results suggest that the excitotoxic action of QUIN involves regional selectivity in the oxidative status of brain synaptosomes, and may be prevented by substances exhibiting antagonism at the NMDA receptor.

  1. A conditional mutant of the fatty acid synthase unveils unexpected cross talks in mycobacterial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabruja, Matías; Mondino, Sonia; Tsai, Yi Ting; Lara, Julia; Gramajo, Hugo; Gago, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Unlike most bacteria, mycobacteria rely on the multi-domain enzyme eukaryote-like fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) to make fatty acids de novo. These metabolites are precursors of the biosynthesis of most of the lipids present both in the complex mycobacteria cell wall and in the storage lipids inside the cell. In order to study the role of the type I FAS system in Mycobacterium lipid metabolism in vivo, we constructed a conditional mutant in the fas-acpS operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis and analysed in detail the impact of reduced de novo fatty acid biosynthesis on the global architecture of the cell envelope. As expected, the mutant exhibited growth defect in the non-permissive condition that correlated well with the lower expression of fas-acpS and the concomitant reduction of FAS I, confirming that FAS I is essential for survival. The reduction observed in FAS I provoked an accumulation of its substrates, acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, and a strong reduction of C12 to C18 acyl-CoAs, but not of long-chain acyl-CoAs (C19 to C24). The most intriguing result was the ability of the mutant to keep synthesizing mycolic acids when fatty acid biosynthesis was impaired. A detailed comparative lipidomic analysis showed that although reduced FAS I levels had a strong impact on fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, mycolic acids were still being synthesized in the mutant, although with a different relative species distribution. However, when triacylglycerol degradation was inhibited, mycolic acid biosynthesis was significantly reduced, suggesting that storage lipids could be an intracellular reservoir of fatty acids for the biosynthesis of complex lipids in mycobacteria. Understanding the interaction between FAS I and the metabolic pathways that rely on FAS I products is a key step to better understand how lipid homeostasis is regulated in this microorganism and how this regulation could play a role during infection in pathogenic mycobacteria.

  2. Lipoic acid attenuates Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Hassan, Memy H; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanistic aspect of Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity and its protection by lipoic acid. The adult male Albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I served as control. Group II received lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1260 was given to rats by oral gavage at doses 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day (Groups III, IV, and V, respectively). Group VI was pretreated with lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) 24 h before Aroclor 1260 (40 mg/kg/day). Treatment in all groups was continued for further 15 consecutive days. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly increased while total protein, total albumin, and high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased. Hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased while superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was significantly decreased in liver. Caspase-3 & -9 activities were significantly increased in liver. Lipoic acid pretreatment significantly reverted all these abnormalities toward their normal levels. In conclusion, Aroclor 1260 induced liver dysfunction, at least in part, by induction of oxidative stress. Apoptotic effect of hepatic cells is involved in Aroclor 1260-induced liver injury. Lipoic acid could protect rats against Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 913-922, 2016.

  3. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Foesel, B.U.; Wüst, P.K.; Overmann, J.; Tank, M.; Bryant, D.A.; Dunfield, P.F.; Houghton, K.; Stott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycer

  4. Activity of caffeic acid in different fish lipid matrices: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Isabel; Undeland, Ingrid; Larsson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid common in different vegetable sources, has been employed as a natural antioxidant for inhibiting oxidation of fish lipids present in different food matrices. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in the antioxidative and prooxidative...

  5. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E.F.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, A.; Vervoort, Jacques; Stankova, B.; Bekkenkamp-Grovestein, M.; Herreman, L.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Tvrzicka, E.; Rietjens, I.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H

  6. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    n den Hil, E.F. Hoek-va; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, A.; Vervoort, J.J.; Stankova, B.; Bekkenkamp, M.; Herreman, L.; Venema, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Tvrzicka, E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Schothorst, E.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)

  7. Baker's Yeast Deficient in Storage Lipid Synthesis Uses cis-Vaccenic Acid to Reduce Unsaturated Fatty Acid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sec, Peter; Garaiova, Martina; Gajdos, Peter; Certik, Milan; Griac, Peter; Hapala, Ivan; Holic, Roman

    2015-07-01

    The role of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) in the reduction of unsaturated fatty acids toxicity was investigated in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quadruple mutant (QM, dga1Δ lro1Δ are1Δ are2Δ) deficient in enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol and steryl ester synthesis has been previously shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous unsaturated fatty acids. We have found that cis-vaccenic acid accumulated during cultivation in the QM cells but not in the corresponding wild type strain. This accumulation was accompanied by a reduction in palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) content in the QM cells that is consistent with the proposed formation of cis-vaccenic acid by elongation of palmitoleic acid. Fatty acid analysis of individual lipid classes from the QM strain revealed that cis-vaccenic acid was highly enriched in the free fatty acid pool. Furthermore, production of cis-vaccenic acid was arrested if the mechanism of fatty acids release to the medium was activated. We also showed that exogenous cis-vaccenic acid did not affect viability of the QM strain at concentrations toxic for palmitoleic or oleic acids. Moreover, addition of cis-vaccenic acid to the growth medium provided partial protection against the lipotoxic effects of exogenous oleic acid. Transformation of palmitoleic acid to cis-vaccenic acid is thus a rescue mechanism enabling S. cerevisiae cells to survive in the absence of triacylglycerol synthesis as the major mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid detoxification.

  8. In vitro and in vivo responses of rat tissues to cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, D.; Ricard, A.C.; Trottier, B.; Chevalier, G. (Univ. of Quebec, Montreal (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    Oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids, a phenomenon generally termed lipid peroxidation (LPO), is considered to be an important mechanism of toxicity for a wide variety of chemicals. Among these, cadmium (Cd), a pollutant of industrial and environmental importance, induces LPO in various tissues despite its apparent inability to directly generate free radicals under physiological conditions. Consequently, although LPO is not the primary mechanism of Cd toxicity, it represents an early intracellular response of tissues following exposure to Cd compounds. Recently, the authors reported the in vitro specific response to LPO of liver, lung, heart, kidney, testes and brain tissues incubated with various concentrations of CdCl{sub 2}. LPO was assessed by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which include malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxydes, and by gaz chromatographic analysis of evolved hydrocarbons, namely ethane and pentane. To compare the results obtained by both methods, they standardized TEP and TBARS values against incubated controls after subtracting endogenous levels of TBARS (time 0 values) because the measurement of endogenous levels of TEP in tissue incubates is not practicable. The objective of the present report is to clarify this concept in order to adequately compare the data obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies. This should permit a better assessment of the relative importance of tissue responses to LPO following exposure to Cd.

  9. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20 g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20 g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35 g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4 g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21 g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  11. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl.

  12. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  13. Acidic composition of gilthead seabream fillets (Sparus aurata L. fed with different lipid sources: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balestri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids play an important role in fish nutrition as a source provision of body energy and essential fatty acids (EFA (Sargent et al., 1999. The low availability and the high exspense of fish oil could suggest the use of an alternative lipid source in aquaculture (Turchini et al., 2000. Alternative sources of PUFA are represented by vegetable oils, but their composition is not satisfactory for the requirements of the different species of rearing fishes...

  14. Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqian; Ye, Aiqian; Verrier, Timothee; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids.

  15. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  16. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  17. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of uninfected and granulosis virus-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study on the lipid and fatty acid composition of the uninfected and GV-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae was performed. Higher levels of free fatty acids were found in GV-infected larvae compared to those of the uninfected larvae, while the latter had more triacylglycerol compared to the former. The known identified phospholipids were fewer in the GV-infected larvae compared to those in the uninfected larvae. However, an unidentified phospholipid was found to be approximately two times higher in GV-infected larvae. The total lipid of both larvae had palmitic, oleic, and linoleic as the major fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of the GV-infected larval phospholipid differed considerably compared to that of the uninfected larvae, in that the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid was 3.5 times less in the GV-infected larvae.

  18. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  19. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cod(Gadus morhua),Haddock(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)and Halibut(Hippogiossus hippoglossus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Duan; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; Joyce E.Milley; Santosh P.Lall

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod,haddock and halibut.Three groups of cod(276 g±61 g),haddock(538 g±83 g)and halibut(3704 g±221 g)were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling.The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters(FAME).Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak(R).The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC)and the FAME profile was obtained.Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%,respectively,with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid,respectively.Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%,with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid.Total liver lipid contents of cod,haddock and halibut were 36.9%,67.2% and 30.7%,respectively,of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction(88.1%-97.1%).Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid.Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid.Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant.In summary,the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ,and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh.However,as a medium-fat fish,halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  20. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  1. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Yael T. Joffe; Malcolm Collins; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty a...

  2. Effect of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by lipid-infusion in awake rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Gang-Yi Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by a lipid infusion in awake rats.METHODS: A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was established in awake chronically catheterized rats. Two groups of rats were studied either with a 4-h intraarterial infusion of lipid/heparin or saline. Insulin-mediated peripheral and hepatic glucose metabolism was assessed by hyperinsulinaemiceuglycaemic clamp combined with [3-3H]-glucose infusion.RESULTS: During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp,there was a significant increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA, from 741.9±50.6 to 2346.4±238.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in lipid-infused group. The glucose infusion rates (GIR) in the lipid infusion rats, compared to control rats, were significantly reduced (200-240 min average: lipid infusion; 12.6±1.5 vs control; 34.0±1.6 mg/kg.min, P<0.01), declining to - 35%of the corresponding control values during the last time of the clamp (240 min: lipid infusion; 12.0±1.9 vs control;34.7±1.7 mg/kg.min, P<0.0001). At the end of clamp study,the hepatic glucose production (HGP) in control rats was significantly suppressed (88%) from 19.0±4.5 (basal) to 2.3±0.9 mg/kg.min (P<0.01). The suppressive effect of insulin on HGP was significantly blunted in the lipid-infused (P<0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (GRd) was a slight decrease in the lipid-infused rats compared with controls during the clamp.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that lipid infusion could induces suppression of hepatic glucose production, impairs the abilities of insulin to suppress lipolysis and mediate glucose utilization in peripheral tissue. Therefore, we conclude that lipid-infusion induces an acute insulin resistance in vivo.

  3. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of /sup 14/C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three /sup 14/C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin.

  4. [Influence of ethanol and ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation on the steroidogenic activity of testicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashko, M F; Khokha, A M; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication results in the diminished testosterone level and activation of lipid peroxidation in rat testes. A significant decrease in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-hydrogenase and 17-dehydrogenase activity has been observed in microsomes. Analogous shifts have been evoked in vitro by the induction of lipid peroxidation in microsomes. That permitted one to suppose that alcohol-induced alterations in tests are partially mediated by induction of lipid peroxidation.

  5. N-stearoylethanolamine restores pancreas lipid composition in obesity-induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onopchenko, Oleksandra V; Kosiakova, Galina V; Oz, Murat; Klimashevsky, Vitaliy M; Gula, Nadiya M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE), a bioactive N-acylethanolamine , on the lipid profile distribution in the pancreas of obesity-induced insulin resistant (IR) rats fed with prolonged high fat diet (58% of fat for 6 months). The phospholipid composition was determined using 2D thin-layer chromatography. The level of individual phospholipids was estimated by measuring inorganic phosphorus content. The fatty acid (FA) composition and cholesterol level were investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Compared to controls, plasma levels of triglycerides and insulin were significantly increased in IR rats. The pancreas lipid composition indicated a significant reduction of the free cholesterol level and some phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) compared to controls. Moreover, the FA composition of pancreas showed a significant redistribution of the main FA (18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6) levels between phospholipid, free FA, triglyceride fractions under IR conditions that was accompanied by a change in the estimated activities of Δ9-, Δ6-, Δ5-desaturase. Administration of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE, 50 mg/kg daily per os for 2 weeks) IR rats triggered an increase in the content of free cholesterol, PtdCho and normalization of PtdEtn, PtdSer level. Furthermore, the NSE modulated the activity of desaturases, thus influenced FA composition and restored the FA ratios in the lipid fractions. These NSE-induced changes were associated with a normalization of plasma triglyceride content, considerable decrease of insulin and index HOMA-IR level in rats under IR conditions.

  6. The relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammatory genes on the obese phenotype and serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; Collins, Malcolm; Goedecke, Julia H

    2013-05-21

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNFα and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these diet-gene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype.

  7. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  8. Protein-induced bilayer Perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction...... and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few Å results...... in up to 10-fold increased exchange rates as compared to the ‘optimal’ match situation pointing to the regulatory role of hydrophobic coupling in lipid–protein interactions....

  9. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  10. Effects of UV radiation on hatching, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid composition in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yeonjung; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Un-Ki; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of UV radiation on the reproductive physiology and macromolecules in marine zooplankton, several doses of UV radiation were used to treat the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and we analyzed in vivo endpoints of their life cycle such as mortality and reproductive parameters with in vitro biochemical biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), the modulated enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the production of a byproduct of peroxidation (e.g. malonedialdehyde, MDA). After UV radiation, the survival rate of P. nana was significantly reduced. Also, egg sac damage and a reduction in the hatching rate of offspring were observed in UV-irradiated ovigerous females. According to the assessed biochemical parameters, we found dose-dependent increases in ROS levels and high levels of the lipid peroxidation decomposition product by 2 kJ m(-2), implying that P. nana was under off-balanced status by oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage. Antioxidant enzyme activities of GST and SOD increased over different doses of UV radiation. To measure UV-induced lipid peroxidation, we found a slight reduction in the composition of essential fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These findings indicate that UV radiation can induce oxidative stress-triggered lipid peroxidation with modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity, leading to a significant effect on mortality and reproductive physiology (e.g. fecundity). These results demonstrate the involvement of UV radiation on essential fatty acids and its susceptibility to UV radiation in the copepod P. nana compared to other species.

  11. D-stat culture for studying the metabolic shifts from oxidative metabolism to lipid accumulation and citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Estopier, Abril; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2014-01-20

    Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts is triggered by nutrient imbalance in the culture medium between the carbon source in excess and the nitrogen source in limiting concentration. However Yarrowia lipolytica when cultivated on glucose as the sole carbon source, mainly produces citric acid upon nitrogen limitation over lipid accumulation (only 5-10% triacylglycerol). Therefore for developing bioprocess for the production of triacylglycerol from renewable carbon source as glucose it is of first importance to control this imbalance in order to avoid citric acid production during TAG accumulation. Using D-stat cultivation system, where the N/C was linearly decreased using a constant change rate we were able to identify the N/C ratio inducing TAG accumulation (0.085NmolCmol(-1)) and citric acid (0.021NmolCmol(-1)). We therefore demonstrated that it was possible to accumulate lipids without excretion citric acid as long as the N/C was within this indicated range. Moreover enzyme specific activities measurement during the D-stat indicated that ATP-citrate lyase, malic enzyme and acetyl-coA carboxylase were strongly induced at the onset of lipid accumulation and showed different patterns when citric acid was excreted. Our results give relevant information for future industrial bioprocess development concerning the production of lipids using renewable carbohydrate substrates as an alternative way to produce synthons for fuel or chemical industry. By controlling the N/C over the fermentation process on glucose Y. lipolytica can accumulate lipids without excreting citric acid.

  12. Loss of L-FABP, SCP-2/SCP-x, or both induces hepatic lipid accumulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Atshaves, Barbara P; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2015-08-15

    Although roles for both sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) have been proposed in hepatic lipid accumulation, individually ablating these genes has been complicated by concomitant alterations in the other gene product(s). For example, ablating SCP2/SCP-x induces upregulation of L-FABP in female mice. Therefore, the impact of ablating SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO) or L-FABP (LKO) individually or both together (TKO) was examined in female mice. Loss of SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO, TKO) more so than loss of L-FABP alone (LKO) increased hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol content, especially cholesteryl ester. Hepatic accumulation of nonesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and phospholipids occurred only in DKO and TKO mice. Loss of SCP-2/SCP-x (DKO, TKO) increased serum total lipid primarily by increasing triglycerides. Altered hepatic level of proteins involved in cholesterol uptake, efflux, and/or secretion was observed, but did not compensate for the loss of L-FABP, SCP-2/SCP-x or both. However, synergistic responses were not seen with the combinatorial knock out animals-suggesting that inhibiting SCP-2/SCP-x is more correlative with hepatic dysfunction than L-FABP. The DKO- and TKO-induced hepatic accumulation of cholesterol and long chain fatty acids shared significant phenotypic similarities with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  13. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  14. Increased hepatic Fatty Acid uptake and esterification contribute to tetracycline-induced steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Chae-Hyeon; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tetracycline induces microvesicular steatosis, which has a poor long-term prognosis and a higher risk of steatohepatitis development compared with macrovesicular steatosis. Recent gene expression studies indicated that tetracycline treatment affects the expression of many genes associated with fatty acid transport and esterification. In this study, we investigated the role of fatty acid transport and esterification in tetracycline-induced steatosis. Intracellular lipid accumulation and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2 were increased in both mouse liver and HepG2 cells treated with tetracycline at 50 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) and 100 μM, respectively. Tetracycline increased the cellular uptake of boron-dipyrromethene-labeled C16 fatty acid, which was abolished by CD36 RNA interference. Oleate-induced cellular lipid accumulation was further enhanced by co-incubation with tetracycline. Tetracycline downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which negatively regulated DGAT2 expression. U0126, a specific ERK inhibitor, also increased DGAT2 expression and cellular lipid accumulation. DGAT1 and 2 knock-down with specific small interfering (si)-RNA completely abrogated the steatogenic effect of tetracycline in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our data showed that tetracycline induces lipid accumulation by facilitating fatty acid transport and triglyceride esterification by upregulating CD36 and DGAT2, respectively.

  15. Studies in lipid histochemistry. XIII. The OPA (osmiumtetroxide-periodic acid-alpha-naphthylamine) method for the detection of apolar lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, M

    1975-09-29

    A new procedure for the detection of apolar lipids is described. It is a modification of the OTAN method (Adams, 1959) using periodic acid which oxidatively removes lower osmium derivatives from polar sites only, leaving those in apolar lipids intact and demonstrable with alpha-naphthylamine. Control steps for the exclusion of the possible interference of some less polar complex lipids and of lipopigments are described. The described technic is superior to the conventionally used sudan dyes due partly to the fact that only aqueous solutions are employed thus excluding any extraction of lipids, partly to the more distinct coloration.

  16. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  17. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  18. Enantioselective analysis of chiral anteiso fatty acids in the polar and neutral lipids of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Hottinger, Georg; Vetter, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Anteiso fatty acids (aFA) are substituted with a methyl group on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. This feature leads to a stereogenic center. The 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (a15:0) and the 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (a17:0) are the most common aFA found in food, although they occur only in very small quantities. In this study we used gas chromatography in combination with a chiral stationary phase to determine the enantiomeric distribution of both a15:0 and a17:0 in the neutral and polar lipids of aquatic food samples and cheese. The best suited column was selected out of four custom-made combinations of heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-TBDM) with different amount and polarity of an achiral polysiloxane. After separation of polar and neutral lipids of the food samples by solid phase extraction, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and the fatty acid methyl esters were fractionated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Measurements of fractions high in aFA by enantioselective GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode verified the dominance of the (S)-enantiomers of a15:0 and a17:0 in both lipid fractions. However (R)-enantiomers were detectable in all samples. The relative proportion of the (R)-enantiomers was up to fivefold higher in the polar lipids than in the neutral lipids. The higher proportions in the polar lipids indicate that microorganisms might be involved in the formation of (R)-aFA.

  19. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  20. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes.

  2. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  3. Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during over-summering in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post- diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the YSCBW population that diapauses in summer.

  4. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  5. Restoration of dietary-fat induced blood–brain barrier dysfunction by anti-inflammatory lipid-modulating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallebage-Gamarallage Menuka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have identified use of non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs and statins for prevention of dementia, but their efficacy in slowing progression is not well understood. Cerebrovascular disturbances are common pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported chronic ingestion of saturated fatty acids (SFA compromises blood–brain barrier (BBB integrity resulting in cerebral extravasation of plasma proteins and inflammation. However, the SFA-induced parenchymal accumulation of plasma proteins could be prevented by co-administration of some cholesterol lowering agents. Restoration of BBB dysfunction is clinically relevant, so the purpose of this study was to explore lipid-lowering agents could reverse BBB disturbances induced by chronic ingestion of SFA’s. Methods Wild-type mice were fed an SFA diet for 12 weeks to induce BBB dysfunction, and then randomised to receive atorvastatin, pravastatin or ibuprofen in combination with the SFA-rich diet for 2 or 8 weeks. Abundance of plasma-derived immunoglobulin-G (IgG and amyloid-β enriched apolipoprotein (apo-B lipoproteins within brain parenchyme were quantified utilising immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Atorvastatin treatment for 2 and 8 weeks restored BBB integrity, indicated by a substantial reduction of IgG and apo B, particularly within the hippocampus. Pravastatin, a water-soluble statin was less effective than atorvastatin (lipid-soluble. Statin effects were independent of changes in plasma lipid homeostasis. Ibuprofen, a lipid-soluble cyclooxygenase inhibitor attenuated cerebral accumulation of IgG and apo B as effectively as atorvastatin. Our findings are consistent with the drug effects being independent of plasma lipid homeostasis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that BBB dysfunction induced by chronic ingestion of SFA is reversible with timely introduction and sustained treatment with agents that suppress inflammation.

  6. The role of thyroid hormones in regulating of fatty acid spectrum of brain lipids: ontogenetic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodynskiy A.G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In experiments on rats of three age groups the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of fatty acid spectrum of cortical and hippocampus lipids was studied. It was found that on the background of decreased thyroid status content of polyunsaturated fractions of free fatty acids, significantly changed depending on the age of the animals. In particular, in juvenile rats hypothyroidism was accompanied by a decrease almost twice the number of pentacodan acid decreased lipids viscosity in neurocortex. In old rats reduce of pentacodan acid in the cortex (38% was supplemented by significant (77% decrease in linoleic and linolenic acids. Unlike the two age groups deficiency of thyroid hormones in young animals caused accumulation of free polyunsatarated fatty acids (C18: 2.3 in the cerebral cortex by 74%, which may be associated with a decrease of this fraction in fatty acid spectrum of lipids and increase of viscosity properties of the membranes. These restruc­turing may be associated with modulation of synaptic transmission of specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

  7. Inhibiting effect of tea catechins on the lipid peroxidation induced in tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, M. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Okuno, K. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka-shi 422-8526 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: srhyosi@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2006-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation induced by {beta}-ray in tritiated water and the inhibiting effect of tea catechins on it were studied using a spin probe method. A hydrophobic spin probe, 16-doxylstearic acid (16NS), was incorporated into a liposome prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, which was dispersed in tritiated water; the catechins were added to the solution. The rate of the decrease of ESR intensity of 16NS was a measure of the peroxidation and of the inhibiting effect. Inhibiting activity increased with an increase in the concentration of the catechin. Inhibiting ability estimated from the slope of the curves was in the order of (-)-epicatechin gallate > (-)-epigallocatechin gallate > (-)-epicatechin > (-)-epigallocatechin. The activity decreased with increasing temperature and the temperature dependence increased with the catechin concentration. These results were explained by a model; the initiator of the peroxidation is the hydroxyl radical (OH) and catechin is adsorbed on the surface of the membrane and scavenges OH coming into there from the water phase. The activity depended on the ratio of the adsorbed catechin, namely the partition coefficient between the water and the lipid.

  8. Arsenic stress induces changes in lipid signalling and evokes the stomata closure in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Ana L; Talano, Melina A; Villasuso, Ana L; Travaglia, Claudia; Racagni, Graciela E; Reinoso, Herminda; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is often exposed to high arsenic (As) level in soils or through irrigation with groundwater. In previous studies on As-treated soybean seedlings we showed deleterious effect on growth, structural alterations mainly in root vascular system and induction of antioxidant enzymes. However, there are not reports concerning signal transduction pathways triggered by the metalloid in order to develop adaptive mechanisms. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a key messenger in plants, can be generated via phospholipase D (PLD) or via phospholipase C (PLC) coupled to diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Thus, changes in PA and in an enzyme involved in its metabolism (PLD) were analysed in soybean seedlings treated with 25 μM AsV or AsIII. The present study demonstrated that As triggers the PA signal by PLD and also via PLC/DGK mainly after 48 h of As treatment. DGPP, other lipid messenger produced by phosphorylation of PA by PAK increased in As treated roots. Arsenic also induced rapid and significant stomatal closure after 1.5 h of treatment, mainly with AsIII, probably as an adaptive response to the metalloid to reduce water loss by transpiration. This report constitute the first evidence that shows the effects of As on lipid signalling events in soybean seedlings which would be crucial in adaptation and survival of soybean seedlings under As stress.

  9. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  10. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings, the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly

  11. Protein/lipid coaggregates are formed during α-synuclein-induced disruption of lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas; Vetri, Valeria; Langkilde, Annette Eva

    2014-01-01

    small-angle X-ray scattering and circular dichroism data. Data show in real time changes in liposome morphology and stability upon protein addition and reveal that membrane disruption mediated by amyloidogenic αSN is associated with dehydration of anionic lipid membranes and stimulation of protein...

  12. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  13. Plasma lipidomics reveal profound perturbation of glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, and sphingolipids in diet-induced hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hua; Chen, Hua; Pei, Songwen; Bai, Xu; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2015-02-25

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and has emerged as an important public health problem. Lipidomics is a powerful technology for assessment of global lipid metabolites in a biological system and for biomarker discovery. In the present study, hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding rats a high fat diet. A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight synapt high-definition mass spectrometry method was used for the analysis of plasma lipids. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis, correlation analysis and heatmap analysis were performed to investigate the metabolic changes in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Potential biomarkers were detected using S-plot and were identified by accurate mass data, isotopic pattern and MS(E) fragments information. Significantly increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combined with standard serum biochemical results, significant differences in plasma lipid compounds including eleven glycerophospholipids, six fatty acids, two sphingolipids, one eicosanoid, one sterol lipid and one glycerolipid were observed, highlighting the perturbation of lipid metabolism in diet-induced hyperlipidemia. These findings provide further insights into the lipid profile across a wide range of biochemical pathways in diet-induced hyperlipidemia.

  14. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO; ANGULO OFELIA

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01) elevation of...

  15. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. seed genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulf Francisc V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%, of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9% and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2% fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%, while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids, making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  16. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, Vincent O; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747-1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion.

  17. Solvent-extractable lipids in an acid andic forest soil; variations with dept and season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naafs, Derck Ferdinand Werner; Bergen, P.F. van; Boogert, S.J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    2004-01-01

    Total lipid extracts from an acid andic soil profile located on Madeira Island (Portugal) were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The profile was covered mainly by grass. Bulk soil characteristics determined included soil pH (H2O) ranging from 4.5 to 4.0 and TOC

  18. Fatty acids and algal lipids as precursors of chlorination by-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liang; Yuen Shan Lui; Huachang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Six common algal fatty acids (FAs) with different numbers of double bonds,lipophilic fractions and proteins extracted from the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and algal cells were chlorinated to evaluate their potential in generating disinfection by-products (DBPs).The result showed that the more double bonds in the FAs,the higher the amounts of chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) produced,but such a pattern was not observed for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA).Based on the previously reported composition of fatty acids in algal lipids,the DBP generation potentials of algal lipids were calculated.These predicted values were much lower than those measured in the chlorinated algal lipophilic fraction,suggesting unknown lipophilic fraction(s) served as potent DBPs precursors.Another calculation attempted to predict DBP production in algal cells based on algal lipid and protein composition,given quantified measured DBP production per unit algal lipid and proteins.The analysis showed that the observed DBP production was similar to that predicted (< 35% difference),suggesting that algal biochemical compositions may serve as a bioindicator for preliminary estimation of chloroform,DCAA and TCAA formation upon chlorinating algae.

  19. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Levin, Klaus; Blaak, Ellen E.; Thoresen, G. Hege; Gaster, Michael; Rustan, Arild C.

    2010-01-01

    Corpeleijn E, Hessvik NP, Bakke SS, Levin K, Blaak EE, Thoresen GH, Gaster M, Rustan AC. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E14-E22, 2010. First published May 4, 2010; doi:1

  20. FadD is required for utilization of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M

    2011-11-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth.

  1. Phosphatidic acid: a multifunctional stress-signalling lipid in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Testerink; T. Munnik

    2005-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in both plants and animals. Nonetheless, it already promises to rival the importance of the classic second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP. In plants, its formation is triggered in response to various biotic and a

  2. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  3. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  4. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  5. Reversible phenotypic modulation induced by deprivation of exogenous essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laposata, M; Minda, M; Capriotti, A M; Hartman, E J; Furth, E E; Iozzo, R V

    1988-12-01

    Essential fatty acid deficiency, produced by deprivation of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, is a condition characterized by renal disease, dermatitis, and infertility. Although many of the biochemical aspects of this disorder have been investigated, little is known about the ultrastructural changes induced by essential fatty acid deficiency. Using a unique fatty acid-deficient cell line (EFD-1), which demonstrates the in vivo fatty acid changes of essential fatty acid deficiency, and the prostaglandin E2-producing mouse fibrosarcoma line from which it was derived (HSDM1C1), we correlated ultrastructural and biochemical changes induced by prolonged deprivation of all exogenous lipids and subsequent repletion of selected essential fatty acids. We found that in cells deprived of all exogenous lipids, there was dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and an associated defect in protein secretion; these changes were specifically reversed by arachidonate. There was also an accumulation of secondary lysosomes containing degraded membranes in these cells with an associated increase in phospholipids relative to parent HSDM1C1 cells. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies present in parent cells disappeared, with an associated decrease in triacylglycerol. After just 2 days in lipid-free medium, all these changes were apparent, and prostaglandin E2 production was markedly impaired despite normal amounts of cellular arachidonate. Incubation of EFD-1 cells with arachidonate, the major prostaglandin precursor fatty acid, induced a reversion to the HSDM1C1 phenotype, whereas other fatty acids were totally ineffective. These results indicate changes in fatty acid metabolism in essential fatty acid deficiency are associated with marked alterations in ultrastructure and secretion of protein from cells.

  6. 大豆异黄酮对膳食诱导型代谢综合征大鼠糖脂代谢、血清瘦素及FFA的影响%Effects of Soybean Isoflavones on Sugar-lipid Metabolism, Serum Leptin and Free Fatty Acid Concentrations of Diet-induced Insulin Resistance in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 芦晔; 许峰锐

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过实验研究观察大豆异黄酮对代谢综合征大鼠胰岛素抵抗,血脂,血清瘦素及FFA的影响.方法:采用高脂高糖高盐饲料喂养诱导建立大鼠MS模型.将成模的MS大鼠随机分为模型组,大豆异黄酮高、低剂量组及西药组.灌胃4周,采用试纸法和生化法分别测血糖血脂,放免法测胰岛素及血清瘦素水平,比色法测FFA水平.结果:SIF高剂量组大鼠FBG、FINS、HOMA-IR与模型组相比均降低(P<0.05),与西药组疗效相似.与模型组相比,SIF高剂量组血清TC、TG以及LDL-C水平显著降低(P<0.01).而SI高剂量组瘦素及FFA水平较模型组明显降低(P<0.05),与西药组无明显差异.结论:大豆异黄酮可以改善MS模型大鼠胰岛素抵抗,调节血脂,其可能与降低脂肪细胞因子瘦素及FFA水平相关.%To observe the effect of soybean isoflavones on insulin resistance, blood lipid level, Serum Leptin and Free Fatty Acid in metabolic syndrome rats. Method: MS rat model was induced by high fat sugar and high salt diet. Then these metabolic syndrome rats were randomly divided into MS model group, Metformin group and two SI - treated groups(SIH,SIL,). Blood lipid level and blood glucose were measured before and after drug intervention. Radioim-munoassay was used to detect Serum Leptin and insulin. Colorimetry was used to measure Free Fatty Acid. Results;The level of blood glucose, Serum Leptin and insulin sensitivity index in high dose SI2 treatment group were lower than those in model group (P <0. 05) ,which were similar to Metformin group. In high dose SI2 treatment group, the low density li-pop rotein cholesterol ( LDLC) , triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower than those in model group (P < 0. 01). Compared with model group, Serum Leptin and Free Fatty Acid levels were obviously lower (P <0. 05) ,which had no remarkable difference with Metformin group. Conclusion:SI can regulate the blood lipid level in

  7. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Keyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF, was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were

  8. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, J.; Drury, P.J.; Crawford, M.A.

    1987-08-01

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function.

  9. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde; Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  10. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  11. Fatty acid pattern of lipids in normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, D; Reichmann, G; Egger, E; Olthoff, D; Döhler, K

    1975-11-21

    The fatty acid distribution of the main lipid fractions: triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylcholine (PCh), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sphingomyelin (Sph) of muscle from 6 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (p.m.d.), Duchenne, 8 to 12 years old was estimated and compared with normal controls of different age. In view of the results of several authors about varied fatty acid distribution in immature muscle a third group comprising samples of neonatal muscle was studied. 1. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions TG, Sph, and PE from muscle of patients with p.m.d. shows no important variation in comparison to normal controls. In contrast to this the fatty acid distribution in PCh is extremely varied: the percentage of 18:2 is decreased and corrrespondingly the content of 18:1 is increased. In view of the high percentage (nearly 10%) in which linoleic acid is substituted by oleic acid in PCh, effects on the plasma membrane are to be expected. 2. The fatty acid pattern in neonatal muscle shows in narly all positions of the fractions TG, Sph, PE, and PCh a different distribution from normal or dystrophic muscle. In view of the most important variation in dystrophic muscle it must be stated that generally 18:2 is decreased. This deficit was replaced by an increase of all other fatty acids (not only at a substitution by 18:1 as given in p.m.d.). Therefore the diminished content of linoleic acid in PCh of neonatal and dystrophic muscle cannot be interpreted as expression of a corresponding or similar lipid metabolism in both tissues. The results were seen as signs of significant qualitative alterations especially of PCh in p.m.d. They were discussed as proof of our thesis that the basic defect in p.m.d. concerns the specific acylation of PCh with linoleic acid.

  12. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M Madalena; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Cavaleiro, Ana J; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J M

    2009-09-01

    The position of high-rate anaerobic technology (HR-AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR-AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment.

  13. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. Madalena; Pereira, M. Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z.; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The position of high‐rate anaerobic technology (HR‐AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR‐AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment. PMID:21255287

  14. Lipid Peroxides and α-Tocopherol in Rat Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi,Yoshimi

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol was undertaken in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In sera and livers in diabetic rats, the lipid peroxides increased but alpha-tocopherol decreased. To study the effect of vitamin E deficiency in the diabetic state, diabetes was induced in rats maintained on a vitamin E deficient diet. Serum lipid peroxides increased greatly but alpha-tocopherol decreased. Lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol increased in the liver of vitamin E deficient states. In the liver, vitamin E deficient diabetic rats had lower lipid peroxides levels but higher alpha-tocopherol levels than vitamin E deficient non-diabetic rats. On the basis of the present experiments, it was considered that the decrease of alpha-tocopherol might be due to consumption as an antioxidant as lipid peroxides increased in sera and livers. The decrease of lipid peroxides in the liver was thought to play an important part of the increase in serum lipid peroxides.

  15. Exercise per se masks oral contraceptive-induced postprandial lipid mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Thivel, David; Meddahi-Pelle, Anne; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Duclos, Martine; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Because of their hormonal content, oral contraceptives may alter lipolytic activity under resting or exercise conditions in women. The aim of the present study was to compare lipid mobilization in a postprandial state at rest and during exercise in oral contraceptive users (OC+) versus nonusers (OC-). The metabolic (glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids) and hormonal (insulin, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and catecholamines) concentrations were determined in 11 OC+ (monophasic low-dose oral contraceptives) and 10 OC- during a resting and an exercise session (45 min at 65% maximal oxygen consumption). Results were expressed as plasma concentrations and area under the concentration versus time curve values. ANP concentrations were higher in OC+ compared with OC- women at baseline (p = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of glycerol (p = 0.04), free fatty acids (p = 0.04), ANP (p = 0.02), and noradrenaline (p = 0.04) were higher in OC+ compared with OC- when both sessions were pooled. The plasma growth hormone, IGF-1, and adrenaline concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. When the effect of exercise was isolated to overcome food intake and daytime variations (exercise per se using the area under the curve), no difference was observed between groups for all metabolic and hormonal variables. Overall, oral contraceptives increased lipid mobilization in the postprandial state, but this effect was blunted when lipolytic activity was stimulated by exercise per se. Oral contraceptive-induced greater lipolytic mobilization could be partly explained by greater ANP levels in OC users.

  16. The Protective Effect of Omega-3 Against Thioacetamide Induced Lipid and Renal Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Moghadamnia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thioacetamide causes lipid and kidney dysfunction.Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids prevent the progression of renal diseases. Objectives This study aimed to assess the protective effects of omega-3 fish oil supplement on thioacetamide induced lipid and kidney dysfunction in male rats. Methods In this experimental study, 42 male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7: control group sham group which received 0.4 mL olive oil as a solvent, Thioacetamide group receiving thioacetamide at a dose of 150 mg/kg once as intraperitoneal injection, Experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 which received omega-3 fish oil supplement at the doses of 100, 200, 300 mg/kg orally for 3 months respectively and then they received thioacetamide at the dose of 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for once. The levels of serum creatinine, BUN, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, FBS, triglyceride, sodium and potassium were measured. The pathological changes of tissue samples of the kidneys were studied after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software and using one way ANOVA and Tukey as post hoc test. Significant level was considered to be P < 0.05. Results The mean serum levels of potassium in the second experimental group significantly decreased (5.26 ± 0.02 compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (6.50 ± 0. The mean serum sodium in all experimental groups decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol in experimental group 3 (66.80 ± 1.46 significantly decreased compared to the group receiving thioacetamide (84 ± 0.57. No significant changes were observed in the mean serum levels of FBS, BUN, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and creatinine in all experimental groups compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. All the experimental groups improved renal histological changes induced by thioacetamide and these protective effects were dose-dependent (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions The results of

  17. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds.

  18. DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by acetylsalicylic acid in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely

    2014-08-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory widely used due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This compound has been found in water bodies worldwide and is toxic to aquatic organisms; nevertheless its capacity to induce oxidative stress in bioindicators like Daphnia magna remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate toxicity in D. magna induced by acetylsalicylic acid in water, using oxidative stress and DNA damage biomarkers. An acute toxicity test was conducted in order to determine the median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) and the concentrations to be used in the subsequent subacute toxicity test in which the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation, oxidized protein content, activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and level of DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation level and oxidized protein content were significantly increased (pacetylsalicylic acid induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in D. magna.

  19. Chlorogenic acid stabilized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of atorvastatin: formulation, design and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saba; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed; Narang, R S; Narang, Jasjeet K

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at developing an optimized oral nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation of poorly soluble atorvastatin Ca (AT Ca) and assessing its in vitro release, oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity. In this study, chlorogenic acid, a novel excipient having synergistic cholesterol lowering activity was utilized and explored in NLC formulation development. The drug-loaded NLC formulations were prepared using a high pressure homogenization technique and optimized by the Box-Behnken statistical design using the Design-Expert software. The optimized NLC formulation was composed of oleic acid and stearic acid as lipid phase (0.9% w/v), poloxamer 188 as surfactant (1% w/v) and chlorogenic acid (0.05% w/v). The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and % drug entrapment efficiency of optimized NLC were 203.56 ± 8.57 nm, 0.27 ± 0.028 and 83.66 ± 5.69, respectively. In vitro release studies showed that the release of drug from optimized NLC formulations were markedly enhanced as compared to solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and drug suspension. The plasma concentration time profile of AT Ca in rats showed 3.08- and 4.89-fold increase in relative bioavailability of developed NLC with respect to marketed preparation (ATORVA® tablet) and drug suspension, respectively. Pharmacodynamic study suggested highly significant (**p chlorogenic acid integrated NLC.

  20. Equivalent Isopropanol Concentrations of Aromatic Amino Acids Interactions with Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Merrell A; Ray, Bruce D; Wassall, Stephen R; Petrache, Horia I

    2015-08-01

    We show that the interaction of aromatic amino acids with lipid bilayers can be characterized by conventional 1D [Formula: see text]H NMR spectroscopy using reference spectra obtained in isopropanol-d8/D[Formula: see text]O solutions. We demonstrate the utility of this method with three different peptides containing tyrosine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine amino acids in the presence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine lipid membranes. In each case, we determine an equivalent isopropanol concentration (EIC) for each hydrogen site of aromatic groups, in essence constructing a map of the chemical environment. These EIC maps provide information on relative affinities of aromatic side chains for either PC or PS bilayers and also inform on amino acid orientation preference when bound to membranes.

  1. [Effect of phytic acid and its derivatives on blood lipid peroxidation state in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Sidorova, M V; Mel'nikova, N B; Solov'eva, A G; Peretiagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    We have studied specific features of lipid peroxidation in whole human blood under the action of aqueous solutions of xymedone (19.6 microM), phytic acid (117.9 microM) and its complex (237.6 microM) synthesized in distilled water and isotonic (0.9%) solution of sodium chloride. The estimated parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) rate, total antioxidant potential, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level in blood plasma and erythrocytes. It was established that the effect of phytic acid on blood samples includes moderate stimulation of total antioxidant activity and SOD activity with predominant prooxidant effect. The phytic acid--xymedone complex synthesized in distilled water exhibits an antioxidant action, while its synthesis in saline solution yields a prooxidant.

  2. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the leptocephalus larva of tropical eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, D; Parrish, C C; Grønkjær, P; Munk, P; Nielsen, T Gissel

    2012-06-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan and lipids, is required to fuel migration, metamorphosis and metabolism of the subsequent glass eel stage. Despite the importance of energy storage by leptocephali for survival and recruitment, their diet, condition and lipid content and composition is essentially unknown. To gain further insight into energy storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight(-1), at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had proportions of bacterial markers >4.4 %, consistent with the possibility that they consume appendicularian houses or other marine snow that is bacteria rich.

  3. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  4. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  5. Computer simulation of cytoskeleton-induced blebbing in lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangler, E. J.; Harvey, C. W.; Revalee, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Blebs are balloon-shaped membrane protrusions that form during many physiological processes. Using computer simulation of a particle-based model for self-assembled lipid bilayers coupled to an elastic meshwork, we investigated the phase behavior and kinetics of blebbing. We found that blebs form...

  6. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces ligand-independent Fas activation via lipid raft disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jae-Sung; Choo, Hyo-Jung [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Bong-Rae [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan-Myung [Department of Chemistry, Ajou University, Suwon, Kyunggi-Do 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Nyun [Division of Specific Organs Center, National Cancer Center, Kyunggi-Do 411-769 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: ymham2@hanmail.net [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ygko@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-24

    Lipid rafts are plasma membrane platforms mediating signal transduction pathways for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Here, we show that membrane fluidity was increased in HeLa cells following treatment with ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), as determined by cell staining with carboxy-laurdan (C-laurdan), a two-photon dye designed for measuring membrane hydrophobicity. In the presence of Rh2, caveolin-1 appeared in non-raft fractions after sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. In addition, caveolin-1 and GM1, lipid raft landmarkers, were internalized within cells after exposure to Rh2, indicating that Rh2 might disrupt lipid rafts. Since cholesterol overloading, which fortifies lipid rafts, prevented an increase in Rh2-induced membrane fluidity, caveolin-1 internalization and apoptosis, lipid rafts appear to be essential for Rh2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Rh2-induced Fas oligomerization was abolished following cholesterol overloading, and Rh2-induced apoptosis was inhibited following treatment with siRNA for Fas. This result suggests that Rh2 is a novel lipid raft disruptor leading to Fas oligomerization and apoptosis.

  7. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. PMID:26080028

  8. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs.

  9. Interplay of curvature-induced micro- and nanodomain structures in multicomponent lipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Brodbek, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    We discuss different mechanisms for curvature-induced domain formation in multicomponent lipid membranes and present a theoretical model that allows us to study the interplay between the domains. The model represents the membrane by two coupled monolayers, which each carry an additional order parameter field describing the local lipid composition. The spontaneous curvature of each monolayer is coupled to the local composition, moreover, the lipid compositions on opposing monolayers are coupled to each other. Using this model, we calculate the phase behavior of the bilayer in mean-field approximation. The resulting phase diagrams are surprisingly complex and reveal a variety of phases and phase transitions, including a decorated microdomain phase where nanodomains are aligned along the microdomain boundaries. Our results suggest that external membrane tension can be used to control the lateral organization of nanodomains (which might be associated with lipid "rafts") in a multicomponent lipid bilayer.

  10. Chylomicron components mediate intestinal lipid-induced inhibition of gastric motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzle, Jörg; Kalogeris, Theodore J; Zittel, Tilman T; Guerrini, Stephania; Tso, Patrick; Raybould, Helen E

    2002-01-01

    Lipid, particularly long-chain triglyceride, initiates feedback regulation of gastrointestinal function. To determine whether the site of action of lipid is pre- or postabsorptive, we investigated the ability of mesenteric lipid-fed lymph to inhibit gastric motor function. Lymph was collected from awake lymph-fistula rats during intestinal infusion with either a glucose-saline maintenance solution or lipid. Intra-arterial injection of lymph collected during intestinal lipid infusion significantly inhibited gastric motility in anesthetized recipient rats compared with injection of equivalent amounts of triglyceride or lymph collected during intestinal infusion of maintenance solution. Lymph collected from rats during lipid infusion with Pluronic L-81 [an inhibitor of chylomicron formation and apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV secretion] compared with lymph injection from donor animals treated with Pluronic L-63 (a noninhibitory control for Pluronic L-81) was significantly less potent. Injection of purified recombinant apo A-IV significantly inhibited gastric motility. Products of lipid digestion and absorption, other than fatty acids or triglyceride, released by the intestine during lipid digestion likely serve as signals to initiate intestinal feedback regulation of gastrointestinal function. Most likely, apo A-IV is one of the signals involved.

  11. Impact of citric acid and calcium ions on acid solubilization of mechanically separated turkey meat: effect on lipid and pigment content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynets, Y; Omana, D A; Xu, Y; Betti, M

    2011-02-01

    Increased demand for poultry products has resulted in an increased availability of by-products, such as the neck, back, and frame, that can be processed into mechanically separated poultry meat. The major problems with mechanically separated poultry meat are its high lipid content, color instability, and high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The present work was undertaken to determine the effect of different concentrations of citric acid and calcium ions on protein yield, color characteristics, and lipid removal from protein isolates prepared using an acid-aided extraction process. Six levels of citric acid (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L) and 2 levels of calcium chloride (0 and 8 mmol/L) were examined. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times, resulting in 36 extractions (3 × 6 × 2). The highest (P citric acid. In general, all the combinations removed an average of 90.8% of the total lipids from mechanically separated turkey meat, ranging from 86.2 to 94.7%. The lowest amount (1.14%) of total lipids obtained was for samples treated with 4 mmol/L of citric acid. Maximum removal of neutral lipids (96.5%) and polar lipids (96.4%) was attained with the addition of 6 and 2 mmol/L of citric acid, respectively. Polar lipid content was found to be significantly (P = 0.0045) affected by the presence of calcium chloride. The isolated proteins were less (P citric acid. Addition of calcium chloride had a negative effect on total pigment content. The study revealed that acid extractions with the addition of citric acid resulted in substantial removal of lipids and pigments from mechanically separated turkey meat, improved stability of the recovered proteins against lipid oxidation, and appreciable protein recovery yields.

  12. Gamma-irradiation and UV-C light-induced lipid peroxidation: a Fourier transform-infrared absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, R; Ziegler, C; Wessels, J M

    1997-05-01

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy of dry, multibilayer films has been used to study gamma-radiation and UV-C light induced lipid peroxidation in 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. The observed spectral changes were compared with the results obtained from measurement of hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and to the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) or MDA-like substances. Upon irradiation a decrease in intensity of the asymmetric C - H stretching vibration (va(CH2)) of the isolated cis C = C - H groups (3010 cm-1) was observed. Directly correlated with the decrease of the va(CH2) absorption was a shift of the asymmetric phosphate ester stretching vibration (va(P = O)) towards smaller wavenumbers (1260-->1244 cm-1), indicating that the lipid peroxidation induced molecular alterations in the fatty acid chains influence the packing of the phospholipids in dry multibilayer films. In addition, the formation of a new absorption band at 1693 cm-1 could be detected, the intensity of which was comparable with the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and, therefore, attributed to the (C = O) stretching of alpha, beta unsaturated aldehydes. Dose-dependent studies using ionizing radiation showed that the decrease of va(CH2) was directly correlated with an increase in absorption of the conjugated dienes at 234 nm and with the formation of hydroperoxides suggesting that the absorption at 3010 cm-1 is solely due to isolated cis C = C - H groups and hence subject to the early stages of the radical chain reaction. UV-C light induced lipid peroxidation revealed a non-linear decrease of I3010, which was directly correlated with the formation of hydroperoxides. The observed early saturation of the conjugated dienes was attributed to an early photodecomposition of the conjugated double bonds.

  13. 日本鳗鲡雌鳗卵巢发育期间肌肉脂肪酸的组成及消耗%COMPOSITION AND METABOLIZING OF LIPIDS AND FATTY ACIDS IN MUSCLE OF FEMALE ANGUILLA JAPONICA DURING THE PERIOD OF ARTIFICIAL INDUCING OVARIAN MATURATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳凌; 李荣; 张洁明; 郭峰; 张涛

    2009-01-01

    adopted three methods (I&GD,I&nGD and A&nGD) to treat the females of Japanese eel. After being treated, the biological data of female, which related with their gonadal development, were investigated and the changes of fatty acids in their muscle were measured by gas liquid chromatography. The purpose of this study is try to discuss the lipid consumptions for gonadal development, basal metabolization and migration fuel during spawning migration, as well as the relationship between gonadal development and fatty acids consumption in the period of artificial inducing gonadal maturation, in order to provide referenced foundation for future studies on artificial propagation in Japanese eel. The results indicated that the body weight of females came through a course of gradual downward trend before the 10 injection and rapid rise at the beginning of spawning, which was called hydration, as well as the lipids of muscle tissue were necessary not only for gonadal development, but also for basal metabolization and migration energies in Japanese eels during the spawning migration. In this study, 17 fatty acids were detected in muscle tissues of females, including 7 SFA, 2 MUFA and 8 PUFA. Among them, there were only two kinds of MUFA, but their total levels were higher and reached at 38.02 percent of total lipids. Their consumptions were related with gonadal development and basal metabolization, unrelated to the energy for swimming. Among 8 PUFA, the changes of AA in three treated groups were very special. It was a dynamic course of accumulation and consumption in muscle tissue of Japanese eel during the period of experiment and the accumulation was related with the swimming of females. The more the females swam, the more AA was accumulated in muscle tissues. DHA levels of muscle tissues in Japanese eels were the highest, its change was remarkably different between treated groups and its level in control reached up to (123.91+7.29) mg/g DMW, accounting for 32.52 percent of total

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  15. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  16. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, R.; Kale, R.K. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-11-01

    Rat liver microsomes were irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a dose of 1.31 Gy s{sup -1}. The extent of lipid peroxidation, measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formed, increased with radiation dose. The presence of calmodulin antagonists during irradiation decreased lipid peroxidation. The order of their protective efficiency was: chlorpromazine (CPZ)>promethazine (PMZ)>trimeprazine (TMZ). Their protective effect was diminished in the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and was restored on addition of EDTA. However, calmodulin antagonists considerably inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the presence of ferric (Fe{sup 3+}) ions. Calmodulin antagonists also decreased the cytochrome P-450 content of microsomes. These results are discussed with respect to their applicability to radiotherapy. A possible mechanism for the inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation is suggested. (author).

  17. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao; Skovmand, Astrid; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A-DEP) for 24h to study lipid droplet formation and possible mechanisms. The results show that A-DEP did not induce cytotoxicity. The production of reactive oxygen species was only significantly increased after exposure for 3h, but not 24h. Intracellular level of reduced glutathione was increased after 24h exposure. These results combined indicate an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Exposure to A-DEP was associated with significantly increased formation of lipid droplets, as well as changes in lysosomal function, assessed as reduced LysoTracker staining. In conclusion, these results indicated that exposure to A-DEP may induce formation of lipid droplets in macrophages in vitro possibly via lysosomal dysfunction.

  18. Protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, Ponnian

    2012-11-01

    In the pathology of myocardial infarction, lysosomal lipid peroxidation and resulting enzyme release play an important role. We evaluated the protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with sinapic acid (12 mg/kg body weight) orally daily for 10 days and isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected twice at an interval of 24 h (9th and 10th day). Then, lysosomal lipid peroxidation, lysosomal enzymes in serum, heart homogenate, lysosomal fraction and myocardial infarct size were measured. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats showed a significant increase in serum creatine kinase-MB and lysosomal lipid peroxidation. The activities of β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and D were significantly increased in serum, heart and the activities of β-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were significantly decreased in lysosomal fraction of myocardial infarcted rats. Pre-and-co-treatment with sinapic acid normalized all the biochemical parameters and reduced myocardial infarct size in myocardial infarcted rats. In vitro studies confirmed the free radical scavenging effects of sinapic acid. The possible mechanisms for the observed effects are attributed to sinapic acid's free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing properties. Thus, sinapic acid has protective effects on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.

  19. The Immunosuppressant Mycophenolic Acid Alters Nucleotide and Lipid Metabolism in an Intestinal Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heischmann, Svenja; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The study objective was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on human intestinal cells. Effects of MPA exposure and guanosine supplementation on nucleotide concentrations in LS180 cells were assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteomics analysis was carried out using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture combined with gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and lipidome analysis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite supplementation, depletion of guanosine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 and 72 h; 5, 100, and 250 μM MPA) and upregulation of uridine and cytidine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 h; 5 μM MPA) occurred after exposure to MPA. MPA significantly altered 35 proteins mainly related to nucleotide-dependent processes and lipid metabolism. Cross-reference with previous studies of MPA-associated protein changes widely corroborated these results, but showed differences that may be model- and/or method-dependent. MPA exposure increased intracellular concentrations of fatty acids, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.01 at 72 h; 100 μM MPA) which corresponded to the changes in lipid-metabolizing proteins. MPA affected intracellular nucleotide levels, nucleotide-dependent processes, expression of structural proteins, fatty acid and lipid metabolism in LS180 cells. These changes may compromise intestinal membrane integrity and contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:28327659

  20. Changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition during development in white seabream (Diplodus sargus) eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Juana Rosa; Almansa, Eduardo; Jérez, Salvador; Bolaños, Ana; Felipe, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    To establish the changes which occur during embryogenesis and early larvae development, eggs, yolk-sac larvae (one day old larvae) and absorbed yolk-sac larvae (three day old larvae) of white sea bream were examined for lipid class and fatty acid composition. The development was characterized by a decrease in all lipid classes with the exception of phosphatidylserine (PS) and fatty free acids (FFA) which increased, and sphingomyelin (SM) which remained unchanged. The changes observed in lipid class content and the decrease in fatty acids in total lipid (TL) reflect the utilization and mobilization of lipids during both embryogenesis and early larvae development. Fluctuations in the relative composition of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (PC) during development suggest a selective bulk uptake and catabolism of fatty acids in this lipid class. Unlike PC, catabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) fatty acid appears to be non-selective. During development, the decrease in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA) in total lipid denotes their utilization as energy substrate by Diplodus sargus larvae.

  1. Lipid and citric acid production by wild yeasts grown in glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Karla Silva Teixeira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    In this study, crude glycerol was used as a carbon source in the cultivation of wild yeasts, aiming for the production of microbial lipids and citric acid. Forty yeasts of different sources were tested concerning their growth in crude and commercial glycerol. Four yeasts (Lidnera saturnus UFLA CES-Y677, Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4, Rhodotorula glutinis NCYC 2439, and Cryptococcus curvatus NCYC 476) were then selected owing to their ability to grow in pure (OD600 2.133, 1.633, 2.055, and 2.049, respectively) and crude (OD600 2.354, 1.753, 2.316, and 2.281, respectively) glycerol (10%, 20%, and 30%). Y. lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 was selected for its ability to maintain cell viability in concentrations of 30% of crude glycerol, and high glycerol intake (18.907 g/l). This yeast was submitted to lipid production in 30 g/l of crude glycerol, and therefore obtained 63.4% of microbial lipids. In the fatty acid profile, there was a predominance of stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids in the concentrations of 87.64% and 74.67%, respectively. We also performed optimization of the parameters for the production of citric acid, which yielded a production of 0.19 g/l of citric acid in optimum conditions (38.4 g/l of crude glycerol, agitation of 184 rpm, and temperature of 30°C). Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 presented good lipid production when in the concentration of 30 g/l of glycerol. These data may be used for production in large quantities for the application of industrial biodiesel.

  2. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Fan

    Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC, self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS.

  3. DNA-Tile Structures Induce Ionic Currents through Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfrich, Kerstin; Zettl, Thomas; Meijering, Anna E C; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Kocabey, Samet; Liedl, Tim; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-05-13

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures have been used to create man-made transmembrane channels in lipid bilayers. Here, we present a DNA-tile structure with a nominal subnanometer channel and cholesterol-tags for membrane anchoring. With an outer diameter of 5 nm and a molecular weight of 45 kDa, the dimensions of our synthetic nanostructure are comparable to biological ion channels. Because of its simple design, the structure self-assembles within a minute, making its creation scalable for applications in biology. Ionic current recordings demonstrate that the tile structures enable ion conduction through lipid bilayers and show gating and voltage-switching behavior. By demonstrating the design of DNA-based membrane channels with openings much smaller than that of the archetypical six-helix bundle, our work showcases their versatility inspired by the rich diversity of natural membrane components.

  4. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  5. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  6. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 protects against cytotoxicity induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Sosuke; Kono, Nozomu; Ariyama, Hiroyuki; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    The degree of fatty acid unsaturation in membrane phospholipids affects many membrane-associated functions and can be influenced by dietary consumption of fatty acids such as saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Cells must adapt to changes in composition of membrane fatty acids by regulating lipid-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we investigated how cells respond to loading with excess PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. A lipidomics analysis revealed that dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was increased after the production of PUFA-containing phospholipids in cells loaded with PUFAs. An RNA interference screen of lipid-metabolizing enzymes revealed that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) was involved in the DPPC production. Moreover, LPCAT1 knockdown markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by excess PUFAs. PUFA-induced cytotoxicity was dependent on caspase and unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor proteins inositol requiring 1α and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, suggesting that excess PUFAs trigger UPR-mediated apoptosis. In murine retina, in which PUFAs are highly enriched, DPPC was produced along with increase of PUFA-containing phospholipids. In LPCAT1 knockout mice, DPPC level was reduced and UPR was activated in the retina. Our results provide insight into understanding of the retinal degeneration seen in rd11 mice that lack LPCAT1.-Akagi, S., Kono, N., Ariyama, H., Shindou, H., Shimizu, T., Arai, H. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 protects against cytotoxicity induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Lipids rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sánchez, N F; Valadez-Blanco, R; Hernández-Carlos, B; Torres-Ariño, A; Guadarrama-Mendoza, P C; Salas-Coronado, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite microalgae recently receiving enormous attention as a potential source of biodiesel, their use is still not feasible as an alternative to fossil fuels. Recently, interest in microalgae has focused on the production of bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which provide microalgae a high added value. Several considerations need to be assessed for optimizing PUFA production from microalgae. Firstly, a microalgae species that produces high PUFA concentrations should be selected, such as Nannochloropsis gaditana, Isochrysis galbana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Crypthecodinium cohnii, with marine species gaining more attention than do freshwater species. Closed cultivation processes, e.g., photobioreactors, are the most appropriate since temperature, pH, and nutrients can be controlled. An airlift column with LEDs or optical fibers to distribute photons into the culture media can be used at small scale to produce inoculum, while tubular and flat panels are used at commercial scale. Depending on the microalgae, a temperature range from 15 to 28 °C and a pH from 7 to 8 can be employed. Relevant conditions for PUFA production are medium light irradiances (50-300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), air enriched with (0-1 % (v/v) CO2, as well as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation. For research purposes, the most appropriate medium for PUFA production is Bold's Basal, whereas mixotrophic cultivation using sucrose or glucose as the carbon source has been reported for industrial processes. For cell harvesting, the use of tangential flow membrane filtration or disk stack centrifugation is advisable at commercial scale. Current researches on PUFA extraction have focused on the use of organic solvents assisted with ultrasound or microwaves, supercritical fluids, and electroporation or are enzyme assisted. Commercial-scale extraction involves mainly physical methods such as bead mills and expeller presses. All these factors should be taken into

  8. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  9. Enhanced GLUT4-Dependent Glucose Transport Relieves Nutrient Stress in Obese Mice Through Changes in Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Jami M; Ilkayeva, Olga; Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; White, Phillip; Matsuzaki, Satochi; Qaisar, Rizwan; Van Remmen, Holly; Humphries, Kenneth M; Newgard, Christopher B; Olson, Ann Louise

    2016-12-01

    Impaired GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake is a contributing factor in the development of whole-body insulin resistance in obese patients and obese animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that transgenic mice engineered to express the human GLUT4 gene under the control of the human GLUT4 promoter (i.e., transgenic [TG] mice) are resistant to obesity-induced insulin resistance. A likely mechanism underlying increased insulin sensitivity is increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the broader metabolic consequences of enhanced glucose uptake into muscle. We observed that the expression of several nuclear and mitochondrially encoded mitochondrial enzymes was decreased in TG mice but that mitochondrial number, size, and fatty acid respiration rates were unchanged. Interestingly, both pyruvate and glutamate respiration rates were decreased in TG mice. Metabolomics analyses of skeletal muscle samples revealed that increased GLUT4 transgene expression was associated with decreased levels of some tricarboxylic acid intermediates and amino acids, whereas the levels of several glucogenic amino acids were elevated. Furthermore, fasting acyl carnitines in obese TG mice were decreased, indicating that increased GLUT4-dependent glucose flux decreases nutrient stress by altering lipid and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  10. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SIX STRAINS OF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light intensity (1500 lx and 5000 lx) on the total lipid and fatty acid composition of six strains of marine diatoms Cylindrotheca fusiformis (B211), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (B114, B118 and B221) Nitzschia closterium (B222) and Chaetoceros gracilis (B13) was investigated. The total lipids of B13, B114, and B211 grown at 5000 lx were lower than those grown at 1500 lx. No evident changes were observed in B118, B221 and B222. Fatty acid composition changed considerably at different light intensity although no consistent correlation between the relative proportion of a single FA and light intensity. The major fatty acids of the 6 strains were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1(n-7) and 20:5(n-3). Cylindrotheca fusiformis had high percentage of 20:4n-6 (9.2-10.9%). The total polyunsaturated fatty acid in all 6 strains decreased with increasing light intensity. The percentage of the highly unsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased with increasing light intensity in all strains except Chaetoceros gracilis.

  11. Differential lipid and fatty acid profiles of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic Chlorella zofingiensis: assessment of algal oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Junchao; Sun, Zheng; Zhong, Yujuan; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and compare the lipid class and fatty acid composition of the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis cultivated under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, a 900% increase in lipid yield was achieved in heterotrophic cells fed with 30 g L(-1) of glucose. Furthermore heterotrophic cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids (NL) that accounted for 79.5% of total lipids with 88.7% being triacylglycerol (TAG); whereas photoautotrophic cells contained mainly the membrane lipids glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL). Together with the much higher content of oleic acid (C18:1) (35.2% of total fatty acids), oils from heterotrophic C. zofingiensis appear to be more feasible for biodiesel production. Our study highlights the possibility of using heterotrophic algae for producing high quality biodiesel.

  12. Characterization of Lipids and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Contents in Leaves and Roots of Crocus vallicola

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLI, Nurettin; KIRAN, Zerrin; SEYMEN, Hasan; GENÇ, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and other lipids in leaves and roots of Crocusvallicola were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). In this work, twenty-eight compounds, including 22 FAMEs, 1 aldehyde, 3 hydrocarbons (substitute alkane and alkene), 2 alcohols in the leaves and twenty-one compounds (17 FAMEs, 1 anhydride, 1 substitute alcohol, 1 ketone, 1 substitute amide) in the roots were identified by GC-MS from C. vallicola. Th...

  13. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  14. Effects of Diet High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    postprandial tipidLipoprotein metabolism . Funded by the Almond Boar’d of vitamin E supplement use, body mass index, exercise , and intakes of California...High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism , Phase 2 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesse David Curb, M.D., MPH CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION... response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  15. Blood and milk lipid responses induced by growth hormone administration in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitman, J; Wood, D L; Tyrrell, H F; Bauman, D E; Peel, C J; Brown, A C; Reynolds, P J

    1984-12-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows (average 5.8 yr, 63 to 132 days postpartum) were in a 28-day single reversal experiment in the Beltsville open circuit respiration chambers with two 14-day injection periods (placebo versus bovine growth hormone, 51.5 IU/day). With growth hormone treatment, milk fat percentage increased 25 to 29%, milk fat yield increased 41%, and cows averaged -13.7 Mcal/day energy balance. There were small increases of triglycerides and 1,2-diglycerides, core lipids, and small decreases of cholesterol and phospholipids, the membrane lipids. Fat from growth hormone treatment had 6% less short (6:0, 8:0, 10:0) and medium (12:0, 14:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:0) chain fatty acids and 6% more long chain 18:1 fatty acids. Plasma of cows treated with growth hormone had an increase of concentrations of free fatty acids, but no shifts were apparent among other lipid classes. Analysis of total plasma fatty acids did not show any net changes, but within individual plasma lipid classes, 18:1 increased and 18:2 decreased. Overall changes of blood and milk lipids are consistent with the concept that adipose tissue reserves were mobilized in response to hormone treatment and that these mobilized lipids were the major carbon source for the 41% increase of milk fat secretion. Increases of de novo synthesis of short and medium chain fatty acids also occurred but much less. Cows treated with growth hormone were in negative energy balance, and the mechanism may differ when cows are in positive energy balance.

  16. Cold fluorescent light as major inducer of lipid oxidation in soybean oil stored at household conditions for eight weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Gartner, Stephanie; Dumhart, Bettina; Stoll, Christiane; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-12

    Light, temperature, and oxygen availability has been shown to promote rancidity in vegetable oils. However, the contribution of each of these environmental factors to lipid oxidation in oil stored under household conditions is not known. We aimed to identify the major inducer of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil stored at constant (67.0 mL) or increasing (67.0-283 mL) headspace volume, 22 or 32 °C, with or without illumination by cold fluorescent light for 56 days by means of fatty acid composition, peroxide value, formation of conjugated dienes, lipid radicals, hexanal, and the decrease in the contents of tocopherols. Soybean oil stored in the dark for 56 days showed an increase of the peroxide value by 124 ± 0.62% (p = 0.006), whereas exposure of the oil to light in a cycle of 12 h light alternating with 12 h darkness for 56 days led to a rise of the peroxide value by 1473 ± 1.79% (p ≤ 0.001). Little effects on the oxidative status of the oil were observed after elevating the temperature from 22 to 32 °C and the headspace volume from 67.0 to 283 mL during 56 days of storage. We conclude that storing soybean oil in transparent bottles under household conditions might pose an increased risk for accelerated lipid oxidation induced by exposure to cold fluorescent light.

  17. Simultaneous increases in specific growth rate and specific lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris through UV-induced reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in algae-based bio-oil production is to simultaneously enhance specific growth rates and specific lipid content. We have demonstrated simultaneous increases in both the above in Chlorella vulgaris through reactive species (RS) induced under ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB light treatments. We postulated that the changes in photosystem (PS) stoichiometry and antenna size were responsible for the increases in specific growth rate. UVB treatment excited PSII, which resulted in a twofold to sevenfold increase in PSII/PSI ratio compared to control. An excited PSII caused a 2.7-fold increase in the specific levels of superoxide and a twofold increase in the specific levels of hydroxyl radicals. We have established that the increased specific intracellular RS (si-RS) levels increased the PSII antenna size by a significant 10-fold as compared to control. In addition, the 8.2-fold increase in specific lipid content was directly related to the si-RS levels. We have also demonstrated that the RS induced under UVA treatment led to a 3.2-fold increase in the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio. Based on the findings, we have proposed and demonstrated a UV-based strategy, which achieved an 8.8-fold increase in volumetric lipid productivity.

  18. Inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation by a novel pyridoindole antioxidant in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefek, M; Masarykova, M; Benes, L

    1992-06-01

    The ability of stobadine, a novel pyridoindole antioxidant, to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was investigated in rat liver microsomes. In the micromolar range stobadine effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation as measured by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products. The peroxidation-related degradation of microsomal cytochrome P-450 was prevented by stobadine in the same pattern. Another line of evidence in support of the antioxidant action of stobadine was given by its inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced oxygen consumption in microsomal incubations. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was not a function of decreased bioactivation of cumene hydroperoxide, as stobadine did not affect the rate of cytochrome P-450 dependent cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide. Neither had stobadine any effect on cytochrome P-450 peroxidase function characterized by the rate of cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of TMPD, and no direct spectral interaction with microsomal cytochrome P-450 was observed in the micromolar region. We suggest that it is the ability of stobadine to scavenge alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals that is predominantly responsible for the observed antioxidant effect.

  19. Transient hepatic overexpression of Insulin-like growth factor 2 induces free cholesterol and lipid droplet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M Kessler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 has been reported to be overexpressed in steatosis and steatohepatitis, a causal role of IGF2 in steatosis development remains elusive. Aim of our study was to decipher the role of IGF2 in steatosis development.Hydrodynamic gene delivery of the Igf2 plasmid used for transient IGF2 overexpression employing codon-optimized plasmid DNA resulted in a strong induction of hepatic Igf2 expression. The exogenously delivered Igf2 had no influence on endogenous Igf2 expression. The downstream kinase AKT was activated in IGF2 animals. Decreased ALT levels mirrored the cytoprotective effect of IGF2. Serum cholesterol was increased and sulfo-phospho-vanillin colorimetric assay confirmed lipid accumulation in IGF2-livers without signs of inflammation. Interestingly, hepatic cholesterol and phospholipids, determined by thin layer chromatography and free cholesterol by filipin staining, were specifically increased. Lipid droplet (LD size was not changed, but their number was significantly elevated. Furthermore, free cholesterol, which can be stored in LDs and has been reported to be critical for steatosis progression, was elevated in IGF2 overexpressing mice. Accordingly, HmgCoAR was upregulated. To have a closer look at de novo lipid synthesis we investigated expression of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP1 and its target genes. SREBP1 was induced and also SREBP1 target genes were slightly upregulated. Interestingly, the expression of Cpt1a, which is responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, was induced. Hepatic Igf2 expression induces a fatty liver, characterized by increased cholesterol and phospholipids leading to accumulation of LDs. We therefore suggest a causal role for IGF2 in hepatic lipid accumulation.

  20. The histone deacetylase inhibiting drug Entinostat induces lipid accumulation in differentiated HepaRG cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Abigail D. G.; Scopigno, Tullio; Pediconi, Natalia; Levrero, Massimo; Hagman, Henning; Kiskis, Juris; Enejder, Annika

    2016-06-01

    Dietary overload of toxic, free metabolic intermediates leads to disrupted insulin signalling and fatty liver disease. However, it was recently reported that this pathway might not be universal: depletion of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhances insulin sensitivity alongside hepatic lipid accumulation in mice, but the mechanistic role of microscopic lipid structure in this effect remains unclear. Here we study the effect of Entinostat, a synthetic HDAC inhibitor undergoing clinical trials, on hepatic lipid metabolism in the paradigmatic HepaRG liver cell line. Specifically, we statistically quantify lipid droplet morphology at single cell level utilizing label-free microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, supported by gene expression. We observe Entinostat efficiently rerouting carbohydrates and free-fatty acids into lipid droplets, upregulating lipid coat protein gene Plin4, and relocating droplets nearer to the nucleus. Our results demonstrate the power of Entinostat to promote lipid synthesis and storage, allowing reduced systemic sugar levels and sequestration of toxic metabolites within protected protein-coated droplets, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Tributyltin (TBT) induces oxidative stress and modifies lipid profile in the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Gajewska, Ewa; Szewczyk, Rafał; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the response of the tributyltin-degrading fungal strain Cunninghamella elegans to the organotin, a comparative lipidomics strategy was employed using an LC/MS-MS technique. A total of 49 lipid species were identified. Individual phospholipids were then quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring method. Tributyltin (TBT) caused a decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. In the presence of TBT, it was observed that overall unsaturation was lower than in the control. Lipidome data were analyzed using principal component analysis, which confirmed the compositional changes in membrane lipids in response to TBT. Additionally, treatment of fungal biomass with butyltin led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that modification of the phospholipids profile and lipids peroxidation may reflect damage to mycelium caused by TBT.

  2. Modulation of antioxidant status, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by melatonin on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini Sankaran*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Melatonin, “synchronizer of the biological clock” is major hormones secreted from the pineal gland have various therapeutic effects. The present study was designed to explore the modulatory effect of melatonin on antioxidant status, glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin (STZ (40 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 30 days. Body weight, blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzyme, lipid profile, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation status were assessed. The level of the blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lipid peroxidative marker (TBARS were increased in STZ induced diabetic rats while the melatonin treatment revert back to the near normal condition. In contrast, administered melatonin resulted in an increased in body weight and insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPX and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E were also increased by melatonin treatment. The cholesterol and phospholipids which were elevated in diabetic rats were normalized by the melatonin administration. Hence these findings indicate that melatonin protects against STZ induced oxidative stress and thus explain its use in treatment of diabetes by modulating lipid and glucose metabolism.

  3. S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide induces physical and morphological changes in membrane-mimetic lipid systems and cell membranes: implications for cell internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana M S; Trabulo, Sara; Cardoso, Ana L; Lorents, Annely; Morais, Catarina M; Gomes, Paula; Nunes, Cláudia; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Padari, Kärt; Pooga, Margus; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2012-03-01

    The present work aims to gain insights into the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cellular internalization and endosomal escape of the S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide, which has been successfully used in our laboratory as a nucleic acid delivery system. A S4(13)-PV analogue, S4(13)-PVscr, displaying a scrambled amino acid sequence, deficient cell internalization and drug delivery inability, was used in this study for comparative purposes. Differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence polarization and X-ray diffraction at small and wide angles techniques showed that both peptides interacted with anionic membranes composed of phosphatidylglycerol or a mixture of this lipid with phosphatidylethanolamine, increasing the lipid order, shifting the phase transition to higher temperatures and raising the correlation length between the bilayers. However, S4(13)-PVscr, in contrast to the wild-type peptide, did not promote lipid domain segregation and induced the formation of an inverted hexagonal lipid phase instead of a cubic phase in the lipid systems assayed. Electron microscopy showed that, as opposed to S4(13)-PVscr, the wild-type peptide induced the formation of a non-lamellar organization in membranes of HeLa cells. We concluded that lateral phase separation and destabilization of membrane lamellar structure without compromising membrane integrity are on the basis of the lipid-driven and receptor-independent mechanism of cell entry of S4(13)-PV peptide. Overall, our results can contribute to a better understanding of the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cell-penetrating peptide membrane translocation, helping in the future design of more efficient cell-penetrating peptide-based drug delivery systems.

  4. Effects of Wounding and Exogenous Jasmonic Acid on the Peroxidation of Membrane Lipid in Pea Seedlings Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-yan; LIU Yan-yan; HUANG Wei-dong

    2005-01-01

    The changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and O2-content, or the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT), ascrobate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) under wounding and treatment of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) were investigated.The results showed that the activities of both phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were significantly increased by wounding and application of JA. The metabolism of reaction oxidative species (ROS) was APX and POD were also increased. Treatment of JA of 1 or 10 μmol L-1 could effectively induce plant defense response,and thus decrease the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. However, high concentration of JA (100 μmol L-1) resulted in unbalance of metabolism of ROS and promoted the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. We thus suggested that JA, under the suitable concentration, could induce defense response of pea seedlings to wounding.

  5. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  6. Lipid-associated sialic acid levels in human breast cyst fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannello, F; Bocchiotti, G; Troccoli, R; Gazzanelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion. Women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal female population. Sialic acid has drawn considerable interest because of carbohydrate aberrations in malignant cells. The current investigation determined the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA) in 62 breast cyst fluids and sera. Data analyses show a significant increase in the mean values of LASA in metabolically active apocrine cysts when compared to the cysts with Na+/K+ > 3 (flattened cysts) (p breast cancer.

  7. Association between the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood lipids in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, SI-PING; Chen, Yan-Hong; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood is closely associated with the status of the health of individuals; in particular, the lack of ω-3 fatty acids may lead to the development of numerous diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of PUFAs, and their correlation with triglycerides and other factors in blood. The levels of PUFAs and blood lipids were detected in 156 healthy individuals; the blood samples were tested by combined thin-layer and gas liquid...

  8. Cell survival during complete nutrient deprivation depends on lipid droplet-fueled β-oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabodevilla, Ainara G; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Nintou, Eleni; Boiadjieva, Violeta G; Picatoste, Fernando; Gubern, Albert; Claro, Enrique

    2013-09-27

    Cells exposed to stress of different origins synthesize triacylglycerols and generate lipid droplets (LD), but the physiological relevance of this response is uncertain. Using complete nutrient deprivation of cells in culture as a simple model of stress, we have addressed whether LD biogenesis has a protective role in cells committed to die. Complete nutrient deprivation induced the biogenesis of LD in human LN18 glioblastoma and HeLa cells and also in CHO and rat primary astrocytes. In all cell types, death was associated with LD depletion and was accelerated by blocking LD biogenesis after pharmacological inhibition of Group IVA phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) or down-regulation of ceramide kinase. Nutrient deprivation also induced β-oxidation of fatty acids that was sensitive to cPLA2α inhibition, and cell survival in these conditions became strictly dependent on fatty acid catabolism. These results show that, during nutrient deprivation, cell viability is sustained by β-oxidation of fatty acids that requires biogenesis and mobilization of LD.

  9. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10......,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within...

  10. Defects in muscle branched-chain amino acid oxidation contribute to impaired lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerin, Carles; Goldfine, Allison B; Boes, Tanner;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. METHODS: To identify pathways related t...... catabolism may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by perturbing both amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and suggest that targeting BCAA metabolism may hold promise for prevention or treatment of T2D....... methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (Mut) and assessed the effects of altered BCAA flux on lipid and glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate perturbed BCAA metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in muscle from insulin resistant humans. Experimental alterations in BCAA flux in cultured cells similarly modulate...... fatty acid oxidation. Mut heterozygosity in mice alters muscle lipid metabolism in vivo, resulting in increased muscle triglyceride accumulation, increased plasma glucose, hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight after high-fat feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that impaired muscle BCAA...

  11. Relationship between hepatic fatty acid desaturation and lipid secretion in the estrogenized chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, D; Catheline, D; Legrand, P

    1996-11-01

    Desaturation of fatty acids is thought to facilitate their incorporation into glyceride and their subsequent secretion as lipoproteins. However, in the laying hen, the dramatic increase in hepatic lipogenesis is often paralleled by a liver steatosis that may affect egg production and even result in death. The balance between lipid secretion and storage, in relation to the fatty acid desaturation process, was therefore investigated in young male estrogenized chicken. Estrogen stimulation resulted in a dramatic increase in VLDL concentration (40.4 mg/ml versus 0.158 mg/ml in control) and hepatic lipid content (8.61 g/liver versus 1.47 g/liver in control). In estrogenized chickens, VLDL, total liver, and microsomes contained relatively more monounsaturated and less saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas hepatic delta 9 desaturase activity was twofold higher. Moreover, in these birds, the proportion of monoenoic fatty acids was greater in VLDL (55%) than in the liver (50%), which was indicative of their preferential secretion. Therefore, under the influence of estrogen, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation are associated with and increased VLDL secretion, which limits the degree of hepatic accumulation of triglyceride and the risk of subsequent steatosis.

  12. Aminoguanidine inhibits reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and oxidant-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, I; Fard, A K; Hatchell, D L; Brownlee, M

    1998-07-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) treatment, like nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment, prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal Müller cells in the rat eye, but the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, the effects of preincubation with AG on oxidant-induced apoptosis, oxidant-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation were determined in rat retinal Müller cells and compared with the effects of NGF, a protein that protects neuronal cells from oxidative stress. The effect of AG on rabbit vitreous lipid peroxide levels was also determined. After exposure to increasing concentrations of H2O2, there was a corresponding increase in the percentage of apoptotic Müller cells. Preincubation with AG for 48 h completely inhibited oxidant-induced apoptosis in response to 10 micromol/l H2O2 (+AG 0 vs. 10 micromol/l, NS), and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells in response to 50 micromol/l H2O2 by 50% (+AG vs. -AG, P NGF. Both AG and NGF preincubation prevented the twofold increase in oxidant-induced lipid peroxides. The fivefold increase in oxidant-induced ROS production was decreased 100% by NGF, but only 61% by AG preincubation. The twofold increase in vitreous lipid peroxide level in diabetic rabbits was completely prevented by AG treatment. AG reduced H2O2-induced benzoate hydroxylation in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular glutathione content was unchanged. These data demonstrate that AG can act as an antioxidant in vivo, quenching hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxidation in cells and tissues and preventing oxidant-induced apoptosis.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reciprocally modifies ketogenesis and lipid secretion by the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakono, M; Miyanaga, F; Kawahara, S; Yamauchi, K; Fukuda, N; Watanabe, K; Iwata, T; Sugano, M

    1999-09-01

    The effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on ketone body production and lipid secretion were compared in isolated perfused rat liver. After feeding the 1% CLA diet for 2 wk, the concentration of post-perfused liver cholesterol was significantly reduced by CLA feeding, whereas that of triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Livers from CLA-fed rats produced significantly more ketone bodies; and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, an index of mitochondrial redox potential, tended to be consistently higher in the liver perfusate. Conversely, cumulative secretions of triacylglycerol and cholesterol were consistently lower in the livers of rats fed CLA, and the reduction in the latter was statistically significant. Thus dietary CLA appeared to exert its hypolipidemic effect at least in part through an enhanced beta-oxidation of fatty acids at the expense of esterification of fatty acid in the liver.

  15. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposom...

  16. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different......PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  17. Short term exposure to perluoroalkyl acids causes increase of hepatic lipid and triglyceride in conjunction with liver hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to extensive use of industrial and consumer products. These chemicals activate peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in liver and after lipid metabolism. The current stu...

  18. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maryani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosis. This was a cross sectional study that conducted at Gastroentero-Hepatology Clinic andInternal Ward at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were patients withliver cirrhosis > 18 years old, male, with Child-Pugh classification B and C, and provided informedconsent. The exclusion criteria were liver cirrhotic patients with comorbidity chronic kidney disease,chronic heart failure, diabetic, cancer, infection/septic, pregnancy, breast feeding, and steroid use.Data collecting was performed by anamnesis, physical examination, abdominal ultrasonographyexamination, and blood chemistry test. Pearson test was used to evaluate the correlation betweenthe serum leptin level with the lipid profile and free fatty acid. The results showed that no significantnegative correlation was observed between the serum leptin level with the total cholesterol (r= -0.052; p=0.766, high-density lipoprotein/HDL (r= -0.078; p=0.658 and triglyceride (r= -0.170; p=0.328 in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, no significant positive correlationwas observed between the serum leptin levels with the low-density lipoprotein/LDL (r= -0.013; p=0.942 and free fatty acid/FFA (r= 0.007; p=0.968. In conclusion, there was no correlationbetween serum leptin levels with lipid profile and FFA in male patients with liver cirrhosis.

  19. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Lindsay

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil dietary supplements contain saturated fats and oxidized lipids that may interfere with their intended biological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Sherratt, Samuel C R

    2017-01-29

    Widely available fish oil dietary supplements (DS) may contain fats and oxidized lipids in addition to the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) for which they are purchased. Little is known about the potential biological effects of these oxidized lipids. The objective of this study was to assess the fatty acid content, oxidation products, and biological effects of leading fish oil DS available in the United States. Three top-selling fish oil DS in the US were included in this analysis. Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. Lipid oxidation (primary and secondary products) was measured by spectroscopy in both DS and a prescription OM3FA product. OM3FAs were also isolated and concentrated from DS and were tested for the ability to inhibit copper-induced oxidation of human small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL) in vitro. Fish oil DS were found to contain more than 30 different fatty acids, including 10 to 14 different saturated species comprising up to 36% of the total fatty acid content. Levels of OM3FAs also varied widely among DS (33%-79%). Primary (peroxide), secondary (anisidine), and total oxidation products exceeded maximum levels established by international standards of quality in the DS but not the prescription OM3FA product. Oxidation of sdLDL was inhibited by >95% (P saturated fat and oxidized OM3FAs found in common DS may interfere with their intended/potential biological benefits.

  2. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooiveld Guido JEJ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  3. Saturating Light Induces Sustained Accumulation of Oil in Plastidal Lipid Droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Cuiné, Stéphan; Légeret, Bertrand; Liang, Yuanxue; Brugière, Sabine; Auroy, Pascaline; Javot, Hélène; Tardif, Marianne; Jones, Brian; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    Enriching algal biomass in energy density is an important goal in algal biotechnology. Nitrogen (N) starvation is considered the most potent trigger of oil accumulation in microalgae and has been thoroughly investigated. However, N starvation causes the slow down and eventually the arrest of biomass growth. In this study, we show that exposing a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culture to saturating light (SL) under a nonlimiting CO2 concentration in turbidostatic photobioreactors induces a sustained accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) without compromising growth, which results in much higher oil productivity than N starvation. We also show that the polar membrane lipid fraction of SL-induced LDs is rich in plastidial lipids (approximately 70%), in contrast to N starvation-induced LDs, which contain approximately 60% lipids of endoplasmic reticulum origin. Proteomic analysis of LDs isolated from SL-exposed cells identified more than 200 proteins, including known proteins of lipid metabolism, as well as 74 proteins uniquely present in SL-induced LDs. LDs induced by SL and N depletion thus differ in protein and lipid contents. Taken together, lipidomic and proteomic data thus show that a large part of the sustained oil accumulation occurring under SL is likely due to the formation of plastidial LDs. We discuss our data in relation to the different metabolic routes used by microalgae to accumulate oil reserves depending on cultivation conditions. Finally, we propose a model in which oil accumulation is governed by an imbalance between photosynthesis and growth, which can be achieved by impairing growth or by boosting photosynthetic carbon fixation, with the latter resulting in higher oil productivity.

  4. 3D-Membrane Stacks on Supported Membranes Composed of Diatom Lipids Induced by Long-Chain Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräb, Oliver; Abacilar, Maryna; Daus, Fabian; Geyer, Armin; Steinem, Claudia

    2016-10-04

    Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) are intimately involved in the biomineralization process of diatoms taking place in silica deposition vesicles being acidic compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Here, we addressed the question whether and how LCPAs interact with lipid membranes composed of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids mimicking the membranes of diatoms and higher plants. Solid supported lipid bilayers and monolayers containing the three major components that are unique in diatoms and higher plants, i.e., monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), were prepared by spreading small unilamellar vesicles. The integrity of the membranes was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy showing continuous flat bilayers and monolayers with small protrusions on top of the membrane. The addition of a synthetic polyamine composed of 13 amine groups separated by a propyl spacer (C3N13) results in flat but three-dimensional membrane stacks within minutes. The membrane stacks are connected with the underlying membrane as verified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Membrane stack formation was found to be independent of the lipid composition; i.e., neither glyceroglycolipids nor negatively charged lipids were required. However, the formation process was strongly dependent on the chain length of the polyamine. Whereas short polyamines such as the naturally occurring spermidine, spermine, and the synthetic polyamines C3N4 and C3N5 do not induce stack formation, those containing seven and more amine groups (C3N7, C3N13, and C3N18) do form membrane stacks. The observed stack formation might have implications for the stability and expansion of the silica deposition vesicle during valve and girdle band formation in diatoms.

  5. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration c...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity.......Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...

  6. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm.

  7. Monthly Changes of Glycogen, Lipid and Free Amino Acid of Oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhicui; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin; LI Zhaojie; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed.The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA).The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100 g)- 1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100 g)- 1 on average).The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g) -1 on average).The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid(16:0),oleic acid(18:1),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,20:5w-3) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA,22:6w-3).The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine,Glutamicacid,Glycin,Alanine, Arginine and Proline.Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg(100 g)- 1 to 1139 mg(100 g) -1.The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  8. Fatty acid rich effluent from acidogenic biohydrogen reactor as substrate for lipid accumulation in heterotrophic microalgae with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Prathima Devi, M

    2012-11-01

    Acid-rich effluent generated from acidogenic biohydrogen production process was evaluated as substrate for lipid synthesis by integrating with heterotrophic cultivation of mixed microalgae. Experiments were performed both with synthetic volatile fatty acids (SVFA) and fermented fatty acids (FFA) from biohydrogen producing reactor. Fatty acid based platform evidenced significant influence on algal growth as well as lipid accumulation by the formation of triglycerides through fatty acid synthesis. Comparatively FFA documented higher biomass and lipid productivity (1.42mg/ml (wet weight); 26.4%) than SVFAs ((HAc+HBu+HPr), 0.60mg/ml; 23.1%). Lipid profiles varied with substrates and depicted 18 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with wide fuel and food characteristics. The observed higher concentrations of Chl b over Chl a supports the biosynthesis of triacylglycerides. Microalgae diversity visualized the presence of lipid accumulating species viz., Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration of microalgae cultivation with biohydrogen production showed lipid productivity for biodiesel production along with additional treatment.

  9. Roles of Fatty Acid Oversupply and Impaired Oxidation in Lipid Accumulation in Tissues of Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Oakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA metabolism in obese (Obese and lean (Lean Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-3H]-(R-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP and [U-14C]-palmitate (14C-P FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (Ra was estimated from plasma 14C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (Rox was assessed using 3H2O production from 3H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and Ra, associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, Rox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply.

  10. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  11. EFFECTS OF HARVEST STAGE ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF FOUR CYLINDROTHECA STRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁英; 麦康森; 孙世春

    2002-01-01

    Four strains of Cylindrotheca (B156, B164, B196, and B200) wereharvested at three phases in the growth curve and their total lipid and fatty acid composition were determined. Total lipid reached highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (24.0%), B164 (26.6%) and B200 (17.3%), in the exponential phase in B196 (15.5%). Saturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B156 and B196, and reached their highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (41.7%) and B196 (45.1%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (45.4%) and B200 (37.6%). Monounsaturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B196 and B200, and reached their highest values inthe late stationary phase in B196 (32.4%) and B200 (32.8%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (31.0%) and in the exponential phase in B156 (29.3%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in the later phases of the culture in B164, B196 and B200, and peaked in the exponential phase in B164 (29.5%), B196 (42.9%) and B200 (37.3%), and in the early stationary phase in B156 (32.0%). ``

  12. Solid lipid nanoparticles as nucleic acid delivery system: properties and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Marcelo B; Zuhorn, Inge S

    2015-03-10

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed in the 1990s as appropriate drug delivery systems, and ever since they have been applied in a wide variety of cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In addition, SLNs are considered suitable alternatives as carriers in gene delivery. Although important advances have been made in this particular field, fundamental knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of SLN-mediated gene delivery is conspicuously lacking, an imperative requirement in efforts aimed at further improving their efficiency. Here, we address recent advances in the use of SLNs as platform for delivery of nucleic acids as therapeutic agents. In addition, we will discuss available technology for conveniently producing SLNs. In particular, we will focus on underlying molecular mechanisms by which SLNs and nucleic acids assemble into complexes and how the nucleic acid cargo may be released intracellularly. In discussing underlying mechanisms, we will, when appropriate, refer to analogous studies carried out with systems based on cationic lipids and polymers, that have proven useful in the assessment of structure-function relationships. Finally, we will give suggestions for improving SLN-based gene delivery systems, by pointing to alternative methods for SLNplex assembly, focusing on the realization of a sustained nucleic acid release.

  13. Study on Mechanism of Soy Protein Oxidation Induced by Lipid Peroxidation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative modification of soy protein by lipid peroxidation products, which was potentially present in a lipoxygenase-catalyzed polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation system, was investigated in this study. 13S-Hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E-Octadecadienoic acid (HPODE, malondialdehyde and acrolein were selected as representative primary product and secondary byproducts of lipid peroxidation and 2, 2’-azobis-(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH -derived peroxyl radical peroxyl radicals were chosen to simulate lipid peroxidation-derived free radical. Incubation of soy protein with increasing concentration of AAPH, HPODE, malondialdehyde and acrolein resulted in gradual generation of protein carbonyl derivatives, loss of free sulphydryl groups, total sulphydryl groups, free amine, available lysine, surface hydrophobicity and formation of oxidation aggregates. The average distribution model of protein accessible groups could explain majority mechanism of lipid peroxidation products-mediated soy protein oxidation. Primary oxidation aggregates further developed into insoluble aggregates by covalent cross-linking also may provide a partial mechanism of lipid peroxidation products-mediated soy protein oxidation.

  14. Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates angiotensin II-induced lipid raft clustering in mesenteric endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-Qing; Chen, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that intracellular Ca2+ is involved in lysosome fusion and membrane repair in skeletal cells. Given that angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and that lysosome fusion is a crucial mediator of lipid raft (LR) clustering, we hypothesized that Ang II induces lysosome fusion and activates LR formation in rat mesenteric endothelial cells (MECs). We found that Ang II acutely increased intracellular Ca2+ content, an effect that was inhibited by the extracellular Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca2+ release inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Further study showed that EGTA almost completely blocked Ang II-induced lysosome fusion, the translocation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) to LR clusters, ASMase activation and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activation. In contrast, 2-APB had a slight inhibitory effect. Functionally, both the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and the ASMase inhibitor amitriptyline reversed Ang II-induced impairment of vasodilation. We conclude that Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates the Ang II-induced regulation of the LR-redox signaling pathway and mesenteric endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.

    1993-01-01

    by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation......Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic...... or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects...

  16. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  17. Lipid and fatty acid content in wild white seabream (Diplodus sargus) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, C; Cejas, J R; Martín, M V; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A

    2007-02-01

    The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates in gonads and muscle from November to March. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also increased during this period. Male gonads showed a greater increase in polar lipid (PL) than neutral (NL), while female gonads displayed the reverse. The increase in both neutral and polar lipid was higher in the muscle of males than in females. In the same period, male livers showed no changes either in lipid content or the hepatosomatic index (HSI), while female livers registered an increase in both lipid content and HSI. Between March and June, in both males and females, total, neutral and polar lipid decreased sharply in the gonads and muscle. Muscular lipid content reduction was more pronounced in males than females. On the other hand, the lipid content of the liver in males and females remained relatively constant. In general terms, the amounts of major fatty acids (16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in gonadal and muscular polar and neutral lipid in both males and females increased from November to March and declined thereafter. Variations of the liver fatty acid content were less extreme. In the period from mid-spawning to post-spawning, the presence of 20:4n-6 in polar and neutral lipid increased to a notable extent in all organs studied.

  18. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  19. Effect of Copper on Fatty-Acid Composition and Peroxidation of Lipids in the Roots of Copper Tolerant and Sensitive Silene-Cucubalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, C.H.R.; TenBookum, W.M.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H.; De Kok, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of high copper exposure in vivo on the lipid and fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation was studied in the roots of plants from one copper sensitive and two copper tolerant genotypes of Silene cucubalus. At 0.5 muM Cu (control treatment) the compositions of lipids and fatty acids i

  20. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  1. Role of lipids and fatty acids in macrosomic offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic pregnancy frequently results in macrosomia or fetal obesity. It seems that the anomalies in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in macrosomic infants of diabetic mothers are due to maternal hyperglycemia, which leads to fetal hyperinsulinemia. We have developed a rat model of macrosomic offspring and assessed the onset of obesity in these animals. The macrosomic offspring born to diabetic mothers are prone to the development of glucose intolerance and obesity as a function of age. It seems that in utero programming during diabetic pregnancy creates a "metabolic memory" which is responsible for the development of obesity in macrosomic offspring. We have demonstrated that the metabolism of lipids, and altered anti-oxidant status and immune system are implicated in the etiopathology of obesity in these animals. We have reported beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in obese animals, born to diabetic dams.

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulation of muscle lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega 3 fatty acids exerts potent anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic effects. We previously reported that mice fed high fat diets supplemented with EPA (HF-EPA) were resistant to diet-induced obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we further investigate b...

  3. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  4. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces postprandial lipid oxidation in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenfeld, A.L.; Budziarek, P.; Boschmann, M.; Moro, C.; Adams, F.; Franke, G.; Berlan, M.; Marques, M.A.; Sweep, F.C.; Luft, F.C.; Lafontan, M.; Jordan, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates arterial blood pressure. In addition, ANP has recently been shown to promote human adipose tissue lipolysis through cGMP-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase activation. We hypothesized that ANP increases postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) availabil

  5. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  6. TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF EIGHT STRAINS OF MARINE DIATOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms (Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa,Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14:0 (1.0%-6.3%), 16:0 (13.5%-26.4%), 16:1n-7 (21.1%-46.3%) and 20:5n-3 (6.5%-19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16:2n-4, 16:3n-4, 16:4n-1 and 20:4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

  7. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  8. The hydroperoxide moiety of aliphatic lipid hydroperoxides is not affected by hypochlorous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschaler, Josefin; Arnhold, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxide by plant and animal lipoxygenases is an important step for the generation of bioactive lipid mediators. Thereby fatty acid hydroperoxide represent a common intermediate, also in human innate immune cells, like neutrophil granulocytes. In these cells a further key component is the heme protein myeloperoxidase producing HOCl as a reactive oxidant. On the basis of different investigation a reaction of the fatty acid hydroperoxide and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) could be assumed. Here, chromatographic and spectrometric analysis revealed that the hydroperoxide moiety of 15S-​hydroperoxy-​5Z,​8Z,​11Z,​13E-​eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HpETE) and 13S-​hydroperoxy-​9Z,​11E-​octadecadienoic acid (13-HpODE) is not affected by HOCl. No reduction of the hydroperoxide group due to a reaction with HOCl could be measured. It could be demonstrated that the double bonds of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are the major target of HOCl, present either as reagent or formed by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system.

  9. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K. Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their environmental niche. The membrane lipids of these species were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/IT/MS and high resolution accurate mass/mass spectrometry (HRAM/MS. Abundant unknown intact polar lipids (IPLs from P. saltans were isolated and further characterized using amino acid analysis and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Ornithine IPLs (OLs with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were observed in both bacterial species. Lysine-containing IPLs (LLs were also detected in both species and were characterized here for the first time using HPLC-MS. Novel LLs containing hydroxy fatty acids and novel hydroxylysine lipids with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were identified in P. saltans. The confirmation of OL and LL formation in F. johnsoniae and P. saltans and the presence of OlsF putative homologues in P. saltans suggest the OlsF gene coding protein is possibly involved in OL and LL biosynthesis in both species, however, potential pathways of OL and LL hydroxylation in P. saltans are still undetermined. Triplicate cultures of P. saltans were grown at three temperature/pH combinations: 30°C/pH 7, 15°C/pH 7 and 15°C/pH 9. The fractional abundance of total amino acid containing IPLs containing hydroxylated fatty acids was significantly higher at higher temperature, and the fractional abundance of lysine-containing IPLs was significantly higher at lower temperature and higher pH. These results suggest that these amino acid-containing IPLs, including the novel hydroxylysine lipids, could be involved in temperature and p

  10. Breeding of high biomass and lipid producing Desmodesmus sp. by Ethylmethane sulfonate-induced mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; He, Meilin; Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Yan, Yongquan; Zheng, Shiyan; Rajper, Aftab Ahmed; Wang, Changhai

    2016-05-01

    To improve the biomass yield and lipid productivity, two desert microalgae, Desmodesmus sp. S81 and G41 were induced mutagenesis by Ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), and obtained two potential mutants, Desmodesmus sp. S5 and G3 from the mutagenic clones for their greatly promoted biomass and lipid production. The results showed that the biomass yield, lipid content and lipid productivity of the mutant strains S5 and G3 were 778.10mg·L(-1), 48.41% and 19.83mg·L(-1)·d(-1), 739.52mg·L(-1), 46.01%, and 17.92mg·L(-1)·d(-1), respectively, which presented the increment of 45.50%, 8.00% and 74.24%, 20.67%, 10.35% and 55.77% than those of S81 and G41. Comparing with the wild strains, the mutants showed reduced PUFAs and glycol lipids, elevated MUFAs and neutral lipids contents, which were appropriate for biodiesel production.

  11. Thermally-induced aggregation and fusion of protein-free lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Maitane; Bomans, Paul H H; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Frederik, Peter M; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-12-01

    Membrane fusion is an important phenomenon in cell biology and pathology. This phenomenon can be modeled using vesicles of defined size and lipid composition. Up to now fusion models typically required the use of chemical (polyethyleneglycol, cations) or enzymatic catalysts (phospholipases). We present here a model of lipid vesicle fusion induced by heat. Large unilamellar vesicles consisting of a phospholipid (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine), cholesterol and diacylglycerol in a 43:57:3 mol ratio were employed. In this simple system, fusion was the result of thermal fluctuations, above 60 °C. A similar system containing phospholipid and cholesterol but no diacylglycerol was observed to aggregate at and above 60 °C, in the absence of fusion. Vesicle fusion occurred under our experimental conditions only when (31)P NMR and cryo-transmission electron microscopy of the lipid mixtures used in vesicle preparation showed non-lamellar lipid phase formation (hexagonal and cubic). Non-lamellar structures are probably the result of lipid reassembly of the products of individual fusion events, or of fusion intermediates. A temperature-triggered mechanism of lipid reassembly might have occurred at various stages of protocellular evolution.

  12. Roles played by acidic lipids in HIV-1 Gag membrane binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olety, Balaji; Ono, Akira

    2014-11-26

    The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids.

  13. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  14. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  15. Influence of abscisic acid on growth, biomass and lipid yield of Scenedesmus quadricauda under nitrogen starved condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-08-01

    Scenedesmus quadricauda, accumulated more lipid but with a drastic reduction in biomass yield during nitrogen starvation. Abscisic acid (ABA) being a stress responsible hormone, its effect on growth and biomass with sustainable lipid yield during nitrogen depletion was studied. The result revealed that the ABA level shoots up at 24h (27.21pmol/L) during the onset of nitrogen starvation followed by a sharp decline. The external supplemented ABA showed a positive effect on growth pattern (38×10(6)cells/ml) at a lower concentration. The dry biomass yield is also increasing up to 2.1 fold compared to nitrogen deficient S. quadricauda. The lipid content sustains in 1 and 2μM concentration of ABA under nitrogen-deficient condition. The fatty acid composition of ABA treated S. quadricauda cultures with respect to nitrogen-starved cells showed 11.17% increment in saturated fatty acid content, the desired lipid composition for biofuel application.

  16. Lipid membrane-mediated attraction between curvature inducing objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; Vahid, Afshin; Šarić, Anđela; Idema, Timon; Heinrich, Doris; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2016-09-01

    The interplay of membrane proteins is vital for many biological processes, such as cellular transport, cell division, and signal transduction between nerve cells. Theoretical considerations have led to the idea that the membrane itself mediates protein self-organization in these processes through minimization of membrane curvature energy. Here, we present a combined experimental and numerical study in which we quantify these interactions directly for the first time. In our experimental model system we control the deformation of a lipid membrane by adhering colloidal particles. Using confocal microscopy, we establish that these membrane deformations cause an attractive interaction force leading to reversible binding. The attraction extends over 2.5 times the particle diameter and has a strength of three times the thermal energy (‑3.3 kBT). Coarse-grained Monte-Carlo simulations of the system are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and prove that the measured interaction is independent of length scale. Our combined experimental and numerical results reveal membrane curvature as a common physical origin for interactions between any membrane-deforming objects, from nanometre-sized proteins to micrometre-sized particles.

  17. Distinct lipid a moieties contribute to pathogen-induced site-specific vascular inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Slocum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several successful pathogens have evolved mechanisms to evade host defense, resulting in the establishment of persistent and chronic infections. One such pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, induces chronic low-grade inflammation associated with local inflammatory bone loss and systemic inflammation manifested as atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis expresses an atypical lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure containing heterogeneous lipid A species, that exhibit Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 agonist or antagonist activity, or are non-activating at TLR4. In this study, we utilized a series of P. gingivalis lipid A mutants to demonstrate that antagonistic lipid A structures enable the pathogen to evade TLR4-mediated bactericidal activity in macrophages resulting in systemic inflammation. Production of antagonistic lipid A was associated with the induction of low levels of TLR4-dependent proinflammatory mediators, failed activation of the inflammasome and increased bacterial survival in macrophages. Oral infection of ApoE(-/- mice with the P. gingivalis strain expressing antagonistic lipid A resulted in vascular inflammation, macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis progression. In contrast, a P. gingivalis strain producing exclusively agonistic lipid A augmented levels of proinflammatory mediators and activated the inflammasome in a caspase-11-dependent manner, resulting in host cell lysis and decreased bacterial survival. ApoE(-/- mice infected with this strain exhibited diminished vascular inflammation, macrophage accumulation, and atherosclerosis progression. Notably, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce local inflammatory bone loss was independent of lipid A expression, indicative of distinct mechanisms for induction of local versus systemic inflammation by this pathogen. Collectively, our results point to a pivotal role for activation of the non-canonical inflammasome in P. gingivalis infection and demonstrate that P. gingivalis evades immune

  18. Distinct lipid a moieties contribute to pathogen-induced site-specific vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Connie; Coats, Stephen R; Hua, Ning; Kramer, Carolyn; Papadopoulos, George; Weinberg, Ellen O; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Darveau, Richard P; Genco, Caroline A

    2014-07-01

    Several successful pathogens have evolved mechanisms to evade host defense, resulting in the establishment of persistent and chronic infections. One such pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, induces chronic low-grade inflammation associated with local inflammatory bone loss and systemic inflammation manifested as atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis expresses an atypical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure containing heterogeneous lipid A species, that exhibit Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) agonist or antagonist activity, or are non-activating at TLR4. In this study, we utilized a series of P. gingivalis lipid A mutants to demonstrate that antagonistic lipid A structures enable the pathogen to evade TLR4-mediated bactericidal activity in macrophages resulting in systemic inflammation. Production of antagonistic lipid A was associated with the induction of low levels of TLR4-dependent proinflammatory mediators, failed activation of the inflammasome and increased bacterial survival in macrophages. Oral infection of ApoE(-/-) mice with the P. gingivalis strain expressing antagonistic lipid A resulted in vascular inflammation, macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis progression. In contrast, a P. gingivalis strain producing exclusively agonistic lipid A augmented levels of proinflammatory mediators and activated the inflammasome in a caspase-11-dependent manner, resulting in host cell lysis and decreased bacterial survival. ApoE(-/-) mice infected with this strain exhibited diminished vascular inflammation, macrophage accumulation, and atherosclerosis progression. Notably, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce local inflammatory bone loss was independent of lipid A expression, indicative of distinct mechanisms for induction of local versus systemic inflammation by this pathogen. Collectively, our results point to a pivotal role for activation of the non-canonical inflammasome in P. gingivalis infection and demonstrate that P. gingivalis evades immune detection at TLR4

  19. Effect Of Gossypol, Apogossypol And Gossypolone On Fatty Acids Pattern Of Lipid Fractions In Rat Serum And Seminal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    El sharaky, A. S. [احمد صبحي الشراكي; Sewedy, S. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; El-Shahawy, I. N.

    1994-01-01

    he fatty acids pattern of the total lipid fractions of male rat serum and seminal fluids were studied under the effect of gossypol and some of its metabolites (Apogossypol and gossypolone). The applied dose of gossypol and its derivatives exhibits some metabolic effects such as significant decrease of the saturated fatty acids and a significant increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the serum, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) in sterylester fraction was significantly increased under the eff...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan/ellagic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid hemostatic composite sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺庆; 敖强; 王臻; 刘伟强; 龚锴; 公衍道; 张秀芳

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have indicated that the hemostatic effect of chitosan is limited when dealing with severe injuries. Therefore, the procoagulant activity of chitosan-based hemostatic agents needs to be enhanced. OBJECTIVE: To prepare a novel chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge and to evaluate its procoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.METHODS: Chitosan sponge and chitosan acetate sponge were prepared by freeze-drying method. Then chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge was prepared by electrostatic adsorption method. Procoagulant activity of the chitosan, chitosan acetate, and chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid sponges was evaluated by the plasma recalcification time method. Hemostatic effect of these sponges was evaluated in the Sprague Dawley rat liver bleeding model, and the cytotoxicity to L929 cel line was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The plasma recalcification time, bleeding time and blood loss of the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge group were significantly lower than those of the chitosan sponge and chitosan acetate sponge groups (P < 0.01). Cel culture experiment showed that the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge did not have cytotoxicity. The results indicate that the chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge has the enhanced procoagulant activity and non-cytotoxicity.%  背景:部分文献报道壳聚糖对严重创伤的止血效果有限,因此以壳聚糖为基础止血剂的促凝血活性还有待进一步增强。目的:制备一种新型的壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵,评价其促凝血活性和细胞毒性。方法:通过冻干法制备壳聚糖海绵和壳聚糖乙酸盐海绵,然后再通过静电吸附法制备壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵。血浆复钙时间法观察3种海绵的促凝血活性,并检测3

  1. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were

  2. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the influ...

  3. Salicylic Acid Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Randjelovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  4. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  5. Curcumin Mitigates the Intracellular Lipid Deposit Induced by Antipsychotics In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Canfrán-Duque

    Full Text Available First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively, both inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and impair the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, leading to lipid accumulation in the late endosome/lysosome compartment. In this study we examined if curcumin, a plant polyphenol that stimulates exosome release, can alleviate antipsychotic-induced intracellular lipid accumulation.HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were treated with antipsychotics or placebo and DiI-labelled LDL for 18 h and then exposed to curcumin for the last 2 h. Cells and media were collected separately and used for biochemical analyses, electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Exosomes were isolated from the incubation medium by ultracentrifugation.Curcumin treatment reduced the number of heterolysosomes and shifted their subcellular localization to the periphery, as revealed by electron microscopy, and stimulated the release of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase and exosome markers flotillin-2 and CD63 into the media. The presence of DiI in exosomes released by cells preloaded with DiI-LDL demonstrated the endolysosomal origin of the microvesicles. Furthermore, curcumin increased the secretion of cholesterol as well as LDL-derived DiI and [3H]-cholesterol, in association with a decrease of intracellular lipids. Thus, the disruption of lipid trafficking induced by FGAs or SGAs can be relieved by curcumin treatment. This polyphenol, however, did not mitigate the reduction of cholesterol esterification induced by antipsychotics.Curcumin stimulates exosome release to remove cholesterol (and presumably other lipids accumulated within the endolysosomal compartment, thereby normalizing intracellular lipid homeostasis. This action may help minimize the adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic treatment, which should now be evaluated in clinical trials.

  6. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the Leptocephalus larva of tropical eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deibel, D.; Parrish, C.C.; Grønkjær, P.;

    2012-01-01

    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan...... storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight-1......:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had...

  7. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (Psubcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (Psubcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.

  8. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  9. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  10. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation and Hepatic Enzymes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoljalal Marjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of subacute exposure of peracetic acid on lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes in Wistar rats.Methods: 48 male animals in Treatment Group I, II and III received 0.2%, 2% and 20% peracetic acid daily for 2 and 4 weeks.Results: Serum malondialdehyde increased and Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase decreased significantly in groups 2 and 3, compared to the control group. The malondialdehyde, Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase with 0.2% and 2% doses of peracetic acid for 2 weeks do not lead to the alteration of malondialdehyde and enzyme activities.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the enhancement of malondialdehyde could provide an oxidative damage induced by disinfectant peroxidation at 20% and 2% doses at 2 and 4 weeks. The consumption of peroxidation with 20% for 2 weeks and 2% for 4 weeks can cause the increase of malondialdehyde and the decrease of enzyme activities, respectively.

  11. Lipid mixtures containing a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids only modestly impair insulin signaling in cultured muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Everett, Allison C; Park, Sanghee; Van Pelt, Douglas W; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    In vitro examinations of the effect of saturated fatty acids on skeletal muscle insulin action often use only one or two different fatty acid species, which does not resemble the human plasma fatty acid profile. We compared graded concentrations (0.1-0.8 mM) of 3 different lipid mixtures: 1) a physiologic fatty acid mixture (NORM; 40% saturated fatty acids), 2) a physiologic mixture high in saturated fatty acids (HSFA; 60% saturated fatty acids), and 3) 100% palmitate (PALM) on insulin signaling and fatty acid partitioning into triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in cultured muscle cells. As expected, PALM readily impaired insulin-stimulated pAktThr308/Akt and markedly increased intracellular DAG content. In contrast, the fatty acid mixtures only modestly impaired insulin-stimulated pAktThr308M/Akt, and we found no differences between NORM and HSFA. Importantly, NORM and HSFA did not increase DAG content, but instead dose-dependently increased TAG accumulation. Therefore, the robust impairment in insulin signaling found with palmitate exposure was attenuated with physiologic mixtures of fatty acids, even with a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids. This may be explained in part by selective partitioning of fatty acids into neutral lipid (i.e., TAG) when muscle cells were exposed to physiologic lipid mixtures.

  12. Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.

  13. Choline and betaine ameliorate liver lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Fujishita, Mayuko; Ota, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels. These treatments restored the disruptions in Met metabolism and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio induced by B6 deficiency in liver microsomes. These results suggest that choline and betaine ameliorated liver lipid accumulation induced by B6 deficiency via recovery of Met metabolism and very low-density lipoprotein secretion by restoring the supply of PC derived from PE.

  14. Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung Kwon; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-09-09

    Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.

  15. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  16. Bile Acid-Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In nucleated cells, bile acids may activate cation channels subsequently leading to entry of Ca2+. In erythrocytes, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity triggers eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Eryptosis is triggered by bile duct ligation, an effect partially attributed to conjugated bilirubin. The present study explored, whether bile acids may stimulate eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes have been identified utilizing annexin V binding, cell volume estimated from forward scatter, cytosolic Ca2+ activity determined using Fluo-3 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface utilizing specific antibodies. Results: The exposure of human erythrocytes to glycochenodesoxycholic (GCDC and taurochenodesoxycholic (TCDC acid was followed by a significant decrease of forward scatter and significant increase of Fluo-3 fluorescence, ceramide abundance as well as annexin V binding. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusion: Bile acids stimulate suicidal cell death, an effect paralleled by and in part due to Ca2+ entry and ceramide. The bile acid induced eryptosis may in turn lead to accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes and, thus, may contribute to anemia in cholestatic patients.

  17. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baeza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  18. Myocardial Lipid Profiling During Time Course of High Fat Diet and its Relationship to the Expression of Fatty Acid Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Harasim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that increased fatty acids (FA supply causes lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Whether the same mechanism is present in the heart is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the content of specific myocardial lipid fractions during feeding rats a high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks. Moreover, the relation between changes in myocardial lipid content, whole body insulin resistance and the expression of fatty acid transporters in each week of HFD was established. Methods: Gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the content of lipid fractions in the left ventricle. Expression of selected proteins was estimated by Western blot technique. All measurements were made after each week of HFD. Results: As expected, lipid profile in myocardium was altered by HFD in different weeks of the study with the most intense changes in triacylglycerols, long chain fatty acid-CoA and ceramide. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of plasmalemmal (the 4th and the 5th week and mitochondrial expression (from the 3rd to the 5th week of fatty acid translocase. Conclusion: High fat diet affects myocardial lipid profile in each week of its duration and causes alternations in FA metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  19. Modulation of tissue fatty acids by L-carnitine attenuates metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C; Waanders, Jennifer; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and dyslipidaemia are metabolic defects resulting from impaired lipid metabolism. These impairments are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Correcting the defects in lipid metabolism may attenuate obesity and dyslipidaemia, and reduce cardiovascular risk and liver damage. L-Carnitine supplementation was used in this study to enhance fatty acid oxidation so as to ameliorate diet-induced disturbances in lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) were fed with either corn starch or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diets for 16 weeks. Separate groups were supplemented with L-carnitine (1.2% in food) on either diet for the last 8 weeks of the protocol. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. L-Carnitine supplementation attenuated these high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced changes, together with modifications in lipid metabolism including the inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, reduced storage of short-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in the tissues with decreased linoleic acid content and trans fatty acids stored in retroperitoneal fat. Thus, L-carnitine supplementation attenuated the signs of metabolic syndrome through inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 activity, preferential β-oxidation of some fatty acids and increased storage of saturated fatty acids and relatively inert oleic acid in the tissues.

  20. Ether- and ester-bound iso-diabolic acid and other lipids in members of Acidobacteria subdivision 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycer

  1. Melatonin and pinoline prevent aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Plano, Sergio; García, Joaquin J; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; Reiter, Russel J; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Santiago; Lázaro, Rosa Maria; Escanero, Jesos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The serum concentrations of aluminum, a metal potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, increase with age. Also, intense and prolonged exposure to aluminum may result in dementia. Melatonin and pinoline are two well known antioxidants that efficiently reduce lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the effects of melatonin and pinoline in preventing aluminum promotion of lipid peroxidation when the metal was combined with FeCl3 and ascorbic acid in rat synaptosomal membranes. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HDA) concentrations in the membrane suspension. Under the experimental conditions used herein, the addition of aluminum (0.0001 to 1 mmol/L) enhanced MDA + 4-HDA formation in the synaptosomes. Melatonin and pinoline reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, lipid peroxidation due to aluminum, FeCl3 and ascorbic acid in the synaptosomal membranes. These results suggest that the indoleamine melatonin and the beta-carboline pinoline may potentially act as neuroprotectant agents in the therapy of those diseases with elevated aluminum concentrations in the tissues.

  2. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  3. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lindberg

    Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

  4. Cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector C is reduced by caloric restriction and regulates adipocyte lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Björn; Gummesson, Anders; Glad, Camilla A M; Goedecke, Julia H; Jernås, Margareta; Lystig, Theodore C; Carlsson, Björn; Fagerberg, Björn; Carlsson, Lena M S; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2008-09-01

    Members of the cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) gene family have been shown to regulate lipid metabolism. In this article, we report that the third member of the human CIDE family, CIDEC, is down-regulated in response to a reduced caloric intake. The down-regulation was demonstrated by microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue in 2 independent studies on obese patients undergoing treatment with a very low calorie diet. By analysis of CIDEC expression in 65 human tissues, we conclude that human CIDEC is predominantly expressed in subcutaneous adipocytes. Together, these observations led us to investigate the effect of decreased CIDEC expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CIDEC resulted in an increased basal release of nonesterified fatty acids, decreased responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis, and increased oxidation of endogenous fatty acids. Thus, we suggest that CIDEC is a regulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism and may be important for the adipocyte to adapt to changes in energy availability.

  5. Comparison of fatty acid composition in total lipid of diapause and non-diapause larvae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABBAS KHANI; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHSEN BARZEGAR; HOSSEIN NADERI-MANESH

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid extracted from the whole body of Cydia pomonella L. larvae were determined by gas chromatography. The six most abundant fatty acids in both non-diapause and diapause larvae of codling moth were oleic (35%-39%), palmitic (23%-33%), linoleic (16%-30%), palmitoleic (5%-10%),stearic (1.5%-3.0%) and linolenic acids (1.0%-2.5%). This represents a typical complement of Lepidopteran fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of total lipid of C. pomonella larvae was related to diapause. In similarity to most other reports, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased in diapause initiation state. The total lipid of diapause larvae contained more linoleic acid (25.8% vs. 16.1%) and less palmitic acid (24.7% vs. 33.4%),than that ofnon-diapause larvae. The weight percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2) increased from 16% to 26% from early-August through early-September during transition to diapause,while palmitic acid (C16:0) decreased from 33% to 25% at the same time. These changes resulted in an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) from 1.72 in non-diapause larvae to 2.63 in diapause larvae.

  6. Genotype-induced changes in biophysical properties of frontal cortex lipid raft from APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario L Diaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts have been demonstrated both in human brain and transgenic mouse models, and it has been postulated that aberrant lipid composition in lipid rafts is partly responsible for neuronal degeneration. In order to assess the impact of lipid changes on lipid raft functional properties, we have aimed at determining relevant physicochemical modifications in lipid rafts purified from frontal cortex of wild type (WT and APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. By means of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy analyses using two lipid soluble fluorescent probes, TMA-DPH (1-[(4-trimethyl-aminophenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, we demonstrate that cortical lipid rafts from WT and APP/PS1 animals exhibit different biophysical behaviours, depending on genotype but also on age. Thus, aged APP/PS1 animals exhibited slightly more liquid-ordered lipid rafts than WT counterparts. Membrane microviscosity napp analyses demonstrate that WT lipid rafts are more fluid than APP/PS1 animals of similar age, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the membrane. napp in APP/PS1 animals was higher for DPH than for TMA-DPH under similar experimental conditions, indicating that the internal core of the membrane is more viscous than the raft membrane at the aqueous interface. The most dramatic changes in biophysical properties of lipid rafts were observed when membrane cholesterol was depleted with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Overall, our results indicate that APP/PS1 genotype strongly affects physicochemical properties of lipid raft. Such alterations appear not to be homogeneous across the raft membrane axis, but rather are more prominent at the membrane plane. These changes correlate with aberrant proportions of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, measured in lipid rafts from frontal cortex in this familial model of

  7. EFFECT OF HIGH—LIPID DIET ON GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL MATRIX IN ADRIAMYCIN—INDUCED NEPHROTIC RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红梅; 李学旺; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of hypercholesterolemia induced by a high-lipid diet on glomerulosclerosis.Methods:Twenty nephrotic syndrome (NS) Wistar rats administrated adriamycin(ADR) with a single intravenous dose of 5mg/kg body weight,were divided into the standard and high-lipid chow groups.Another 20 weight-matched non-NS rats that received a vehicle alone were grouped as control.Urinary protein excretion and serum cholesterol were assayed;image analysis and techniques of pathology,immunohistochemistry,and molecular biology were used to determine morphological changes in glomeruli and the production of glomerular mesangial matrices in different groups.Results:The total cholesterol level was significantly higher in rats with high-lipid chow in both non-NS[(2.2±0.3)g/L vs.(0.9±0.1)g/L,P<0.01] and NS[(9.5±0.2)g/L vs.(2.3±0.3)g/L,p<0.01].The urinary protein excretion was significantly higher in the high-lipid diet rats than in standard chow rats[(76.2±24.2)mg/24h vs.(44.8±13.6)mg/24h,P<0.05]in NS rats.Although increases in the mesangial matrix and mesangial cells were observed in rats with high-lipid diet in both NS and non-NS group,more obvious pathological changes were found in NS group,such as lipid deposits and foam cell formation in mesangial areas,and progressing to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in someglomeruli.Theimmunohistochemical assay showed that the production of 3 major components (collagen IV,fibronectin,and laminin)was increased in NS group,especially in the rats with high-lipid chow.The increased expression of laminin mRNA was also detected with slot blotting in bloth NS and non-NS rats with high-lipid chow,and it was more obvious in the rats with NS.Conclusion:Our findings indicated that diet-induced hyperlipidemia can lead to over-production of mesangial matrix components,and further aggravate glomerulosclerosis in ADR-induced nephrosis.

  8. EFFECT OF HIGH-LIPID DIET ON GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL MATRIX IN ADRIAMYCIN-INDUCED NEPHROTIC RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红梅; 李学旺; 魏珉; 朱传酉

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of hypercholesterolemia induced by a high-lipid diet on glomerulosclerosis. Methods. Twenty nephrotic syndrome (NS) Wistar rats administrated adriamycin (ADR) with a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, were divided into the standard and high-lipid chow groups. Another 20 weight-matched non-NS rats that received a vehicle alone were grouped as control. Urinary protein excretion and serum cholesterol were assayed; image analysis and techniques of pathology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology were used to determine morphological changes in glomeruli and the production of glomerular mesangial matrices in different groups. Results. The serum total cholesterol level was significantly higher in rats with high-lipid chow in both non-NS [(2.2 ± 0.3) g/L vs. (0.9 ± 0.1) g/L, P<0.01] and NS [(9.5± 0.2) g/L vs. (2.3 ± 0.3) g/L, P<0.01]. The urinary protein excretion was significantly higher in the high-lipid diet rats than in standard chow rats[(76.2± 24.2) mg/24 h vs. (44.8 ± 13.6) mg/24 h, P<0.05] in NS rats. Although increases in the mesangial matrix and mesangial cells were observed in rats with high-lipid diet in both NS and non-NS group, more obvious pathological changes were found in NS group, such as lipid deposits and foam cell formation in mesangial areas, and progressing to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in some glomeruli. The immunohistochemical assay showed that the production of 3 major components (collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin) was increased in NS group, especially in the rats with high-lipid chow. The increased expression of laminin mRNA was also detected with slot blotting in both NS and non-NS rats with high-lipid chow, and it was more obvious in the rats with NS. Conclusion. Our findings indicated that diet-induced hyperlipidemia can lead to over-production of mesangial matrix components, and further aggravate glomerulosclerosis in ADR-induced nephrosis.

  9. Engineering of lipid prodrug-based, hyaluronic acid-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers platform for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin combination gastric cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu CY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Ying Qu,1,* Min Zhou,1,* Ying-wei Chen,2 Mei-mei Chen,3 Feng Shen,1 Lei-Ming Xu11Digestive Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Digestive Department, Xinhua Hospital, School of medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The first-line chemotherapy treatment protocol for gastric cancer is combination chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and cisplatin (CDDP. The aim of this study was to engineer prodrug-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC platform for codelivery of 5-FU and CDDP to enhance therapy and decrease toxicity.Methods: First, 5-FU-stearic acid lipid conjugate was synthesized by two steps. Second, 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP were loaded in NLC. Finally, hyaluronic acid (HA was coated onto NLC surface. Average size, zeta potential, and drug loading capacity of NLC were evaluated. Human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 (BGC823 cells was used for the testing of in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vivo antitumor activity of NLC was evaluated in mice bearing BGC823 cells model.Results: HA-coated 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP-loaded NLC (HA-FU/C-NLC showed a synergistic effect in combination therapy and displayed the greatest antitumor activity than all of the free drugs or uncoated NLC in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion: This work reveals that HA-coated NLC could be used as a novel carrier to codeliver 5-FU and CDDP for gastric cancer therapy. HA-FU/C-NLC could be a promising targeted and combinational therapy in nanomedicine.Keywords: gastric cancer, nanostructured lipid carriers, hyaluronic acid, combination chemotherapy, lipid prodrug

  10. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Marjorie; Poirier, Hélène; Traynard, Véronique; Gaire, Kévin; Tran, Thi Thu Trang; Sundaresan, Sinju; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A.; Niot, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD). By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP) and blood clearance (ApoC2). These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG), while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the reported

  11. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Buttet

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD. By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP and blood clearance (ApoC2. These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG, while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the

  12. Dietary methimazole-induced hypothyroidism reduces hepatic lipid deposition by down-regulating lipogenesis and up-regulating lipolysis in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Shi, Xi; Wu, Kun; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Song, Yu-Feng; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hypothyroidism, induced by administration of 0.2% methimazole through the food, on lipid metabolism in the liver of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. To this end, yellow catfish were fed diets containing either 0 or 2g methimazole per kg of diet for 8weeks, respectively. The results showed that fish fed diet containing methimazole had a significant reduction in growth performance, plasma THs levels and hepatic lipid content. Meanwhile, methimazole treatment inhibited the activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase) and the mRNA levels of genes involved in lipogenesis (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 and liver X receptor), but increased lipolytic enzyme (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) activity and the expression of genes involved in lipolysis (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α). Thus, our study indicated that dietary methimazole-induced hypothyroidism could disturb the normal processes of lipid metabolism at the enzymatic and molecular levels in yellow catfish, and the reduced hepatic lipid content by hypothyroidism was attributable to the down-regulation of lipogenesis and up-regulation of lipolysis.

  13. Effects of Lagenaria sicessaria fruit juice on lipid profile and glycoprotein contents in cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice (LSFJ) in isoproterenol (ISO)induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, in both serum and heart tissue. An increase in the levels of phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and decrease in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum and phospholipid levels in the heart were observed. ISO intoxicated rats also showed a significant decrease in the activities of lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase, whereas lipoprotein lipase was found to be increased. Administration of LSFJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days and challenged with ISO on day 29th and 30th significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of serum and heart lipids along with lipid metabolizing enzymes. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the protective effect of LSFJ during ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

  14. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha is essential for maximal and efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John J; Boudina, Sihem; Banke, Natasha Hausler; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Han, Xianlin; Young, Deanna M; Leone, Teresa C; Gross, Richard W; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Abel, E Dale; Kelly, Daniel P

    2008-07-01

    High-capacity mitochondrial ATP production is essential for normal function of the adult heart, and evidence is emerging that mitochondrial derangements occur in common myocardial diseases. Previous overexpression studies have shown that the inducible transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is capable of activating postnatal cardiac myocyte mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice deficient in PGC-1alpha (PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice), which survive with modestly blunted postnatal cardiac growth. To determine if PGC-1alpha is essential for normal cardiac energy metabolic capacity, mitochondrial function experiments were performed on saponin-permeabilized myocardial fibers from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice. These experiments demonstrated reduced maximal (state 3) palmitoyl-l-carnitine respiration and increased maximal (state 3) pyruvate respiration in PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice compared with PGC-1alpha(+/+) controls. ATP synthesis rates obtained during maximal (state 3) respiration in permeabilized myocardial fibers were reduced for PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice, whereas ATP produced per oxygen consumed (ATP/O), a measure of metabolic efficiency, was decreased by 58% for PGC-1alpha(-/-) fibers. Ex vivo isolated working heart experiments demonstrated that PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited lower cardiac power, reduced palmitate oxidation, and increased reliance on glucose oxidation, with the latter likely a compensatory response. (13)C NMR revealed that hearts from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited a limited capacity to recruit triglyceride as a source for lipid oxidation during beta-adrenergic challenge. Consistent with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative enzyme gene expression, the total triglyceride content was greater in hearts of PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice relative to PGC-1alpha(+/+) following a fast. Overall, these results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is essential for the maintenance of maximal, efficient cardiac

  15. Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

    1966-01-01

    The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

  16. Mechanisms of lipid malabsorption in Cystic Fibrosis: the impact of essential fatty acids deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretti N

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transport mechanisms, whereby alimentary lipids are digested and packaged into small emulsion particles that enter intestinal cells to be translocated to the plasma in the form of chylomicrons, are impaired in cystic fibrosis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on defects that are related to intraluminal and intracellular events in this life-limiting genetic disorder. Specific evidence is presented to highlight the relationship between fat malabsorption and essential fatty acid deficiency commonly found in patients with cystic fibrosis that are often related to the genotype. Given the interdependency of pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency and nutritional status, greater attention should be paid to the optimal correction of fat malabsorption and essential fatty acid deficiency in order to improve the quality of life and extend the life span of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  17. Effect of Consumption of Coleus tuberosus on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Nugraheni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coleus tuberosus is a minor vegetable belonging to the Lamiaceae family. C. tuberosus and processed products have been evaluated on resistant starch content and effect of consumption of C. tuberosus and processed products on the lipid profile has been studied in rats with diabetes mellitus. Resistant starch was analyzed using the megazyme method. Analysis of lipid profile was performed in experimental alloxan-induced animals. Such lipid profile as Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL are determined enzymatically by the Cholesterol Oxidase-oxidase-Phenol Aminophenazone (CHOD-PAP method. Triglyceride levels are determined by the enzymatic Glycerol-3-Phosphate Oxidase-Phenol+Aminophenazone (GPO-PAP method. The results showed that the treatment process can increase the levels of resistant starch. C. tuberosus consumption and processed products can lower the lipid profile of TC, TG and LDL and increase HDL in experimental animals. Resistant starch contained in C. tuberosus and processed products is one of the factors that affect the lipid profile of experimental animals with diabetes mellitus.

  18. Floret-shaped solid domains on giant fluid lipid vesicles induced by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofou, Stavroula; Bandekar, Amey

    2012-02-01

    Lateral lipid phase separation and domain formation induced by changes in pH is significant in liposome-based drug delivery: environmentally responsive lipid heterogeneities can be tuned to alter collective membrane properties such as drug release and drug carrier reactivity impacting, therefore, the therapeutic outcomes. At the micron-meter scale, fluorescence microscopy on Giant Unilamellar fluid Vesicles (GUVs) shows that lowering pH (from 7.0 to 5.0) promotes the condensation of titratable PS or PA lipids into beautiful floret-shaped solid domains in which lipids are tightly packed via H-bonding and VdWs interactions. Solid domains phenomenologically comprise a circular ``core'' cap beyond which interfacial instabilities emerge resembling leaf-like stripes of almost vanishing Gaussian curvature independent of GUVs' preparation path and in agreement with a general condensation mechanism. Increasing incompressibility of domains is strongly correlated with larger number of thinner stripes per domain, and increasing relative rigidity of domains with smaller core cap areas. Line tension drives domain ripening, however the final domain shape is a result of enhanced incompressibility and rigidity maximized by domain coupling across the bilayer. Introduction of a transmembrane osmotic gradient (hyperosmotic on the outer lipid leaflet) allows the domain condensation process to reach its maximum extent which, however, is limited by the minimal expansivity of the continuous fluid membrane.

  19. Physicochemical analysis of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC seeds with fatty acids and total lipids compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar; Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Neha; Pattanayak, Rojalin; Prakash, Om; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. is a tropical legume with potential nutritional properties. In present study, the physical properties and proximate composition of the seeds were evaluated. Besides, the physico-chemical properties of fatty oil from fully mature seeds were also studied. The fatty oil compositions of immature, mature and fully mature seeds were evaluated by GC-FID, GC/MS and (1)H-NMR. The study revealed that, fatty oil from fully mature seeds contained high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (75.5 %), whereas immature seeds contained higher percentage of saturated fatty acid (61.3 %). In addition, unsaponification matter (0.25 %) of fatty oil was identified as stigmasterol (66.4 %) and β-sitosterol (25.1 %). Total lipids of fully mature seeds were extracted and isolated as neutral, glyco- and phospholipids. Overall, the fatty oil of fully mature seeds was enriched with mono-unsaturated fatty acids (38.6 %) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (36.9 %) without trans-fatty acids, thus meeting the edible oil standard.

  20. Duodenal lipid-induced symptom generation in gastroesophageal reflux disease : role of apolipoprotein A-IV and cholecystokinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Boxel, O. S.; Ter Linde, J. J. M.; Oors, J.; Otto, B.; Feinle-Bisset, C.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Siersema, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Duodenal lipid intensifies the perception of esophageal acid perfusion. Recently, we showed that genes implicated in lipid absorption were upregulated in the duodenum of fasting gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. This suggests that chylomicron production and secretion may b

  1. TACN-based cationic lipids with amino acid backbone and double tails: materials for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Xun, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25 kDa PEI. Cationic liposomes prepared from these lipids and DOPE showed good DNA affinity, and full DNA condensation was found at N/P ratio of 3 via agarose gel electrophoresis. The lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay, which gave proper particle sizes and zeta-potentials for transfection. In vitro gene transfection results in two cell lines reveal that TAN (with aspartic acid and amide bond in the structure) shows the best transfection efficiency, which is close to commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000.

  2. Lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids and fatty acids: Effects of membrane phase structure and detergent chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent

    2001-01-01

    ) of the detergents. The calorimetric results reveal that the membrane partitioning of lysolipids depends strongly on the phase structure of the lipid membrane. This is manifested as a lysolipid partition coefficient, K, that is much larger for fluid-phase lipid membranes as compared to gel-phase lipid membranes....... Oppositely, the membrane partitioning of fatty acids depends only weakly on the phase structure of the phospholipid vesicles. In addition, the thermodynamic measurements show that the partition coefficients for both the lysolipids and fatty acids toward gel and fluid lipid membranes become almost an order...... of magnitude higher when the saturated acyl chain of the detergents increases by two carbon atoms. The obtained partition coefficients are of importance in relation to a deeper understanding of the interplay between global aqueous and local membrane concentrations of the detergents and the functional influence...

  3. The fatty acid transport protein Fat1p is involved in the export of fatty acids from lipid bodies in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Dulermo, Thierry; Thevenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In order to live, cells need to import different molecules, such as sugars, amino acids or lipids, using transporters. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScFAT1 gene encodes the long-chain fatty acid transporter; however, the transport of fatty acids (FAs) in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has not yet been studied. In contrast to what has previously been found for ΔScfat1 strains, ΔYlfat1 yeast was still able to grow on substrates containing short-, medium- or long-chain FAs. We observed a notable difference in cell lipid content between wild-type (WT) and deletion mutant strains after 24 h of culture in minimal oleate medium: in the WT strain, lipids represented 24% of cell dry weight (CDW), while they accounted for 37% of CDW in the ΔYlfat1 strain. This result indicates that YlFat1p is not involved in cell lipid uptake. Moreover, we also observed that fatty acid remobilisation was decreased in the ΔYlfat1 strain and that fluorescence-tagged YlFat1p proteins localised to the interfaces between lipid bodies, which suggests that YlFat1p may play a role in the export of FAs from lipid bodies.

  4. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  5. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  6. StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 5 binds primary bile acids[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Danny; Lorin, Aurélien; Lefebvre, Andrée; Frappier, Vincent; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael; Lavigne, Pierre; LeHoux, Jean-Guy

    2012-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins are involved in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The STARD1 (STARD1 and STARD3) and STARD4 subfamilies (STARD4–6) have an internal cavity large enough to accommodate sterols. To provide a deeper understanding on the structural biology of this domain, the binding of sterols to STARD5, a member of the STARD4 subfamily, was monitored. The SAR by NMR [1H-15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC)] approach, complemented by circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), was used. Titration of STARD5 with cholic (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), leads to drastic perturbation of the 1H-15N HSQC spectra and the identification of the residues in contact with those ligands. The most perturbed residues in presence of ligands are lining the internal cavity of the protein. Ka values of 1.8·10−4 M−1 and 6.3·104 M−1 were measured for CA and CDCA, respectively. This is the first report of a START domain protein in complex with a sterol ligand. Our original findings indicate that STARD5 may be involved in the transport of bile acids rather than cholesterol. PMID:23018617

  7. Vitamin C fails to protect amino acids and lipids from oxidation during acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, Joseph P; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Byun, Jaeman; Roberts, L Jackson; Maeda, Nobuyo; Frei, Balz; Heinecke, Jay W

    2006-05-01

    The observation that antioxidant vitamins fail to confer protective benefits in large, well-designed randomized clinical trials has led many to question the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of disease. However, there is little evidence that proposed antioxidants actually scavenge reactive intermediates in vivo. Ascorbate reacts rapidly with oxidants produced by activated neutrophils in vitro, and neutrophils markedly increase their oxidant production when mice are infected intraperitoneally with the gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. To explore the antioxidant properties of ascorbate in vivo, we therefore used K. pneumoniae infection as a model of oxidative stress. When mice deficient in L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (Gulo(-/-)), the rate-limiting enzyme in ascorbate synthesis, were depleted of ascorbate and infected with K. pneumoniae, they were three times as likely as ascorbate-replete Gulo(-/-)mice to die from infection. Mass spectrometric analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid revealed a marked increase in the levels of oxidized amino acids and of F2-isoprostanes (sensitive and specific markers of lipid oxidation) in infected animals. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the levels of the oxidation products in the ascorbate-deficient and -replete Gulo(-/-)mice. Our observations suggest that ascorbate plays a previously unappreciated role in host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens but that the vitamin does not protect amino acids and lipids from oxidative damage during acute inflammation. To examine the oxidation hypothesis of disease, optimal antioxidant regimens that block oxidative reactions in animals and humans need to be identified.

  8. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  9. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  10. The effect of amino acids on lipid production and nutrient removal by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivation in starch wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the components of amino acids in mixed starch wastewater (corn steep water/corn gluten water=1/3, v/v) were analyzed by GC-MS. Effects of amino acids on lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis and COD removal were studied. The results showed that mixed starch wastewater contained 9 kinds of amino acids and these amino acids significantly improved the biomass (13.63g/L), lipid yield (2.48g/L) and COD removal compared to the basic medium (6.23g/L and 1.56g/L). In a 5L fermentor containing mixed starch wastewater as substrate to culture R. glutinis, the maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid yield reached 26.38g/L, 28.90% and 7.62g/L, with the associated removal rates of COD, TN and TP reaching 77.41%, 69.12% and 73.85%, respectively. The results revealed a promising approach for lipid production with using amino acids present in starch wastewater as an alternative nitrogen source.

  11. Role of diacylglycerol activation of PKCθ in lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendroedi, Julia; Yoshimura, Toru; Phielix, Esther; Koliaki, Chrysi; Marcucci, Mellissa; Zhang, Dongyan; Jelenik, Tomas; Müller, Janette; Herder, Christian; Nowotny, Peter; Shulman, Gerald I.; Roden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Muscle insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with increased intramyocellular lipid content and inflammation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for causing muscle insulin resistance in humans are still unclear. To address this question, we performed serial muscle biopsies in healthy, lean subjects before and during a lipid infusion to induce acute muscle insulin resistance and assessed lipid and inflammatory parameters that have been previously implicated in causing muscle insulin resistance. We found that acute induction of muscle insulin resistance was associated with a transient increase in total and cytosolic diacylglycerol (DAG) content that was temporally associated with protein kinase (PKC)θ activation, increased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 serine 1101 phosphorylation, and inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and AKT2 phosphorylation. In contrast, there were no associations between insulin resistance and alterations in muscle ceramide, acylcarnitine content, or adipocytokines (interleukin-6, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4) or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Similar associations between muscle DAG content, PKCθ activation, and muscle insulin resistance were observed in healthy insulin-resistant obese subjects and obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Taken together, these data support a key role for DAG activation of PKCθ in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:24979806

  12. Lipid Raft is required for PSGL-1 ligation induced HL-60 cell adhesion on ICAM-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingshuang Xu

    Full Text Available P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and integrins are adhesion molecules that play critical roles in host defense and innate immunity. PSGL-1 mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocytes for integrin-mediated adhesion. However, the mechanism that PSGL-1 as a rolling receptor in regulating integrin activation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigate the function of lipid raft in regulating PSGL-1 induced β2 integrin-mediated HL-60 cells adhesion. PSGL-1 ligation with antibody enhances the β2 integrin activation and β2 integrin-dependent adhesion to ICAM-1. Importantly, with the treatment of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, we confirm the role of lipid raft in regulating the activation of β2 integrin. Furthermore, we find that the protein level of PSGL-1 decreased in raft fractions in MβCD treated cells. PSGL-1 ligation induces the recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, a tyrosine kinase and Vav1 (the pivotal downstream effector of Syk signaling pathway involved in cytoskeleton regulation to lipid raft. Inhibition of Syk activity with pharmacologic inhibitor strongly reduces HL-60 cells adhesion, implicating Syk is crucial for PSGL-1 mediated β2 integrin activation. Taken together, we report that ligation of PSGL-1 on HL-60 cells activates β2 integrin, for which lipid raft integrity and Syk activation are responsible. These findings have shed new light on the mechanisms that connect leukocyte initial rolling with subsequent adhesion.

  13. Lipid extractions from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich and oleaginous Chlorella sp. biomasses by organic-nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk; Farooq, Wasif; Chung, Jane; Han, Jong-In; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Jeong, Sang Hwa; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae biorefinement has attracted in intensive academic and industrial interest worldwide for its potential to replace petrol biofuels as economically and environmentally advantageous alternatives. However, harvesting and lipid extraction remain as critical and difficult issues to be resolved. In the present study, four amino-groups functionalized organic-nano clays were prepared. Specifically, Mg or Al or Ca backboned and covalently linked with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyltrimethoxysilane by sol-gel reaction under ambient conditions, resulted in Mg-APTES clay, Al-APTES clay, Ca-APTES clay, and Mg-N3 clay, respectively. Each organic-nanoclay was utilized for lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass. As a result, the lipid-extraction efficiency of paste docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich Chlorella sp. with low lipid content was high, while one of paste oleaginous Chlorella sp. with high lipid content was relatively low. Despite the low lipid-extraction efficiencies in all of the wet microalgae biomass, the conversion of the extracted lipids' fatty acids to biodiesel was nearly 100%.

  14. The effects of temperature and growth rate on the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Suisted, J R

    1978-01-01

    The effects of temperature and growth rate on the fatty acid composition of the extractable lipids of four mesophilic and three psychotrophic bacteria were examined. Two of the mesophiles (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in their lipids with decreasing temperature over their whole growth temperature range. The other mesophiles (Enterobacter aerogenes and Lactobacillus casei) increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids with decreasing temperature only over the lower half of their growth temperature ranges. The psychrotrophs Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter sp. had a constant proportion of unsaturated acids over the lower half of their growth temperature range, while the psychotrophic Lactobacillus sp. showed no consistent change in its unsaturated fatty acid composition with temperature. All species showed some variation of unsaturated fatty acid composition with growth rate at the highest and lowest growth temperatures, although such variations were small in some species (Ent. aerogenes and Lactobacillus sp.).

  15. Reviewing and identifying amino acids of human, murine, canine and equine TLR4 / MD-2 receptor complexes conferring endotoxic innate immunity activation by LPS/lipid A, or antagonistic effects by Eritoran, in contrast to species-dependent modulation by lipid IVa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Thomas; Alexander, Christian; Zaehringer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    There is literature evidence gathered throughout the last two decades reflecting unexpected species differences concerning the immune response to lipid IVa which provides the opportunity to gain more detailed insight by the molecular modeling approach described in this study. Lipid IVa is a tetra-acylated precursor of lipid A in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A of the prototypic E. coli-type is a hexa-acylated structure that acts as an agonist in all tested mammalian species by innate immunorecognition via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) receptor complex. In contrast, lipid IVa is proinflammatory in mouse cells (agonism) but it remains inactive to human macrophages and even antagonizes the action of potent agonists like E. coli-type lipid A. This particular ambivalent activity profile of lipid IVa has been confirmed in other mammalian species: in equine cells Lipid IVa also acts in a weak agonistic manner, whereas being inactive and antagonizing the lipid A-induced activation of canine TLR4/MD-2. Intriguingly, the respective TLR4 amino acid sequences of the latter species are more identical to the human (67%, 68%) than to the murine (62%, 58%) ortholog. In order to address the unpaired activity-sequence dualism for human, murine, canine and equine species regarding the activity of lipid IVa as compared to LPS and lipid A and, we review the literature and computationally pinpoint the differential biological effects of lipid IVa versus LPS and lipid A to specific amino acid residues. In contrast to lipid IVa the structurally related synthetic compound Eritoran (E5564) acts consistently in an antagonistic manner in these mammalian species and serves as a reference ligand for molecular modeling in this study. The combined evaluation of data sets provided by prior studies and in silico homology mapping of differential residues of TLR4/MD-2 complexes lends detailed insight into the

  16. Reviewing and identifying amino acids of human, murine, canine and equine TLR4 / MD-2 receptor complexes conferring endotoxic innate immunity activation by LPS/lipid A, or antagonistic effects by Eritoran, in contrast to species-dependent modulation by lipid IVa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is literature evidence gathered throughout the last two decades reflecting unexpected species differences concerning the immune response to lipid IVa which provides the opportunity to gain more detailed insight by the molecular modeling approach described in this study. Lipid IVa is a tetra-acylated precursor of lipid A in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A of the prototypic E. coli-type is a hexa-acylated structure that acts as an agonist in all tested mammalian species by innate immunorecognition via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2 receptor complex. In contrast, lipid IVa is proinflammatory in mouse cells (agonism but it remains inactive to human macrophages and even antagonizes the action of potent agonists like E. coli -type lipid A. This particular ambivalent activity profile of lipid IVa has been confirmed in other mammalian species: in equine cells Lipid IVa also acts in a weak agonistic manner, whereas being inactive and antagonizing the lipid A-induced activation of canine TLR4/MD-2. Intriguingly, the respective TLR4 amino acid sequences of the latter species are more identical to the human (67%, 68% than to the murine (62%, 58% ortholog. In order to address the unpaired activity-sequence dualism for human, murine, canine and equine species regarding the activity of lipid IVa as compared to LPS and lipid A and, we review the literature and computationally pinpoint the differential biological effects of lipid IVa versus LPS and lipid A to specific amino acid residues. In contrast to lipid IVa the structurally related synthetic compound Eritoran (E5564 acts consistently in an antagonistic manner in these mammalian species and serves as a reference ligand for molecular modeling in this study. The combined evaluation of data sets provided by prior studies and in silico homology mapping of differential residues of TLR4/MD-2 complexes lends detailed

  17. REVIEWING AND IDENTIFYING AMINO ACIDS OF HUMAN, MURINE, CANINE AND EQUINE TLR4 / MD-2 RECEPTOR COMPLEXES CONFERRING ENDOTOXIC INNATE IMMUNITY ACTIVATION BY LPS/LIPID A, OR ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS BY ERITORAN, IN CONTRAST TO SPECIES-DEPENDENT MODULATION BY LIPID IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is literature evidence gathered throughout the last two decades reflecting unexpected species differences concerning the immune response to lipid IVa which provides the opportunity to gain more detailed insight by the molecular modeling approach described in this study. Lipid IVa is a tetra-acylated precursor of lipid A in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A of the prototypic E. coli-type is a hexa-acylated structure that acts as an agonist in all tested mammalian species by innate immunorecognition via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2 receptor complex. In contrast, lipid IVa is proinflammatory in mouse cells (agonism but it remains inactive to human macrophages and even antagonizes the action of potent agonists like E. coli-type lipid A. This particular ambivalent activity profile of lipid IVa has been confirmed in other mammalian species: in equine cells Lipid IVa also acts in a weak agonistic manner, whereas being inactive and antagonizing the lipid A-induced activation of canine TLR4/MD-2. Intriguingly, the respective TLR4 amino acid sequences of the latter species are more identical to the human (67%, 68% than to the murine (62%, 58% ortholog. In order to address the unpaired activity-sequence dualism for human, murine, canine and equine species regarding the activity of lipid IVa as compared to LPS and lipid A and, we review the literature and computationally pinpoint the differential biological effects of lipid IVa versus LPS and lipid A to specific amino acid residues. In contrast to lipid IVa the structurally related synthetic compound Eritoran (E5564 acts consistently in an antagonistic manner in these mammalian species and serves as a reference ligand for molecular modeling in this study. The combined evaluation of data sets provided by prior studies and in silico homology mapping of differential residues of TLR4/MD-2 complexes lends detailed insight

  18. Wrinkling of a spherical lipid interface induced by actomyosin cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Nishigami, Yukinori; Sonobe, Seiji; Ichikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    Actomyosin actively generates contractile forces that provide the plasma membrane with the deformation stresses essential to carry out biological processes. Although the contractile property of purified actomyosin has been extensively studied, to understand the physical contribution of the actomyosin contractile force on a deformable membrane is still a challenging problem and of great interest in the field of biophysics. Here, we reconstitute a model system with a cell-sized deformable interface that exhibits anomalous curvature-dependent wrinkling caused by the actomyosin cortex underneath the spherical closed interface. Through a shape analysis of the wrinkling deformation, we find that the dominant contributor to the wrinkled shape changes from bending elasticity to stretching elasticity of the reconstituted cortex upon increasing the droplet curvature radius of the order of the cell size, i.e., tens of micrometers. The observed curvature dependence is explained by the theoretical description of the cortex elasticity and contractility. Our present results provide a fundamental insight into the deformation of a curved membrane induced by the actomyosin cortex.

  19. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  20. Overproduction and secretion of free fatty acids through disrupted neutral lipid recycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Christopher; Polson, Brian; Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals from biorenewable resources is important to alleviate the environmental concerns, costs, and foreign dependency associated with the use of petroleum feedstock. Fatty acids are attractive biomolecules due to the flexibility of their iterative biosynthetic pathway, high energy content, and suitability for conversion into other secondary chemicals. Free fatty acids (FFAs) that can be secreted from the cell are particularly appealing due to their lower harvest costs and straightforward conversion into a broad range of biofuel and biochemical products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to overproduce extracellular FFAs by targeting three native intracellular processes. β-oxidation was disrupted by gene knockouts in FAA2, PXA1 and POX1, increasing intracellular fatty acids levels up to 55%. Disruptions in the acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1, FAA4 and FAT1 allowed the extracellular detection of free fatty acids up to 490mg/L. Combining these two disrupted pathways, a sextuple mutant (Δfaa1 Δfaa4 Δfat1 Δfaa2 Δpxa1 Δpox1) was able to produce 1.3g/L extracellular free fatty acids. Further diversion of carbon flux into neutral lipid droplet formation was investigated by the overexpression of DGA1 or ARE1 and by the co-overexpression of a compatible lipase, TGL1, TGL3 or TGL5. The sextuple mutant overexpressing the diacylglycerol acyltransferase, DGA1, and the triacylglycerol lipase, TGL3, yielded 2.2g/L extracellular free fatty acids. This novel combination of pathway interventions led to 4.2-fold higher extracellular free fatty acid levels than previously reported for S. cerevisiae.

  1. Parenteral lipids and partial enteral nutrition affect hepatic lipid composition but have limited short term effects on formula-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Rapid transition from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that partial enteral nutrition with colostrum, increased proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or exclusion of lipid...

  2. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  3. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, O.; Nagatsuka, S.; Nakazawa, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  4. Apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated with substantial changes in the plasma lipids and hyaluronic acid content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowska, E; Maciejewska, D; Ossowski, P; Drozd, A; Ryterska, K; Banaszczak, M; Milkiewicz, M; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, J; Slebioda, M; Milkiewicz, P; Jelen, H

    2013-12-01

    Fat may affect progression of liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study we characterize the state of lipid metabolism in 22 patients with NAFLD and different Apo-E variants. Total concentration of plasma total fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography, while their derivatives by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS). The ratio of plasma saturated fatty acid to monounsaturated fatty acid increased, whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was reduced in Apo-E4 carriers. Simultaneously, the levels of individual plasma linoleic, arachidonic, and alpha linolenic acids significantly increased in subjects with the Apo-E4 allele. The 15-lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, was significantly higher in Apo-E3 carriers (pacid was significantly elevated in Apo-E4 carriers (phyaluronic acid concentration (pacid synthesis and fatty acid dysfunction may induce fibrosis, while an inflammatory process may be the main cause of fibrosis in Apo-E3 carriers.

  5. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sansone

    Full Text Available Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1 and palmitic acid (16:0 affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1, palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1 and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50 compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50; and ii the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6 in red blood cell (RBC membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0 and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3 as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in

  6. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet suppl