WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid extraction methods

  1. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  2. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  3. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution.

  4. Quantification of total fatty acids in microalgae: comparison of extraction and transesterification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavonius, Lillie R; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Undeland, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Determination of microalgaes' fatty acid content is often done with chloroform and methanol according to the Bligh and Dyer extraction, though faster methods exist. A number of comparisons between the Bligh and Dyer and faster methods have resulted in contradicting data, possibly due to differences in algae used and the different versions of the Bligh and Dyer method applied. Here, various forms of direct-transesterification (D-TE) and two-step transesterification (2-TE), including three versions developed in our lab, are compared with the original Bligh and Dyer (Can J Biochem Physiol 37: 911-917, 1959) extraction and two modifications thereof (Lee et al. J AOAC Int 79:487-492, 1996, and our own acidified version) on microalgae with different cell walls: Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oculata, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In total, fatty acid extracts from 11 methods were separated and quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results show that, for N. oculata and P. tricornutum, methods based on chloroform-methanol underestimated the fatty acid content compared with the 2-TE and D-TE methods, which gave similar results. Moreover, D-TE methods are faster than chloroform-methanol methods and use chemicals that are less toxic. Of the D-TE methods, the ones using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid recovered the most fatty acids, while boron trifluoride recovered slightly less. The main qualitative difference between the fatty acids recovered was that the chloroform-methanol methods recovered less saturated fatty acids in P. tricornutum.

  5. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  6. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  7. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  8. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  9. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  10. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  11. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  12. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  13. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  14. Comparison of four extraction/methylation analytical methods to measure fatty acid composition by gas chromatography in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M; Polvillo, O; Contò, M; Ficco, A; Ballico, S; Failla, S

    2008-05-01

    Four different extraction-derivatization methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis in meat (in situ or one-step method, saponification method, classic method and a combination of classic extraction and saponification derivatization) were tested. The in situ method had low recovery and variation. The saponification method showed the best balance between recovery, precision, repeatability and reproducibility. The classic method had high recovery and acceptable variation values, except for the polyunsaturated fatty acids, showing higher variation than the former methods. The combination of extraction and methylation steps had great recovery values, but the precision, repeatability and reproducibility were not acceptable. Therefore the saponification method would be more convenient for polyunsaturated fatty acid analysis, whereas the in situ method would be an alternative for fast analysis. However the classic method would be the method of choice for the determination of the different lipid classes.

  15. An effective method of DNA extraction for bioleaching bacteria from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang; Zhang, Yanfei; Qiu, Guanzhou; Tong, Jianbin; Chen, Dan; Zhou, Jin; Luo, Xuegang

    2008-07-01

    An effective and versatile method for microorganism lysis and direct extraction of DNA from bioleaching bacteria was developed using pure cultures and an acid mine drainage (AMD) sediment sample. In the described method, microorganisms are treated at three different incubation temperatures: boiling water incubation for 6-10 min, followed by 60 +/- 5 degrees C for 30 min, then 72 degrees C for 30 min. The extracted DNA is purified using a phenol/chloroform/alcohol mixture and precipitated in absolute alcohol. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and gyrB genes of the pure cultures were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differentiated using repetitive intergenic DNA sequences amplification (Rep-PCR). For the AMD sediment sample, the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of the amplicons were digested with Hin6I and MspI, and the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis patterns were used as a fingerprint to discern community diversity. The results indicated that this method is a versatile, reproducible, effective, and rapid technique for routine DNA extraction from bioleaching bacteria. The low cost of this method also makes it attractive for large-scale studies.

  16. Phosphate Rock Fertilizer in Acid Soil:Comparing Phosphate Extraction Methods for Measuring Dissolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S.ANSUMANA-KAWA; WANGGUANGHUO

    1998-01-01

    Three phosphate extraction methods were used to investigate the dissolution,availability and transfo-mation of Kunyang phosphate rock(KPR) in two surface acid soils.Dissolution was determined by measuring the increase in the amounts of soluble and adsorbed inorganic phosphate fractions,and did not differ signifi-cantly among the three methods.Significant correlations were obtained among P fractions got by the three extraction methods.Dissolution continued until the end of the 90-day incubation period.At the end of the period,much of the applied phosphate recovered in both soils were in the Al- and Fe-P or in the hydroxide-and bicarbonate-extractable inorganic P fractions.The dissolution of KPR in the two soils was also similar: increased addition of phosphate rock resulted in decreased dissolution.The similarity in the order and extent of dissolution in the two soils was probably due to the similarity in each soil of several factors that are known to influence phosphate rock dissolution,namely low CEC,pH,P level,and base status;and high clay and free iron and aluminum oxide contents.The results suggested that KPR could be an aternative P source in the soils are not limiting.

  17. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L

    2010-07-01

    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is measurement using the new turbidimetric method, and the other half was analyzed using microwave extraction and measurement by ICP-AES. The average relative percent difference between the turbidimetric method and the ICP-AES method for the 24 sets measured as milligrams of lead per cm(2) is -0.63 +/- 32.5%; the mean difference is -2.1 +/- 7.0 mg lead per cm(2). Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests on these data showed no difference in the results for the two procedures. At the federal regulated level of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) paint, this turbidimetric method meets the performance requirements for EPA's National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP

  18. Extraction Optimization and Characterization of Collagen from Yellow Pike Conger Swimbladder with Acid-Hydro-Exctraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandy Djailani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Swim bladder is one of marine potential byproducts for alternative source of collagen. This study aimedto optimize hydro-extraction and characterized collagen. Extraction optimization of collagen was determinedusing Box-behnken design response surface method with three variables: CH3COOH concentration, soakingtime and extraction time to yield response. Hydro-extraction collagen was characterization based on theamino acid content, SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and DSC. Acording to the result, the concentration had significantlyinfluence yield. Optimum extraction conditions were variable combinations of acetic acid concentration of0.1 M, for 1 h and hydro-extraction time of 1 h to produce the highest yield 63.35%. collagen was classifiedas type I collagen by amino acid content, electrophoresis patterns and fourier transform infrared (FTIRspectra. The glass transition of collagen was 67.23oC, showed high thermal stability that can be applied tothe cosmetics industry and nutraceutical.

  19. Comparison of three phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods for isolation and Identification of Nocardia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faghri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: These bacteria are important in immune deficient patients such as cancer patients, transplant recipients, tuberculosis; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome etc., Their affluence is unsteady in different zones of the world. In this study, among the three phenotypic methods for the isolation of Nocardia slip-buried method was better than other methods. Among DNA extraction techniques, DNA extraction by microwave method would be selective method for DNA extraction of Nocardia spp. compared with others techniques.

  20. Calibration of KE C Value in Acidic Red Soils with Fumigation-Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Commonly used KEC value (0.45) of the fumigation-extraction (FE) method was obtained on the basis of temperate neutral soils. To ascertain its applicability to acidic red soils widespread in southern China and other subtropical regions, the KEC value was investigated based on 8 acidic red soils by in situ labelling of native soil microorganisms using 14C-labelled glucose. Realistic KEC value for red soils could be obtained by in situ 14C-labelling as long as an incubation period of 72 h is adopted after addition of 14C glucose to soil. The single KEC values for the eight red soils ranged from 0.27 to 0.35 and averaged 0.31. Lower KEC value obtained in red soils probably resulted from different soil quality, compared with other types of soil,which causes possible changes in microbial community structure and extractability of cellular component.Microbial biomass C contents of the eight red soils measured using a unique and constant KEC value of 0.45 decreased by 22.2%~40% in comparison to those using variable KEC values. The results suggest that microbial biomass C would be significantly underestimated using the present KEC value and a calibration of the KEC value is necessary for red soils.``

  1. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corrored steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Païsse, S.; Gueuné, H.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high

  2. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corrored steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Païsse, S.; Gueuné, H.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high

  3. Method Validation for Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Peripheral Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathay, Conny; Hamot, Gaël; Henry, Estelle; Mommaerts, Kathleen; Thorlaksdottir, Audur; Trouet, Johanna; Betsou, Fay

    2016-12-01

    This article is the fifth in a series of publications providing formal method validation for biospecimen processing. We report the optimization and validation of methodology to obtain nucleic acids of sufficient quantity and quality from blood. DNA was extracted using the Chemagic DNA Blood Kit on an MSM I. Extraction was optimized in terms of blood volume, elution buffer volume, and lysis conditions. The optimal protocol was validated for reproducibility, robustness (delay to buffy coat extraction, blood vs. buffy coat, and use of a magnetic rack), and performance (yield, purity, and concentration). RNA was extracted using a PAXgene Blood miRNA kit with a QiaCube. The protocol was validated for reproducibility, robustness (elution buffer, delay, and temperature before extraction), and performance (yield, purity, integrity, and miRNA content). Two platforms (QiaCube, Biorobot Universal) were further compared. For DNA extraction, a 4 mL blood sample, manual lysis, and 300 μL elution buffer were found to be reproducible (CV DNA yield and A260 nm/A280 nm ratio) and robust (buffy coat vs. whole blood; immediate processing of buffy coat after lysis vs. storage for 1 week at 2-8°C; and magnetic rack use). There was no difference between automated and manual lysis. RNA extracted with the PAXgene Blood miRNA kit on a QiaCube gave high yields and optimal reproducibility (low CV for RNA yield and integrity) with BR5 elution buffer (vs. water and TE). PAXgene tubes could be stored for up to 2 weeks at 2-8°C. The Biorobot Universal System gave similar mean RNA yields with Qiacube and slightly lower but acceptable purity. We validated automated isolation of DNA with a Chemagic DNA Blood Kit on a magnetic bead-based MSM I, and of RNA with a PAXgene Blood miRNA kit on a silica membrane-based QiaCube or Biorobot (for low and high throughput, respectively).

  4. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on semipreparativ

  5. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  6. Sequential Extraction of Aluminum and Iron from Acidic Soils by Chemical Selective Dissolution Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJIZHENG; A.VIOLANTE; 等

    1998-01-01

    Potassium chloride, Na-pyrophosphate,CuCl2,NH4-oxalate,dithionit-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and Na-citrate solutions were employed to etract aluminum(Al) and iron(Fe) sequentially and separately from 15 acidic soils located at the Mangshan Mountains,Hunan Province,China,Many evidences showed that separate pyrophosphate extracted mainly KCl-extractable Al,organo-Al complexes and some inorganic Al compounds,whereas separate CuCl2 extracted KCl-extractable Al and some organo-Al complexes,CuCl2 extracted much less amounts of Al than pyrophosphate did from the soils .Separate oxalate did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate seuentially extractable Al and Fe ,Also,separate DCB did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate-DCB sequentially extractable Al. The forms of Al extacted by oxalate and DCB from the soils were majorly noncrystalline.The interlayered materials of 1.4-nm intergrade minerals of the soils were attributed mainly to hydroxy Al polymers.

  7. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns.

  8. EXTRACTION OF CITRIC ACID FROM FERMENTATION BROTH USING ION—EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZuozhen; WangXiangyang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A number of ion-exchange resins were tested on their capacity to adsorb citric acid,among them resin 335,d315, Amberlite IRA-35 and IRA-68 exhibited higher adsorption capacity.We chose resin 335 and D315 to be used for extraction of citric acid from fermentation broth,followed by elution with 10% ammonia liquor,decoloration with K-15 carbon and removal of ammonia with resin 732,converting citrate of free citric acid with a concentration of 10% and an amount of readily carbonizable substance meeting the GB 8269-87 standard.

  9. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actino bacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  11. The effect of deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods from lymphoid tissue on the purity, content, and amplifying ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ayatollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, definitive diagnosis of numerous diseases is based on the genetic and molecular findings. Therefore, preparation of fundamental materials for these evaluations is necessary. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the first material for the molecular pathology and genetic analysis, and better results need more pure DNA. Furthermore, higher concentration of achieved DNA causes better results and higher amplifying ability for subsequent steps. We aim to evaluate five DNA extraction methods to compare DNA intimacy including purity, concentration, and amplifying ability with each other. Materials and Methods: The lymphoid tissue DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue through five different methods including phenol-chloroform as the reference method, DNA isolation kit (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit, Qiagen, Germany, proteinase K and xylol extraction and heat alkaline plus mineral oil extraction as authorship innovative method. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR method were assessed to compare each following method consider to DNA purity and its concentration. Results: Among five different applied methods, the highest mean of DNA purity was related to heat alkaline method. Moreover, the highest mean of DNA concentration was related to heat alkaline plus mineral oil. Furthermore, the best result in quantitative PCR was in proteinase K method that had the lowest cycle threshold averages among the other extraction methods. Conclusion: We concluded that our innovative method for DNA extraction (heat alkaline plus mineral oil achieved high DNA purity and concentration.

  12. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  13. Extraction, isolation and purification of exopolysaccharide from lactic acid bacteria using ethanol precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are classified ‘Generally Recognized As Safe’ (GRAS with most effective potential to divert significant amount of fermentable sugars towards the biosynthesis of functional exopolysaccharide. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are receiving a renewed interest due to the claims of human health benefits, such as modulation of immune response system and more importantly in food and pharma industries as a texturizer, viscosifer, emulsifier and syneresis-lowering agent. Its purification methodology involves: a Extraction of cell-free supernatant from lactic acid bacteria; b Denature of protein using trichloroacetic acid; c Ethanol precipitation; d Dialysis; and e Freeze drying. However, depending on nature of research, compounds can be further purified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectrum (IR; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral analyses.

  14. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  15. Evaluation of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for virus detection in a multicenter comparative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Hakhverdyan, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Five European veterinary laboratories participated in an exercise to compare the performance of nucleic acid extraction robots. Identical sets of coded samples were prepared using serial dilutions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) from serum and cell culture propagated material. Each...... for comparison. The remaining equipment and protocols used were less sensitive, in an extreme case for serum, by a factor of 1000. There was no evidence for cross-contamination of RNA template in any of the negative samples included in these panels. These results are not intended to replace local optimisation...... and validation, but provide reassurance to laboratories to indicate that the best performing optimised nucleic acid extraction systems can have similar performance....

  16. Development of methods for determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in capsules containing Corylus avellana L. Dry extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Blyznyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of standardization and quality control of both herbs and herbal remedies remain relevant, because it is well-known that product quality standards are essential, whether consumer using herbs or drugs. The necessity of the standardization methods development for the initial herbal material and capsule dosage form for the further quality control under manufacturing conditions remains relevant.Aim. The aim of our research was to develop simple, specific, accurate and reproducible methods for identification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in capsule dosage form containing Corylus avellana L. dry extract.Methods. The samples of gelatine capsules containing Corylus avellana L. dry extract for oral administration were analyzed. The analysis was carried out using Camag HPTLC system.The absorption spectroscopy determination of the sum of flavonoids was carried out using THERMO Scientific Evolution 60S Spectroscope in wavelength range of 300–600 nm.Results. As a result of HPTLC research rutine and quercitrine have been identified in capsule dosage form containing Corylus avellana L. dry extract. Among phenolic acids, neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids have been identified.Under the given conditions, the spectrum of the test solution had a maximum absorption at wavelength 406 nm. The analysis of flavonoids total content in gelatine capsules containing Corylus avellana L. dry extract calculated as rutine has shown the content of 1,7 %.Conclusion. Effective HPTLC and absorption spectroscopy methods for determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in capsule dosage form containing Corylus avellana L. dry extract have been developed. It has been found that described methods are promising enough for standardization of capsules with Corylus avellana L. dry extract and may be suggested for the quality control of the dosage form under manufacturing conditions

  17. [Technological process of cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acid method under autoclave conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baoju; Xiao, Anfeng; Lil, Lijun; Ni, Hui; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

    2008-07-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma is one of the organisms for production of astaxanthin, and the key process for extracting intracellular astaxanthin is cell disruption. In this work, cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was studied with autoclave method at low acid concentration. The optimum disrupting conditions were: autoclave pressure 0.1 MPa, 121 degrees C; hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5 mol/L; liquid to material ratio (V/W) 30 mL/g dry cell weight and disruption time 2 min. Under the optimum conditions, medium scale experiment showed that astaxanthin and total carotenoids recovery from Phaffia rhodozyma were (84.8 +/- 3.2)% and (93.3 +/- 2)%, respectively. This new method can lead to no poisonous residues and get high extraction yield, which have good prospects to be put into industrial production.

  18. Effect of solvents and methods of stirring in extraction of lycopene, oleoresin and fatty acids from over-ripe tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Karla P; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Escárcega-Galaz, Ana A; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene and oleoresin extraction from powder of tomato over-ripe by three agitation methods and four solvents have been evaluated. Also, tomato powder and the oleoresins were characterized biochemically. On average, the moisture content of powder was found to be 4.30, ash 8.90, proteins 11.23 and lipids 4.35 g 100 g(-1). The best oleoresin extraction yield was achieved by combining sonication and acetone at 1.43 g 100 g(-1). The greatest amount of lycopene (65.57 ± 0.33 mg 100 g(-1)) was also obtained using the same treatment. The presence of trans-lycopene was positively confirmed by HPLC and FTIR. In oleoresins, linoleic acid (C18:2n6) was the predominant with 50% of total fatty acids, whereas stearic acid (C18:0) is presented in a smaller proportion (5%). A simple and suitable method for extraction of lycopene from over-ripe tomato was optimized. In industrial applications, tomato by-products are a viable source of analytes, such as lycopene and unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  20. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  1. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  2. A reliable and inexpensive method of nucleic acid extraction for the PCR-based detection of diverse plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Mock, R; Huang, Q; Abad, J; Hartung, J; Kinard, G

    2008-12-01

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from at least ten plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. The method combined a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol with a semi-automatic homogenizer (FastPrep) instrument) for rapid sample processing and low potential of cross contamination. The method was applied to sample preparation for PCR-based detection of 28 different RNA and DNA viruses, six viroids, two phytoplasmas and two bacterial pathogens from a range of infected host plants including sweet potato, small fruits and fruit trees. The procedure is cost-effective and the qualities of the nucleic acid preparations are comparable to those prepared by commonly used commercial kits. The efficiency of the procedure permits processing of numerous samples and the use of a single nucleic acid preparation for testing both RNA and DNA genomes by PCR, making this an appealing method for testing multiple pathogens in certification and quarantine programs.

  3. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corroded carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Florence; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Païssé, Sandrine; Gueuné, Hervé; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high NA yield, quality, purity, representativeness of microbial community and processing time efficiency). The PowerSoil RNA Isolation Kit was the only method which resulted in amplifiable RNA of good quality (ie intact 16S/23S rRNA). Sample homogenization and hot chemical (SDS) cell lysis combined with mechanical (bead-beating) lysis in presence of a DNA competitor (skim milk) contributed to improving substantially (around 23 times) the DNA yield of the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. Apart from presenting NA extraction strategies for optimizing extraction parameters with corrosion samples from carbon steel, this study proposes DNA and RNA extraction procedures suited for comparative molecular analysis of total and active fractions of bacterial communities associated with carbon steel corrosion events, thereby contributing to improved MIC diagnosis and control.

  4. Analysis of several methods for the extraction of high quality DNA from acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar for characterization by PCR-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, C; Mateo, E; Guillamón, J M; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2008-12-10

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious microorganisms with poor recovery in culture. Culture-independent methods are currently under examination. Good DNA extraction is a strict requirement of these methods. We compared five methods for extracting the DNA of AAB directly from wine and vinegar samples. Four matrices (white wine, red wine, superficial vinegar and submerged vinegar) contaminated with two AAB strains belonging to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconacetobacter hansenii were assayed. To improve the yield and quality of the extracted DNA, a sample treatment (washing with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or NaCl) was also tested. DNA quality was measured by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene with conventional PCR. DNA recovery rate was assessed by real-time PCR. DNA amplification was always successful with the Wizard method though DNA recovery was poor. A CTAB-based method and NucleoSpin protocol extracted the highest DNA recoveries from wine and vinegar samples. Both of these methods require treatment to recover suitable DNA for amplification with maximum recovery. Both may therefore be good solutions for DNA extraction in wine and vinegar samples. DNA extraction of Ga hansenii was more effective than that of A. pasteurianus. The fastest and cheapest method we evaluated (the Thermal shock protocol) produced the worst results both for DNA amplification and DNA recovery.

  5. Sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium using novel solid phase extraction method from high acidic nuclear wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesava Raju, Ch Siva; Subramanian, M S

    2007-06-25

    A novel grafted polymer for selective extraction and sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium from high acidic wastes has been developed by grafting Merrifield chloromethylated (MCM) resin with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) (MCM-CMPO). The grafting process is well characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, (31)P and (13)C CPMAS (cross-polarized magic angle spin) NMR spectroscopy and CHNPS elemental analysis. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters during metal ion extraction by the resin phase are studied and optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The resin shows very high sorption capacity values of 0.960mmolg(-1) for U(VI), 0.984mmolg(-1) for Th(IV), 0.488mmolg(-1) for La(III) and 0.502mmolg(-1) for Nd(III) under optimum HNO(3) medium, respectively. The grafted polymer shows faster rate exchange kinetics (extraction) and greater preconcentration ability, with reusability exceeding 20 cycles. During desorption process, sequential separation of the analytes is possible with varying eluting agents. The developed grafted resin has been successfully applied in extracting Th(IV) from high matrix monazite sand, U(VI) and Th(IV) from simulated nuclear spent fuel mixtures. All the analytical data is based on triplicate analysis and measurements are within 3.5% rsd reflecting the reproducibility and reliability of the developed method.

  6. Evaluation of Method-Specific Extraction Variability for the Measurement of Fatty Acids in a Candidate Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    To address community needs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) for infant/adult nutritional formula based on milk and whey protein concentrates with isolated soy protein called SRM 1869 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula. One major component of this candidate SRM is the fatty acid content. In this study, multiple extraction techniques were evaluated to quantify the fatty acids in this new material. Extraction methods that were based on lipid extraction followed by transesterification resulted in lower mass fraction values for all fatty acids than the values measured by methods utilizing in situ transesterification followed by fatty acid methyl ester extraction (ISTE). An ISTE method, based on the identified optimal parameters, was used to determine the fatty acid content of the new infant/adult nutritional formula reference material.

  7. Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Terry, Leon A

    2008-08-27

    Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes a new simple method that enabled sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of both fatty acids and sugars from the same avocado mesocarp tissue sample. Freeze-dried mesocarp samples of avocado cv. Hass fruit of different ripening stages were extracted by homogenization with hexane and the oil extracts quantified for fatty acid composition by GC. The resulting filter residues were readily usable for sugar extraction with methanol (62.5%, v/v). For comparison, oil was also extracted using the standard Soxhlet technique and the resulting thimble residue extracted for sugars as before. An additional experiment was carried out whereby filter residues were also extracted using ethanol. Average oil yield using the Soxhlet technique was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained by homogenization with hexane, although the difference remained very slight, and fatty acid profiles of the oil extracts following both methods were very similar. Oil recovery improved with increasing ripeness of the fruit with minor differences observed in the fatty acid composition during postharvest ripening. After lipid removal, methanolic extraction was superior in recovering sucrose and perseitol as compared to 80% ethanol (v/v), whereas mannoheptulose recovery was not affected by solvent used. The method presented has the benefits of shorter extraction time, lower extraction temperature, and reduced amount of solvent and can be used for sequential extraction of fatty acids and sugars from the same sample.

  8. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  9. Comparison of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fluids and tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Waggoner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction using the Cell-free 1000 and Pathogen Complex 400 protocols on the QIAsymphony Sample Processing (SP system were compared using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, tissue samples, and urine. The QIAsymphonyAssay Set-up (AS system was used to assemble reactions using artus CMV PCR reagents and amplification was carried out on the Rotor-Gene Q. Samples from 93 patients previously tested for CMV DNA and negative samples spiked with CMV AD-169 were used to evaluate assay performance. The Pathogen Complex 400 protocol yielded the following results: BAL, sensitivity 100% (33/33, specificity 87% (20/23; tissue, sensitivity 100% (25/25, specificity 100% (20/20; urine, sensitivity 100% (21/21, specificity 100% (20/20. Cell-free 1000 extraction gave comparable results for BAL and tissue, however, for urine, the sensitivity was 86% (18/21 and specimen quantitation was inaccurate. Comparative studies of different extraction protocols and DNA detection methods in body fluids and tissues are needed, as assays optimized for blood or plasma will not necessarily perform well on other specimen types.

  10. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  11. Chemical composition of essential oil by different extraction methods and fatty acid analysis of the leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Siddique

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni leaves grown in Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute, Pabna, Bangladesh and obtained by two different extraction methods (hydro distillation and steam distillation were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analyses (GC–MS. One hundred and twenty three peaks were obtained from hydro distillation where 62 compounds were identified as major compounds such as α-cadinol (2.98%, caryophyllene oxide (1.23%, (−-spathulenol (2.21% and β-guaiene (0.32%, and 50 peaks were obtained from the steam distillation where all the major compounds were present. After approximately 115 days the latter again ran the samples where only 4 peaks were identified of which none of these were constituents of essential oil in Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni. The fatty acid analysis by GLC showed palmitic acid (86.50% as the most abundant fatty acid in the leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni.

  12. REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marchitan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  13. Simple, effective protein extraction method and proteomics analysis from polyunsaturated fatty acids-producing micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Chuqiang; Ye, Chiming; Lu, Yinghua; Pan, Xueshan; Chen, Zhengqi; Ng, I-Son

    2015-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are valuable ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical products due to their beneficial influence on human health. Most studies paid attention on the production of PUFAs from oleaginous micro-organisms but seldom on the comparative proteomics of cells. In the study, three methods (i.e., cold shock, acetone precipitation and ethanol precipitation) for lipid removal from crude protein extracts were applied in different PUFAs-producing micro-organisms. Among the selective strains, Schizochytrium was used as an oleaginous strain with high lipid of 60.3 (w/w%) in biomass. The Mortierella alpina and Cunninghamella echinulata were chosen as the low-lipid-content strains with 25.8 (w/w%) and 21.8 (w/w%) of lipid in biomass, respectively. The cold shock resulted as the most effective method for lipid removed, thus obtained higher protein amount for Schizochytrium. Moreover, from the comparative proteomics for the three PUFAs-producing strains, it showed more significant proteins of up or down-regulation were explored under cold shock treatment. Therefore, the essential proteins (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase) and regulating proteins were observed. In conclusion, this study provides a valuable and practical approach for analysis of high PUFAs-producing strains at the proteomics level, and would further accelerate the understanding of the metabolic flux in oleaginous micro-organisms.

  14. HPLC Determination of the Major Non-protein Amino Acids and Common Biogenic Amines in Lathyrus sativus Using a Novel Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Yi YAN; Cheng Jin JIAO; Feng Min LI; Yong Min LIANG; Zhi Xiao LI

    2005-01-01

    An assay is presented for simultaneously determining 5 biogenic amines and the major non-protein amino acids: the toxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropanoic acid (β-ODAP), its isomer α-ODAP and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus extracts using the HPLC system after derivatization with para-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl chloride (PNZ-C1). However, it is more worthy of noting that this paper also describes a new extraction method using 0.2 mol/L HC1O4. The new method has some advantages: shorter extraction-time, simultaneous extraction of free amino acids and polyamines, better inhibiting the isomerization of β-ODAP to α-ODAP, and so on.

  15. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  16. Effect of different extraction methods on fatty acids, volatile compounds, and physical and chemical properties of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alicia Ortiz; Dorantes, Lidia; Galíndez, Juvencio; Guzmán, Rosa I

    2003-04-09

    Because Mexico is the number one producer of avocados in the world, this fruit has potential as a source for oil extraction. It is appropriate to further investigate the detailed changes that the oil undergoes when different extraction methods are applied. This research paper presents the study of the physical and chemical changes, the fatty acids profile, the trans fatty acid content, and the identification of volatile compounds of the oils from avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.), obtained by four different extraction methods. The method with the greatest extraction yield was the combined microwave-hexane method. The amount of trans fatty acids produced in the microwave-squeezing treatment was <0.5 g/100 g. On the other hand, the amounts of trans fatty acids produced with the hexane and acetone treatments were 0.52 and 0.87 g/100 g, respectively. The method that caused the slightest modification to the oil quality was a novel combined extraction method of microwave-squeezing proposed by the authors.

  17. Development of a rapid LC-DAD/FLD method for the simultaneous determination of auxins and abscisic acid in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Renato; Caser, Matteo; Vanara, Francesca; Scariot, Valentina

    2013-11-20

    Plant hormones play a crucial role in controlling plant growth and development. These groups of naturally occurring substances trigger physiological processes at very low concentrations, which mandate sensitive techniques for their quantitation. This paper describes a method to quantify endogenous (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-propionic acid, and indole-3-butyric acid. The method combines high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array and fluorescence detection in a single run. Hybrid tea rose 'Monferrato' matrices (leaves, petals, roots, seeds, androecium, gynoecium, and pollen) were used as references. Rose samples were separated and suspended in extracting methanol, after which (±)-2-cis-4-trans-abscisic acid and auxins were extracted by solvent extraction. Sample solutions were added first to cation solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and the eluates to anion SPE cartridges. The acidic hormones were bound to the last column and eluted with 5% phosphoric acid in methanol. Experimental results showed that this approach can be successfully applied to real samples and that sample preparation and total time for routine analysis can be greatly reduced.

  18. In-house validation of an improved sample extraction and clean-up method for GC determination of isomers of nervonic acid in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Marie-Elisabeth; Bau, Andrea; Barcarolo, Robertino; Luecker, Ernst; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Anklam, Elke

    2003-06-01

    An improved extraction and clean-up method for determination of brain-specific fatty acids, in particular lignoceric acid (C24:0) and the cis/ trans isomers of nervonic acid (15 c-t C24:1), in meat products has been developed. The method is based on isolation of the polar lipids of interest from the bulk lipids by solid-phase extraction. The fatty acids, derivatised to their fatty acid methyl esters, are quantified by GC in a DB5 column. Fresh meat samples were extracted by using a mixture of n-butanol:hexane (1:9) as solvent. The extract was loaded in a silica gel cartridge column previously equilibrated with hexane. The first fraction containing the major part of the fat was eluted with hexane while acetone and methanol allowed the elution of fatty acids bound to polar moieties such as nervonic and lignoceric acids. This second fraction containing the analyte was methylated and injected into the GC for quantification after addition octacosane (C(28)) as internal standard.

  19. Solid Phase Micro-extraction (SPME) with In Situ Transesterification: An Easy Method for the Detection of Non-volatile Fatty Acid Derivatives on the Insect Cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbandner, Stephan; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Triacylglycerides (TAGs) and other non-volatile fatty acid derivatives (NFADs) occur in large amounts in the internal tissues of insects, but their presence on the insect cuticle is controversially discussed. Most studies investigating cuticular lipids of insects involve solvent extraction, which implies the risk of extracting lipids from internal tissues. Here, we present a new method that overcomes this problem. The method employs solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) to sample NFADs by rubbing the SPME fiber over the insect cuticle. Subsequently, the sampled NFADs are transesterified in situ with trimethyl sulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) into more volatile fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), which can be analyzed by standard GC/MS. We performed two types of control experiments to enable significant conclusions: (1) to rule out contamination of the GC/MS system with NFADs, and (2) to exclude the presence of free fatty acids on the insect cuticle, which would also furnish FAMEs after TMSH treatment, and thus might simulate the presence of NFADs. In combination with these two essential control experiments, the described SPME technique can be used to detect TAGs and/or other NFADs on the insect cuticle. We analyzed six insect species from four insect orders with our method and compared the results with conventional solvent extraction followed by ex situ transesterification. Several fatty acids typically found as constituents of TAGs were detected by the SPME method on the cuticle of all species analyzed. A comparison of the two methods revealed differences in the fatty acid compositions of the samples. Saturated fatty acids showed by trend higher relative abundances when sampled with the SPME method, while several minor FAMEs were detected only in the solvent extracts. Our study suggests that TAGs and maybe other NFADs are far more common on the insect cuticle than usually thought.

  20. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.

  1. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  2. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol, in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland, for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05. The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.

  3. Amino acid distribution in meteorites: diagenesis, extraction methods, and standard metrics in the search for extraterrestrial biosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene D; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C

    2006-02-01

    The relative abundance of the protein amino acids has been previously investigated as a potential marker for biogenicity in meteoritic samples. However, these investigations were executed without a quantitative metric to evaluate distribution variations, and they did not account for the possibility of interdisciplinary systematic error arising from inter-laboratory differences in extraction and detection techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and stochastic probabilistic artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to compare the distributions for nine protein amino acids previously reported for the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, Mars meteorites (ALH84001, Nakhla, and EETA79001), prebiotic synthesis experiments, and terrestrial biota and sediments. These techniques allowed us (1) to identify a shift in terrestrial amino acid distributions secondary to diagenesis; (2) to detect differences in terrestrial distributions that may be systematic differences between extraction and analysis techniques in biological and geological laboratories; and (3) to determine that distributions in meteoritic samples appear more similar to prebiotic chemistry samples than they do to the terrestrial unaltered or diagenetic samples. Both diagenesis and putative interdisciplinary differences in analysis complicate interpretation of meteoritic amino acid distributions. We propose that the analysis of future samples from such diverse sources as meteoritic influx, sample return missions, and in situ exploration of Mars would be less ambiguous with adoption of standardized assay techniques, systematic inclusion of assay standards, and the use of a quantitative, probabilistic metric. We present here one such metric determined by sequential feature extraction and normalization (PCA), information-driven automated exploration of classification possibilities (HCA), and prediction of classification accuracy (ANNs).

  4. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  5. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  6. Optimization of the Acetic Acid method for microfossil extraction from lithified carbonate rocks: Examples from the Jurassic and Miocene of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Septriandi; Malik, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Babalola, Lamidi

    2016-04-01

    We report the first ever use of the acetic acid processing method for the extraction of microfossils from indurated limestones in Saudi Arabia. Two different limestone samples from Middle Jurassic and Middle Miocene formation in Saudi Arabia were tested under different concentrations of acid from 50% to 100% and with processing times from 2 hours to 10 hours, in an attempt to optimize the processing methodology. The recovery of acid residues shows a similar trend for both Jurassic and Miocene samples. The weight percentage of residue particle size > 1 mm decreases as acid concentration increases, especially in the 50 to 80% acid concentration range, and the weight percentage of the smallest size particles >0.063 mm increases as acid concentration increases. The small fraction of residue between 0.50 - 0.063 mm was split into 3 g subsamples and picked for microfossils in order to assess their preservation. All concentrations of acetic acid tested show promising results for both the Jurassic Dhruma and Miocene Dam formation carbonates. Higher acid concentrations with longer reaction times yield better recovery than higher concentrations with less reaction time. Based on our experiment, we recommended a 60% concentration of acetic acid to be the optimal concentration for use on routine micropaleontological samples of Saudi Arabian carbonate rocks. By lowering the concentration of acetic acid from 80% to 60%, the consumption of acid is reduced without compromising the recovery of microfossils, and the sample can be processed in a more environmentally friendly manner.

  7. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  8. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  9. Evaluation of an automated high-volume extraction method for viral nucleic acids in comparison to a manual procedure with preceding enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, M K; Schmidt, M; Seifried, E; Roth, W K

    2005-08-01

    Nucleic acid extraction still harbours the potential for improvements in automation and sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) testing. This study evaluates the feasibility of a novel automated high-volume extraction protocol for NAT minipool testing in a blood bank setting. The chemagic Viral DNA/RNA Kit special for automated purification of viral nucleic acids from 9.6 ml of plasma by using the chemagic Magnetic Separation Module I was investigated. Analytical sensitivity for hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and parvovirus B19 (B19) was compared to our present manual procedure that involves virus enrichment by centrifugation. Chemagic technology allows automation of the viral DNA/RNA extraction process. Viral nucleic acids were bound directly to magnetic beads from 9.6-ml minipools. By combining the automated magnetic beads-based extraction technology with our in-house TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, 95% detection limits were 280 IU/ml for HCV, 4955 IU/ml for HIV-1, 249 IU/ml for HBV, 462 IU/ml for HAV and 460 IU/ml for B19, calculated for an individual donation in a pool of 96 donors. The detection limits of our present method were 460 IU/ml for HCV, 879 IU/ml for HIV-1, 90 IU/ml for HBV, 203 IU/ml for HAV and 314 IU/ml for B19. The 95% detection limits obtained by using the chemagic method were within the regulatory requirements for blood donor screening. The sensitivities detected for HCV, HBV, HAV and B19 were found to be in a range similar to that of the manual purification method. Sensitivity for HIV-1, however, was found to be inferior for the chemagic method in this study.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyadist Vongsak; Pongtip Sithisarn; Wandee Gritsanapan

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. ...

  11. 内部沸腾法提取叶下珠没食子酸%Extraction of Gallic Acid from Phyllanthus urinaria by Inner Ebullition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝峻峰; 刘琨

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To optimize extraction process of gallic acid from Phyllanthus urinaria by inner ebullition method. Method: With a small amount of ethanol as wetting agent to soak power of P. urinaria, gallic acid was resolved fully, added a certain amount of heat extraction agent to make ethanol boiling which penetrated into internal organization of P. Urinaria, enhanced extraction technology. Orthogonal test was used with the concentration of ethanol, resolution time, the amount of ethanol, extraction time and extraction temperature as factors, the content of gallic acid was determined by HPLC. Result: Optimized extraction technology of gallic acid from P. urinaria by inner ebullition method was as follows: resolved 30 min with 1. 6 times the amount of 60% ethanol, extracted IS min at 80 t. Conclusion; Under this optimized technology conditions, yield of gallic acid was 0. 970% , and it had good application prospect.%目的:优选内部沸腾法提取叶下珠没食子酸工艺条件.方法:用少量乙醇溶液为解吸剂润湿叶下珠粉末,使没食子酸充分解吸,加一定量热提取剂,使渗透到叶下珠组织内部的乙醇沸腾,强化提取过程.选取乙醇体积分数、解吸时间、乙醇用量、提取时间和提取温度等5个因素,4水平进行正交试验,采用高效液相色谱法测定没食子酸含量.结果:内部沸腾法提取叶下珠没食子酸的最佳工艺条件为1.6倍量60%乙醇解吸30 min,80℃提取15 min.结论:在最佳提取工艺条件下,叶下珠没食子酸提取得率可达0.970%,该法有较好的应用前景.

  12. 液膜法提取绿原酸的实验研究%Experimental Research of Extracting Chlorogenic Acid by Liquid Membrane Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祝; 肖诗英; 万端极

    2011-01-01

    采用液膜法提取杜仲叶中绿原酸,通过正交实验对液膜制备工艺和绿原酸提取工艺进行了研究.结果表明,液膜制备的最佳工艺条件为:NaOH浓度4 mol·L-1、吐温-20质量分数8%、搅拌速度350 r·min-1 ;绿原酸提取的最佳工艺条件为:混合时间8 min、乳水比1 ∶ 2、搅拌速度100 r·min-1、油内比3∶1.液膜法实现了对绿原酸的提取和浓缩,为进一步开发利用绿原酸提供了依据.%Chlorogenic acid was extracted from Eucommia leaves by liquid membrane method. The preparation conditions of liquid membrane and the extraction conditions of chlorogenic acid were optimized by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum preparation conditions of liquid membrane were as follows: NaOH concentration of 4 mol · L-1 ,Tween-20 mass fraction of 8%, stirring speed of 350 r · Min-1 ,the optimum extraction conditions of chlorogenic acid were as follows:the mixing time of 8 min,the emulsion/external-phase ratio of 1 : 2,stirring speed of 100 r · Min-1 ,the oil/internal-phase ratio of 3:1. By liquid membrane method,the chlorogenic acid was extracted and concentrated successfully,and provided a basis for exploiting chlorogenic acid.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyadist Vongsak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100–500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts.

  15. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT, oolong tea (OT, green tea (GT, spent black tea (SBT, spent oolong tea (SOT and spent green tea (SGT. Theextraction experiment were carried out by the conventional solid-liquid method, using boiling water (100ºC and 50% ethanol concentration, with extraction period of 5 minutes. The influence of these extraction methods on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. Flavanoid, gallic acid, caffeine and four catechins (catechin (C, gallocatechin (GCG, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found in all of the extracts and were quantified by utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis tool. GT extraction using 50% ethanol concentration was found to be the most suitable method to produce an extract with high content of phenolic compounds ( 186.83 mg GAE/100 g tea and high antioxidant activities (FRAP of 3814.29 μmol Fe(II/g, simultaneously. The results shown that GT had higher total flavanoids value at 347.67 mg CEQ/g followed by OT (295.00 mg CEQ/g and than the BT (187.33 mg CEQ/g. The analytical HPLC results obtained also indicated that GT contained higher amount of catechins than OT, BT, SGT, SOT and SBT due to fermentation process during the tea manufacturing, which reduces the levels of catechin significantly. All four catechins were detected in GT. However, epicatechin, and gallocatecin gallate are the major catechin present in SGT.

  16. Cloud point extraction-HPLC method for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of aristolochic acids in rat plasma after oral administration of Aristolochiae Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Huang, Qun; Wu, Jiangang; Yuan, Jinbin; Yang, Gaihong; Yan, Zhihong; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-03-15

    Based on cloud-point extraction (CPE), a high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the determination of aristolochic acids (AAs) in rat plasma after oral administration of Aristolochiae Fructus (AF). Non-ionic surfactant Genapol X-080, an environmentally friendly solvent, was used for the micelle-mediated extraction. Various influencing factors on CPE process were investigated and optimized. AAs were extracted from rat plasma after adding 1ml of 4.5% (v/v) surfactant in the presence of 0.2mol/l HCl and 20mg NaCl, and the incubation temperature and time were 50°C and 10min, respectively. Base-line separation was obtained for the AAs in rat plasma with the optimized chromatography conditions. The detection limits (LOD) reached downward 10ng/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7.8%, the accuracies were within ±5.5%, and the average recovery factors were in the range of 94.5-105.4%. In comparison with liquid-liquid extraction, the CPE method has a considerable LOD and higher recoveries. The proposed CPE-HPLC method was specific, sensitive and reliable, and could be an effective tool for the determination of AAs in biological matrixes. With the method the pharmacokinetics of AAs were investigated successfully after oral administration of AF by rats.

  17. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  18. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  19. Development of a novel immunobiosensor method for the rapid detection of okadaic acid contamination in shellfish extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Nuria M; Stewart, Linda; Fodey, Terry; Higgins, H Cowan; Velasco, María Luisa R; Botana, Luis M; Elliott, Christopher T

    2007-09-01

    The mouse bioassay is the methodology that is most widely used to detect okadaic acid (OA) in shellfish samples. This is one of the best-known toxins, and it belongs to the family of marine biotoxins referred to as the diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSP). Due to animal welfare concerns, alternative methods of toxin detection are being sought. A rapid and specific biosensor immunoassay method was developed and validated for the detection of OA. An optical sensor instrument based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon was utilised. A polyclonal antibody to OA was raised against OA-bovine thyroglobulin conjugate and OA-N-hydroxy succinimide ester was immobilised onto an amine sensor chip surface. The assay parameters selected for the analysis of the samples were: antibody dilution, 1/750; ratio of antibody to standard, 1:1; volume of sample injected, 25 microl min(-1); flow rate, 25 microl min(-1). An assay action limit of 126 ng g(-1) was established by analysing of 20 shellfish samples spiked with OA at the critical concentration of 160 ng g(-1), which is the action limit established by the European Union (EU). At this concentration of OA, the assay delivered coefficient of variations (CVs) of biosensor method were compared with the values obtained by LC-MS in contaminated shellfish samples, the correlation between the two analytical methods was found to be highly satisfactory (r(2) = 0.991).

  20. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Mazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms. This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters.

  1. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  2. Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related functional properties of phytic acid extract from Kenyan local food ingredients: effects of traditional processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-01-01

    Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive effects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81-3.01 and 0.29-3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw samples revealed 59%-89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27-3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g extract of reducing power, 20%-72% of α-amylase inhibition activity and 8%-91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting improved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively.

  3. Optimization of acidic extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui NI; Qi-he CHEN; Guo-qing HE; Guang-bin WU; Yuan-fan YANG

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of a process for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acidic method was investigated,regarding several extraction factors such as acids, organic solvents, temperature and time. Fractional factorial design, central composite design and response surface methodology were used to derive a statistically optimal model, which corresponded to the following optimal condition: concentration of lactic acid at 5.55 mol/L, ratio of ethanol to yeast dry weight at 20.25 ml/g, temperature for cell-disruption at 30 ℃, and extraction time for 3 min. Under this condition, astaxanthin and the total carotenoids could be extracted in amounts of 1294.7 μg/g and 1516.0 μg/g, respectively. This acidic method has advantages such as high extraction efficiency, low chemical toxicity and no special requirement of instruments. Therefore, it might be a more feasible and practical method for industrial practice.

  4. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05. The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials.

  6. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  7. Extraction of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from a curative water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, C; Weil, L; Niessner, R

    1995-09-01

    A method for the analysis of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from water is presented. For this purpose two techniques, a C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) and a combination method of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and aminopropyl SPE, were tested. With the combination method all analytes, short-chain mono- and long-chain dicarboxylic acids, could be analysed in one approach. The C(18) SPE was not suitable for short-chain mono- but for dicarboxylic acids. Concentrations in the investigated water ranged from 315 mg/l (butanoic acid) to 2.9 mg/l (octanoic acid). Dicarboxylic acids were found from 5 mg/l (octanedioic acid) to 0.5 mg/l (dodecanedioic acid).

  8. [A new method for the disruption of cell walls of gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria on the point of nucleic acid extraction: sand method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Fikret; Kıyan, Mehmet; Karasartova, Djursun; Çalgın, M Kerem; Akhter, Shameem; Türegün Atasoy, Buse

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays molecular methods are widely used in the rapid diagnosis of infectious agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most preferred method for this purpose. Obtaining sufficient and pure DNA or RNA is important for the PCR. Different DNA extraction protocols such as phenol-chloroform, proteinase K, glass beads and boiling have been used successfully for DNA isolation from gram-negative bacteria. However since gram-positive bacteria have a thicker layer of peptidoglycan and mycobacteria have complex glycolipids in their cell walls, for the isolation of DNA or RNA from these microorganisms, the complex cell wall structure must be eliminated. For this purpose, the bacterial cell wall must be completely or partially removed forming sferoblast using lysostaphin in the Staphylococcus genus as gram-positive bacteria and using a chemical like cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide for the Mycobacterium genus. In this study, we planned to use sand particles for the mechanical elimination of the cell wall without any need for chemicals and we called this procedure as "sand method". For the purpose of DNA extraction, the fine-grained sand was washed with ddH(2)O without losing small particles and then sterilized by autoclaving. For the purpose of RNA extraction; the sand was washed with ddH(2)O, incubated for 30 minutes with 10% HCl, and then autoclaved. A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain previously isolated and identified from a clinical specimen was mixed in 100 µl Tris-EDTA buffer with 100 mg sand. The mixture of bacteria and sand was vortexed at the maximum speed for 5 minutes. The MRSA-sand mix was treated with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform, and ethanol precipitation protocol was then followed for obtaining DNA. For comparison of the sand method with the other methods, the same amount of bacteria used in the sand method was incubated for one hour with lysostaphin, and then the proteinase K DNA extraction method were completed in the same

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  10. Subcritical Water Extraction of Ursolic Acid from Hedyotis diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangzhen Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and environmental-friendly extraction method has been developed for extraction of ursolic acid (UA from Hedyotis diffusa by using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The experiments were carried out at different particle sizes (20–100 mesh, extraction temperature (120–200 °C, extraction time (10–50 min, solvent/solid ratio (20–40 mL/g, and extraction pressure (0.6–3.0 MPa. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize SWE conditions, and the maximum UA yield was 6.45 mg/g material. Optimal conditions are as follows: Particle size of 80 mesh, extraction temperature at 157 °C and a solvent/solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The model of experimental response was proved to predict the experimental results very well and demonstrated that UA yield was mainly depended on solvent/solid ratio, followed by particle size and temperature. The purified extract was analyzed by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS. The acquired precursor ion was m/z 455.3532, which is consistent with calculated value of UA. Furthermore, different extraction methods, including maceration extraction, heat reflux extraction, ultrasonic extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and SWE were comparatively analyzed, which indicated that SWE was a time-saving, cost-saving and environment-friendly extraction technology for extraction of UA from Hedyotis diffusa.

  11. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  12. A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-10-01

    Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P methods or predictions based on calibrations, the AID of total FA and ATTD of EE can also be estimated directly from ATR FT-IR spectra, provided the ratio of marker in the diet and undigested residue is known.

  13. Overproduction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Costa,Cecília Ladeira; Colli Badino,Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavulanic acid is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor produced as a secondary metabolite by the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is chemically unstable; therefore, it is degraded during bacterial cultivation. In this work, the adsorbents clinoptilolite, activated carbon, calcined hydrotalcite, and Amberlite IRA 400 anionic exchange resin were studied in terms of their ability to adsorb clavulanic acid during extractive fermentation, in order to prevent pro...

  14. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ketone (MIBK) extractable yellow nickel(II)-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through ... The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its ...... Farahani, G.H.N.; Zakaria, Z.; Kuntom, A.; Omar, D.; Ismail, B.S. Adv. Environ.

  15. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  17. 不同提取方法测定野马追药材中绿原酸含量比较研究%Comparative Study of Different Extraction Methods to Determine Chlorogenic Acid Content in YMZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔伟伟; 范永春

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the YMZ in the content determination of chlorogenic acid in the extraction methods and quality control of chlorogenic acid standards.Methods: High performance liquid chromatography to compare the different extraction methods, extraction solvent, extraction time and solvent consumption wild chase determination of chlorogenic acid content of herbs.Results: The use of ultrasonic extraction method to recover the herbs in chlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid by HPLC with sampling in the 0.0908~1.362 μ g (r = 0.9999 )showed a good linear relationship between the average recovery was 100.12%, RSD 1.31%.Conclusion: The ultrasonic extraction of chlorogenic acid content was determined by high performance liquid method is simple and can be used for quality control of the medicine.%目的:研究野马追药材中绿原酸含量测定的前提取方法及绿原酸含量的质控标准.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,比较了不同的提取方法、提取溶媒、提取时间和溶媒用量测定野马追药材中绿原酸含量.结果:采用超声提取方法提取野马追药材中绿原酸,且绿原酸高效液相法测定进样量在0.0908~1.362μg(r=0.9999)间呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为100.12%,RSD为1.31%.结论:绿原酸超声提取方法和高效液相测定含量方法简便,可用于该药材的质量控制.

  18. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  19. An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Kaal, E.; Horsting, I.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing ‘Micro-extraction in packed sorbent’ (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve

  20. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  1. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  2. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  3. Fast determination of bioactive phytic acid and pyrophosphate in walnuts using microwave accelerated extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; He, Liu; Valiente, Manuel; López-Mesas, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Bioactive compounds phytic acid (IP6) and pyrophosphate (PPi) are minor components of walnuts with the ability of being inhibitors of urolithiasis, among others. Since simultaneous analysis of IP6 and PPi have known drawbacks, a new method to determine their content in walnuts has been developed with emphasis on their extraction from walnuts by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Acid content of extracting solvent, extraction time and temperature were optimized. After extraction, compounds were purified by selective adsorption/desorption on an anion exchange solid phase extraction and analyzed by inductive coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A mixture of H2SO4 and HCl as solvent to extract both, IP6 and PPi, provided results slightly higher than those determined by conventional extraction with no statistical difference. The possible hydrolysis of phytic acid by MAE was analyzed. Compared with the conventional acid extraction method, significant improvement is achieved by the MAE method reducing extraction time from 3h to 10min.

  4. Study on Extraction Conditions of Ultrasonic Microwave Synergistic Extraction Method of Cichoric Acid%超声微波协同萃取法提取菊苣酸条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英超; 王蕾; 金红; 李秋闯; 杨孝丽

    2015-01-01

    Studing on optimum extraction conditions of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea with ultrasonic microwave extraction. Using the fresh Echinacea root, exploring the concentration of ethanol,extraction time, microwave power,ratio of material to liquid and other factors on the content of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea, and adopting the optimization extraction conditions by orthogonal test. The results showed that the concentration of 50%ethanol,solid-liquid ratio 1∶25 g/mL,microwave power 300 W,one times extraction and extraction times of 660 s as the best extraction conditions. Three groups of parallel test under the optimum condition were conducted, the average content of cichoric acid was 158.4μg/g.%利用超声微波协同萃取对紫锥菊中菊苣酸最佳提取条件进行研究。采用新鲜的紫锥菊根部,考察乙醇浓度、微波提取时间、微波提取功率、料液比等因素对紫锥菊中菊苣酸提取含量的影响,并采用正交试验优化提取条件。结果表明:浓度为50%乙醇、料液比1∶25 g/mL、微波提取时间660 s、微波提取功率300 W和提取次数为1次为最佳提取条件。在最佳提取条件下进行了3组平行验证试验,得到菊苣酸平均含量为158.4μg/g。

  5. Hplc analysis of phenolic acids in mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water extracts were obtained by extraction of mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L. The total phenolic content in extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The 1-butanol extract had the highest phenolic content (296.00 mg/g. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to define qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic acids in mountain germander extracts. The largest number of phenolic acids were determined in ethyl acetate and 1-butanol extracts, while these acids were not present in petroleum ether extract. The highest content of phenolic acids (28.619 mg/g had ethyl acetate extract and gentisic acid (14.432 mg/g was its major component. Despite of a large number of phenolic acids in 1-butanol extract their content was only 3.740 mg/g.

  6. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  7. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

  8. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  10. Determining the best extractant and extraction conditions for fulvic acid through qualitative and quantitative analysis of vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Shabnani Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid is a natural tampon and an appropriate chelating agent that has high ion-exchange ability and increasing absorption of minerals in plants. This paper examined the effects of extractants (sodium hydroxide, sodium polyphosphate, urea and EDTA and the extraction time (1, 7 and 9 days on the physicochemical properties of vermicompost-produced fulvic acid. Finally, various methods were compared to the universal method of humic substances. Different qualitative and quantitative analysis such as detecting the functional groups (FTIR, measurement of functional groups, spectrophotometric ratios and humification indices were carried out on fulvic acid. Results showed that the highest and lowest amounts of fulvic acid were extracted by the sodium hydroxide and urea, respectively. Various extractants made negligible changes in the type and quality of the Fulvic acid functional groups. Results indicated that sodium hydroxide was the best extractant and the minimum amounts of fulvic acid were extracted by the urea. Urea-extracted fulvic acid had the most functional groups of total acidity and phenolic OH. The most carboxyl functional groups and spectrophotometric ratios were detected in EDTA solution. At the end, by the comparison of various methods, universal method despite the low extraction amount had more functional groups and higher efficiencies compare to others.

  11. Determination of Ferulic Acid with RP-HPLC Method in Oral Solution Containing Extract of Ferula Assafoetida L. and Viscum Album L.

    OpenAIRE

    Slavkovska, Jasmina; Shishovska, Maja; Doneva, Dragica; Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Starkoska, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Ferula assafoetida L. is a medicinal plant widely used in the traditional medicine. Roots of Asafoetida, produces natural antiviral drug compounds that kill the swine flu virus, H1N1. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a RP-HPLC method for quality control of commercially available oral solution containing extract of Ferula assafoetida L. and Viscum album L. Determination of the content of Ferula assafoetida L. extract in the oral solution was made by determination of ferulic ac...

  12. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  13. Study on the extraction technology of gallic acid from Penthorum chinense by orthogonal-test method%正交试验法研究赶黄草中没食子酸的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波涛; 吴雪钗; 廖钦

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To optimize the extraction technology of gallic acid from Penthorum chinense. METHODS Theorthogonal - test method was adopted to research the effects of 4 methods,including the water bath , ultrasonic wave water bath,leakageand decoction, on the yielding rate of gallic acid from Penthorum chinense. The content of gallic acid was deteminated by HPLC.RESULTS The optimum technology of extracting gallic acid from Penthorum chinense was leakage using 50% alcohol with a volumeratio of 1 : 15(solid : solvent). CONCLUSION The extraction process is suitable for practical use.%目的 研究赶黄草中没食子酸的最佳提取条件.方法 采用水浴、超声水浴、渗漉、煎煮等方法提取,正交试验优选,用HPLC法测定没食子酸.结果 赶黄草的最佳提取条件为:在50%乙醇、1∶15的固液体积比条件下,以3秒1滴的速度渗漉.结论 所建工艺稳定、可行.

  14. Development and validation of high liquid performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yu-Liang; Liu, Yang; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-07-15

    A specific and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), using a gradient mobile phase system of water-methanol (0.05% formic acid). The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning via electrospray ionization source operating in the negative ionization mode. The linear range was 1-1,000 ng/mL for geniposidic acid and 0.2-200 ng/mL for aucubin, respectively. The accuracy (relative error, R.E.%) were between -5.40 and 5.00%, while the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7.95 and 7.87% for the two analytes, respectively. The method was fully validated for the sensitivity, selectivity, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Then this method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid and aucubin after oral administration of Du-zhong tea extract to rats and the results indicated that this HPLC-MS/MS assay is a valuable method for the pharmacokinetic study of geniposidic acid and aucubin in rat plasma.

  15. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in river water by solid-phase extraction on activated charcoal cartridges and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Method performance characteristics and estimation of the uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J

    2013-04-03

    A new sample preparation procedure to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA, nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA, and cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid, CDTA) in river water is described. The procedure consists of the solid-phase extraction of the aminopolycaroxyllic acids on activated charcoal cartridges after increasing the ionic strength and acidifying the sample. The extract was eluted with methanol and the analytes were methylated in presence of BF3/methanol to determine them by GC with mass spectrometric detection. Recoveries were higher than 90% with good repeatabilities and inter-day precision for concentrations close to quantification limits (about 10 μg L(-1)) and higher. It has been verified that the proposed method is robust according to the Youden and Steiner test and free of matrix effects arisen from the presence of organic matter and iron(III) as deduced from statistical tests. A bottom-up approach was followed to estimate the uncertainty of the measured concentration. At concentrations close to 10 μg L(-1) the most relevant step of the method is the calculus of the interpolated concentration which has a high value of relative standard uncertainty.

  16. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  17. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen) and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen)/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and...

  18. Characteristic of synergistic extraction of oxalic acid with system from rare earth metallurgical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU

    2010-01-01

    Large amount of high concentration acidic wastewater would be produced in the conversion process of chloride rare earth into oxide rare earth.It was a mixed solution of oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid,so the recycling use was very difficult.The method of liquid-liquid extraction was proposed in this paper to achieve wastewater treatment and reclamation.The mechanism of extraction of oxalic acid from the wastewater with the systems of 50% TOB+45% kerosene and 5% 2-ethyl hexanol was investigated.The composition and structure of the extracted species and the establishment of the mathematical model of the oxalic acid extraction were determined by the use of saturation method,equimolar series method.The results showed that extraction of oxalic acid by TOB was a neutral association extraction,oxalic acid existed mainly in a molecular form in the organic phase,and the extraction combination ratio was 2:1.The duality extraction system composed of extractant TOB and TOC had synergistic extraction effect on oxalic acid and chlorhydric acid,and the extraction dislribution ratio was improved greatly.The optimum volume fiaction of TOB was 0.6-0.8.

  19. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  20. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  1. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncero, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2 and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses. The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.En este trabajo se revisan los métodos de extracción del aceite de almendra virgen y su composición química. Los métodos más habituales para la obtención del aceite son la extracción con disolventes, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (CO2 y los sistemas de presión (prensas hidráulica y de tornillo. El mayor rendimiento industrial, pero también la peor calidad de los aceites, se consigue mediante el uso de disolventes. Además, los aceites obtenidos por este método no se pueden considerar vírgenes, pues se obtienen por medio de tratamientos químicos. La extracción con fluidos supercríticos da lugar a aceites de mayor calidad pero a un precio muy elevado. La extracción mediante prensado se convierte en la mejor opción de extracción, al conseguir aceites de alta calidad a un precio asequible. En cuanto a su composición química, el aceite de almendra se caracteriza por su bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados y el predominio de los monoinsaturados, en

  2. Multicentre validation study of nucleic acids extraction from FFPE tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Hlubek, Falk; Benhattar, Jean; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Fernandez, Pedro L; Höfler, Gerald; Kothmaier, Hannelore; Kruslin, Bozo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Perren, Aurel; Popper, Helmuth; Scarpa, Aldo; Soares, Paula; Stanta, Giorgio; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2010-09-01

    In most pathology laboratories worldwide, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples are the only tissue specimens available for routine diagnostics. Although commercial kits for diagnostic molecular pathology testing are becoming available, most of the current diagnostic tests are laboratory-based assays. Thus, there is a need for standardized procedures in molecular pathology, starting from the extraction of nucleic acids. To evaluate the current methods for extracting nucleic acids from FFPE tissues, 13 European laboratories, participating to the European FP6 program IMPACTS (www.impactsnetwork.eu), isolated nucleic acids from four diagnostic FFPE tissues using their routine methods, followed by quality assessment. The DNA-extraction protocols ranged from homemade protocols to commercial kits. Except for one homemade protocol, the majority gave comparable results in terms of the quality of the extracted DNA measured by the ability to amplify differently sized control gene fragments by PCR. For array-applications or tests that require an accurately determined DNA-input, we recommend using silica based adsorption columns for DNA recovery. For RNA extractions, the best results were obtained using chromatography column based commercial kits, which resulted in the highest quantity and best assayable RNA. Quality testing using RT-PCR gave successful amplification of 200 bp-250 bp PCR products from most tested tissues. Modifications of the proteinase-K digestion time led to better results, even when commercial kits were applied. The results of the study emphasize the need for quality control of the nucleic acid extracts with standardised methods to prevent false negative results and to allow data comparison among different diagnostic laboratories.

  3. Study on Extraction of Ferulic Acid from Allium cepa L. Peel by Ultra High Pressure Method%超高压提取洋葱皮中阿魏酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志臣; 贾义军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the optimum technology conditions of extracting ferulic acid from Allium cepa L.peel by ultra high pressure method and compare with reflux extraction method and ultrasonic wave extraction method.Method:According to the signal factor test,the L9 (34) orthogonal design is used to optimize extraction conditions.Take extraction yield of ferulic acid as index,the influence of solid to liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,UHP pressure,UHP time are studied.Result:Optimum extraction conditions are as follows:solid to liquid ratio is 1 ∶ 22 (g ∶ mL),ethanol is 75%,UHP pressure is 320 MPa and UHP time is 4 min,the yield of ferulic acid is 0.322%.Conclusion:The UHP extraction method is a suitable method with high yield and short extraction time.%目的:研究采用超高压提取洋葱皮中阿魏酸的最佳工艺条件,并且同回流提取法和超声提取法进行比较.方法:在单因素实验的基础上,采用L9(34)正交实验对超高压提取洋葱皮中阿魏酸的工艺进行优化,以阿魏酸的得率为指标,考察料液比(g∶mL)、乙醇浓度、超高压压力、加压时间对阿魏酸得率的影响.结果:得到优化的工艺条件为固液比1*22,乙醇浓度75%,超高压压力320 MPa,超高压时间4 min,该条件下阿魏酸的得率可达0.322%.结论:超高压提取阿魏酸得率高,提取时间短,是一种提取洋葱皮中阿魏酸的适宜方法.

  4. Role of modifier in microwave assisted extraction of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre: application of green extraction technology for botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C

    2009-08-01

    This work highlights the development of a green extraction technology for botanicals with the use of microwave energy. Taking into consideration the extensive time involved in conventional extraction methods, coupled with usage of large volumes of organic solvent and energy resources, an ecofriendly green method that can overcome the above problems has been developed. The work compares the effect of sample pretreatment with untreated sample for improved yield of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. The pretreated sample with water produced 0.71% w/w oleanolic acid in one extraction cycle with 500 W microwave power, 25 mL methanol and only an 8 min extraction time. On the other hand, a conventional heat reflux extraction for 6 hours could produce only 0.62% w/w oleanolic acid. The detailed mechanism of extraction has been studied through scanning electron micrographs. The environmental impact of the proposed green method has also been evaluated.

  5. 牡蛎中诺如病毒核酸两种提取方法比较%Comparison of two nucleic acid extraction methods for norovirus in oysters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁巧; 李晖; 邓小玲; 莫艳玲; 方苓; 柯昌文

    2013-01-01

    目的 寻找简便有效的更适合长期监测的牡蛎中诺如病毒核酸提取的方法.方法 通过甘氨酸聚乙二醇富集后硅胶膜离心柱法(方法A)和蛋白酶K生物消化后顺磁性硅胶基法(方法B)两种核酸提取方法,采用实时RT-PCR检测自然状态的牡蛎和人工染毒状态的牡蛎来进行比较.结果 两种方法的阳性检出率没有差异,总体比较方法B的病毒回收率高.结论 方法B优于方法A,且方法B更快捷,故方法B更适合长期监测.%Objective To explore a convenient and effective method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters suitable for long-term viral surveillance. Method Two methods, namely method A (glycine washing and polyethylene glycol precipitation of the virus followed by silica gel centrifugal column) and method B (protease K digestion followed by application of paramagnetic silicon) were compared for their performance in norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in naturally infected oysters and in oysters with induced infection. Results The two methods yielded comparable positive detection rates for the samples, but the recovery rate of the virus was higher with method B than with method A. Conclusion Method B is a more convenient and rapid method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters and suitable for long-term surveillance of norovirus.

  6. Fatty acid extraction of Thompson seedless raisin by different methods%不同方法提取无核白葡萄干中脂肪酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小梅; 李园月; 吴广枫

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To develop an effective method for the extraction of fatty acid in raisin. Methods Thompson seedless raisin was analyzed in this study, and its fatty acid composition and content were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Four extraction methods were adopted to extract the fatty acid in Thompson seedless-Sun dried raisins (TS-SD, soluble solids content is 84.69%). Results No category difference of fatty acid was detected between different methods. 16 kinds of fatty acids were determined in TS-SD, including 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 5 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. When liquid-liquid extraction-methanol (LLE-M) was used as extraction method, the total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and the fatty acid (FA) was found to be higher. Conclusion LLE-M method is an effective way to extract fatty acid in raisins, and this will contribute to the research of flavor in raisin.%目的:确立葡萄干中脂肪酸提取的有效方法。方法采用气相色谱质谱联用技术的方法,对无核白葡萄干中的脂肪酸进行了研究。采用4种提取方法,对自然晒干工艺制成的无核白葡萄干(可溶性固形物含量84.69%)进行脂肪酸种类和含量的研究。结果当采用不同提取方法时,检测到的葡萄干中的脂肪酸种类无差异,仅存在含量上的差别。无核白葡萄干中共鉴定出16种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸5种。当采用液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法提取葡萄干中脂肪酸时,不饱和脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸总含量以及脂肪酸总含量均优于其他方法提取出的脂肪酸含量。结论液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法是提取葡萄干中脂肪酸的有效方法,这为葡萄干中风味物质研究打下基础。

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  9. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Ellagic Acid from Pomegranate Peels with Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the optimal condition for extrac- tion of ellagic acid from pomegranate peels. [Method] With ellagic acid yield as an indicator, ultrasound extraction method was adopted to extract the ellagic acid from pomegranate peels, and the concentration of ellagic acid was measured by using ul- traviolet spectrophotometry; L9(34) orthogonal experiment was designed with four fac- tors at three levels, to investigate the effect of extraction temperature, extraction du- ration, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasound power on extraction rate of ellagic acid. [Re- sult] The optimal extraction condition for ellagic acid is extraction temperature of 30 ~C, solid-liquid ratio of 1:200, extraction duration of 20 min, and ultrasound power of 50 W. The relationship between primary and secondary factors affecting experimental indicators was solid-liquid ratio 〉 extraction duration 〉 ultrasound power 〉 extraction temperature. [Conclusion] Solid-liquid ratio has the maximum effect on extraction rate of ellagic acid. The ellagic acid extraction technology identified in this study is rea- sonable and feasible.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  11. Four Different Methods Comparison for Extraction of Astaxanthin from Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhao Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE, hexane/isopropanol (6 : 4, v/v mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA, methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction, and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1% and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%. Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13–35%, linoleic acid (37–43%, linolenic acid (20–31%, and total saturated acid (17–28%. DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties.

  12. Analysis of heavy metals and fluoride in vegetation by extraction with concentrated mineral acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M S

    1975-01-01

    A rapid potentiometric method for determining fluoride in vegetation is described. Recovery of flouride by extraction with concentrated mineral acids compares favourably with standard methods of analysis in terms of accuracy and precision. The procedure affords the additional advantage that several citations are also quantitatively extracted and may be determined directly in the acid digest by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  13. Extraction Behaviors of Heavy Rare Earths with Organophosphoric Extractants: The Contribution of Extractant Dimer Dissociation, Acid Ionization, and Complexation. A Quantum Chemistry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yu; Chen, Ji; Chen, Li; Su, Wenrou; Liu, Yu; Li, Deqian

    2017-03-30

    Heavy rare earths (HREs), namely Ho(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), are rarer and more exceptional than light rare earths, due to the stronger extraction capacity for 100 000 extractions. Therefore, their incomplete stripping and high acidity of stripping become problems for HRE separation by organophosphoric extractants. However, the theories of extractant structure-performance relationship and molecular design method of novel HRE extractants are still not perfect. Beyond the coordination chemistry of the HRE-extracted complex, the extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation behaviors can be crucial to HRE extraction and reactivity of ionic species for understanding and further improving the extraction performance. To address the above issues, three primary fundamental processes, including extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and HRE complexation, were identified and investigated systematically. The intrinsic extraction performances of HRE cations with four acidic organophosphoric extractants (P507, P204, P227 and Cyanex 272) were studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f core pseudopotentials, combined with density functional theory and a solvation model. Four acidic organophosphoric extractants have been qualified quantitatively from microscopic structures to chemical properties. It has been found that the Gibbs free energy changes of the overall extraction process (sequence: P204 > P227 > P507 > Cyanex 272) and their differences as a function of HREs (sequence: Ho/Er > Er/Tm > Tm/Yb > Yb/Lu) are in good agreement with the experimental maximum extraction capacities and separation factors. These results could provide an important approach to evaluate HRE extractants by the comprehensive consideration of dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation processes. This paper also demonstrates the importance of the P-O bond, the P-C bond, isomer substituent, and solvation effects on the structure

  14. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  15. Status of the Reactive Extraction as a Method of Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipaloy Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective function of a novel energy efficient fermentation technology has been getting great attention in the past fifty years due to the quick raise in petroleum costs. Fermentation chemicals are still limited in the modern market in huge part because of trouble in recovery of carboxylic acids. Therefore, it is needed considerable development in the current recovery technology. Carboxylic acids have been used as the majority of fermentation chemicals. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the reactive extraction of carboxylic acids from fermentation broths. This paper principally focuses on reactive extraction that is found to be a capable option to the proper recovery methods.

  16. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based...... on boiling of the feed sample in 3 M HCl followed by a filtration, drying, Soxhelet extraction of the fat with petrol ether, conversion of the fatty acids to their corresponding methyl esters and followed by GC separation. Besides being very time consuming, this method has several disadvantages, e.......g. the filtration step may allow some shorter chain free fatty acids and some phospholipids to be washed through the filter and escape the analysis. Further, during the drying step of filter paper, oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is a risk. Because of the mentioned disadvantages, a new method ("HCl...

  17. A UPLC-MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Geniposidic Acid, Two Lignans and Phenolics in Rat Plasma and its Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies of Eucommia ulmoides Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Gong, Zipeng; Cao, Xu; Wang, Yonglin; Wang, Aimin; Zheng, Lin; Huang, Yong; Lan, Yanyu

    2016-10-01

    The bark of Eucommia ulmoides is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine that is used to regulate blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and fats, as well as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. Here we describe the development of a sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum method for the simultaneous determination of five major active ingredients of E. ulmoides bark extract, namely, geniposidic acid (GA), protocatechuic acid (PCA), chlorogenic acid (CA), (+)-pinoresinol di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PDG) and (+)-pinoresinol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PG), in rat plasma. The preliminary steps in the plasma analysis were the addition of an internal standard and acidification (0.1 % formic acid), followed by protein precipitation with methanol. Separation of the active ingredients was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm; internal diameter 1.7 µm) at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min, with acetonitrile/water containing 0.1 % formic acid as the mobile phase. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer via electrospray ionization source with positive and negative ionization modes. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.997) over the concentration range with the low limit of quantification between 4.45 and 54.9 ng/mL. Precision was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and the percentages of the relative standard deviation were all within 15 %. Extraction efficiency and matrix effect were 84.3-102.4 % and 98.1-112.2 %, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of E. ulmoides extract. The results indicate that the pharmacokinetic properties of GA differ from those of PCA, CA, PDG and PG, respectively.

  18. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  19. Novel extractants for the recovery of fermentation derived lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Leeman, M.; Vossebeld, F.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive liquid–liquid extraction is a promising technology for the removal of lactic acid directly from fermentation media. For over five decades, tertiary amines (e.g. trioctyl amine) have been the state-of-the-art extractants for carboxylic acid extraction. However, to make fermentative carboxyli

  20. A UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six flavonoids, gallic acid and 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Zhao, Longshan; Zuo, Lihua; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Pan; Hou, Xiaohong

    2014-05-01

    Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae is used as a folk remedy for treating cancer, diarrhea and dysentery in traditional Chinese medicine for many years. Six flavonoids (myricitrin, quercitrin, taxifolin, myricetin, quercetin and naringenin), gallic acid and 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone are major bioactive components in Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae extract. In this study, an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight ingredients in rat plasma using chloromycetin as an internal standard. Plasma samples added vitamin C (antioxygen) were acidified with hydrochloric acid and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Eight ingredients were separated on a Venusil ASB C18 column and detected by multiple reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization in the negative ion mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9900. The validated lower limit of quantification was 20ng/mL for gallic acid, 5ng/mL for myricitrin, 3ng/mL for quercitrin, 10ng/mL for taxifolin, 6ng/mL for myricetin, 3ng/mL for quercetin, 2ng/mL for naringenin and 1μg/mL for 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were less than 15% and accuracy (RE%) ranged from -6.9% to 6.9%. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the eight analytes after oral administration of Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae extract to rats.

  1. Comparison of DNA and RNA extraction methods for mummified tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konomi, Nami; Lebwohl, Eve; Zhang, David

    2002-12-01

    Nucleic acids extracted from mummified tissues are valuable materials for the study of ancient human beings. Significant difficulty in extracting nucleic acids from mummified tissues has been reported due to chemical modification and degradation. The goal of this study was to determine a method that is more efficient for DNA and RNA extraction from mummified tissues. Twelve mummy specimens were analyzed with 9 different nucleic acid extraction methods, including guanidium thiocyanate (GTC) and proteinase K/detergent based methods prepared in our laboratory or purchased. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase DNA and beta-actin RNA were used as markers for the presence of adequate DNA and RNA, respectively, for PCR and RT-PCR amplification. Our results show that 5 M GTC is more efficient of releasing nucleic acids from mummified tissue than proteinase K/detergent, and phenol/chloroform extraction with an additional chloroform step is more efficient than phenol/chloroform along. We were able to isolate DNAs from all 12 specimens and RNAs from 8 of 12 specimens, and the nucleic acids were sufficient for PCR and RT-PCR analysis. We further tested hepatitis viruses including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis G virus, and TT virus DNA, and fail to detect these viruses in all 12 specimens.

  2. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  3. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  4. Determination of 2-, 3-, 4-methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids in wine: development of a selective method based on solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and its application to different wines and alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-02-13

    A method to analyse 2-methylpentanoic, 3-methylpentanoic and 4-methylpentanoic acids as well as cyclohexanecarboxylic acid has been developed and applied to wine and other alcoholic beverages. Selective isolation with solid phase extraction, derivatization with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide at room temperature for 30 minutes, and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode provides detection limits between 0.4 and 2.4 ng/L. Good linearity up to 3.6 μg/L, satisfactory reproducibility (RSD<10%) and signal recovery of around 100% represent a robust method of analysis. Concentration data of these analytes in wine and other alcoholic beverages are reported for the first time. The levels found ranged from the method detection limits to 2630 ng/L, 2040 ng/L and 3810 ng/L for 2-, 3- and 4-methylpentanoic acids, respectively, and to 1780 ng/L for cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. There are significant differences depending on the type of wine or beverage. Distilled beverages, beer and aged wines have higher contents in methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids.

  5. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of humic acids using CUPRAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, noble metal nanoparticle- and solid-liquid extraction-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadirek, Şeyda; Kanmaz, Nergis; Balta, Zeynep; Demirçivi, Pelin; Üzer, Ayşem; Hızal, Jülide; Apak, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of humic acid (HA) samples was determined using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), FC (Folin-Ciocalteu), QUENCHER-CUPRAC, QUENCHER-FC, Ag-NP (Silver nanoparticle)‒ and Au-NP (Gold nanoparticle)‒based methods. Conventional FC and modified FC (MFC) methods were applied to solid samples. Because of decreased solubility of Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent in organic solvents, solvent effect on TAC measurement was investigated using QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay by using ethanol:distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide:distilled water with varying ratios. To see the combined effect of solubilization (leaching) and TAC measurement of humic acids simultaneously, QUENCHER experiments were performed at 25°C and 50°C; QUENCHER-CUPRAC and QUENCHER-FC methods agreed well and had similar precision in F-statistics. Although the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) of the oxidation of HA dihydroxy phenols with the test reagents were negative, the ΔG° was positive only for the reaction of CUPRAC reagent with isolated monohydric phenols, showing CUPRAC selectivity toward polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first work on the antioxidant capacity measurement of HA having a sparingly soluble matrix where enhanced solubilization of bound phenolics is achieved with coupled oxidation by TAC reagents.

  6. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  7. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  8. Optimization and comparative evaluation of nucleic acids extraction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern molecular applications have grown the need of biobanks, which contain DNA and RNA of high purety, quality, and quantity. Nucleic acid extraction methods have widely variate and evolve in time, from methods using toxic reagents to enzymatic protocols, and furthermore to DNA or RNA-binding polymers, separating membranes or highly eulogized commercially kits. In order to establish a constant, reproducible and ergonomic system in generating biobanks, we compared different available methods for the extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA, from peripheram blood or solid tumoral tissues. We evaluated the cost/effectiveness and time consumption of each method, tracking RNA/DNA quantity, quality and integrity. We imagined a “E-ratio” value to define these parameters, and a “NA- estimation” to integrate “E-ratio” with quality and integrity data.

  9. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  10. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  11. Analytical method for determination of benzene-arsenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.L.; Bayse, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensitive analytical method has been modified for use in determination of several benzenearsonic acids, including arsanilic acid (p-aminobenzenearsonic acid), Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzenearsonic acid), and p-ureidobenzene arsonic acid. Controlled acid hydrolysis of these compounds produces a quantitative yield of arsenate, which is measured colorimetrically as the molybdenum blue complex at 865 nm. The method obeys Beer's Law over the micromolar concentration range. These benzenearsonic acids are routinely used as feed additives in poultry and swine. This method should be useful in assessing tissue levels of the arsenicals in appropriate extracts.

  12. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of carbaryl in environmental samples. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... method has been developed for its determination in environmental samples viz. soil, water and ...

  13. Study on Extracting Rare Earth from Sulfate System by Long-Chain Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanhui; Zhao Zengqi; Liu Quansheng

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of rare earths by long-chain fatty acid in kerosene from sulphate system was described.It was demonstrated from the experimental results that the ratio of kerosene: fatty acid: isooctanol = 55 : 30: 15 ( V/V),By the saturation capability method and the slope method, the extracted reaction mechanism of the extraction of rare earth was studied.It is shown that the extraction reaction conform to the cation exchange reaction mechanism.The extracted sequence of rare earth was determined in this system and it is shown that there is no tetrad effect and the position of yttrium is between lanthanum and cerium.

  14. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  15. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey; Nitika Goel

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quant...

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF LACTIC ACID-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF PECTIN FROM PINEAPPLE PEEL BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD%响应面法优化乳酸辅助提取菠萝皮果胶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振峰; 施伟梅; 曾勤

    2015-01-01

    为优化乳酸辅助提取菠萝皮果胶的工艺,在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面法建立了菠萝皮果胶提取工艺的二次响应面方程。实验证实提取时间、乳酸浓度、液料比、提取温度对菠萝皮果胶提取率有不同的影响。结果表明,在实验范围内,各工艺条件对菠萝皮果胶提取率的影响大小顺序为:提取温度>乳酸浓度>提取时间>液料比。菠萝皮果胶提取的最佳工艺参数:提取时间96 min,乳酸浓度8.25%,液料比25 mL·g-1,提取温度74℃,在此条件下,菠萝皮果胶提取率达8.47%,与预测值相对误差为0.58%,验证了该模型的有效性,表明该提取工艺条件合理可行。%To well-utilized pineapple peel pectin, lactic acid-assisted extraction was applied for its extraction from pineapple peel. The single factor experiment and response surface method were used to optimize the effect of processing parameters on extraction yield of pectin such as time, lactic acid concentration, ratio of liquid to material and temperature, the different factors had different effects on the extraction yield of pectin. The results showed that the effect order of four factors on the pectin yield was as follows: temperature, lactic acid concentration, time and ratio of liquid to material. And the optimal extraction conditions of pectin from pineapple peel were: time 96 min, lactic acid concentration 8.25%, ratio of liquid to material 25 mL·g-1, temperature 74℃. The yield of pectin could be up to 8.47% under the optimal extraction condition, the relative error was 0.58% compared with the predictive value, which illustrated the feasible model fitted well with the experimental data. It showed that the conditions were reasonable and feasible.

  17. Syzygium aromaticum extracts as good source of betulinic acid and potential anti-breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae, is an evergreen tree with anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the anti-breast cancer effect of extracts from leaves, stem and bark of S. aromaticum and to develop a method for preparation of betulinic acid fraction from the leaves. Betulinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents of the extracts were determined by HPLC. A betulinic acid fraction was prepared by simple crystallization of leaves extract and was characterized by HPLC and mass analysis. Anti-breast cancer effects were studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The extracts were found to contain high levels of betulinic acid particularly the leaves extract which contained 17% wt/wt. The betulinic acid fraction contains 75% betulinic acid. Cytotoxicity testing reveals high and selective cytotoxic effect of the stem extract on MCF-7 cells with IC50 33±1.6 µg/mL. Cytotoxic effect of the stem extract was due to activation of apoptotic machinery of cell death. Combination studies of stem extract with tamoxifen reveals antagonistic effect at high concentration of tamoxifen and enhancement effect at low concentration. The selective cytotoxicity of the stem extract of S. aromaticum on MCF-7 is not due to betulinic acid but due to other constituents yet to be discovered.

  18. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  19. Improved extraction of saturated fatty acids but not omega-3 fatty acids from sheep red blood cells using a one-step extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Gulliver, Catherine E; Piltz, John W; Taylor, Robert D; Blake, Robert J; Meyer, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Several methods are available to extract total lipid and methylate fatty acids from a range of samples including red blood cells (RBC). Fatty acid analysis of human RBC can be undertaken using a two-step extraction and methylation or a combined one-step extraction and methylation procedure. The lipid composition of sheep RBC differs significantly from that of humans and may affect their extraction. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficiency of extraction of lipid and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC using a one-step procedure. Fatty acids were analysed using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure using methanol:toluene and acetyl chloride in comparison with a two-step procedure involving extraction of lipid using chloroform:methanol and separate methylation. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids including C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher (42.6 and 33.9 % respectively) following extraction using the one-step procedure compared with the two-step procedure. However, concentrations of some polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were not significantly different between either procedure. The improved detection of fatty acids may be related to the ability of different solvents to extract different lipid fractions. The differential extraction of lipids and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC may have important implications in studies examining the effect of dietary treatment on the possible health benefits of fatty acids.

  20. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  1. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  2. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  3. Effect on the Determination of Acid Value and Peroxide Value through Oil Extraction Method%油脂的提取方法对酸价和过氧化值测定的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿云光; 罗在粉

    2015-01-01

    酸价和过氧化值是判定油脂品质好坏的重要指标,食用酸价或过氧化值超标的食品对人体会造成伤害,因此多类食品都将酸价和过氧化值作为重要的卫生指标来进行检测控制。除食用油以外其他食品的检测,需要先进行油脂提取,提取过程会对油脂质量造成影响。用已知食用油模拟食品产品中油脂的提取过程,通过对提取过程中脱溶时间的长短,温度高低的设定,样品水分含量的多少对酸价、过氧化值检测结果的影响,从而总结出最佳的提取方法。%Both acid value and peroxide value are the important indexes to judge the quality of oils and fats, it is harmful for human health to eat food with excessive acid value and peroxide value, so acid value and peroxide value are the major hygiene indexes under test and control in many sorts of foods. When testing other types of food except edible oils, the extraction of oils and fats is needed first, for the process of the extraction has an influence on the quality of the oils and fats. With the procedure of simulating the extraction of the oil within food products with known edible oil, he best extraction methods can be concluded by setting the duration and temperature in the extraction process of exsolution as well as the effect that the content of sample water has on the testing result of acid value and peroxide value.

  4. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  5. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  6. Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Best developed method was used for determination of pyrethrin content in three different ... There are many areas of application of .... The extractions were made on a soxtec avanti 2055 manual system ... was automated.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum.

  9. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  10. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively.

  11. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Yan, Hongyuan; Row, Kyung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v) as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid) as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively. PMID:19325770

  12. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    OpenAIRE

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Jose L. Mazzei; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Ligia M.M. Valente

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by Hi...

  14. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  15. Synergistic extraction of praseodymium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; WU Dong-bei; BAO Bo-rong

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of Pr3+ from hydrochloric medium using mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507, HL) and 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) in heptane was investigated. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of Pr3+ was discussed. The effect of extractant concentraction, different diluents, equilibrium time and acetate ion concentration on extraction reaction were also studied. With a method of double-logarithmic slope, composition of the extracted species on 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinolinc was derived. The result shows that the synergistic extraction system not only overcomes emulsification of 8-Hydroxyquinoline, but also shows perfect capacity of synergistic extraction. The largest synergistic enhancement factor can be calculated to be 5.49 at pH 3.6 for Pr3+.

  16. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  17. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  18. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution.

  19. Extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from acidic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Songping; MENG Shuyuan; GU Guobang; ZHUANG Zhiqiang

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative-α-octyl-tetrahydrothiophene-l-oxide (OTMSO) was investigated. The extraction efficiency of palladination number was studied with slope method. The result indicates that coordination number is 2. FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of complex and coordinated atom in complex. Pd is coordinated with both oxygen and sulfur atom in S=O group in OTMSO .The situation and intensity of peaks contributed by complex prepared from various acidity were different. The recovery of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from scrap containing palladium was discussed. After silver and bismuth were removed, the feed solution was extracted three times by 40% (volume fraction) OTMSO-kerosene. The loaded organic phase was scrubbed three times,and stripped three times by 2 mol@L-1 NH3·H2O solution.The total recovery of palladium was 99.8%,and the purity of palladium was 99.8%.

  20. [Extraction of heavy metals from sewage sludge using aspartic acid and citric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Hua; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Aspartic acid, as a biodegradable natural amino acid, was used to separate and remove the heavy metals from the sewage sludge based on chemical extraction technology. Under various conditions, the extraction processes were carried out for the sewage sludge from Shanghai Taopu Municipal Wastewater Plant. The comparison of extraction between aspartic acid and citric acid was also discussed for the separation of three heavy metals from sewage sludge. The results showed that pH and the dosage of aspartic acid or citric acid had a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Zn, Ni and Cu can be apart extracted for more than 85% by aspartic acid at low pH. With the increment of pH value, the extraction ration decreased gradually for both two systems. Within the whole pH range, aspartic acid showed higher extraction efficiency for Ni, Cu than citric acid and the extraction efficiencies of aspartic acid for Ni, Cu were found to respectively be more than 50%, 40%. For the situation of Zn, citric acid had a higher extraction efficiency at pH > or = 3.0.

  1. Selective solid-phase extraction of a triterpene acid from a plant extract by molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe; Lafosse, Michel; Belmont, Anne-Sophie; Haupt, Karsten

    2008-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been prepared by a thermal polymerisation method using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent, chloroform as porogenic solvent and an oleanane triterpene compound (18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid) as imprinted molecule (template). Equilibrium ligand binding experiments were done to assess the performance of the MIP relative to non-imprinted polymer (NIP). After optimisation of SPE protocol (CHCl3 as washing solvent and MeOH as elution solvent), successful imprinting was confirmed by comparison of the recoveries between NIP (5%) and MIP (97%) cartridges. The binding capacity of the MIP for 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid was determined to be 0.94 mg g(-1). Four structurally related oleanane triterpenes (18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, erythrodiol) were selected to assess the MIP selectivity. Experimental data illustrated the influence of functional groups on the triterpene skeleton. The MIP was applied to the solid-phase extraction of triterpenoids from a plant extract prior HPLC analysis. However, CHCl3 was replaced by ACN during the washing step in order to suppress non-specific interactions due to polar matrix components. A selective extraction of 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid from hydrolyzed extract of liquorice roots was achieved with a good extraction yield (98%).

  2. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  3. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. H.

    1977-12-01

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first ..cap alpha..-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25/sup 0/C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA/sub 3/(HA)/sub 5/ and (NdA/sub 3/)/sub 2/(HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid.

  4. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μ...

  5. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Determination of organic acids in Salicornia herbacea by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Park, Dong Wha; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-02-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in Salicornia herbacea L. (Hamcho) has been developed. The optimal conditions were obtained by using a C18 SPE cartridge. By using ethanol and acetonitrile /water/ trifluoracetic acid as washing and eluting solvents, most interfering compounds originating from the hamcho matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into the HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 to 200 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for procatechuic acid, 0.2 to 400 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for caffeic acid and 0.3 to 600 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for ferulic acid, with the relative standard deviations being less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from hamcho were more than 79.2% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 microg/mL for procatechuic acid, 0.01 microg/mL for caffeic acid and 0.04 microg/mL for ferulic acid. This method is a viable alternative to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in hamcho.

  7. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail; Uthumporn Utra @ Sapina Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT), oolong tea (OT), green tea (GT), spent black tea (SBT), spent oolong tea (SOT) and spent green tea (SGT). Theextraction experi...

  8. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M., E-mail: tetyanabudnyak@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Strizhak, Alexander V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Komarov, Igor V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Tertykh, Valentin A. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid-silica gel material was prepared. • U(VI) ions are sorbed on the studied adsorbent from the acidic solution. • U(VI) ions form a stable complex with the grafted phosphinic ligand. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO{sub 2}NH{sub 2}) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176 mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166 mg/g, and the silica – 144 mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27 mg/g, the aminosilica – 16 mg/g, and the silica – 14 mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate

  10. Extraction process of chlorogenic acid in flos lonicerae by enzymatic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 赵国玲; 王晖; 章晓骅

    2002-01-01

    A new method of extracting chlorogenic acid from flos lonicerae, and treating the materials with enzyme before being extracted by ethanol is developed, and the optimum conditions are also investigated in detail. Three important factors, enzyme dosage, treatment time and treatment temperature are adapted to optimize the extraction process. The experimental results show that the extract yield of flos lonicerae and chlorogenic acid can be obviously increased by the cellulase treatment, 61.5 mg chlorogenic acid is obtained from 1.00 g flos lonicerae at most. The optimal temperature of enzymatic treatment is 40-50 ℃. Compared with the use of single cellulase, the combined treatment of cellulase and pectinase increase the extract yield obviously but fail to improve that of chlorogenic acid.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  12. Chromium Extraction from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHU Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    An environmentally benign biodegradable chelant,polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),was used to separate heavy metals from sewage sludge from the Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant,China,based on chemical extraction technology.The extraction of chromium (Cr) from sewage sludge with an aqueous solution of PESA was studied under various conditions.It was found that the extraction of Cr using PESA was more efficient than that using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) under similar conditions.PESA was capable of extracting Cr from the sewage sludge,and the extraction efficiency was obviously dependent on both the pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing pH,and the dependence on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.The extraction efficiency reached 58% under conditions of pH =4 and a ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.The extraction efficiency was maintained above 40% within the pH range from 1 to 7 at the high ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.Comparing the contents of heavy metals in the sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cr came mainly from the reducible and oxidizable fractions.

  13. Solvent extraction of vanadium from sulfuric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingyu; ZHANG Guiqing; WANG Xuewen; ZHANG Jialiang

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of vanadium(V) extracted from sulfuric acid solution was investigated using Cyanex 923 as an cxtractant. The effects of the concentration of Cyanex 923 and the pH of the solution were studied. The extraction of vanadium(V) increases with the increase of Cyanex 923 concentration and shaking time. Cyanex 923 can extract vanadium(V) fi'om sulfuric acid solution at low pH conditions, and the best pH conditions for exuaction of vanadium(V) are at pH 1.0-2.0. The species extracted into the organic phase is VO2HSO4 with one molecule of Cyanex 923. Equilibrium studies were used to assess the extraction efficiency of vanadium(V) recovery from the sulfuric acid solution.

  14. Optimization of Method to Extract Collagen from "Emperor" Tissue of Soft-shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Sawashi, Yuki; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some Asian countries, and parts of this turtle contain abundant collagen. In this study, we optimized a method for extracting collagen from the soft-shelled turtle. We used three types of solvent and four extraction conditions to determine an effective collagen extraction method, which was extraction at 37°C with acetic acid after hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Next, we extracted collagen from three regions in the soft-shelled turtle: muscle, skin, and an area of soft tissue in the periphery of the turtle shell known in Japan and China as the "emperor." We determined that emperor tissue yielded the highest concentration and purity of collagen. We then optimized the pretreatment method for extraction from emperor tissue by using formic acid instead of hydrochloric acid, and the amount of extracted collagen increased by approximately 1.3-fold. Finally, we identified the optimal solvent out of four types of organic acid for collagen extraction from emperor tissue; the amount of extracted collagen from emperor tissue increased approximately 3-fold when citric acid was used as the extraction solvent instead of acetic acid. Emperor tissue can regenerate; thus, it is possible to obtain collagen from the emperor repeatedly without killing the turtle. Our findings suggest that the emperor tissue of softshelled turtles may be a good source of collagen for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  15. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  16. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  17. Preparation of low nucleic acid yeast extract by a mesotherm/light-salt method%中温淡盐法制备低核酸酵母抽提物的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 黄丽娜; 邱丽娟

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel mesotherm/light-salt method for the removal of nucleic acid , the high quality , low nucleic acid yeast extract was successfully prepared .This technique was simple and short in processing time under 70℃.By using low amount of sodium chlo-ride, desalting is not required.Moreover, content of nucleic acid was reduced by over 70%.Further more, the yeast product had a light color with a tasty meat flavor , suitable for food processing .In addition , this technique produced a high-yield high-purity nucleic acid byproduct .Mesotherm/light-salt technique broadened the application field of yeast extract products , provided a solution for obtai-ning safe and nutritious yeast products to individuals with uric acid in the high side or gout .%通过建立一种新的酵母核酸中温淡盐去除法,成功研制出品质优良的低核酸酵母抽提物。工艺简单,处理时间短,温度不超过70℃,可避免高温对酵母营养物质的破坏;该法氯化钠用量少,无需脱盐处理,易产业化及应用推广;研究制备的酵母抽提物,核酸去除量达70%以上,色浅、肉香味鲜,适合食品加工。同时,附加得到高提取率、高纯度的核酸。中温淡盐法去除酵母核酸的技术,扩展了酵母制品的应用领域,更为尿酸偏高及痛风人群食用安全营养的酵母食品提供了解决方案。

  18. Fast title extraction method for business documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi

    1997-04-01

    Conventional electronic document filing systems are inconvenient because the user must specify the keywords in each document for later searches. To solve this problem, automatic keyword extraction methods using natural language processing and character recognition have been developed. However, these methods are slow, especially for japanese documents. To develop a practical electronic document filing system, we focused on the extraction of keyword areas from a document by image processing. Our fast title extraction method can automatically extract titles as keywords from business documents. All character strings are evaluated for similarity by rating points associated with title similarity. We classified these points as four items: character sitting size, position of character strings, relative position among character strings, and string attribution. Finally, the character string that has the highest rating is selected as the title area. The character recognition process is carried out on the selected area. It is fast because this process must recognize a small number of patterns in the restricted area only, and not throughout the entire document. The mean performance of this method is an accuracy of about 91 percent and a 1.8 sec. processing time for an examination of 100 Japanese business documents.

  19. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  20. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-06

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples.

  1. Content of amino acids in dense extracts from raw material of Echium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mashtaler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echium vulgare L. of Boraginaceae family is a biennial rigidly pubescent plant with a spindle-shaped root, which is rather widespread in Ukraine. Above-ground and underground part of the plant is used in folk medicine as a blood purifying agent and anticonvulsant, herb decoctions – as expectorant and calming agent for cough of various etiology. Owing to shikonin and its ethers presence, extracts from Echium vulgare L. have high antibacterial activity and stable fungistatic effect against yeast fungi. In addition, these substances also exibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and regenerative activity. Echium vulgare L., as most representatives of Boraginaceae, is not sufficiently studied. Continuing to study this species, we have determined amino acid composition of its aqueous extracts. This group of biologically active substances is present in easy-to-digest complexes and in biologically available concentrations; it demonstrates a number of biological actions, such as hepatoprotective, lipotropic, cardiotropic, regenerative, wound-healing, calming, etc. The objective of our work was to study qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Objects of our study were dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Roots were harvested in autumn, at the end of vegetation period (October – November 2009; herb was collected during the phase of mass flowering (June 2009 in Kharkov region. Well-known methods were used to obtain dense extracts (extraction agent: purified water. Output of root dense extract was 22,7%, and herb dense extract was 23,5%. Amino acid composition of dense extracts was studied with amino acid analyzer AAA-339 (Czech Republic after hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. There have been identified 16 amino acids, 7 of which are essential, 3 semiessential ones and the rest – nonessential amino acids. Qualitative composition and

  2. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  3. Extraction of L-Aspartic Acid with Reverse Micelle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYDOĞAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the extraction L-aspartic acid which is a hydrophobic amino acid with reverse micelle system. Production of amino acids by fermentation has been more important in recent years. These amino acids are obtained in dilute aqueous solutions and have to be separated from excess substrate, inorganic salts and by-products. Recently, separation of amino acids from fermentation media by reverse micelle extraction has received a great deal of attention. In this study, reverse micelle phase includes aliquat-336 as a surfactant, 1-decanol as a co-surfactant and isooctane as an apolar solvent. Experiments were performed at 150 rpm stirring rate, at 30 oC, for 30 min extraction time with equal volumes of reverse micelle and aqueous phases. Concentration of L-aspartic acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extraction yield increased with increasing pH and aliquat-336 concentration and with decreasing initial amino acid concentration. Maximum ekstraction yield (68 % was obtained at pH of 12, surfactant concentration of 200 mM and an initial amino acid concentration of 5 mM.

  4. Microbial protein in soil: influence of extraction method and C amendment on extraction and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin B; Williams, Mark A

    2010-02-01

    The capacity to study the content and resolve the dynamics of the proteome of diverse microbial communities would help to revolutionize the way microbiologists study the function and activity of microorganisms in soil. To better understand the limitations of a proteomic approach to studying soil microbial communities, we characterized extractable soil microbial proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two methods were utilized to extract proteins from microorganisms residing in a Quitman and Benfield soil: (1) direct extraction of bulk protein from soil and (2) separation of the microorganisms from soil using density gradient centrifugation and subsequent extraction (DGC-EXT) of microbial protein. In addition, glucose and toluene amendments to soil were used to stimulate the growth of a subset of the microbial community. A bacterial culture and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added to the soil to qualitatively assess their recovery following extraction. Direct extraction and resolution of microbial proteins using SDS-PAGE generally resulted in smeared and unresolved banding patterns on gels. DGC-EXT of microbial protein from soil followed by separation using SDS-PAGE, however, did resolve six to 10 bands in the Benfield but not the Quitman soil. DGC-EXT of microbial protein, but not direct extraction following the addition of glucose and toluene, markedly increased the number of bands (approximately 40) on the gels in both Benfield and Quitman soils. Low recoveries of added culture and BSA proteins using the direct extraction method suggest that proteins either bind to soil organic matter and mineral particles or that partial degradation takes place during extraction. Interestingly, DGC may have been preferentially selected for actively growing cells, as gauged by the 10-100x lower cy19:0/18:1omega7 ratio of the fatty acid methyl esters in the isolated community compared to that for the whole soil. DGC can be used to

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles-based extraction and verification of nucleic acids from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Wang, Fang; Ma, Ningning; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Zhiyang; Deng, Yan; Wang, Zhifei; Xi, Zhijiang; Tang, Yongjun; Hel, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    In many molecule biology and genetic technology studies, the amount of available DNA can be one of the important criteria for selecting the samples from different sources. Compared with those genomic DNA methods using organic solvents or other traditional commercial kits, the method based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and adsorption technology has many remarkable advantages like being time-saving and cost effective without the laborious centrifugation or precipitation steps, and more importantly it has the great potential and especially suitable for automated DNA extraction and up-scaling. In this paper, the extraction efficiency of genomic nucleic acids based on magnetic nanoparticles from four different sources including bacteria, yeast, human blood and virus samples are compared and verified. After measurement and verification of the extracted genomic nucleic acids, it was shown that all these genomic nucleic acids extracted using the MNPs method can be of high yield and be available for next molecule biological steps.

  6. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been repor

  7. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been repor

  8. Separation Characteristics of Succinic Acid in Reactive Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yeon Ki; Hong, Won Hi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Succinic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. In this study succinic acid was separated by reactive extraction with tertiary amines dissolved in various diluents. Distribution coefficients were determined as the function of TPA(tripropylamine) concentrations, diluents, and chain length of tertiary amines. The extraction capacity increased with the polarity of diluents, the concentration of TPA in organic phase and the chain length of amines. Furthermore, the coextracted water into the organic phase enhanced the solubility of succinic acid into organic phase. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied...

  10. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.

  11. Influence of extraction method on protein profile of soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlićević Milica Ž.; Stanojević Slađana P.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison between protein profiles of soybean obtained by commonly used methods of extraction (Tris buffer and Tris-urea buffer) with methods used for extraction of plant proteins for 2D PAGE analysis (direct solubilization in IEF buffer, acetone extraction, phenol extraction, extraction with urea solubilization buffer and thiourea-urea extraction) was investigated. 2D profiles of samples extracted directly in IEF buffer, in urea solubilization buffer and in acetone were characterized ...

  12. Comparison of extraction methods for the hypotensive drugs from Eucommia ulmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Hui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction methods using Soxhlet extraction (SE, enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EE, semi-bionic extraction (SBE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were evaluated for the yields of geniposidic acid (GPA and geniposide (GPS from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides. The results showed that the yields of GPA and GPS attained by EE and SBE were highest, respectively. Compared with various extraction methods for the extraction of GPA and GPS, the SBE was more efficient than other methods. There was no organic solvent used in SBE. The pH values of semi-bionic extraction were the same as in the human body. The results indicate that SBE can be used for large-scale and efficient extraction of GPA and GPS from plant materials. The time taken by SFE was longer than other methods, but the yields of GPA and GPS were the lowest. .

  13. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  14. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  15. An efficient extraction method for quantitation of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Junji; Yamane, Kazuhiko; Takei, Tunetomo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-05-21

    Firefly bioluminescence is widely used in the measurement of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels in biological materials. For such assays in tissues and cells, ATP must be extracted away from protein in the initial step and extraction efficacy is the main determinant of the assay accuracy. Extraction reagents recommended in the commercially available ATP assay kits are chaotropic reagents, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid (PCA), and ethylene glycol (EG), which extract nucleotides through protein precipitation and/or nucleotidase inactivation. We found that these reagents are particularly useful for measuring ATP levels in materials with relatively low protein concentrations such as blood cells, cultured cells, and bacteria. However, these methods are not suitable for ATP extraction from tissues with high protein concentrations, because some ATP may be co-precipitated with the insolubilized protein during homogenization and extraction, and it could also be precipitated by neutralization in the acid extracts. Here we found that a phenol-based extraction method markedly increased the ATP and other nucleotides extracted from tissues. In addition, phenol extraction does not require neutralization before the luciferin-luciferase assay step. ATP levels analyzed by luciferase assay in various tissues extracted by Tris-EDTA-saturated phenol (phenol-TE) were over 17.8-fold higher than those extracted by TCA and over 550-fold higher than those in EG extracts. Here we report a simple, rapid, and reliable phenol-TE extraction procedure for ATP measurement in tissues and cells by luciferase assay.

  16. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  17. Rare earth extraction from wet process phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利昌; 陈前林; 康超; 马昕; 杨尊良

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of rare earths (RE) during the wet processing of phosphoric acid is very important, the method of emul-sion liquid membrane (ELM) with di(2-ethylhexly) phosphate (D2EHPA) as carrier has the high selectivity while cannot provide a satisfactory extraction rate. Here novel method of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using Aniline as carrier to extract RE from the feed solution was proposed. The method could increase the extraction rate of RE in the real sample to 93%. The effects of dif-ferent parameters such as type and concentration of carrier and surfactant, hydrochloric acid concentration, organic to internal phase volume ratio, membrane to external phase volume ratio on extraction of RE3+ were investigated. Quantitative extraction (>93%) of RE3+ was observed with 6 vol.% Aniline and 4 vol.% T154 liquid membrane at external to internal phase volume ratio of 10 for the feed solution. The proposed method of ELM using Aniline as carrier can be expected to provide a practical, efficient, and economical method for extracting RE from phosphate leach solution with high acidity in the industry of wet process phospho-ric acid.

  18. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids.

  19. DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoib, Adilah; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Md Arshad, M K

    2017-09-23

    This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.

  20. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas James Schwartz; Martin Lawoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficie...

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  2. Extraction of Cadmium from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Liang; ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHANG Hua; QIU Yan-Ling; ZHANG Rong-Hua; ZHAO Jian-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),as an environmental benign biodegradable chelant,was used to remove heavy metals from the sewage sludge of Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant.The extraction of cadmium (Cd) from sewage sludge using aqueous solution of PESA was studied.It was found that PESA was capable of extracting Cd from the sludge,and the extraction efficiency was dependent on both pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing of pH,whereas the dependency on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.In the case of the high PESA to total metal ratio,e.g.,10:1,the extraction efficiency reached above 70% within the pH range from 1 to 7.The highest extraction efficiency obtained in the experiment was 78%.By comparing the contents of the heavy metals in sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cd came mainly from the four fractious:acid-soluble,reducible,oxidizable,and water-soluble fractions.

  3. Epigallocatechin gallate content change of the fresh tea leaf homogenates ex-tracted by different methods in extraction and preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; GAO Yan-hua; ZU Yuan-gang; LIU Xiao-na; WANG Lei; ZU Shu-chong

    2006-01-01

    The fresh leaves of China green tea, Camellia sinensis, were collected from Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China, in April. The tea polyphenols was extracted by four different methods (homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 0.3% citric acid (w/v) at room temperature, 5- min boiling and homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 85℃ distilled water), and after preserving at room temperature, the change of the Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of the extracts was investigated. Results indicated that the EGCG content of homogenate extracted with 85℃ distilled water was the highest before the extract was preserved, followed by that of the extract homogenized with 0.3% citric acid at room temperature. During preservation, EGCG content changed obviously. The EGCG contents of homogenates extracted with distilled water at room temperature and 85℃ distilled water declined quickly and separately reduced to 21.52% and 54.6% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. The EGCG contents extracted by 0.3% citric acid (w/v) solvent at room temperature and 5- min boiling/homogenized with distilled water at room temperature declined relatively slowly ,and separately reduced to 76.9% and 85.16% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. It was also found that the citric acid can prevent the degradation of EGCG and the extract solution color is light green

  4. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  5. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid recovery from Larrea tridentata by microwave-assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Sílvia; Mussatto, Solange I.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garza-Rodriguez, I.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a powerful antioxidant with biological activities of great interest in several health areas, including antiviral, cancer chemopreventive, and antitumorgenic. Little information is available on extraction methods of NDGA from Larrea tridentata. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and effective microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for NDGA recovery from Larrea tridentata leaves, and to compare the results ob...

  6. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  7. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eLappé

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource, through natural seepage or accidental release they can also be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008 separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it is not optimized for this application.Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  8. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohadjerani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L. growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%. This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83% and oleic acid (47.54% were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

  9. Relationship between heavy metals and minerals extracted from soil clay by standard and novel acid extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Vander Freitas; Batista, Araína Hulmann; Gilkes, Robert J; Rate, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Strong acid digestions are commonly used to determine heavy metal (HM) contents in soils. In order to understand more fully the acid digestion processes, a logical step is to determine the extent of dissolution of mineral phases. The aims of this study were to compare the efficiency of extraction of HM by different acid digestions and to monitor the associated dissolution of the clay fraction. The context of the study was to develop a milder chemical extraction method (microwave-assisted 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 closed system (NACS)), which recovers more reactive HM and with little dissolution of minerals. The different acid digestion methods dissolved different amounts of minerals from the clay fraction. Both aqua regia (AR) and EPA 3051 dissolved all of the Fe and Al oxides, and the dissolution of kaolin was limited to thinner particles (c dimension), smaller particles in a and b dimensions and grains with lower crystallinity. The lower recovery of HM for AR compared with EPA 3051 was related to the large amount of short-range order phases formed during the AR extraction as these phases have the capacity to re-adsorb HM. The new method (NACS) has the potential to replace other methods of determining bioavailable forms of HM, such as AR and EPA 3051. The contents of Pb, As, Co, Zn, and Cu determined by EPA 3051 and EPA 3052 were quite close.

  10. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organo-phosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃扶; 吴瑾光; 俞致健; 王笃金; 徐光宪

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (Ⅰ) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP),(Ⅱ) 2-ethylhexyl phos-phonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (KEHPEHE) and (Ⅲ) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanlde-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems.Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) re-suits on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n -heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP.The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent,by which the mixed solvent was formed,increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates.Aggregates formed from the ianthamde ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable.In the case of naphthenic acid,PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mix

  11. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  12. Extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfide from hydrocloric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Dolgova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Тributylphosphate (TBF and dioctylsulfide (DOS in liquid organic diluents are well known extractants used in analytical chemistry of gold. The study of the extraction of gold by these reagents in higher carboxylic acids (HCA and paraffin as well as a comparison of their extraction capacities by replacing the solvent are of great interest. Extractant for development of X-ray fluorescence analysis technique for gold in various objects was selected by studying the extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfidein low melting diluents. It was shown that, when using kerosene for dilution, tributylphosphate quantitatively extracted gold СHCl=0.5-3.5 M. Extractant containing 5-20 % TBF-paraffin-HCAdid not provide quantitative extraction of gold. Recovery of gold for 5 % DOS-HCA-paraffinat СHCl =0.5-3.0 M reached 98-99%. Using the method of equilibrium shift,composition of the extracted gold complex with DOS was proposed: AuCl3 - R2S. This extractant can be used for development of X-ray fluorescence method for determination of gold.Calibration curve forX-ray fluorescence determination of gold in extracts is linear in the range of mass concentrations4.0 x 10-3-1.7 x 10-1 % (w/w. Detection limit of the method is 5.0 x 10-4 % (w/w.

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity.

  14. Extraction of Aminobenzoic Acid with TOA and TBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid were carried out. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were selected as complexing agents. 1-Octanol and kerosene were selected as diluents. The effects of extractant concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. It was found that there are ion-pair association and hydrogen-bond complexing in the extraction. Expressions of the equilibrium distribution for different solvent systems are proposed. The precision of the models is satisfactoy.

  15. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Chang-Won; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h. Oil was extracted from the fermented ginseng seeds using compression extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  16. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ramanauskiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h. RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  17. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  18. Rapid Extraction of Human DNA Containing Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    The identification process of dead bodies or human remains is nowadays conducted in numerous fields of forensic science, archeology and other judicial cases. A particular problem is the isolation and DNA typing of human remains found in mass graves, due to the degradation process, as well as post mortal DNA contamination with bacteria, fungi, humic acids, metals, etc. In this study, the influence of humic acid (HA) on the DNA extraction and typing is investigated. If present in...

  19. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  20. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions...... on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction...... to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related...

  2. Development of an extractive spectrophotometric method for estimation of uranium in ore leach solutions using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid-mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) mixture as extractant and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylozo)-5-diethyl aminophenol (Br-PADAP) as chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sujoy; Pathak, P N; Roy, S B

    2012-06-01

    An extractive spectrophotometric analytical method has been developed for the determination of uranium in ore leach solution. This technique is based on the selective extraction of uranium from multielement system using a synergistic mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid-mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in cyclohexane and color development from the organic phase aliquot using 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol (Br-PADAP) as chromogenic reagent. The absorption maximum (λ(max)) for UO(2)(2+)-Br-PADAP complex in organic phase samples, in 64% (v/v) ethanol containing buffer solution (pH 7.8) and 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (CyDTA) complexing agent, has been found to be at 576 nm (molar extinction coefficient, ɛ: 36,750 ± 240 L mol(-1)cm(-1)). Effects of various parameters like stability of complex, ethanol volume, ore matrix, interfering ions etc. on the determination of uranium have also been evaluated. Absorbance measurements as a function of time showed that colored complex is stable up to > 24h. Presence of increased amount of ethanol in colored solution suppresses the absorption of a standard UO(2)(2+)-Br-PADAP solution. Analyses of synthetic standard as well as ore leach a solution show that for 10 determination relative standard deviation (RSD) is ore leach solutions and results were compared with standard methods like inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPAES). The determined values of uranium concentrations by these methods are within ± 2%. This method can be used to determine 2.5-250 μg mL(-1) uranium in ore leach solutions with high accuracy and precision.

  3. Rapid methods to extract DNA and RNA from Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolano, A; Stinchi, S; Preziosi, R; Bistoni, F; Allegrucci, M; Baldelli, F; Martini, A; Cardinali, G

    2001-12-01

    Extraction of nucleic acids from the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is normally hampered by a thick and resistant capsule, accounting for at least 70% of the whole cellular volume. This paper presents procedures based on mechanical cell breakage to extract DNA and RNA from C. neoformans and other capsulated species. The proposed system for DNA extraction involves capsule relaxation by means of a short urea treatment and bead beating. These two steps allow a consistent extraction even from strains resistant to other procedures. Yield and quality of DNA obtained with the proposed method were higher than those obtained with two earlier described methods. This protocol can be extended to every yeast species and particularly to those difficult to handle for the presence of a capsule. RNA purification is accomplished using an original lysing matrix and the FastPrep System (Bio101) after a preliminary bead beating treatment. Yields range around 1 mg RNA from 15 ml overnight culture (10(9) cells), RNA appears undegraded, making it suitable for molecular manipulations.

  4. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. RESULTS obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  5. CO2-enhanced extraction of acetic acid from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Zaalberg, B.; IJmker, H.M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2015-01-01

    The industrial process of recovering fermentation-based volatile fatty acids (VFAs) utilizes H2SO4 to acidify the fermentation broth containing VFA-salts [e.g. Ca(CH3COO)2] to enable formation of molecular VFAs. Molecular VFAs are then recovered by liquid–liquid extraction. However, acidification

  6. CO2-enhanced extraction of acetic acid from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, E.; Zaalberg, B.; IJmker, H.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2015-01-01

    The industrial process of recovering fermentation-based volatile fatty acids (VFAs) utilizes H2SO4 to acidify the fermentation broth containing VFA-salts [e.g. Ca(CH3COO)2] to enable formation of molecular VFAs. Molecular VFAs are then recovered by liquid–liquid extraction. However, acidification wi

  7. Bayesian methods of astronomical source extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, R S S S

    2005-01-01

    We present two new source extraction methods, based on the Bayesian statistical formalism. The first is a source detection filter, able to simultaneously detect point sources and estimate the image background. The second is an advanced photometry technique, which measures the flux, position (to sub-pixel accuracy), local background and point spread function of a previously-detected source. In both cases, we use the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to compare the relative likelihood of different models. We apply the source detection filter to simulated Herschel-SPIRE data and show the filter's ability to both detect point sources and also simultaneously estimate the image background. We use the photometry method to analyse a simple simulated image containing a source of unknown flux, position and point spread function; we not only accurately measure these parameters, but also determine their uncertainties (using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling). We also characterise the nature of the source (for example,...

  8. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  9. One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method.

  11. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  12. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results: The results of the amino-acid-composition analysis showed that the Buthus martensii Karsch extracts contained various amino acids such as aspartic acid, histidine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine. The amino-acid analysis showed that the hot water extract was more beneficial than the ethanol extract, except for histidine. The amino acids from the tail and the body of the scorpion were compared, and the concentration of aspartic acid in the extract from the scorpion’s tail was two times that found in the extract from its body. The results of validation experiments were all satisfactory. Conclusion: Studies on the ingredients in extracts from a scorpion other than buthotoxin may demonstrate that the antiepileptic efficacy, anticancer activity, antithrombotic action and analgesic effect are enhanced. Using only the tail of the scorpion when pharmacopuncture is dispensed may be beneficial because the extracts from the tail of the scorpion have higher potency than those from the whole body.

  13. Recovery of heavy metals from industrial sludge using various acid extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Kuo, C Y; Lo, S L

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals were removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction approaches. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper-extraction efficiency were assessed. Leaching with increased acid concentrations increased the yield of heavy metals from the industrial sludge. In microwave-assisted acid extraction, reducing the S/L ratio and sludge particle size increased copper-extraction efficiency. These experimental findings indicate that S/L ratio most strongly influenced microwave-assisted acid extraction. Both traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction demonstrate that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant, and the copper fraction in extracted sludge shifted from being primarily bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic-matter partition, to being mostly bound to organic matter, remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  14. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  15. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  16. Comparison of four extraction methods for analysis of volatile hop-derived aroma compounds in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias M; Eyres, Graham T; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J

    2017-09-09

    The volatile organic compound profile in beer is derived from hops, malt, yeast, and interactions between the ingredients, making it very diverse and complex. Due to the range and diversity of the volatile organic compounds present, the choice of the extraction method is extremely important for optimal sensitivity and selectivity. This study compared four extraction methods for hop-derived compounds in beer late hopped with Nelson Sauvin. Extraction capacity and variation were compared for headspace solid phase micro extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, headspace sorptive extraction, and solvent assisted flavour evaporation. Generally, stir bar sorptive extraction was better suited for acids, headspace sorptive extraction for esters and aldehydes, while headspace solid phase micro extraction was less sensitive overall, extracting 40% fewer compounds. Solvent assisted flavour evaporation with dichloromethane was not suitable for the extraction of hop-derived volatile organic compounds in beer, as the profile was strongly skewed towards alcohols and acids. Overall, headspace sorptive extraction found to be best suited, closely followed by stir bar sorptive extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas James Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficient with respect to acid soluble lignin.

  18. Ultrasound assisted citric acid mediated pectin extraction from industrial waste of Musa balbisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, K; Moorthy, I Ganesh; Sivarajasekar, N

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of the present work are to extract pectin from industrial waste of Musa balbisiana by ultrasound assisted citric acid mediated extraction method and optimization was done through central composite statistical experimental design under response surface methodology. The outcomes of this study exhibited that, process variables (ultrasound power, pH and extraction time) had considerable influence on the pectin extraction. Second order mathematical equation was constructed to predict the data through regression analysis. The optimal extraction process condition was ultrasound power of 323w, pH of 3.2, extraction time of 27min and SL (solid-liquid) ratio of 1:15g/ml. The mean experimental yield of pectin (8.99±0.018%) was fine accord among predicted yield of pectin (9.02%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  20. Extraction Mechanism of La3+ from Hydrochloric Acid Solution Using Cyanex 302

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌东北; 牛春吉; 李德谦

    2004-01-01

    The solvent extraction of La3+ from hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated using bis(2, 4, 4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid(Cyanex 302, HL) as an extractant. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of La3+ using Cyanex 302 in different diluents was discussed. The effects of extractant concentration and chloride ion on the extraction reaction were also studied. Stoichiometry of the extraction reactions and the nature of metal complexes formed were determined using slope analysis technique and IR measurement.

  1. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  2. Distribution Behavior of Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in n-octane or 1-octanol was carried out. The effects of aminobenzoic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. The infrared spectra of the organic phase loaded with solute illustrated that pH had little effect on the structure of the complex formed. There proceed ion association and cation-exchange reaction in the extraction. An expression of the equilibrium distribution was proposed.

  3. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  5. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  6. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses.

  7. Separation of middle rare earths by solvent extraction using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danilo; Fontana; Loris; Pietrelli

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of the trivalent middle rare earths from chloride media by kerosene solutions of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant was studied. The separation factors between the elements using solution simulating wastes from NiMH spent batteries have been evaluated: the order of the extractive ability of extractant can be confirmed in ThGdEuSm.

  8. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  9. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  10. Relevance of a perchloric acid extraction scheme to determine mineral and organic phosphorus in swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, Marie-Line; Béline, Fabrice; Spérandio, Mathieu; Morel, Christian

    2008-03-01

    To increase the phosphorus recycling potential from swine slurry, mineral phosphorus products which could be used as fertilizers should be obtained and new processes need to be investigated. A routine method is needed to better evaluate the dissolved and solid mineral phosphorus in swine slurry. Cold perchloric acid extraction method previously developed for wastewater or sludge analysis was adapted. Ionic chromatography was used to measure orthophosphate in extracts. Only one extraction step was needed to distinguish between mineral and organic phosphorus in slurry. Reproducibility of the method was high (less than 5% of variation on the measured fractions). Selectivity was assessed by adding several organic and mineral phosphorus sources in the slurry. Cold perchloric extraction followed by ionic chromatography was very selective in quantifying both the mineral and organic forms of phosphorus in swine slurry.

  11. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  12. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  13. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  14. Fatty acids determination in Bronte pistachios by gas chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Licia; Lo Cascio, Giovanni; Alongi, Angelina; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Migliazzo, Aldo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    A gas chromatographic with flame ionization detector (GC-MS FID) method for the identification and quantification of fatty acids based on the extraction of lipids and derivatisation of free acids to form methyl esters was developed and validated. The proposed method was evaluated to a number of standard FAs, and Bronte pistachios samples were used for that purpose and to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. In this regard, repeatability, mean and standard deviation of the analytical procedure were calculated. The results obtained have demonstrated oleic acid as the main component of Bronte pistachios (72.2%) followed by linoleic acid (13.4%) and showed some differences in composition with respect to Tunisian, Turkish and Iranian pistachios.

  15. An effective method for extraction and polymerase chain reaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    root

    seven years, we optimized the method of extracting DNA from these samples. We used (a) ... difficulty in extracting DNA from formalin-preserved tissue samples ..... genomic DNA from whole blood, buccal epithelial cells, semen and forensic ...

  16. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  17. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  18. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  19. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  20. Comparison of eight methods of genomic DNA extraction from babassu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, J P G; Borges, A N C; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Britto, F B; Lima, P S C; Valente, S E S

    2015-12-22

    Babassu (Orbignya phalerata Martius) is one of the most important palms in Brazil because of the largest morphological variation, wide geographic distribution, and high socio-economic importance. The diversity present in babassu germplasm should be protected against loss to ensure their use with high productivity. Study of the available variability in populations of babassu is necessary to develop conservation strategies. The study of genetic variability can be conducted using molecular markers and many of these studies require significant quantity of high-quality DNA. The present study aimed to effect comparison among eight DNA extraction methods in case of O. phalerata. The quality and concentration of nucleic acids were analyzed by spectrophotometry and integrity of DNA was ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis. The spectrophotometry revealed that some methods resulted in high levels of concentration of nucleic acids, in which values of the ratio A260/280 and A260/230 were outside the range of purity. The agarose gel electrophoresis established the concentration and integrity of DNA. The methods of Murray and Thompson (1980) and Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1998) did not result in satisfactory quantities of DNA. Conversely, the method proposed by Khanuja et al. (1999) resulted in DNA of adequate quality and quantity that could be satisfactorily used for amplification reactions performed with two ISSR primers.

  1. Development of Poliovirus Extraction Method from Stool Extracts by Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Sensitized with Soluble Poliovirus Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, Minetaro

    2013-01-01

    A method for extracting poliovirus (PV) from stool extracts was developed. Magnetic nanoparticles sensitized with soluble PV receptor efficiently extracted PV pseudovirus (>99% extraction) or endogenous infectious PVs (>90% extraction) from stool extracts. This method would be useful for extraction of PV from crude biological samples.

  2. Separation and concentration of lanthanoids using microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compounds as an extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Eiji; Kondo, Kazuo [Doshisha Univ., Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we measured the extraction equilibria of lanthanoids with microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compound as an extractant and discuss their mutual separation by using a column packed with the microcapsules. The extraction equilibria of lanthanoids into the microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) were elucidated and the extraction equilibrium constants were calculated by slope-analysis method. It was suggested that the lanthanoid ions are extracted in the microcapsules in a high loading state. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of lanthanoids into the column packed with the microcapsules containing EHPNA was observed. It was found that adsorption and elution of lanthanoids are briefly achieved by selecting pH of the feed aqueous solution. However, it was impossible to separate them only in adsorption or elution operation. So, the mutual separation of lanthanoids was investigated using the adsorption column connected to the development column containing microcapsules. By selecting pH of the eluent, each metal was separated mutually in more than 95% of purity. The metal ions in the eluent from the development column could be concentrated by treating it with a column packed with the microcapsules containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). Considering these information, it will be possible to design a continuous extracting, separating and concentrating reactor of lanthanoids using a column packed with the microcapsules. (author)

  3. Method for extraction of beta-endorphines from plasma for radiommunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleeva, A.; Kurtev, I.; Koparanova, O.; Kehkajova, M. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Proceeding from the major importance of determination of beta-endorphines in blood plasma and the shortcommings of all methods now at use, the authors developed a new method for extraction and separation of beta-endorphines from blood plasma. The new method requires 2.5 ml of blood plasma, instead of 80 ml of blood; the extracting agent (glass powder with 1500 A in diameter) has a higher percentage of extraction (80 per cent instead of 50 per cent of talc or silicic acid). The new method was used in determining plasma beta-endorphine concentrations in normal individuals, which will serve as control group in all further developments.

  4. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  5. Determination of higher carboxylic acids in snow samples using solid-phase extraction and LC/MS-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberger, Matthias; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method to determine the concentrations of higher organic acids in snow samples. The target species are the homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids from C(5) to C(13), pinonic acid, pinic acid and phthalic acid. A preconcentration procedure utilizing solid phase extraction was developed and optimized using solutions of authentic standards. The influences of different parameters such as flow rate during extraction and the concentration of the eluent on the efficiency of the extraction procedure were investigated. The compounds of interest were separated by HPLC and detected by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). The recovery rate (extraction efficiency) of the extraction procedure was found to vary between 41% for tridecanedioic acid and 102% for adipic acid. The limits of detection were determined for all compounds and were between 0.9 nmol/L (dodecanedioic acid) and 29.5 nmol/L (pinonic acid). An exception is pinic acid, for which a considerably higher detection limit of 103.9 nmol/L was calculated. Snow samples were collected in December 2006 and January 2007 at the Fee glacier (Switzerland) from locations at heights from 3056 to 3580 m asl and from different depths within the snow layer. In total, the analysis of 61 single snow samples was performed, and the following compounds could be quantified: homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids with 5-12 carbon atoms and phthalic acid. Tridecanedioic acid, pinonic and pinic acid were identified in the samples but were not quantified due to their low concentrations. The three most abundant acids found in the molten snow samples were glutaric acid (C(5)-di; 3.90 nmol/L), adipic acid (C(6)-di; 3.35 nmol/L) and phthalic acid (Ph; 3.04 nmol/L).

  6. Development and validation of an automated liquid-liquid extraction GC/MS method for the determination of THC, 11-OH-THC, and free THC-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) from blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Kirsten; Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon; Veit, Florian

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) from blood serum is a routine task in forensic toxicology laboratories. For examination of consumption habits, the concentration of the phase I metabolite THC-COOH is used. Recommendations for interpretation of analysis values in medical-psychological assessments (regranting of driver's licenses, Germany) include threshold values for the free, unconjugated THC-COOH. Using a fully automated two-step liquid-liquid extraction, THC, 11-OH-THC, and free, unconjugated THC-COOH were extracted from blood serum, silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), and analyzed by GC/MS. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules for shaking, centrifugation, and solvent evaporation. This method was based on a previously developed manual sample preparation method. Validation guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) were fulfilled for both methods, at which the focus of this article is the automated one. Limits of detection and quantification for THC were 0.3 and 0.6 μg/L, for 11-OH-THC were 0.1 and 0.8 μg/L, and for THC-COOH were 0.3 and 1.1 μg/L, when extracting only 0.5 mL of blood serum. Therefore, the required limit of quantification for THC of 1 μg/L in driving under the influence of cannabis cases in Germany (and other countries) can be reached and the method can be employed in that context. Real and external control samples were analyzed, and a round robin test was passed successfully. To date, the method is employed in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany, in daily routine. Automation helps in avoiding errors during sample preparation and reduces the workload of the laboratory personnel. Due to its flexibility, the analysis system can be employed for other liquid-liquid extractions as

  7. Removal of low molecular organic acids from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominika Szternel; Magdalena Regel-Rosocka; Maciej Wiśniewski

    2013-01-01

    ...) from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction. The results specifically show that the extraction efficiency of acids depends on the type of extractant, diluents of the organic phase and the initial pH of the aqueous phase...

  8. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ilayaraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens L. is greater in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid medium. So Tridax procumbens L. can be used as a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material.

  9. Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyan; Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Kuang, Qirong; Zhao, Qingsheng; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng extract was developed. The adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. NKA-II resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. The adsorption of chlorogenic acid on NKA-II resin at 25°C was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process. The content of chlorogenic acid in the product increased to 22.17%, with a recovery yield of 82.41%.

  10. Carotenoid extraction methods: A review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The versatile use of carotenoids in feed, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries has emphasized the optimization of extraction methods to obtain the highest recovery. The choice of method for carotenoid extraction from food matrices is crucial, owing to the presence of diverse carotenoids with varied levels of polarity, and the presence of various physical and chemical barriers in the food matrices. This review highlights the theoretical aspects and recent developments of various conventional and nonconventional methods used for the extraction of carotenoids, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Recent applications of non-toxic and environmentally safe solvents (green solvents) and ionic liquids (IL) for carotenoid extraction are also described. Additionally, future research challenges in the context of carotenoids extractions are also identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behaviour of Tributylamine as Entrainer for the Separation of Water and Acetic Acid with Reactive Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 李成岳; 陈标华

    2003-01-01

    A new separation method, reactive extractive distillation, was put forward for separating water and acetic acid. The separation mechanism was analyzed through infrared spectra technique. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at 101.33 kPa for the binary or ternary systems consisting of water, acetic acid and tributylamine were measured. The activity coefficients were correlated by using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC Equations.The VLE experiment showed that tributylamine could enhance the relative volatility of water to acetic acid. An extractive distillation experiment was carried out and proved that tributylamine was a good extractive solvent.

  12. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid : equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented tha

  13. Chitin Extraction from Crustacean Shells Using Biological Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Arbia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After cellulose, chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological activities and their industrial and biomedical applications. It can be extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are supplied in large quantities by the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Although lactic acid bacteria are mainly applied, other microbial species including proteolytic bacteria have also been successfully implemented, as well as mixed cultures involving lactic acid-producing bacteria and proteolytic microorganisms. The produced lactic acid allows shell demineralisation, since lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the main mineral component, to form calcium lactate.

  14. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  15. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  16. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. Copyright © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Leukocyte telomere length variation due to DNA extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Joshua; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2014-12-04

    Telomere length is indicative of biological age. Shorter telomeres have been associated with several disease and health states. There are inconsistencies throughout the literature amongst relative telomere length measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and different extraction methods or kits used. We quantified whole-blood leukocyte telomere length using the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio by qPCR in 20 young (18-25 yrs) men after extracting DNA using three common extraction methods: Lahiri and Nurnberger (high salt) method, PureLink Genomic DNA Mini kit (Life Technologies) and QiaAmp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen). Telomere length differences of DNA extracted from the three extraction methods was assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). DNA purity differed between extraction methods used (P=0.01). Telomere length was impacted by the DNA extraction method used (P=0.01). Telomeres extracted using the Lahiri and Nurnberger method (mean T/S ratio: 2.43, range: 1.57-3.02) and PureLink Genomic DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.57, range: 2.24-2.80) did not differ (P=0.13). Likewise, QiaAmp and Purelink-extracted telomeres were not statistically different (P=0.14). The Lahiri-extracted telomeres, however, were significantly shorter than those extracted using the QiaAmp DNA Mini Kit (mean T/S ratio: 2.71, range: 2.32-3.02; P=0.003). DNA purity was associated with telomere length. There are discrepancies between the length of leukocyte telomeres extracted from the same individuals according to the DNA extraction method used. DNA purity could be responsible for the discrepancy in telomere length but this will require validation studies. We recommend using the same DNA extraction kit when quantifying leukocyte telomere length by qPCR or when comparing different cohorts to avoid erroneous associations between telomere length and traits of interest.

  18. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  19. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  20. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  1. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  2. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  3. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  4. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Ceddia, Michael A; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Lewis, Brandon J; Feng, Shulin; Welleford, Andrew; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2016-10-15

    Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging. The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (P<0.001) compared to the vehicle treated SAMP8. Protein carbonyls were reduced in the hippocampus after administration of rosemary with 10% carnosic acid (P<0.05) and spearmint containing 5% rosmarinic acid (P<0.001). The current results indicate that the extracts from spearmint and rosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice.

  5. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl García-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (CoS, four treatments (T were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min, followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min. Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c, α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3 and stearic acid (C18:0 differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  6. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-09-12

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  7. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in TEHDGA-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, G.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Kalpakkam (India). Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in the solvent impregnated resins containing extractants such as tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of TEHDGA+HDEHP. The rate of extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 M nitric acid and the effect of various parameters, such as the concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and concentration of TEHDGA and HDEHP in resin phase, on the distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in HDEHP-impregnated resin decreased and that in TEHDGA-impregnated resin increased, with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. However, in (TEHDGA+HDEHP) - impregnated resin, synergic extraction was observed at lower nitric acid concentration and antagonism at higher nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction in the combined resin was investigated by slope analysis method. The extraction of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste was studied. The separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was studied using citrate-buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution.

  8. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Selective Extraction Methods for Aluminium, Iron and Organic Carbon from Montane Volcanic Ash Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. JANSEN; F. H. TONNEIJCK; J. M. VERSTRATEN

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle.Given the central role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils,we assessed various extraction methods of A1,Fe,and C fractions from montane volcanic ash soils in northern Ecuador,aiming at elucidating the role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing soil organic matter (SOM).We found extractions with cold sodium hydroxide,ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid,sodium pyrophosphate,and sodium tetraborate to be particularly useful.Combination of these methods yielded information about the role of the mineral phase in stabilizing organic matter and the differences in type and degree of complexation of organic matter with Al and Fe in the various horizons and soil profiles.Sodium tetraborate extraction proved the only soft extraction method that yielded simultaneous information about the Al,Fe,and C fractions extracted.It also appeared to differentiate between SOM fractions of different stability.The fractions of copper chloride- and potassium chloride-extractable A1 were useful in assessing the total reactive and toxic Al fractions,respectively.The classical subdivision of organic matter into humic acids,fulvic acids,and humin added little useful information.The use of fulvic acids as a proxy for mobile organic matter as done in several model-based approaches seems invalid in the soils studied.

  10. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  11. Evaluation of extraction and non-extraction treatment effects by two different superimposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türköz, Çağrı; İşcan, Hakan Necip

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether different evaluation methods may be the cause of the varied outcomes of research that have evaluated the effects of extraction and non-extraction therapy on jaw rotation. This retrospective study consisted of the pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment lateral cephalograms of 70 skeletal Class I subjects with an optimal vertical mandibular plane angle, who had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Thirty-five of the subjects (20 females and 15 males, mean age: 14.7 years) were treated with four first premolar extractions and 35 (22 females and 13 males, mean age: 15 years) without extractions. T1 and T2 radiographs were superimposed using Björk's structural method and Steiner's method of sella-nasion line registered at sella. A Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the changes between T1 and T2 and the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences between the extraction and non-extraction and Björk and Steiner groups. No significant difference was found between the methods of Steiner and Björk according to the spatial changes of the cephalometric points in the extraction and non-extraction groups. The maxilla showed forward rotation in the extraction group and backward rotation in the non-extraction group with both superimposition methods, but the differences were not significant in either inter- or intraclass comparisons. The mandible showed forward rotation in the extraction group with both superimposition methods but, in the non-extraction group, forward rotation was recorded with Björk's method and backward rotation with Steiner's method. These findings were not significant in either inter- or intraclass evaluations. No significant difference was found between the groups or methods.

  12. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    OpenAIRE

    Udachan,I. S.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA) in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and...

  13. Micellar LC Separation of Sesquiterpenic Acids and Their Determination in Valeriana officinalis L. Root and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem U. Kulikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC method was developed and validated according to ICH Guidelines for the determination of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic, hydroxyvalerenic, and acetoxyvalerenic acids in root and rhizome extract from Valeriana officinalis L. and valerian dry hydroalcoholic extract. Samples were analyzed on Nucleosil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5 μm using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of Brij 35 (5% (w/v aqueous solution; pH 2.3±0.1 by phosphoric acid and 1-butanol (6% (v/v; UV detection was at 220 nm. Micellar mobile phase using allows to fully separate valerenic acids within 25 minutes. Linearity for hydroxyvalerenic, acetoxyvalerenic, and valerenic acids was 1.9–27.9, 4.2–63.0, and 6.1–91·3 μg.mL−1, and limit of detection was 0.14, 0.037, and 0.09 μg·mL−1, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were not less than 2% for all investigated compounds. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpenic acids in valerian root and related preparations.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Cinnamic Acid: Extraction of Cinnamic Acid from Spiked Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Leong Joke Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular imprinting technique is used to create the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with higher binding capacity towards the template. In this research precipitation polymerization method with noncovalent approach was used to synthesize imprinted polymer microspheres. The polymerization reaction was conducted in a flask containing acetonitrile as a porogen, cinnamic acid as a template (T, acrylic acid (AA as a monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB as a cross-linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The polymer particles were characterized by using SEM and FTIR. The rebinding efficiency was conducted by batch binding assay and the results were monitored by using HPLC. The batch binding results suggested MIP1 (T : AA : DVB, 1 : 6 : 20 molar ratio is most suitable composition for the rebinding of cinnamic acid. The highly selective polymer (MIP1 was used for the extraction of cinnamic acid from human plasma. The extraction efficiency of imprinted polymer of cinnamic acid from spiked plasma was above 75%.

  15. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane. Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  16. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  17. Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

    2012-07-01

    Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna.

  18. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Arhewoh; Augustine O. Okhamafe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK) and Hunteria umbellata (HU) were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected t...

  19. Simultaneous extraction, optimization, and analysis of flavonoids and polyphenols from peach and pumpkin extracts using a TLC-densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Kinsel, Mary; Lightfoot, David A

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants has been reported throughout human history. In the fight against illnesses, medicinal plants represent the primary health care system for 60 % of the world's population. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with active anti-microbial properties; they are produced in plants as pigments. Quercetin, myricetin, and rutin are among the most well-known and prevalent flavonoids in plants, with an antioxidant activity capable of decreasing the oxidation of low density lipoproteins [LDLs]. To date, this research is the first of its kind to employ a coupled thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and a densitometric quantification method with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and determination of rutin and quercetin from peach and ellagic acid and myricetin from pumpkin fruits. The effect of process variables (extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min)) on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were examined by using BBD and RSM. TLC followed by Quantity-One™ (BioRad) image analysis as a simple and rapid method was used for identification and quantification of the compounds in complex mixtures. The results were consistent under optimal conditions among the experimental values and their predicted values. A mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique was also used to confirm the identity of the natural products in the TLC spots resolved. The results show that the coupled TLC-densitometric methods & BBD can be a very powerful approach to qualitative and quantitative analysis of; rutin and quercetin from peach extracts; and ellagic acid and myricetin contents from pumpkin extracts.

  20. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  1. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use.

  2. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated.

  3. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Freeze-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids from water into acetonitrile under the action of centrifugal forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhterev, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    It is established that the efficiency of the freezing-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids C3-C;8 and sorbic acid from water into acetonitrile increases under the action of centrifugal forces. The linear growth of the partition coefficient in the homologous series of C2-C8 acids with an increase in molecule length, and the difference between the efficiency of extracting sorbic and hexanoic acid, are discussed using a theoretical model proposed earlier and based on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of the partition of dissolved organic compounds between the resulting surface of ice and the liquid phase of the extract. The advantages of the proposed technique with respect to the degree of concentration over the method of low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction are explained in light of the phase diagram for the water-acetonitrile mixture.

  5. The comparison of techniques and methods for L-ascorbic acid determination in the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Biljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential vitamin for human nutrition; with the L-ascorbic acid (AA being the active form of vitamin C. Hence, determination of the L-ascorbic acid in the natural and processed foods is very important. In the past, plenty of methods based on the reversible redox reaction of AA oxidation/DHA reduction were developed. Because of L-ascorbic acid instability in aqueous solutions, it is useful to analyze various types of extraction. The aim of this study is to compare three different methods and three different extractants for the L-ascorbic acid determination. Fruits (kiwi, lemon, orange, and grapefruit were purchased from a local market. The L-ascorbic acid in these four samples was determined by the three different methods: the AOAC, the HPLC method with three different types of extractions, and the colorimetric method using ascorbate-oxidase. For the HPLC measurements, one part of the fruits was extracted with distilled water, the second with potassium hydrogen phosphate, and the third with 3% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA in 8% acetic acid. The HPLC measurements of each sample were repeated three times, the AOAC titration was repeated five times, and in the calorimetric method three measurements were performed. The results were statistically evaluated related to sample basis. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the results for all three methods of extraction for all samples, except for the grapefruit sample where no significant difference was observed between the results obtained after the buffer extraction (E2 and the metaphosphoric acid in acetic acid extraction (E3. Discriminative analysis for the HPLC determinations proves that there is a clear difference and defined border between the samples in relation to the methods of extraction during the HPLC determination.

  6. Extraction of Roots of Quintics by Division Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to extract roots of a reducible quintic over the real field, which makes use of a simple division. A procedure to synthesize such quintics is given and a numerical example is solved to extract the roots of quintic with the proposed method.

  7. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  8. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  9. Improved proteomic analysis following trichloroacetic acid extraction of Bacillus anthracis spore proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Wunschel, David S; Sydor, Michael A; Warner, Marvin G; Wahl, Karen L; Hutchison, Janine R

    2015-11-01

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Analysis of cellular proteins is dependent upon efficient extraction from bacterial samples, which can be challenging with increasing complexity and refractory characteristics. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrichment for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple, does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter, and is effective for protein extraction of the particularly challenging sample type of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores. The ability of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction to isolate proteins from spores and enrich for spore-specific proteins was compared to the traditional mechanical disruption method of bead beating. TCA extraction improved the total average number of proteins identified within a sample as compared to bead beating (547 vs 495, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 270 spore proteins, including those typically identified by first isolating the spore coat and exosporium layers. Bead beating enriched for 156 spore proteins more typically identified from whole spore proteome analyses. The total average number of proteins identified was equal using TCA or bead beating for easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may simplify sample preparation and provide additional insight to the protein biology of the organism being studied.

  10. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Siani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA and oleanolic acids (OA, as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v, the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days. The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995. The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95% and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

  11. Antimicrobial Property of 2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-Tricarboxylic Acid Isolated from Citrus microcarpa Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong Wei Lee; Musa Najiah

    2009-01-01

    This article described antimicrobial property and structure analysis of 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid isolated from the crude extract of Citrus microcarpa. Presently, there was no report on compound from C. microcarpa that possessed antimicrobial property against fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study, the bioactive principle in C. microcarpa extract was isolated using thin layer chromatography. It's structure was elucidated based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data, such as proton NMR (1HNMR), correlation spectroscopy, carbon 13 NMR, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation data. This study showed that the bioactive compound isolated from C. microcarpa was 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid monohydrate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of crude C. microcarpa extract and its bioactive component, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid as well as commercially available synthetic 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, were determined against 18 isolates of Edwardsiella tarda and 7 bacterial reference strains, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacterfreundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalatiae (ATCC 13813), E. tarda (ATCC 15947), and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715), using two-fold microdilution method. The MIC values for both the natural 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid and the synthetic one were ranging from 15.6 to 62.5 mg mL-1, whereas that of the crude extract was ranging from 7.8 to 31.3 mg mL-1. These findings showed that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as antimicrobial agent for aquaculture use.

  12. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  13. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale.

  14. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-06

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amniotic Membrane Extract Preparation: What is the Best Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirgholamreza Mahbod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare different preparation methods for a suitable amniotic membrane (AM extract containing a given amount of growth factors. Methods: In this interventional case series, we dissected the AM from eight placentas within 24 hours after delivery, under clean conditions. After washing and mixing, AM extracts (AMEs were prepared using pulverization and homogenization methods, and different processing and storing conditions. Main outcome measures were the amount of added protease inhibitor (PI, the relative centrifugal force (g, in-process temperature, repeated extraction times, drying percentage, repeated pulverization times, and the effect of filtering with 0.2 μm filters. Extract samples were preserved at different temperature and time parameters, and analyzed for hepatic growth factor (HGF and total protein using ELISA and calorimetric methods, respectively. Results: The extracted HGF was 20% higher with pulverization as compared to homogenization, and increased by increasing the PI to 5.0 μl/g of dried AM. Repeating centrifugation up to 3 times almost doubled the extracted HGF and protein. Storing the AME at −170° for 6 months caused a 50% drop in the level of HGF and protein. Other studied parameters showed no significant effect on the extracted amount of HGF or total protein. Conclusion: Appropriate extraction methods with an adequate amount of PI increases the level of extractable components from harvested AMs. To achieve the maximal therapeutic effects of AMEs, it is necessary to consider the half-life of its bioactive components.

  16. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  17. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilayaraja, G.; Sasieekhumar, A. R.; Dhanakodi, P.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens ...

  18. [DNA extraction methods of compost for molecular ecology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xiao, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yun-Guo; Deng, Jiu-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Molecular ecology provides new techniques for studying compost microbes, and the DNA extraction is the basis of molecular techniques. Because of the contamination of humic acids, it turns to be more difficult for compost microbial DNA extraction. Three different approaches, named as lysozyme lysis, ultrasonic lysis and proteinase K lysis with CTAB, were used to extract the total DNA from compost. The detection performed on a nucleic acids and protein analyzer showed that all the three approaches produced high DNA yields. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the DNA fragments extracted from compost had a length of about 23 kb. A eubacterial 16S rRNA gene targeted primer pair (27F and 1 495R) was used for PCR amplification, and all the samples got almost the full length 16S rDNA sequence (about 1.5 kb). After digested by restriction endonucleases (Hae Ill and Alu I), the restriction map showed relatively identical microbial diversity in the DNA, which was extracted by the three different approaches. All the compost microbial DNA extracted by the three different approaches could be used for molecular ecological study, and researchers should choose the right approach for extracting microbial DNA from compost based on the facts.

  19. Assessment of the quality and quantity of genomic DNA recovered from canine blood samples by three different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Dylan N; Wood, Shona; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2008-08-01

    The ideal method for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction should recover high quantities of pure, integral gDNA from the original sample source with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Canine ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) treated and clotted blood samples were extracted by three different methods (a silica column method, a phenol-chloroform method and a modified salt precipitation method). Phenol-chloroform and modified salt precipitation based extractions demonstrated similar relative recovery of gDNA with EDTA preserved blood, but were less efficient at recovering gDNA from clotted blood. Spectrophotometer measurement of phenol-chloroform based extractions tended to overestimate the quantity of gDNA recovered from extractions, and was associated with the greater co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. The silica column method recovered gDNA with equal efficiency, purity and integrity irrespective of the sample type or method of quantification.

  20. Application of ionic liquids based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction of carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-11-25

    An ionic liquid based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) method has been developed for the effective extraction of carnosic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA) and essential oil (EO) from Rosmarinus officinalis. A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anion and cation were evaluated for extraction yield in this work. The results obtained indicated that the anions and cations of ionic liquids had influences on the extraction of CA and RA, 1.0M 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the ILMSED procedures for the three target ingredients were optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. ILMSED gave the best result due to the highest extraction yield within the shortest extraction time for CA and RA. The novel process developed offered advantages in term of yield and selectivity of EO and shorter isolation time (20 min in comparison of 4h of hydrodistillation), and provides a more valuable EO (with high amount of oxygenated compounds). The microstructures and chemical structures of rosemary samples before and after extraction were also investigated. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the both extraction of non-volatile compounds (CA and RA) and EO from rosemary as well as other herbs.

  1. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Extraction of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution by dynamic headspace-needle trap extraction temperature and pH optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Da-Wei; Lee, Xinqing; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-08-08

    A combined method of dynamic headspace-needle trap sample preparation and gas chromatography for the determination of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution was developed in this study. A needle extraction device coupled with a gas aspirating pump was intended to perform sampling and preconcentration of target compounds from aqueous sample before gas chromatographic analysis. The needle trap extraction (NTE) technique allows for the successful sampling of short chain fatty acids under dynamic conditions while keeping the headspace (HS) volume constant. Two important parameters, including extraction temperature and effect of acidification, have been optimized and evaluated using the needle trap device. The method detection limits for the compounds estimated were 87.2microg/L for acetic acid and 234.8microg/L for formic acid in spite of the low flame ionization detection response for formic acid and its low Henry's law constant in aqueous solution. Precision was determined based on the two real samples and ranged between 4.7 and 10.7%. The validated headspace-needle trap extraction method was also successfully applied to several environmental samples.

  3. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  5. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  6. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for meat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Yumbul, Eylem; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akgoz, Muslum

    2017-04-15

    Preventing adulteration of meat and meat products with less desirable or objectionable meat species is important not only for economical, religious and health reasons, but also, it is important for fair trade practices, therefore, several methods for identification of meat and meat products have been developed. In the present study, ten different DNA extraction methods, including Tris-EDTA Method, a modified Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Method, Alkaline Method, Urea Method, Salt Method, Guanidinium Isothiocyanate (GuSCN) Method, Wizard Method, Qiagen Method, Zymogen Method and Genespin Method were examined to determine their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from meat samples. The results show that the salt method is easy to perform, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Additionally, it has the highest yield among all the isolation methods tested. We suggest this method as an alternative method for DNA isolation from meat and meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Determination of phthalic acid esters in textiles by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Fang, Liping; Xue, Qiuhong; Sun, Zhongsong

    2006-09-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of some phthalic acid esters, namely, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPrP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diamyl phthalate (DAP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), benzyln-butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in textiles by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). The phthalic acid esters in textiles were extracted by Soxhlet extraction with hexane, the extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by a strong anion exchange (SAX) SPE cartridge. The parameters affecting the purification efficiency of SPE cartridge, such as solvent conditioning, rinsing, and elution, were studied. Conditioning with 5 mL hexane and rinsing with 3 mL isooctane were proved to be the optimal conditions. Of the several solvent ratios (ethylacetate in hexane) used for selective elution of phthalic acid esters from the SAX SPE cartridge, the 15% (v/v) content for ethylacetate in hexane gave the best result. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of phthalic acid esters for spiked standards (n=7) were 86.3%-102.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5%. In this method the detection limits for DMP, DEP, DPrP, DBP, DAP, BBP, DCHP, DEHP, DNOP were all below 1 mg/kg, and the detection limits for DINP and DIDP were 1.74 mg/kg and 1.55 mg/kg respectively. This SPE-GC method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the analysis of phthalate environmental hormones in textiles.

  8. Effect of Extraction Methods on Polysaccharide of Clitocybe maxima Stipe

    OpenAIRE

    Junchen Chen; Pufu Lai; Hengsheng Shen; Hengguang Zhen; Rutao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Clitocybe maxima (Gartn. ex Mey. Fr.) Quél. is a favorable edible fungi species. The proportion of its stipe is about 45% of entire fruit biomass, which is a low value defined byproduct. To increase its value added utilization, three extraction methods (as hot water, microwave-assisted and complex-enzyme-hydrolysis-assist) were conducted. The extraction effect on the polysaccharide of Clitocybe maxima stipe was compared and the processing conditions in extraction were optimized. The content o...

  9. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates C; Gillings, MR; Davison AD; Altavilla N; Veal DA

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol pr...

  10. [Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation methods for the extraction of essential oils from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qin; Ling, Jianya; Ding, Yuping; Chang, Hongwen; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Tingli

    2005-11-01

    Essential oil was extracted from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). The components extracted were determined by gas chromatography with area normalization method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal chromatographic conditions were: capillary column, SE-54 (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 microm); column temperature, 50 degrees C (3 min) --> (5 degrees c/min) 180 degrees C (2 min --> (10 degrees C/ min) 260 degrees C 50 min); split injection, split ratio 1: 50; injector temperature, 280 degrees C. Fifty-four components were identified for the essential oils extracted by SFE, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, linoleic acid chloride etc. Thirty-nine components were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, limonene etc. The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and is thus well suitable for similar applications involving for extraction of other traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

  11. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  12. Solvent extraction of neodymium(Ⅲ ) from acidic nitrate medium using Cyanex 921 in kerosene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nandita Panda; Niharbala Devi; Sujata Mishra

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of neodymium(Ⅲ ) from acidic nitrate medium was investigated using Cyanex 921 as extractant in kerosene.The metal concentration in the aqueous phase before and after extraction was determined spectrophotometrically by Arsenazo Ⅲ method.The complete equilibration was achieved in 15 min.The effects of shaking time,nitric acid concentration,nitrate concentration,extractant concentration,and temperature on the extraction were studied.The extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) was found to increase very slowly with increase in concentration of HNO3 in the range of 0.001-0.008 mol/L and then decreased when 0.01 mol/L HNO3 was used.The percentage of extraction was increased with increase in nitrate concentration from 0.01-0.45 mol/L and then decreased when nitrate concentration increased to 0.5 mol/L.Quantitative extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) (98%) was obtained from the aqueous phase containing 0.001 mol/L HNO3 and 0.1 mol/L KNO3 using 0.5mol/L Cyanex 921.On the basis of slope analysis,the extracted complex in the organic phase was proposed to be Nd(NO3)3.2Cyanex 921.The extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) was found to increase with increase in concentration of metal ion in the range of 0.001-0.05 mol/L from 0.001mol/L HNO3 and 0.1 mol/L KNO3 with 0.1 mol/L Cyanex 921.The percentage of extraction of neodymium was found to decrease with increase in temperature.From temperature variation studies,the negative value of △H indicated the extraction reaction to be exothermic and the negative value of △S indicated the formation of a stable complex.Almost 100% Nd(Ⅲ) was recovered from the fully loaded organic phase using 0.002 mol/L H2SO4 and 0.01 mol/L HC1.

  13. Hydrothermal Extraction of Microalgae Fatty Acid Influences Hydrochar Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ennis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae biomass for the production of triacylglycerides is a potentially valuable enabling technology for a waste water treatment-based integrated biorefinery. Here, HTC was used to treat Phaeodactylum tricornutum lipid-rich biomass producing a solid hydrochar from the surface of which adsorbed lipids were removed by hexane extraction following filtration of the solid hydrochar from the process liquid product. Approximately 7% of the input biomass was recovered and transesterified for qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis for fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterifiable lipids accounted for 94% of the material recovered by solvent extraction. Of the transesterified fatty acids (FA analyzed, the majority was monounsaturated (40.4% and saturated (37% C-16 FA. Other FA detected included saturated and monounsaturated C-18 (7.7 and 1.9% and saturated C-14 (5.3% and C-25 (1.5%. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC of the hydrochar in air showed calorific values of 10.6 MJ kg−1 (delipidated hydrochar and 3.1 MJ kg−1 (non-delipidated hydrochar with the latter exhibiting the presence of volatalizable components. Germination trials were conducted to assess the potential phytotoxic effects of these hydrochars. Delipidated hydrochar showed a germination index of 73% suggesting the presence of some phytotoxicity. Non-delipidated hydrochar showed high germination index results of 102% (unground and 126% (ground. Taken together with the observation of reduced root hair proliferation in these two test conditions, this suggests the operation of a second phytotoxic effect that is removed by delipidation.

  14. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  15. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  16. Method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2011-03-15

    Acidic uranium (U) groundwater plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/year) show that desorption of U and HA were nondetectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH ≤ 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results indicate that HA-treatment is a promising in situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost-effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  17. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Boudebaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The results showed that there was no correlation between phenolic contents of plant parts and their antioxidant activity. Whereas, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii showed that both had almost similar phenolic contents, while their antioxidant activity depended on the plant parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of plant parts was also depended on extraction method. Such a result may be likely ascribed to a variety of chemical composition can be found in Atractylis babelii extracts which has been related to its antioxidant properties.

  18. The acid steatocrit: a much improved method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M; Forget, P; Van den Neucker, A; Strik, J; van Kreel, B; Kuijten, R

    1994-10-01

    The steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple screening test for steatorrhea. As it seemed likely that separation of fecal homogenate by centrifugation into a lipid phase, a watery phase, and a solid phase would be pH-dependent, we evaluated the effect of fecal acidification on steatocrit results. We also compared classical and acid steatocrit results in healthy children and in patients with cystic fibrosis and studied the relationship between two steatocrit methods and fecal fat content as measured by a reference chemical method. Steatocrit results increased with the degree of fecal acidification, and maximal results were obtained at the lowest fecal pH values. Means and SEM for classical and acid steatocrit values were 1.1 +/- 0.4% (classical) versus 3.8 +/- 1% (acid) in controls (n = 6) and 5.4 +/- 1.9% (classical) versus 26.9 +/- 4.3% (acid) in cystic fibrosis patients (n = 9). The correlations between fecal fat content measured chemically and steatocrit results were 0.18 (p = 0.35) and 0.81 (p < 0.0001) for classical and acid steatocrit, respectively. We conclude that acidification of fecal homogenates leads to a marked improvement in the steatocrit method.

  19. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  20. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits : An...contributes to closing this gap. We discuss an exploratory investigation into a method and a set of tools for evaluating a text extraction toolkit

  1. Extraction of rare earth elements from a contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Shuai, Weitao; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) contamination to the surrounding soil has increased the concerns of health risk to the local residents. Soil washing was first attempted in our study to remediate REEs-contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil decontamination and possible recovery of REEs. The extraction time, washing agent concentration, and pH value of the washing solution were optimized. The sequential extraction analysis proposed by Tessier was adopted to study the speciation changes of the REEs before and after soil washing. The extract containing citric acid was dried to obtain solid for the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The results revealed that the optimal extraction time was 72 h, and the REEs extraction efficiency increased as the agent concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. EDTA was efficient to extract REEs over a wide range of pH values, while citric acid was around pH 6.0. Under optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of the major REEs in the contaminated soil were 70.96%, 64.38%, and 62.12% by EDTA, nitric acid, and citric acid, respectively. The sequential extraction analyses revealed that most soil-bounded REEs were mobilized or extracted except for those in the residual fraction. Under a comprehensive consideration of the extraction efficiency and the environmental impact, citric acid was recommended as the most suitable agent for extraction of the REEs from the contaminated cropland soils. The XRF analysis revealed that Mn, Al, Si, Pb, Fe, and REEs were the major elements in the extract indicating a possibile recovery of the REEs.

  2. Extraction chromatographic separation of uranium (VI) with amberlite LA-1 from malonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, P.; Khopkar, S.M.

    1985-12-01

    Uranium(VI) was extracted between pH 2.5 to 6.0 from 0.01 mol dm/sup -3/ malonic acid on a column of silica gel with Aberlite LA-1 as the extractant. It was stripped from the column with 1-2 mol dm/sup -3/ of hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids. Uranium(VI) was separated from alkali, alkaline earths, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium in binary mixtures by exploiting the difference in the pH of formation of malonato complexes. Uranium was separated from zirconium, hafnium, thorium, scandium, and titanium by taking its advantage of stability of chloro or sulfato complexes. The method was tested for the standard reference rock samples. 15 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  4. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  5. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  6. A method for extracting $cos\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B; Rothstein, I Z; Grinstein, Benjamin; Nolte, Detlef R.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2000-01-01

    We show that it is possible to extract the weak mixing angle alpha via a measurement of the rate for B^+(-) -> \\pi^+(-) e^+e^-. The sensitivity to cos(alpha) results from the interference between the long and short distance contributions. The short distance contribution can be computed, using heavy quark symmetry, in terms of semi-leptonic form factors. More importantly, we show that, using Ward identities and a short distance operator product expansion, the long distance contribution can be calculated without recourse to light cone wave functions when the invariant mass of the lepton pair, q^2, is much larger than LQCDs. We find that for q^2 > 2 GeV^2 the branching fraction is approximately 1 * 10^{-8}|V_{td}/0.008|^2. The shape of the differential rate is very sensitive to the value of cos(alpha) at small values of q^2 with dGamma /dq^2 varying up to 50% in the interval -1< cos(alpha)< 1 at q^2= 2 GeV^2. The size of the variation depends upon the ratio V_{ub}/V_{td}.

  7. A RAPID PCR-QUALITY DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IN FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZOU Gui-Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish, and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories[1-4]. The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time. The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay, especially in large-scale PCR amplification, such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6], identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10], etc. In this study, a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored, using a modified alkaline lysis protocol. Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes. This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.%PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish,and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories [1-4].The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time.The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay,especially in large-scale PCR amplification,such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6],identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10],etc.In this study,a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored,using a modified alkaline lysis protocol.Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes.This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.

  8. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in CMPO-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, K.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities (India). Kalpakkam Reproscessing Plants; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic resin containing extractants such as octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of extractants (CMPO + HDEHP) in an acrylic polymer matrix was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) over a range of nitric acid concentration. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and the concentration of CMPO and HDEHP in the resin phase was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the impregnated resin increased with increased in the concentration of nitric acid for CMPO-impregnated resin, whereas a reverse trend was observed in HDEHP impregnated resin. In case of resin containing both the extractants, synergism was observed at low nitric acid concentration and antagonism at high nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of extraction was probed by slope analysis method at 0.01 and 2 M nitric acid concentrations. Citrate-buffered DTPA was used for the selective separation of Am(III), and a separation factor of 3-4 was obtained at pH 3.

  9. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi

    2016-01-01

    and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing...... methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved...

  10. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  11. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  12. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2007-10-29

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P=95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 degrees C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ría de Arousa estuary.

  13. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  14. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  15. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields.

  16. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, SM; I Rasooli; K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Materials and Methods Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC) medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distingui...

  17. Design of experiments for amino acid extraction from tobacco leaves and their subsequent determination by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodek, Ondřej; Křížek, Tomáš; Coufal, Pavel; Ryšlavá, Helena

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we optimized a method for the determination of free amino acids in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detector was used for the separation of 20 proteinogenic amino acids in acidic background electrolyte. Subsequently, the conditions of extraction with HCl were optimized for the highest extraction yield of the amino acids because sample treatment of plant materials brings some specific challenges. Central composite face-centered design with fractional factorial design was used in order to evaluate the significance of selected factors (HCl volume, HCl concentration, sonication, shaking) on the extraction process. In addition, the composite design helped us to find the optimal values for each factor using the response surface method. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the 20 proteinogenic amino acids were found to be in the order of 10(-5) and 10(-4) mol l(-1), respectively. Addition of acetonitrile to the sample was tested as a method commonly used to decrease limits of detection. Ambiguous results of this experiment pointed out some features of plant extract samples, which often required specific approaches. Suitability of the method for metabolomic studies was tested by analysis of a real sample, in which all amino acids, except for L-methionine and L-cysteine, were successfully detected. The optimized extraction process together with the capillary electrophoresis method can be used for the determination of proteinogenic amino acids in plant materials. The resulting inexpensive, simple, and robust method is well suited for various metabolomic studies in plants. As such, the method represents a valuable tool for research and practical application in the fields of biology, biochemistry, and agriculture.

  18. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  19. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis for Corrosion of Aluminium in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sudesh Kumar; Suraj Prakash Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminium in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of different plant parts, namely, leaves, latex, and fruit was studied using weight loss method and thermometric method. The ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea act as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. The plant parts inhibit aluminium, and inhibition is attributed, due to the adsorption of the plant part...

  20. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries.

  1. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......) and a manual one (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were tested on stool samples collected from 3 patients with Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) and 5 healthy individuals. DNA extracts obtained by the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit yield a higher amount of DNA compared to DNA extracts obtained...

  2. String Variant Alias Extraction Method using Ensemble Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvaperumal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available String variant alias names are surnames which are string variant form of the primary name. Extracting string variant aliases are important in tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and name resolution etc. String variant alias extraction involves candidate alias name extraction and string variant alias validation. In this paper, string variant aliases are first extracted from the web and then using seven different string similarity metrics as features, candidate aliases are validated using ensemble classifier random forest. Experiments were conducted using string variant name-alias dataset containing name-alias data for 15 persons containing 30 name-alias pairs. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other similar methods in terms of accuracy.

  3. Efficient method for the extraction of genomic DNA from wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Faculty of Agro-technology and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ... showed high purity and high quantity in Sarkosyl method compare the other methods. ... Isolation of plant nucleic acids for use in Southen blot.

  4. comparison of protein extraction methods for the leaves of ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. I. Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... This study investigated several extraction methods for proteins from the leaves of Ficus .... found to be effective to remove plant lipids and pigments [22]. ... The addition of SDS as a solubilizing agent in the Tris buffered phenol.

  5. Comparison of four methods of DNA extraction from rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Polyphenols, teroens, and resins make it difficult to obtain high quality genomic DNA from rice. Four extraction methods were compared in our study, and CTAB precipitation was the most practical one.

  6. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  7. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF METHODS OF DNA EXTRACTION FROM PLANT ORIGIN OBJECTS AND FOODS BASED ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades modern and highly efficient methods of determining the quality and safety of food products, based on the application of the latest scientific achievements were developed in the world. A special place is given to the methods based on achievements of molecular biology and genetics. At the present stage of development in the field of assessing the quality of raw materials and processed food products much attention is given to highly accurate, sensitive and specific research methods, the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR occupying a leading place among them. PCR is a sophisticated method that simulates the natural DNA replication and allows to detect a single specific DNA molecule in the presence of millions of other molecules. The key point in the preparation of material for PCR is the extraction of nucleic acids. The low content of DNA in plant material and the high concentration of secondary metabolites complicate the process of extraction. The key solution to this problem is highly effective method of extraction, which allows to obtain the DNA of adequate quality and purity. Comparative analysis of methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from fruit raw materials and products based on them was carried out in the study. General analysis of the experimental data allowed us to determine the most efficient method for DNA extracting. In the comparative analysis it was found out that to extract DNA from plant raw materials and food products prepared on their basis it is the most suitable to use "Sorb-GMO-A" reactants kit (set. The approach described gives us a brilliant opportunity to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid proper quality and purity.

  9. Extraction and separation of titanium(IV with D2EHPA and PC-88A from aqueous perchloric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURSHOTTAM M. DHADKE

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid extraction of Ti(IV from perchlorate media using, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA and 2-ethylhexyl prosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A in toluene as the extractant was studied. Quantitative extraction of Ti(IV was observed in the lower acidity range of 0.01 to 0.1 mol dm-3 with 0.003 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and 0.01 mol dm-3 PC-88A in toluene, respectively, and in the higher acidity range of 9.0 to 10.0 mol dm-3 with 0.1 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and PC-88A in toluene. Ti(IV was completely stripped from the metal loaded organic phase of both the extractants with 3 % H2O2 in 1 M H2SO4 and determined spectrophotometrically. The stoichiometry of the extracted species was determined on the basis of slope analysis. The extraction in the lower acidity range was found to proceed by a cation-exchange mechanism with the extracted species being TiOR2·2HR, while in the higher acidity range it was by solvation with the extracted species being Ti(OH3ClO4·4HR. Separation of Ti(IV was also carried out from some associated metals like Fe(III, Al(III, V(V, Ce(IV, Mg(II and Mn(II. The developed methods were extended for the determination of Ti(IV in real samples like ilmenite, magnetite and red mud in order to show the practical utility of the extractants.

  10. A PCR amplification method without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Xu, Haiyue; Zhao, Chunjiang; Sulaiman, Yiming; Wu, Changxin

    2011-02-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method for direct PCR amplification of animal DNA from tissues, we optimized different components and their concentration in lysis buffer systems. Finally, we acquired the optimized buffer system composed of 10 mmol tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-Cl (pH 8.0), 2 mmol ethylene diamine tetraacetic (EDTA) (pH 8.0), 0.2 mol NaCl and 200 μg/mL Proteinase K. Interestingly, the optimized buffer is also very effective when working with common human sample types, including blood, buccal cells and hair. The direct PCR method requires fewer reagents (Tris-Cl, EDTA, Protease K and NaCl) and less incubation time (only 35 min). The cost of treating every sample is less than $0.02, and all steps can be completed on a thermal cycler in a 96-well format. So, the proposed method will significantly improve high-throughput PCR-based molecular assays in animal systems and in common human sample types.

  11. SEPARATION OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION. 1. MECHANISM AND INFLUENCING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN CASCAVAL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  12. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornanong Aramwit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin (SS can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, but SS obtained from some extraction methods can be toxic at higher concentrations. Heat-degraded SS was the least toxic to cells and activated the highest collagen production, while urea-extracted SS showed the lowest cell viability and collagen production. SS from urea extraction was severely harmful to cells at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL. SS from all extraction methods could still promote collagen production in a concentration-dependent manner, even at high concentrations that are toxic to cells.

  13. Forward gated-diode method for parameter extraction of MOSFETs*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chenfei; Ma Chenyue; Guo Xinjie; Zhang Xiufang; He Jin; Wang Guozeng; Yang Zhang; Liu Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The forward gated-diode method is used to extract the dielectric oxide thickness and body doping concentration of MOSFETs, especially when both of the variables are unknown previously. First, the dielectric oxide thickness and the body doping concentration as a function of forward gated-diode peak recombination-generation (R-G) current are derived from the device physics. Then the peak R-G current characteristics of the MOSFETs with different dielectric oxide thicknesses and body doping concentrations are simulated with ISE-Dessis for parameter extraction. The results from the simulation data demonstrate excellent agreement with those extracted from the forward gated-diode method.

  14. A Robust Digital Watermark Extracting Method Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOLihua; YANGShutang; LIJianhua

    2003-01-01

    Since watermark removal software, such as StirMark, has succeeded in washing watermarks away for most of the known watermarking systems, it is necessary to improve the robustness of watermarking systems. A watermark extracting method based on the error Back propagation (BP) neural network is presented in this paper, which can efficiently improve the robustness of watermarking systems. Experiments show that even if the watermarking systems are attacked by the StirMark software, the extracting method based on neural network can still efficiently extract the whole watermark information.

  15. Method for Extracting Product Information from TV Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Television (TV Commercial program contains important product information that displayed only in seconds. People who need that information has no insufficient time for noted it, even just for reading that information. This research work focus on automatically detect text and extract important information from a TV commercial to provide information in real time and for video indexing. We propose method for product information extraction from TV commercial using knowledge based system with pattern matching rule based method. Implementation and experiments on 50 commercial screenshot images achieved a high accuracy result on text extraction and information recognition.

  16. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  17. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    OpenAIRE

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES; JOSÉ FERNANDO MOURÃO CAVALCANTE; ZILVANIR FERNANDES DE QUEIROZ; RONDINELLE RIBEIRO CASTRO; RONALDO FERREIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore), an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index) were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID). The predominance of saturated fatty acids does n...

  18. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Grothausmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D deficient knock-out mice.

  19. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Ecocos Wolf.

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Braun, Christoph; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms use mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as biological sunscreens for the protection from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the prevention of oxidative stress. MAAs have been discovered in many different marine and freshwater species including cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, but also in animals like cnidarian and fishes. Here, we describe a general method for the isolation and characterization of MAA compounds from red algae and symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from coral hosts. This method is also suitable for the extraction and analyses of MAAs from a range of other algal and marine biota.

  1. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  2. Comparison of Three Methods of Protein Extraction from Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-lu Sun; Hong-yu Zhang; Zhi-yi Guo; Wan-tao Ying; Xiao-hong Qian; Jing-lan Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore an effective method of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus protein extraction suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Methods The extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were prepared with Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, respectively. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was used to determine the total protein concentration of the samples. The efficiency of different protein extraction methods were evaluated with 2-DE analysis. Results The concentrations of extracted protein by methods of Coca's solution, lysis buffer, and Trizol reagent were 0.63 g/L, 0.90 g/L, and 0.80 g/L, respectively. The 2-DE analysis results showed that some protein spots in low molecular weight (LMW) range could be detected with the Coca's solution method. With the lysis buffer of 2-DE method, more protein spots in LMW range could be detected, while the medium molecular weight (MMW) protein spots were absent. Several MMW protein spots (174-178 kD and 133 kD) and more LMW protein spots were detected with Trizol reagent method. Conclusions Among Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, the concentration of extracted protein of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by lysis buffer of 2-DE is the highest. However, most protein components of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus purified mite bodies can be extracted by Trizol reagent, which may generally reflect the whole profile of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens.

  3. Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulfuric acidic solution by the Chenopodium Ambrosioides Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bammou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural occurring extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides (CAE on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution is studied by the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The experimental results reveal that extract has a good inhibiting effect on the metal tested in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The protection efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration to attain 94% at 4 g/l. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that it acts essentially as a cathodic inhibitor. EIS results show that the change in the impedance parameters (Rt and Cdl with concentration of extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides is indicative of the adsorption of molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of carbon steel. The efficiency decreases with temperature. The adsorption of Chenopodium Ambrosioides extract is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energies and enthalpies of the corrosion process of carbon steel in acidic medium were determined.

  4. Aggregation and metal ion extraction properties of novel, silicon-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chiarizia, R.; Herlinger, A. W.

    2001-05-10

    In conjunction with efforts to develop novel actinide extractants exhibiting solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide, the effect of adding silicon-based functionalities to diphosphonic acids has been investigated. Specifically, a series of silyl-substituted diphosphonic acids has been prepared and characterized, and their aggregation and metal ion extraction properties compared with alkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids, reagents previously demonstrated to be effective extractants of actinides from acidic aqueous media into various organic solvents. In addition, the influence of the number of methylene groups bridging the phosphorus atoms of the diphosphonic acids on their extraction behavior has been investigated. Variations in the extraction behavior of the compounds arising from differences in the number of bridging methylene groups have been shown to be attributable to a combination of factors, in particular, the aggregation state of the ligand, the size of the chelate rings formed upon complexation, the basicity of the phosphoryl group and the relative acidities of the ligands.

  5. Impact of two different commercial DNA extraction methods on BK virus viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bergallo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: BK virus, a member of human polyomavirus family, is a worldwide distributed virus characterized by a seroprevalence rate of 70-90% in adult population. Monitoring of viral replication is made by evaluation of BK DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Many different methods can be applied for extraction of nucleic acid from several specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two different DNA extraction procedure on BK viral load. Materials and methods: DNA extraction procedure including the Nuclisens easyMAG platform (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France and manual QIAGEN extraction (QIAGEN Hilden, Germany. BK DNA quantification was performed by Real Time TaqMan PCR using a commercial kit. Result and discussion: The samples capacity, cost and time spent were compared for both systems. In conclusion our results demonstrate that automated nucleic acid extraction method using Nuclisense easyMAG was superior to manual protocol (QIAGEN Blood Mini kit, for the extraction of BK virus from serum and urine specimens.

  6. A Circular Statistical Method for Extracting Rotation Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sarala; Pankaj Jain

    2002-03-01

    We propose a new method for the extraction of Rotation Measures from spectral polarization data. The method is based on maximum likelihood analysis and takes into account the circular nature of the polarization data. The method is unbiased and statistically more efficient than the standard 2 procedure.

  7. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Udachan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and inert diluents with TOA as extractant were investigated, which were higher for active diluents. The effects of operating temperature, speed of agitation, agitation time and diluent composition on extraction efficiency were also studied. Temperature and extraction efficiency were inversely proportional to each other, whereas extraction efficiency was little affected by speed of agitation and agitation time.

  8. Synergistic extraction of rare earth by mixtures of 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid from sulfuric acid medium?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; LI Jianning; LONG Zhiqi; ZHANG Yongqi; XUE Xiangxin; ZHU Zhaowu

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of Nd3+ and Sm3+, including the extraction and stripping capability as well as the separation effect of Nd3+ or Sm3+, from a sulfuric acid medium, by mixtures of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP, H2A2(0)) and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH/EHP, H2L2(0)) were studied. The distribution ratios and synergistic coefficients of Nd3+ and Sm3+ in different acidities were also determined. A synergistic extractive effect was found when HDEHP and HEH/EHP were used as mixed extractants for Sm3+ or Nd3+. The chemical compositions of the extracted complex were determined as Nd·(HA2)2·HL2 and Sm·(HA2)2·HL2. The extraction equilibrium constants, enthalpy change, and entropy change of the extraction reaction were also determined.

  9. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Citric Acid by Aqueous Extract of Piper Nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matheswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Piper Nigrum L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of inhibitor in citric acid medium at different concentration. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the different concentration at two hour time interval at room temperature. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behaviour of Piper Nigrum L. is greater in 2 N Citric acid than 1 N Citric acid medium. So Piper Nigrum L. can be used has a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material which is used in many construction purpose.

  11. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Extraction and stripping of rare earths using mixtures of acidic phosphorusbased reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianglan; LI Wei; LI Deqian

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the extraction characters of trivalent rare earths from chloride solutions using organophosphorus acids 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEHEHP) combined with [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP), isopropylphosphonic acid l-hexyl-4-ethyloctyl ester (HHEOIPP), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), bis(2,4,4-trimethypen-tyl)-monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) or bis(2,4,4-trimethypentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 301)] as extractants. The effect of the equilibrium aqueous acidity on the extraction was studied. According to the corresponding separation factors for adjacent pairs of rare earths,it could be concluded that HEHEHP and Cyanex 272 could be employed for the separation of Tm(Ⅲ), Yb(Ⅲ), Lu(Ⅲ) from the other rare earths. Taking Yb(Ⅲ) as an example, based on the different stripping acid, the potential of the stripping was estimated.

  13. Comparing extraction buffers to identify optimal method to extract somatic coliphages from sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Poornima; Praveen, Chandni; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D

    2012-08-01

    Somatic coliphages are present in high numbers in sewage sludge. Since they are conservative indicators of viruses during wastewater treatment processes, they are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of sludge treatment processes. However, efficient methods to extract them from sludge are lacking. The objective was to compare different virus extraction procedures and develop a method to extract coliphages from sewage sludge. Twelve different extraction buffers and procedures varying in composition, pH, and sonication were compared in their ability to recover indigenous phages from sludges. The 3% buffered beef extract (BBE) (pH 9.0), the 10% BBE (pH 9.0), and the 10% BBE (pH 7.0) with sonication were short-listed and their recovery efficiency was determined using coliphage-spiked samples. The highest recovery was 16% for the extraction that involved 10% BBE at pH 9.0. There is a need to develop methods to extract somatic phages from sludges for monitoring sludge treatment processes.

  14. Quantitative extraction of nucleotides from frozen muscle samples of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) : Effects of time taken to sample and extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Bremner, Allan; Pankhurst, N.W.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle excised from the dorsal flank of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout at death and up to 120 min postmortem (P.M.) was frozen in liquid N-2 and stored at -80C. Following acid extraction, on ice (method I), or dry ice (method 2) samples were analyzed for cyclic nucleotides to determine...

  15. Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. A new 5-HT(7) bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new two-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by (1)H NMR using a structure-based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. A new CA was characterised. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT(7) ligand, N(omega)-methylserotonin. This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble

  17. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble an

  18. Cloud point extraction of uranium using H₂DEH[MDP] in acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Charles; Potvin, Sabrina; Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Larivière, Dominic

    2013-03-30

    A procedure has been developed for the cloud point extraction (CPE) of uranium (VI) using H2DEH[MDP] (P,P-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid) with inductively coupled plasma coupled to mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is based on the modification of the cloud point temperature using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and KI. Optimal conditions of extraction were found using a cross-optimization of every parameter (non-ionic and ionic surfactant concentrations, chelating agent concentration, pH and the extraction, and phase separation temperatures). Furthermore, the figures of merit of the methodology were assessed (limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, sensibility, and linear range) and are reported. Quantitative extraction (99 ± 0.5%) was obtained in drinking water samples over a wide range of uranium concentrations. The approach was also validated using drinking (SCP EP-L-3 and SCP EP-H-3), and wastewater (SCP EU-L-3) certified materials. Interferences from most critical anions and cations were evaluated to determine the reliability of the method. The proposed method showed robustness since its performance is maintained over a wide range of pH and metal ion concentrations.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  1. Phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column: Preparation, characterization, and application to the analysis of amino acids in sepia capsule by removing the maltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengzhe; Yin, Dengyang; Han, Jie; Zhang, Liyan; Li, Xiao; He, Dandan; Du, Yan; Tang, Daoquan

    2016-09-01

    Maltose, a common auxiliary material of pharmaceutical preparation, may disturb the analysis of total amino acids in sepia capsule by aldolization. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the maltose through a convenient method. In this work, a phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column has been synthesized and used to remove the maltose. The materials were synthesized by one step "thiol-ene" reaction and the parameters of the column such as absorption capacity, recovery, and absorption specificity have been investigated. The results showed the column (0.5 cm of length × 0.5 cm of inner diameter) can absorb 4.6 mg maltose with a linear absorption and absorption specificity. Then this technique was applied in the quantification of amino acids in sepia capsule. After the optimization of the method, four kinds of amino acids, which were the most abundant, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The amounts of the four kinds of amino acids are 1.5∼2 times more than that without the treatment of solid-phase extraction column, which almost overcomes the influence of the maltose. All the results indicate that the phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column can successfully help to accurately quantify the total amino acids in sepia capsule.

  2. The Effect of Homogenization Pressures on Extraction of Avocado Oil by Wet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuni Hamzah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado tree usually planted by people of Indonesia in rural are small in scale. Mostly, in the modern and high scale industry especially company has a large avocado farm the extraction of avocado oil is extracted through vacuum drying in low temperature. However, in rural area avocado tree spread out in small number of tree, so it needs alternative method of avocado oil extraction. In this experiment, wet method of avocado extraction was applied similar to traditional extraction of coconut oil in rural area. Avocado meat was added some water and 0.05% of phosphate acid then homogenization pressure of 7 kg/cm2, 71 kg/cm 2 and 176 kg/cm2, then heated at 100oC until the emulsion of water-oil broken down and avocado oil, then, can be separated. Yield and characteristics of avocado oil were determined. The results showed when homogenization pressures increased from 7 kg/cm2 to 71 kg/cm2, the yield, Iodine value and Free fatty Acid of avocado oil were also increased, however, when homogenization pressures increased from 71 kg/cm2 to 176 kg/cm2 (p>0.05 there were no significant increased of Yield, Iodine value and Free Fatty Acid of avocado oil.

  3. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  4. Lipid extraction methods from microalgal biomass harvested by two different paths: screening studies toward biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Sergio D; Castañeda, Joandiet; Torras, Carles; Farriol, Xavier; Salvadó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae can grow rapidly and capture CO2 from the atmosphere to convert it into complex organic molecules such as lipids (biodiesel feedstock). High scale economically feasible microalgae based oil depends on optimizing the entire process production. This process can be divided in three very different but directly related steps (production, concentration, lipid extraction and transesterification). The aim of this study is to identify the best method of lipid extraction to undergo the potentiality of some microalgal biomass obtained from two different harvesting paths. The first path used all physicals concentration steps, and the second path was a combination of chemical and physical concentration steps. Three microalgae species were tested: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Chaetoceros calcitrans One step lipid extraction-transesterification reached the same fatty acid methyl ester yield as the Bligh and Dyer and soxhlet extraction with n-hexane methods with the corresponding time, cost and solvent saving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of fatty acids percentages and profile extracted from cuttlefish of Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yosief Ali Asadpour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fatty acid profile extracted from cuttlefish of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, including Ancistrocheirus, Enoploteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae and Loliginidae. Methods:Oil was extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by gas chromatography. Results:The results showed that (13±5)% of wet weight of cuttlefish is oil. The results also showed that cuttlefish oil has 29.40% saturated fatty acids and 23.70% single-band unsaturated fatty acids, and the total value of the unsaturated multiple-band is 40.20%, the contents of arachidonic acid 2.78%, linolenic acid 3.10%, linoleic acid 5.20%, docosahexaenoic acid 15.40%, and eicosapentaenoic acid 9.60% out of the total fatty acids of the same may be mentioned. Conclusions:The results of the current study described that cuttlefish is considered for the first time as the new and rich source of omega-3 and omega-6.

  6. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  7. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  8. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics.

  9. Comparison of antioxidant activities between salvianolic acid B and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761 )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-suo LIU; Yong CHENG; Jin-feng HU; Wei ZHANG; Nai-hong CHEN; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate and compare the antioxidant activities of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in aqueous solution, rat microsomes and the cellular system. Methods: Superoxide anion (O-·2) was generated using xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and phenazine methosulate/NADH system, and the effects of SalB and EGb 761 on the generation of (O-·2) were achieved by spectrophotometric measurement of the product formed on reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. Two different methods were used to assess the scavenging effects of the extracts on hydroxyl radical (·OH): HPLC method was used for quantitation of ·OH by oxy-radical trapping of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) to form DMPO-OH adducts in Fe2+-EDTA-H2O2 system. To confirm the HPLC data,·OH was also measured by spectrophotometry using a commercial detection kit. The anti-lipid peroxidation effects of the extracts in microsomes of rat brain, liver and kidney induced by ascorbate-NADPH were determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The protective effects of the extracts on peroxide hydrogen (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated by assessing cell viability assay, the level of lipid peroxidation, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Results: Both SalB and EGb 761 were able to scavenge O-·2 and ·OH, inhibit lipid peroxidation of microsomes, and protect SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. However, the concentration of SalB was far lower than that of EGb 761 when a similar effect was obtained. Conclusion: The antioxidant efficiency of SalB was greater than that of EGb 761. These results suggest that SalB, like EGb 761, has promising potential in treating oxidative damagederived neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal...

  11. Equilibria and kinetics for reactive extraction of lactic acid using Alamine 336 in decanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this from aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid-amine (solvent) system used. The equilibrium compl

  12. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  13. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  14. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  15. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  16. Reactive Extraction of L (+ Tartaric Acid by Amberlite LA-2 in Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Inci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of L(+ tartaric acid from aqueous solutions by amberlite LA-2 is a secondary amine mixture in different diluent solvents. Extraction equilibria of L(+ tartaric acid by amberlite LA-2 in 1-octanol, cyclohexane, isooctane, hexane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK solvents at temperature 298.15 K have been measured. The batch extraction experiments distribution coefficients (D, loading factors ( Z and extraction efficiency (E were calculated. The maximum removal of L(+ tartaric acid is 91 % with MIBK and 0.92 mol.L-1 initial concentration of Amberlite LA-2.

  17. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  18. A Novel Method of Genomic DNA Extraction for Cactaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Jessica M. Allen; Kathleen Church

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and compl...

  19. Preparation of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Probes through Polyaniline Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) Coating for the Extraction of Palmitic Acid and Oleic Acid in Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeamiri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    A fiber coating from polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically prepared and employed for Solid phase micreoextraction (SPME). The PANI film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface using cyclic voltametry (CV) technique. The same method was applied for the preparation of SPME fiber coated by polyaniline multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) composite. The concentration of sulfuric acid for electropolymerization was 0.1 M in the presence of 0.045 M aniline in aqueous solution. For the electrodeposition of PANI/MWCNT composite, 4 μg/mL of MWCNTs was dispersed into the solution. Film coating was carried out on the platinum wire by repetitive cycling of potentials between 0 and 1.0 V at the scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The applicability of these coatings were assessed through employing a laboratory-made SPME injecting device and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction of palmitic acid and oleic acid from chloroform. The developed method proved to be simple and easy, offering high reproducibility. Both PANI coated and PANI/CNT coated probes had the ability to concentrate palmitic acid and oleic acid on their coating and produced strong signals in GC-MS chromatograms. In the meantime, PANI/CNT coated SPME probes produced signals which were stronger than those produced by PANI coated SPME probes. The amount of extracted palmitic acid and oleic acid from chloroform by the PANI/MWCNTs coating was about 6 and 12 times higher than the amount extracted by plane PANI SPME fibers respectively. It could be suggested that the composite material with CNTs has both an increased surface area and an elevated absorptive capacity which leads to this overall increase in extracted palmitic acid and oleic acid.

  20. N,N,N‘,N’—tetrabutylmalonamide as a new extractant for extraction of nitric acid and uranium(VI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYou-Shao; SunXiao-Yu; 等

    1997-01-01

    N,N,N',N'-tetrabutylmalonamide(TBMA) is synthesized and used for extraction of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion from nitric acid media in a diluent composed of 50% 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene (TMB) and 50% kerosene(OK),The effects of nitric acid concentration,extractant concentration,temperature,slating-out agent (LiNO3) and back extraction on distribution coefficients of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion have been studied.The extraction of nitric acid is also studied.The main adduct of TBMA and HNO3 is HNO3.TBMA,and there are more than two kinds of adducts in 3.0mol/L nitric acid solutions,such as HNO3.TBMA,(HNO3)2,TBMA and (NHO3)3.TBMA.The complex formation of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion,nitrate ion and TBMA(1:2:1) as extracted species is further confirmed by IR spectra of the saturated extraction of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion with TBMA,and the values of thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated.

  1. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM, three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w. To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  3. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  4. A New Method to Extract Text from Natural Scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for text detection, location and binarization fron natural scenes. Several morphological steps are used to detect the general positian of the text, including English, Chinese and Japanese characters. Next bounding boxes are processed by a new "Expand, Break and Merge" (EBM) method to get the precise text areas. Finally, text is binarized by a hybrid method based on Otsu and Niblack. This new approach can extract different kinds of text from complicated natural scenes. It is insensitive to noise, distortedness, and text orientation. It also has good performance on extracting texts in various sizes.

  5. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH(EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jinshi; XU Yang; WANG Liangshi; HUANG Xiaowei; LONG Zhiqi; WU Shengxi

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction has been the most widely used technique for rare earths separation. In this study, thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH (EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium were investigated. The extraction mechanism and the relevant parameters were determined by experiment research which can guide the practical extraction process. The data indicated that chloride ion had no effect on lutetium extraction, the rate constant increased when stirring speed was enhanced. Effects of temperature, HEH (EHP) concentration, acidity, and chloride concentration were also studied. Thickness of the diffusion film was also calculated to be 4.66×10–3 cm at 150 r/min.

  7. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA{center_dot}TOA{center_dot}2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  8. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. (Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA[center dot]TOA[center dot]2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  9. A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Ramírez, Santiago R; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method for the extraction of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using silica gel, herein referred to as "silica-rubbing". This method permits the selective sampling of external hydrocarbons from insect cuticle surfaces for subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cuticular hydrocarbons are first adsorbed to silica gel particles by rubbing the cuticle of insect specimens with the materials, and then are subsequently eluted using organic solvents. We compared the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that resulted from extractions using silica-rubbing and solvent-soaking methods in four ant and one bee species: Linepithema humile, Azteca instabilis, Camponotus floridanus, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Euglossa dilemma (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We also compared the hydrocarbon profiles of Euglossa dilemma obtained via silica-rubbing and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles obtained by different extraction methods indicates that silica rubbing selectively extracts the hydrocarbons that are present on the surface of the cuticular wax layer, without extracting hydrocarbons from internal glands and tissues. Due to its surface specificity, efficiency, and low cost, this new method may be useful for studying the biology of insect cuticular hydrocarbons.

  10. Response Surface Method to Optimize the Process Parameters of Acid-enzyme Combination Extraction Bullfrog Skin Collagen%响应面法优化酸酶结合提取牛蛙皮胶原蛋白工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹鹤; 刘学军

    2012-01-01

    In order to make full use of bullfrog skin resources, in this experiment through determination of hydrgxyproline content determines the bullfrog skin collagen in a total of 42.58%, drawing the standard curve obtained collagen hydroxyproline, which content is 28.32%, the bullfrog skin aiker pretreatment with acetic acid and pepsin extraction, combination, and the use of response surface method to the extraction conditions for process optimization, the results show that: the optimum extraction conditions for l0 DEG C, at the concentration of 2.5 per 1000pepsin, in 1:40ratio of material to liquid, extraction of 24h. The optimum conditions of collagen extraction, and by the salting out, freezing and drying to obtain powdered collagen products. Its measured rate is 27.98%. The extracted bullfrog skin collagen by ultraviolet analysis and detection of amino acids, the results show that the extraction of high purity collagen products.%为了充分利用牛蛙皮资源,本试验通过测定羟脯氨酸含量确定了牛蛙皮中胶原蛋白总量为42.58%,绘制羟脯氨酸标准曲线,得出其中胶原蛋白含量为28.32%,牛蛙皮经过预处理后,采用乙酸和胃蛋白酶结合提取,并利用响应面法对提取条件进行工艺优化,结果表明:最佳提取条件为10℃下,以浓度为2.5‰的胃蛋白酶,在1:40料液比中,提取24h。以最佳条件提取胶原蛋白,并经盐析、冷冻干燥得到粉末状胶原蛋白产品。测得其得率为27.98%。对所提取的牛蛙皮胶原蛋白进行紫外分析和氨基酸检测,结果表明所提取的胶原蛋白产品纯度较高。

  11. Genomic DNA extraction method from Annona senegalensis Pers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria. Accepted ... (CTAB) method is used to isolate DNA from tissues containing high levels of polysaccharides. The ... Isolation of plant nucleic acids for use in Southern.

  12. Extraction of lanthanides by polysulfone microcapsules containing EHPNA. I. Piercing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖宇; 王月; 侯海龙; 徐建鸿; 王运东

    2015-01-01

    Since the conventional liquid-liquid extraction method suffered from a series of problems such as inefficiency of one stage extraction, vast device occupation and severe emulsification, we adopted microcapsule (MC) technique to change the former liq-uid-liquid extraction to liquid-solid extraction. Firstly, the piercing method was performed to prepare the empty polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules, which was easy to implement and control. Secondly, the ultrasonic approach was utilized to prepare the functional microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA). We focused on a key factor of the molar ratio of PSF over 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), attaining a loading ratio as high as 7.21 g-EHPNA/g-PSF. Thirdly, we examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of extraction. Kinetic results demonstrated that equilibrium was reached within two hours, with an extraction rate of Sm3+≈Er3+>La3+; Thermodynamic results showed that the extraction of lanthanides complied with the Langmuir law, with an extraction capacity of 0.25–0.30 mmol/g-microcapsule. Fourthly, stripping experiment indicated that three hours were re-quired to accomplish equilibrium for La3+ and Sm3+ while longer hours for Er3+. Finally, seven extraction-stripping cyclic experiments were performed for three mixed elements, the results of which revealed that Sm3+ and Er3+ maintained constantly high extraction amount whilst La3+ leveled off at approximately 50%. This proposed polysulfone microcapsule containing EHPNA is suitable to be applied to extraction and concentration of rare earth metals.

  13. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  14. Use of Experimental Design in the Optimization of Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Fructus crataegi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kariuki Nancy N; LUO Guoan

    2001-01-01

    Extraction of active constituents is the key to economic exploitation of herbal drugs in which appropriate use of experimental design can be employed.This paper used even-plan design to assess parameters for optimum extraction of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in Fructus crataegi.In this approach,three factors,namely solvent concentration,extraction time and solvent volume,were evaluated according to even-plan design,in which several factors are usually simultaneously varied.As a result the number of experiments as well as time,was reduced as compared with the univariate approach and other designs.It was demonstrated that with even-plan design,useful information on extraction parameters can be obtained for the extraction of herbal drugs and could therefore be successfully applied to screen extraction conditions for herbal drugs.

  15. A NOVEL METHOD FOR ARABIC MULTI-WORD TERM EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadni Meryem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Multiword Terms (AMWTs are relevant strings of words in text documents. Once they are automatically extracted, they can be used to increase the performance of any Arabic Text Mining applications such as Categorization, Clustering, Information Retrieval System, Machine Translation, and Summarization, etc. Mainly the proposed methods for AMWTs extraction can be categorized in three approaches: Linguistic-based, Statistic-based, and hybrid-based approach. These methods present some drawbacks that limit their use. In fact they can only deal with bi-grams terms and their yield not good accuracies. In this paper, to overcome these drawbacks, we propose a new and efficient method for AMWTs Extraction based on a hybrid approach. This latter is composed by two main filtering steps: the Linguistic filter and the Statistical one. The Linguistic Filter uses our proposed Part Of Speech (POS Tagger and the Sequence identifier as patterns in order to extract candidate AMWTs. While the Statistical filter incorporate the contextual information, and a new proposed association measure based on Termhood and Unithood Estimation named NTC-Value. To evaluate and illustrate the efficiency of our proposed method for AMWTs extraction, a comparative study has been conducted based on Kalimat Corpus and using nine experiment schemes: In the linguistic filter, we used three POS Taggers such as Taani’s method based Rule-approach, HMM method based Statistical-approach, and our recently proposed Tagger based Hybrid –approach. While in the Statistical filter, we used three statistical measures such as C-Value, NC-Value, and our proposed NTC-Value. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method for AMWTs extraction: it outperforms the other ones and can deal correctly with the tri-grams terms.

  16. Simple method for extracting gold from electrical and electronic wastes using hydrometallurgical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aali Dehchenari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research studied the feasibility of a simple method for extracting gold from central processing units (CPUs of computer circuit boards without solvent. Methods: Ceramic and composite CPUs of computer circuit boards were used. Gold was extracted using a hydrometallurgical method in six stages: grinding of CPUs, leaching in nitric acid, leaching in aqua regia, removing the excess nitric acid, extracting the gold, washing and purifying the gold deposits. Measurements of extracted precious metals were carried out by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. Results: The results indicated that mean concentrations of gold in the first and second stages of leaching were 0.138 and 31.16 mg/L, respectively. Following the washing stage, the concentration of gold in the final deposit was 25 mg/L. The purity rate of the final deposit was 83.9%, and the final gold recovery yielded 82.3%. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated there is a potential for extracting a high percentage of precious metals from e-wastes without solvent.

  17. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  18. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  19. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  20. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O. H.; Susilawati, K.; Nik Muhamad, A. B.; Khanif, M. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  1. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW).

  2. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  3. Comparison of values derived from selected flours by fat acidity methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists and the International Organization for Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R H; Erickson, R L

    1988-01-01

    Fat acidity values were determined on 8 commercially available flours by the American Association of Cereal Chemists method (AACC-02-01A) and by the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO-7305). Comparisons of means obtained by these 2 methods indicated that the ISO method produced results that were 1.4-2.5 times greater (P less than 0.001) than those for the AACC method. These data are consistent with a previous report which indicated that acidic materials (phosphates and amino acids) other than fatty acids are extracted by 95% alcohol (ISO method), whereas fatty acids alone are extracted by petroleum ether (AACC method). Fat acidity values obtained by AACC methodology employing Soxhlet and continuous extraction were also compared. No difference in fat acidity means existed with respect to extraction technique except for an aged whole wheat flour sample which produced a higher value (P = 0.05) by continuous extraction.

  4. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  5. THE METHODS OF EXTRACTING WATER INFORMATION FROM SPOT IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some techniques and methods for deriving water information from SPOT -4 (XI) image were investigatedand discussed in this paper. An algorithm of decision-tree (DT) classification which includes several classifiers based onthe spectral responding characteristics of water bodies and other objects, was developed and put forward to delineate wa-ter bodies. Another algorithm of decision-tree classification based on both spectral characteristics and auxiliary informa-tion of DEM and slope (DTDS) was also designed for water bodies extraction. In addition, supervised classificationmethod of maximum-likelyhood classification (MLC), and unsupervised method of interactive self-organizing dada analy-sis technique (ISODATA) were used to extract waterbodies for comparison purpose. An index was designed and used toassess the accuracy of different methods adopted in the research. Results have shown that water extraction accuracy wasvariable with respect to the various techniques applied. It was low using ISODATA, very high using DT algorithm andmuch higher using both DTDS and MLC.

  6. METHOD TO EXTRACT BLEND SURFACE FEATURE IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhen; Ke Yinglin; Sun Qing; Kelvin W; Huang Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    A new method of extraction of blend surface feature is presented. It contains two steps: segmentation and recovery of parametric representation of the blend. The segmentation separates the points in the blend region from the rest of the input point cloud with the processes of sampling point data, estimation of local surface curvature properties and comparison of maximum curvature values. The recovery of parametric representation generates a set of profile curves by marching throughout the blend and fitting cylinders. Compared with the existing approaches of blend surface feature extraction, the proposed method reduces the requirement of user interaction and is capable of extracting blend surface with either constant radius or variable radius. Application examples are presented to verify the proposed method.

  7. Extraction method for parasitic capacitances and inductances of HEMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, HengShuang; Ma, PeiJun; Lu, Yang; Zhao, BoChao; Zheng, JiaXin; Ma, XiaoHua; Hao, Yue

    2017-03-01

    A new method to extract parasitic capacitances and inductances for high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the conventional extraction method, the depletion layer is modeled as a physically significant capacitance model and the extrinsic values obtained are much closer to the actual results. In order to simulate the high frequency behaviour with higher precision, series parasitic inductances are introduced into the cold pinch-off model which is used to extract capacitances at low frequency and the reactive elements can be determined simultaneously over the measured frequency range. The values obtained by this method can be used to establish a 16-elements small-signal equivalent circuit model under different bias conditions. The results show good agreements between the simulated and measured scattering parameters up to 30 GHz.

  8. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Arhewoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM and Andrographis paniculata (AP as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK and Hunteria umbellata (HU were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected to validation studies following international guidelines at the respective wavelengths obtained.Results: The results showed linearity at peak wavelengths of maximum absorbance of 292, 280, 274 and 230 nm for GK, HU, AM and AP, respectively. The calibration curves for the different concentrations of the extract gave R2 values ranging from 0.9831 for AM to 0.9996 for AP the inter-day and intra-day precision study showed that the relative standard deviation (% was ≤ 10% for all the extracts.Conclusion: The aqueous extracts and isolates of these plants can be assayed and monitored using these wavelengths.

  9. A kinetic approach to evaluate the association of acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, A.; Meerman, E.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (¿SEM) method is widely used for evaluating potential bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and sediment. It is also criticized, because the requirement that AVS and SEM metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are associated in the

  10. A comparison of an optimised sequential extraction procedure and dilute acid leaching of elements in anoxic sediments, including the effects of oxidation on sediment metal partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Bronwyn L; Palmer, Anne S; Seen, Andrew J; Townsend, Ashley T

    2008-02-11

    The effect of oxidation of anoxic sediment upon the extraction of 13 elements (Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As) using the optimised Community Bureau of Reference of the European Commission (BCR) sequential extraction procedure and a dilute acid partial extraction procedure (4h, 1 molL(-1) HCl) was investigated. Elements commonly associated with the sulfidic phase, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe exhibited the most significant changes under the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Cd, Cu, Zn, and to a lesser extent Pb, were redistributed into the weak acid extractable fraction upon oxidation of the anoxic sediment and Fe was redistributed into the reducible fraction as expected, but an increase was also observed in the residual Fe. For the HCl partial extraction, sediments with moderate acid volatile sulfide (AVS) levels (1-100 micromolg(-1)) showed no significant difference in element partitioning following oxidation, whilst sediments containing high AVS levels (>100 micromolg(-1)) were significantly different with elevated concentrations of Cu and Sn noted in the partial extract following oxidation of the sediment. Comparison of the labile metals released using the BCR sequential extraction procedure (SigmaSteps 1-3) to labile metals extracted using the dilute HCl partial extraction showed that no method was consistently more aggressive than the other, with the HCl partial extraction extracting more Sn and Sb from the anoxic sediment than the BCR procedure, whilst the BCR procedure extracted more Cr, Co, Cu and As than the HCl extraction.

  11. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  12. Non-dispersive solvent extraction of p-toluic acid from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater with p-xylene as extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ran KONG; You-wei CHENG; Li-jun WANG; Xi LI‡

    2016-01-01

    题目:对二甲苯非分散相溶剂萃取精对苯二甲酸工业废水中的对甲基苯甲酸  目的:采用对二甲苯为萃取剂,通过非分散相溶剂萃取(膜基萃取)同时回收利用精对苯二甲酸(PTA)工业废水中的对甲基苯甲酸和水。  创新点:1.采用非分散相溶剂萃取有效地实现了工业条件下 PTA 废水的净化和资源的回收利用;2.采用数学模拟优化工业萃取的操作参数。  方法:1.进行对二甲苯萃取实验,考察操作条件对萃取效率和萃余水杂质浓度的影响;2.通过数学模拟,建立膜萃取过程的数学模型,对操作参数与膜结构参数进行敏感性分析。  结论:1.非分散相溶剂萃取可以有效解决 PTA 工业废水的回收利用问题;2.质量传递的速率控制步骤是管程中的水相扩散;3.优化的工业操作条件为:中空纤维膜内径为200~250μm,萃取时间为50~60 s,水油两相体积比为9.0,萃取温度为318 K。%Non-dispersive solvent extraction (NDSE) with p-xylene as extractant was employed as a novel separation method to recover both p-toluic (PT) acid and water from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. The mass transport behavior of PT acid from aqueous solution to p-xylene was investigated by experiments and numerical simulation. Experiments showed that NDSE is feasible and effective. Residual PT acid in the raffinate can be reduced to lower than the permitted limit of wastewater re-use (100 g/m3) with extraction time longer than 60 s in industrial conditions. A mathematical model of PT acid mass transport was developed to optimize the membrane module performance. The model was validated with the experimental results with relative errors of less than 6%. Numerical analysis for mass transfer through the lumen side, the porous membrane layer, and the shell side showed that PT acid transport in the aqueous solution is the rate determining step. The effects

  13. A Novel Method of Genomic DNA Extraction for Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon D. Fehlberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies.

  14. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  15. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  16. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  17. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  18. Optimization of the Phenol -Chloroform Silica DNA Extraction Method in Ancient Bones DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DNA extraction from the ancient bones tissues is currently very difficult. Phenol chloroform silica method is one of the methods currently used for this aim. The purpose of this study was to optimize the assessment method. Methods: DNA of 62 bone tissues (average 3-11 years was first extracted with phenol chloroform silica methods and then with changing of some parameters of the methods the extracted DNA was amplified in eight polymorphisms area including FES, F13, D13S317, D16, D5S818, vWA and CD4. Results from samples gained by two methods were compared in acrylamide gel. Results: The average of PCR yield for new method and common method in eight polymorphism regions was 75%, 78%, 81%, 76%, 85%, 71%, 89%, 86% and 64%, 39%, 70%, 49%, 68%, 76%, 71% and 28% respectively. The average of DNA in optimized (in 35l silica density and common method were 267.5 µg/ml with 1.12 purity and 192.76 g/ml with 0.84 purity respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is estimated that longer EDTA attendance is an efficient agent in removing calcium and also adequate density of silica particles can be efficient in removal of PCR inhibitors.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchaiah, K.C.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, C.V.S. Brahmmananda; Subramaniam, S.; Sivaraman, N.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO{sub 3}. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO{sub 3} medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO{sub 2} containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  20. Comparison of GC-MS and FTIR methods for quantifying naphthenic acids in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela C; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2008-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the oil sands in Canada releases toxic naphthenic acids into the process-affected waters. The development of an ideal analytical method for quantifying naphthenic acids (general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) has been impeded by the complexity of these mixtures and the challenges of differentiating naphthenic acids from other naturally-occurring organic acids. The oil sands industry standard FTIR method was compared with a newly-developed GC-MS method. Naphthenic acids concentrations were measured in extracts of surface and ground waters from locations within the vicinity of and away from the oil sands deposits and in extracts of process-affected waters. In all but one case, FTIR measurements of naphthenic acids concentrations were greater than those determined by GC-MS. The detection limit of the GC-MS method was 0.01 mg L(-1) compared to 1 mg L(-1) for the FTIR method. The results indicated that the GC-MS method is more selective for naphthenic acids, and that the FTIR method overestimates their concentrations.

  1. Synthesis of silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rahman, T.; Fadhlulloh, M. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hamidah, I.; Mulyanti, B.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method. The experiment was conducted by heating and