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Sample records for acid exhibits selective

  1. The short form of the recombinant CAL-A-type lipase UM03410 from the smut fungus Ustilago maydis exhibits an inherent trans-fatty acid selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiek, Henrike; Saß, Stefan; Evitt, Andrew; Kourist, Robert; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-04-01

    The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an Nterminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation temperature to 20 °C and enrichment of the cultivation medium with glucose. Primary characteristics of the recombinant lipase are its pH optimum in the range of 6.5-7.0 and its temperature optimum at 55 °C. As is typical for lipases, lipUM03410 shows preference for long chain fatty acid esters with myristic acid ester (C14:0 ester) being the most preferred one.More importantly, lipUMs exhibits an inherent preference for C18:1Δ9 trans and C18:1Δ11 trans-fatty acid esters similar to CAL-A. Therefore, the short form of this U. maydis lipase is the only other currently known lipase with a distinct trans-fatty acid selectivity.

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  3. Enantiomeric Selective Adsorption of Amino Acid by Polysaccharide Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Duri, Simon; Tran, Chieu D.

    2014-01-01

    A composite containing cellulose (CEL) and chitosan (CS) synthesized by a simple and recyclable method by using butylmethylimmidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid, was found to exhibit remarkable enantiomeric selectivity toward adsorption of amino acids. 100%CS shows the highest adsorption capacity and enantiomeric selectivity. A racemic amino acid can be enantiomerically resolved by 100%CS in about 96–120 hrs. Interestingly, adsorption by 50:50 CEL:CS is more similar to that by 100%CS than to...

  4. A Dynamic Supramolecular System Exhibiting Substrate Selectivity in the Catalytic Epoxidation of Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Stefan; Odille, Fabrice G. J.; Norrby, Per-Ola;

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction....

  5. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  6. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Deirdre M.; Kelly, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8–16 and 18–30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research

  7. Highly selective sorting of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes exhibiting light emission at telecom wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Sarti; Francesco Biccari; Federica Fioravanti; Ughetta Torrini; Anna Vinattieri; Vincent Derycke; Massimo Gurioli

    2016-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are known for their exceptional electronic properties.However,most of the synthesis methods lead to the production of a mixture of carbon nanotubes having different chiralities associated with metallic (m-SWNTs) and semiconducting (s-SWNTs) characteristics.For application purposes,effective methods for separating these species are highly desired.Here,we report a protocol for achieving a highly selective separation of s-SWNTs that exhibit a fundamental optical transition centered at 1,550 nm.We employ a polymer assisted sorting approach,and the influence of preparation methods on the optical and transport performances of the separated nanotubes is analyzed.As even traces of m-SWNTs can critically affect performances,we aim to produce samples that do not contain any detectable fraction of residual m-SWNTs.

  8. Chromatographic selectivity study of 4-fluorophenylacetic acid positional isomers separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Tyson; Wenslow, Robert; Bereznitski, Yuri

    2007-07-13

    Unique properties of the fluorine atom stimulate widespread use and development of new organofluorine compounds in agrochemistry, biotechnology and pharmacology applications. However, relatively few synthetic methods exhibit a high degree of fluorination selectivity, which ultimately results in the presence of structurally related fluorinated isomers in the synthetic product. This outcome is undesirable from a pharmaceutical perspective as positional isomers possess different reactivity, biological activity and toxicity as compared to the desired product. It is advantageous to control positional isomers in the early stages of the synthetic process, as rejection and analysis of these isomers will likely become more difficult in later stages. The current work reports the development of a chromatographic analysis of 2- and 3-fluorophenylacetic acid positional isomer impurities in 4-fluorophenylacetic acid (4-FPAA), a building block in the synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The method is employed as a part of a Quality by Design Approach to control purity of the starting material in order to eliminate the presence of undesirable positional isomers in the final drug substance. During method development, a wide range of chromatographic conditions and structurally related positional isomer probe molecules were exploited in an effort to gain insight into the specifics of the separation mechanism. For the systems studied it was shown that the choice of organic modifier played a key role in achieving acceptable separation. Further studies encompassed investigation of temperature influence on retention and selectivity of the FPAA isomers separation. Thermodynamic analysis of these data showed that the selectivity of the 2- and 4- fluorophenylacetic acids separation was dominated by an enthalpic process, while the selectivity of the 4- and 3-fluorophenylacetic acids separation was exclusively entropy driven (Delta(DeltaH degrees approximately 0). Studies of

  9. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. PMID:27443453

  10. In vitro selection of functional nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. S.; Szostak, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro selection allows rare functional RNA or DNA molecules to be isolated from pools of over 10(15) different sequences. This approach has been used to identify RNA and DNA ligands for numerous small molecules, and recent three-dimensional structure solutions have revealed the basis for ligand recognition in several cases. By selecting high-affinity and -specificity nucleic acid ligands for proteins, promising new therapeutic and diagnostic reagents have been identified. Selection experiments have also been carried out to identify ribozymes that catalyze a variety of chemical transformations, including RNA cleavage, ligation, and synthesis, as well as alkylation and acyl-transfer reactions and N-glycosidic and peptide bond formation. The existence of such RNA enzymes supports the notion that ribozymes could have directed a primitive metabolism before the evolution of protein synthesis. New in vitro protein selection techniques should allow for a direct comparison of the frequency of ligand binding and catalytic structures in pools of random sequence polynucleotides versus polypeptides.

  11. PSAPP mice exhibit regionally selective reductions in gliosis and plaque deposition in response to S100B ablation

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    Young Keith A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. However, the ability of S100B inhibitors to prevent/reverse AD histopathology remains controversial. This study examines the effect of S100B ablation on in vivo plaque load, gliosis and dystrophic neurons. Methods Because S100B-specific inhibitors are not available, genetic ablation was used to inhibit S100B function in the PSAPP AD mouse model. The PSAPP/S100B-/- line was generated by crossing PSAPP double transgenic males with S100B-/- females and maintained as PSAPP/S100B+/- crosses. Congo red staining was used to quantify plaque load, plaque number and plaque size in 6 month old PSAPP and PSAPP/S100B-/- littermates. The microglial marker Iba1 and astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were used to quantify gliosis. Dystrophic neurons were detected with the phospho-tau antibody AT8. S100B immunohistochemistry was used to assess the spatial distribution of S100B in the PSAPP line. Results PSAPP/S100B-/- mice exhibited a regionally selective decrease in cortical but not hippocampal plaque load when compared to PSAPP littermates. This regionally selective reduction in plaque load was accompanied by decreases in plaque number, GFAP-positive astrocytes, Iba1-positive microglia and phospho-tau positive dystrophic neurons. These effects were not attributable to regional variability in the distribution of S100B. Hippocampal and cortical S100B immunoreactivity in PSAPP mice was associated with plaques and co-localized with astrocytes and microglia. Conclusions Collectively, these data support S100B inhibition as a novel strategy for reducing cortical plaque load, gliosis and neuronal dysfunction in AD and suggest that both extracellular as well as intracellular S100B contribute to AD histopathology.

  12. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian BASTON; Oana Emilia CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regardi...

  13. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Selective Reactions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with 2-Naphthols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaicharla, Trinadh; Roy, Tony; Thangaraj, Manikandan; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2016-08-16

    Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions of 2-substituted cyclopropane 1,1-dicarboxylates with 2-naphthols is reported. The reaction exhibits tunable selectivity depending on the nature of Lewis acid employed and proceed as a dearomatization/rearomatization sequence. With Bi(OTf)3 as the Lewis acid, a highly selective dehydrative [3+2] cyclopentannulation takes place leading to the formation of naphthalene-fused cyclopentanes. Interestingly, engaging Sc(OTf)3 as the Lewis acid, a Friedel-Crafts-type addition of 2-naphthols to cyclopropanes takes place, thus affording functionalized 2-naphthols. Both reactions furnished the target products in high regioselectivity and moderate to high yields. PMID:27391792

  14. Modeling of the selective pertraction of carboxylic acids obtained by citric fermentation

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    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facilitated pertraction was applied for the selective separation of citric, maleic and succinic acids from a mixture obtained by citric fermentation. The pertraction equipment included a U-shaped cell containing 1,2-dichloro-ethane as the liquid membrane and Amberlite LA-2 as the carrier. The experimental data indicated that maleic and succinic acids can be initially selectively separated from citric acid, followed by the selectively separation of maleic acid from succinic acid. Using statistical analysis and a second order factorial experiment, two mathematical correlations describing the influence of the main process variables on pertraction selectivity were established. For both extraction systems, the considered variables controlled the extraction process to an extent of 92.9-99.9%, the carrier concentration inside the liquid membrane exhibiting the most important influence.

  15. Understory avifauna exhibits altered mobbing behavior in tropical forest degraded by selective logging.

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    Hua, Fangyuan; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-11-01

    In understanding the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, relatively little is known about the critical behavioral link between altered forest conditions and population persistence. Predator-mobbing is a widespread anti-predator behavior in birds that expresses a well-known trade-off influencing prey survival under predation risk. Here, we ask whether the predator-mobbing behavior of understory forest birds is altered by selective logging and associated forest structural changes in the highly endangered lowland rainforest of Sumatra. At four study sites spanning a gradient of logging-induced forest degradation, we used standardized mobbing and owl call playbacks with predator model presentation to elicit the predator-mobbing behavior of understory prey birds, compared birds' mobbing intensity across sites, and related variation in this intensity to forest vegetation structure. We found that selective logging altered birds' predator-mobbing intensity (measured by behavioral conspicuousness and propensity to approach the predator) as well as forest structure, and that vegetative changes to canopy and understory were correlated with contrasting responses by the two major bird foraging guilds, gleaning versus flycatching birds. We additionally discuss the implications of our findings for further hypothesis testing pertaining to the impacts of selective logging on the ecological processes underlying prey mobbing behavior, particularly with regards to predator-prey interactions and prey accruement of energy reserves.

  16. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  17. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  18. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  19. Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk

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    Robert K. McNamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn − 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n − 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n − 3, has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ. In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=24. Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5% was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, −22%, P=0.007. The majority of SZ patients (72% exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P=0.001. In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n−6 (+9%, P=0.02 and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P=0.0004 were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n−6 was significantly lower (−12%, P=0.009 and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (−19%, P=0.04 but not female (−13%, P=0.33 SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P=0.008 and female (+22%, P=0.04 SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn − 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  20. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  1. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

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    Omer Gokcumen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003 and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285 statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European

  2. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  3. Hop bitter acids exhibit anti-fibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

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    Saugspier, Michael; Dorn, Christoph; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Gehrig, Manfred; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Female inflorescences of the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. contain a variety of secondary metabolites with bitter acids (BA) as quantitatively dominating secondary metabolites. The use of hops in beer brewing has a long history due to the antibacterial effects of the BA and their typical bitter taste. Furthermore, hop cones are used in traditional medicine and for pharmaceutical purposes. Recent studies indicate that BA may affect activity of the transcription factor NFκB. NFκB plays a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which is the key event of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on HSC (activation) and their potential to inhibit molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. HSC were isolated from murine and human liver tissue and incubated with a characterized fraction of bitter acids purified from a CO(2) hop extract. At a concentration of 25μg/ml BA started to induce LDH leakage. Already at lower concentrations BA lead to a dose dependent inhibition of HSC proliferation and inhibited IκB-α-phosphorylation, nuclear p65 translocation and binding activity in a dose dependent way (up to 10μg/ml). Accordingly, the same BA-doses inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and NFκB regulated genes as MCP-1 and RANTES, but did not affect expression of genes not related to NFκB signaling. In addition to the effect on activated HSC, BA inhibited the in vitro activation process of freshly isolated HSC as evidenced by delayed expression of collagen I and α-SMA mRNA and protein. Together, these findings indicate that BA inhibit NFκB activation, and herewith the activation and development of profibrogenic phenotype of HSC. Thus, bitter acids appear as potential functional nutrients for the prevention or treatment hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  4. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

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    Laura Zambonin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL, whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity. PMID:27081749

  6. Synthesis selective transport properties of cleft-type ionophores having two convergent hydroxamic acid functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duck Hee; Choi, Mi Jung; Chang, Suk Kyu [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A series of cleft-type ionophores having two convergent hydroxamic acid functions are prepared and their selective ionophoric properties toward heavy metal and transition metal ions have been investigated. Hydroxamic acids 3 exhibited a prominent selectivity toward heavy metal ions of Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} , and transition metal ions of Cu{sup 2+} over other transition metal and alkaline earth metal ions from slightly acidic source phase (pH 6) to an acidic receiving phase (pH 1). Selective ionophoric properties toward Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions over other surveyed metal ions are also confirmed by the FAB-MS measurements.

  7. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors ...

  8. Calix[4]arene based selective fluorescent chemosensor for organic acid recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runhe WANG; Jianhua BU; Junmin LIU; Shijun LIAO

    2008-01-01

    A novel calix[4]arene,based fluorescent chemosensor bearing a 2,aminopyridine moiety and a naphthalenic fluorophore was synthesized The chemical structure of the product was elucidated by FT,IR, MS,FAB, NMR and elemental analyses. Then, the properties and identification mechanism of the synthesized chemosensor were investigated. The results show that the chemosensor exhibits selective fluorescent quenching in the presence of aromatic organic acid in acetonitrile solution, and that the binding ability of the chemosensor with organic acid is in the order of p,cyanic,benzyl acid>p,chloric,benzyl acid>p,methoxyl,benzyl acid>benzyl acid.

  9. Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin into Dicarboxylic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several types of biorefinery lignin and model compounds under mild, environmentally friendly reaction conditions. The findings from this study paved a new avenue to biorefinery lignin conversions and applications.

  10. Selective deoxygenation of stearic acid via an anhydride pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, S.A.W.; Bitter, W.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Stearic anhydride is proposed as reactive intermediate in the hydrogen free decarbonylation and ketonization of stearic acid over Pd/Al2O3 at 523 K. This information is crucial towards developing of a selective low temperature decarbonylation process of fatty acids towards olefins.

  11. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A Langevin

    Full Text Available A single helicase amino acid substitution, NS3-T249P, has been shown to increase viremia magnitude/mortality in American crows (AMCRs following West Nile virus (WNV infection. Lineage/intra-lineage geographic variants exhibit consistent amino acid polymorphisms at this locus; however, the majority of WNV isolates associated with recent outbreaks reported worldwide have a proline at the NS3-249 residue. In order to evaluate the impact of NS3-249 variants on avian and mammalian virulence, multiple amino acid substitutions were engineered into a WNV infectious cDNA (NY99; NS3-249P and the resulting viruses inoculated into AMCRs, house sparrows (HOSPs and mice. Differential viremia profiles were observed between mutant viruses in the two bird species; however, the NS3-249P virus produced the highest mean peak viral loads in both avian models. In contrast, this avian modulating virulence determinant had no effect on LD50 or the neurovirulence phenotype in the murine model. Recombinant helicase proteins demonstrated variable helicase and ATPase activities; however, differences did not correlate with avian or murine viremia phenotypes. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that avian-specific phenotypes are modulated by critical viral-host protein interactions involving the NS3-249 residue that directly influence transmission efficiency and therefore the magnitude of WNV epizootics in nature.

  12. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian BASTON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regarding lactic acid yields andproductivity. After 48 hours of chicory and Jerusalem artichhoke hydrolysates fermentation, from all the studied strains, Lb2 produced the highest lactic acid yield (0.97%. Lb2 produced after 48 hours of fermentation the lowest pH value of 3.45±0.01. Lb2 showed greater lactic acid productivity compared to the other studied lactic acid bacteria, the highest values, 0.13 g·L-1·h-1fromJerusalem artichoke hydrolysate and 0.11g·L-1·h-1 from chicory hydrolysate, being produced after 24 hours of fermentation.

  13. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-05-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs—CG, GC and GG—could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  14. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan phenylalanine amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Food-grade Selection Markers in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Song He; Fanghong Gong; Ya'nan Guo; Dechun Zhang.

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms and widely used in industry and medicine. We are trying to add additional properties to them by gene engineering. However, the genetically modified bacteria are not acceptable to use in food and medicine due to the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in plasmids. Thus, it is necessary to develop food-grade selection markers. Food-grade markers can be divided into three classes based on their selected character...

  16. PROBIOTIC PROPERTIES OF VAGINAL LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SELECTED FOR HARMONIZATION OF MICROENVIRONMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Styková

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was isolation and screening of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of heifers and cows with healthy reproductive apparatus. Initially tested properties were low pH tolerance, growth at different temperature, autoaggregation, fast growth and acid production. Strains were further tested for adherence to vaginal mucus. Negative selection was used and strains that did not meet tested criterion were excluded. From 244 samples taken from 122 heifers and cows were selected six strains of different taxa. Selected and identified were strains L. buchneri 5/K, L. buchneri 24S8, L. mucosae 29S8, L. mucosae 9/K and L. mucosae BiocenolTM 7697. These strains showed different biochemical properties also within a taxon and exhibited differences in the quantification of selection criteria. Further evaluation of the selected strain properties will be performed to consider their inclusion in a probiotic for local use in reproductive apparatus.

  17. cis-Cinnamic acid selective suppressors distinct from auxin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), one of the allelochemicals, in plants is very similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, and thus cis-CA has long been believed to be an analog of auxin. We have reported some structure-activity relationships studies by synthesizing over 250 cis-CA derivatives and estimating their inhibitory activities on root growth inhibition in lettuce. In this study, the compounds that showed low- or no-activity on root growth inhibition were recruited as candidates suppressors against cis-CA and/or auxin and tested for their activity. In the presence of cis-CA, lettuce root growth was inhibited; however, the addition of some cis-CA derivatives restored control-level root growth. Four compounds, (Z)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-(3-butoxyphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-[3-(pentyloxy)phenyl]acrylic acid, and (Z)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)acrylic acid were selected as candidates for a cis-CA selective suppressor they allowed the recovery of root growth from inhibition by cis-CA treatment without any effects on the IAA-induced effect or elongating activity by themselves. Three candidates significantly ameliorated the root shortening by the potent inhibitor derived from cis-CA. In brief, we have found some cis-CA selective suppressors which have never been reported from inactive cis-CA derivatives for root growth inhibition. cis-CA selective suppressors will play an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant growth regulation. PMID:24881667

  18. Synthesis and transdermal properties of acetylsalicylic acid and selected esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Minja; Breytenbach, Jaco C; Hadgraft, Jonathan; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2006-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the transdermal penetration of acetylsalicylic acid and some of its derivatives, to establish a correlation, if any, with selected physicochemical properties and to determine if transdermal application of acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives will give therapeutic drug concentrations with respect to transdermal flux. Ten derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid were prepared by esterification of acetylsalicyloyl chloride with ten different alcohols. The experimental aqueous solubility, logD and transdermal flux values were determined for acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives at pH 4.5. In vitro penetration was measured through excised female human abdominal skin in diffusion cells. The experimental aqueous solubility of acetylsalicylic acid (6.56 mg/ml) was higher than that of the synthesised acetylsalicylate derivatives (ranging from 1.76 x 10(-3) to 3.32 mg/ml), and the logD of acetylsalicylic acid (-0.85) was lower than that of its derivatives (ranging from -0.25 to 1.95). There was thus an inverse correlation between the aqueous solubility data and the logD values. The experimental transdermal flux of acetylsalicylic acid (263.83 nmol/cm(2)h) was much higher than that of its derivatives (ranging from 0.12 to 136.02 nmol/cm(2)h).

  19. Adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid onto hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fuqiang; XIA Mingfang; FEI Zhenghao; CHEN Jinlong; LI Aimin

    2007-01-01

    Both bottle-point and column-feeding experiments involving different solutes and sorbents were carried out to investigate the adsorption selectivity and separation performance of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid.Their adsorption isotherms onto such hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents as NDA-100 and NDA-99 could be well described by the Freundlich equations whose characteristics describe extrathermic and favorable adsorption processes.The adsorption towards NDA-100 mainly depended on the π-π interaction,while that towards NDA-99 was extremely influenced by the static-electric interaction.Additionally,the adsorptive capacity of salicylic acid on NDA-99 decreased while it increased on NDA-100 with the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid in the adsorptive environment as the competitive component.Comparatively,the adsorption capacity of 5-sulfosalicylic acid decreased on both resins with salicylic acid as the competitive component.In fact,the difference in the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate resulted in the straight antagonism on the effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent.In conclusion,the adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid onto NDA-100 was obviously larger than that onto NDA-99 with the existence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid in the adsorptive environment.A satisfactory separation and recovery of tested solutes in aqueous phase could be foreseeably achieved by the sequencing adsorption technique involving NDA-100 as well as NDA-99.

  20. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments.

  1. Oleic acid-embedded nanoliposome as a selective tumoricidal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sujin; Lee, Sangah; Lee, Hyejin; Yoon, Jaejin; Lee, E K

    2016-10-01

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cell), a molecular complex of human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, is known to have selective cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumors. This cytotoxicity is known to stem from water-insoluble oleic acid. In this study, we manufactured an alternative complex using liposome as an oleic acid delivery vesicle. We named this nanolipoplex LIMLET (LIposome Made LEthal to Tumor cell). The LIMLET vesicle contained approximately 90,200 oleic acid molecules inserted into its lipophilic phospholipid bilayer and had a nominal mean diameter of 127nm. Using a WST-1 assay, its cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung cancer), were tested. The results were compared with that of a normal cell line, Vero (from monkey kidney). We found that (1) LIMLET showed distinctive cytotoxicity against A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas bare liposomes (containing no oleic acid) had no toxicity, even at high concentrations, and (2) LIMLET demonstrated selective, concentration-dependent toxicity against the cancer cells: the LD50 values of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells were 1.3 and 2.2nM LIMLET, respectively, whereas the LD50 of Vero was 5.7nM. The strength of the tumoricidal effect appeared to stem from the number of oleic acid molecules present. Our result suggests that LIMLET, like HAMLET, is an interesting nanolipoplex that can potentially be developed into tumor treatments. PMID:27424089

  2. Selective cellular acidification and toxicity of weak organic acids in an acidic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Dobrowsky, E; Tannock, I F

    1993-12-01

    The mean extracellular pH (pHe) within solid tumours has been found to be lower than in normal tissues. Agents which cause intracellular acidification at low pHe might have selective toxicity towards cells in tumours. Weak acids (or their anions) with pKa values in the range of 4-6 have a higher proportion of molecules in the uncharged form at low pHe and can diffuse more rapidly into cells. The effects of organic acids including succinate, monomethyl succinate and malonate to acidify cells have been evaluated under conditions of different pHe in the acidic range. These weak acids caused intracellular acidification of murine EMT-6 and human MGH-U1 cells in a concentration and pHe dependent fashion. At concentrations of 10 mM and above, these acids also caused in vitro cytotoxicity to these cells at low pHe (< 6.5). The rate and extent of cellular acidification caused by these weak acids, and their cytotoxicity at low pHe, were enhanced by exposure to amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), agents which inhibit Na+/H+ exchange, and hence the regulation of intracellular pH. Acid dependent cytotoxicity was also investigated in a murine solid tumour using the endpoints of growth delay and colony formation in vitro following treatment in vivo. Agents were tested alone or with 15 Gy X-rays to select a population of hypoxic (and presumably acidic) cells. Achievable serum concentrations of succinate were about 1 mM and no antitumour activity of succinate was detected when used in this way. It is concluded that weak acids are selectively taken up into cells, and can cause selective cellular acidification and toxicity, at low pHe in culture. Weak acids that are normal cellular metabolites are not toxic in vivo, but weak acids carrying cytotoxic groups offer the potential for selective uptake and toxicity under the conditions of low pHe that exist in many solid tumours.

  3. Optical amplifier exhibiting net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feve, Jean-Philippe; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Farrow; Roger L.

    2011-02-01

    An optical amplifier, such as an optical waveguide amplifier (e.g., an optical fiber amplifier or a planar waveguide) or a non-guiding optical amplifier, that exhibits a net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof is disclosed. In one aspect of the invention, an optical amplifier structure includes at least one optical amplifier having a length and a gain region. The at least one optical amplifier exhibits a net phase-mismatch that varies along at least part of the length thereof selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof.

  4. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  5. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...

  6. Comparison of D-gluconic acid production in selected strains of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, F; Navarro, D; Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative metabolism of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) can be exploited for the production of several compounds, including D-gluconic acid. The production of D-gluconic acid in fermented beverages could be useful for the development of new products without glucose. In the present study, we analyzed nineteen strains belonging to eight different species of AAB to select those that could produce D-gluconic acid from D-glucose without consuming D-fructose. We tested their performance in three different media and analyzed the changes in the levels of D-glucose, D-fructose, D-gluconic acid and the derived gluconates. D-Glucose and D-fructose consumption and D-gluconic acid production were heavily dependent on the strain and the media. The most suitable strains for our purpose were Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443 and Gluconobacter oxydans Po5. The strawberry isolate Acetobacter malorum (CECT 7749) also produced D-gluconic acid; however, it further oxidized D-gluconic acid to keto-D-gluconates.

  7. Selective and recyclable depolymerization of cellulose to levulinic acid catalyzed by acidic ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huifang; Girisuta, Buana; Zhou, Yonggui; Liu, Li

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose depolymerization to levulinic acid (LA) was catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids (ILs) selectively and recyclably under hydrothermal conditions. The effects of reaction temperature, time, water amount and cellulose intake were investigated. Dilution effect becomes more pronounced at lower cellulose intake, dramatically improving the yield of LA to 86.1%. A kinetic model has been developed based on experimental data, whereby a good fit was obtained and kinetic parameters were derived. The relationships between IL structure, polymeric structure and depolymerization efficiency were established, shedding light on the in-depth catalytic mechanism of IL, inclusive of acidity and hydrogen bonding ability. The LA product can be readily separated through extraction by methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and IL can be reused over five cycles without loss of activity. This environmentally friendly methodology can be applied to selective production of LA from versatile biomass feedstocks, including cellulose and derivatives, glucose, fructose and HMF.

  8. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in di-chloromethane at room temperature.

  9. SAR studies of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent and selective agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2007-02-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of 3-arylpropionic acids-a class of novel S1P(1) selective agonists-by introducing substitution to the propionic acid chain and replacing the adjacent phenyl ring with pyridine led to a series of modified 3-arylpropionic acids with enhanced half-life in rat. These analogs (e.g., cyclopropanecarboxylic acids) exhibited longer half-life in rat than did unmodified 3-arylpropionic acids. This result suggests that metabolic oxidation at the propionic acid chain, particularly at the C3 benzylic position of 3-arylpropionic acids, is probably responsible for their short half-life in rodent.

  10. Chlorine dioxide reaction with selected amino acids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine dioxide is a hypochlorite alternative disinfectant agent. In this context, we have determined the products formed in the reaction of ClO2 with selected amino acids as model compounds that can be present in natural waters. The reaction of tryptophane, histidine and tyrosine (10 ppm each) with ClO2 were studied at molar ratios ranging from 0.25 to 4 in the presence or absence of oxygen. It was found that in the absence of oxygen adding substoichiometric amounts of ClO2 creates products that are structurally similar to the starting amino acids. Through a series of cascade reactions the initial product distribution gradually evolves toward simple, small carbon chain products that are far from the starting amino acid. The reaction product distribution revealed that chlorine dioxide can attack the electron-rich aromatic moieties as well as the nitrogen atom lone electron pair. Our study is relevant to gain knowledge on the reaction mechanism of ClO2 with ubiquitous amino acids present in natural waters.

  11. A new Fe[superscript II] quaterpyridyl M[subscript 4]L[subscript 6] tetrahedron exhibiting selective anion binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasson, Christopher R.K.; Meehan, George V.; Clegg, Jack K.; Lindoy, Leonard F.; Turner, Peter; Duriska, Martin B.; Willis, Rick (Sydney); (James Cook U.); (Monash); (AIMS)

    2008-11-03

    A rigid linear bis-bidentate quaterpyridine undergoes metal directed self-assembly with iron(II) salts yielding M{sub 4}L{sub 6} host-guest complexes; selective anion binding for PF{sub 6}{sup -} over BR{sub 4}{sup -} is observed.

  12. Preparation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Monoglucuronide by Selective Hydrolysis of Glycyrrhizic Acid via Biotransformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li; MA Bai-ping; ZHAO Yang; YU He-shui; HUANG Hong-zhi; KANG Li-ping; CAO Man; CUI Jiang-ming; YU Li-yan; SONG Xin-bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To search for the microorganisms which have the high selectivity of hydrolyzing glycyrrhizic acid(GL)into 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-O-β-D-glucuronide(GAMG)without glycyrrhetinic acid(GA)byproduct.Methods GL was biotransformed by Aspergillus sp.,the products were separated by chromatography on reverse phase C18 column and semi-preparative HPLC,and their structures were elucidated on the basis of HR-ESI-MS,1D NMR(1H-NMR,13C-NMR,and NOESY)and 2D NMR(1H-1H COSY,HSQC,and HMBC)spectral analyses.Results Aspergillus sp.could partially hydrolyze GL into GAMG(3),along with two minor byproducts,3-O-β-D-glucurono-pyranosyl-18β-liquiritic acid(1)and 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-24-hydroxy-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid(2).Conclusion Aspergillus sp.has the high selectivity of hydrolyzing GL into GAMG without GA byproduct and the yield of GAMG is about 60%.The complete assignments of 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data for compounds 1 and 2 are reported for the first time.

  13. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  14. Rats selectively bred for low levels of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations exhibit alterations in early social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, K M; Cromwell, H C; Burgdorf, J; Moskal, J R; Brudzynski, S M; Kroes, R A; Panksepp, J

    2008-05-01

    In rats, the rates of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used as a selective breeding phenotype and variations in this phenotype can be an indicator of affective states. The 50 kHz USV is elicited by rewarding stimuli (e.g., food, sexual behavior) and therefore can express a positive affective state. Conversely, the 22 kHz USV is elicited by aversive stimuli (e.g., presence of a predator, social defeat) indicating a negative affective state. In the present study, we tested the effect of selectively breeding for 50 kHz USVs on a variety of maternal social/emotional behaviors in young rat pups (PND 10-12). These measures consisted of an assessment of isolation calls and conditioned odor preference paradigm. Results indicate that animals selected for low levels of 50 kHz USVs show the greatest alterations in social behaviors compared to the control animals. The low line animals had an increase in isolation calls tested during place preference conditioning and a decrease in 50 kHz ultrasonic calls in all conditions. These same low line animals failed to show a typical preference for a maternally-associated odor during the place preference test. The different social behaviors of the high line animals did not consistently vary from those of the control group. These results have important implications for the study of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying emotional states, and possibly contribute to the research underlying the emotional changes in developmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder by providing a novel animal model that displays communication deficits that are interdependent with significant social behavioral impairments. PMID:18393285

  15. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  16. The novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor MHPT exhibits selective anti-tumor activity against rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mu

    Full Text Available The dose-limiting toxicity caused by standard chemotherapy has become a major roadblock to successful rhabdomyosarcoma chemotherapy. By screening a thiazolidinone library including 372 compounds, a novel synthetic compound, 2-((4-hydroxyphenylimino-5-(3-methoxybenzylidenethiazolidin-4-one (MHPT, was identified as a potent and selective anti-rhabdomyosarcoma agent. MHPT inhibited 50% of the growth of the rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines RD and SJ-RH30 at 0.44 μM and 1.35 μM, respectively, while displaying no obvious toxicity against normal human fibroblast cells at 100 μM. Further investigation revealed that MHPT suppressed the polymerization of tubulin, leading to rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth arrest at the G2/M phase followed by apoptosis. In vivo, MHPT inhibited tumor growth by 48.6% relative to the vehicle control after 5 intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/kg without appreciable toxicity to normal tissues and systems in an RD xenograft mouse model, while vincristine caused lethal toxicity when similar growth inhibition was achieved. As a moderate tubulin polymerization inhibitor compared with vincristine, MHPT requires a more dynamic tubulin to exert its cytotoxicity, which is a situation that only exists in cancer cells. This attribute may account for the low toxicity of MHPT in normal cells. Our data suggest that MHPT has the potential to be further developed into a selective anti-rhabdomyosarcoma drug with low toxicity.

  17. Chebulagic Acid, a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Exhibited Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Human Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. Presently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been clinically available to employ against EV71. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with chebulagic acid reduced the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50 of 12.5 μg/mL. The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71.

  18. Palmitic acid analogs exhibit nanomolar binding affinity for the HIV-1 CD4 receptor and nanomolar inhibition of gp120-to-CD4 fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Paskaleva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and efficient CD4 fusion inhibitor to HIV-1 entry and infection. In the present report, based on in silico modeling of the novel CD4 pocket that binds PA, we describe discovery of highly potent PA analogs with increased CD4 receptor binding affinities (K(d and gp120-to-CD4 inhibition constants (K(i. The PA analogs were selected to satisfy Lipinski's rule of drug-likeness, increased solubility, and to avoid potential cytotoxicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA analog 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP was most efficacious with K(d approximately 74 nM and K(i approximately 122 nM, ascorbyl palmitate (6-AP exhibited slightly higher K(d approximately 140 nM and K(i approximately 354 nM, and sucrose palmitate (SP was least efficacious binding to CD4 with K(d approximately 364 nM and inhibiting gp120-to-CD4 binding with K(i approximately 1486 nM. Importantly, PA and its analogs specifically bound to the CD4 receptor with the one to one stoichiometry. SIGNIFICANCE: Considering observed differences between K(i and K(d values indicates clear and rational direction for improving inhibition efficacy to HIV-1 entry and infection. Taken together this report introduces a novel class of natural small molecules fusion inhibitors with nanomolar efficacy of CD4 receptor binding and inhibition of HIV-1 entry.

  19. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Wong

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae. Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold. The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50>5,000 μg/mL. However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50 = 32-650 μg/mL. These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  20. G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marusic, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N; Wengel, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue...... into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5' with 3 nt and 3' with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked...

  1. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Female Mice Exhibit Increased Age-Dependent Obesity123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous work done in our laboratory suggested a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in obesity that develops in aging female L-FABP gene-ablated (−/−) mice. To examine this possibility in more detail, cohorts of wild-type (+/+) and L-FABP (−/−) female mice were fed a standard low-fat nonpurified rodent diet for up to 18 mo. Various obesity-related parameters were examined including body weight and fat and lean tissue mass. Obesity in (−/−) mice was associated with increased ex...

  2. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells. PMID:22802136

  3. Analysis of fatty acids in selected Macedonian edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Leitner, Erich; Lankmayr, Ernst; Siegmund, Barbara; Stafilov, Trajče

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of few Macedonian edible oils, including sunflower, pumpkin seed, flax, rapeseed and sesame seeds, was determined using GC-FID analysis after derivatisation with BF3-methanolic solution. Six different types of fatty acids (FAs) were found in the oils samples. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were common in all saturates. Myristic acid (C14:0) was present in the sunflower and pumpkin seed oil. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and -linolenic (C...

  4. A New Type of Dibenzoyl Tartaric Acid Selective Electrode Baded on Polymer Membrane Containing Calix[4] arene lonophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; Ling-zhi; Mei; Gong-xiong; 等

    2003-01-01

    A new type of dibenzoyl tartaric acid selective electrode has been developed. Three double-arm calix [4] arene derivatives were employed as the neutral ionophores. The poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing an amide derivative of calix [4] arene as the neutral carrier and a dibutyl phthalate as the plasticizer exhibited the highest sensitivity for dibenzoyl tartaric acid. The slope of linear portion was 27.8mV per concertration decade. The electrode has a fast response and a long lifetime.

  5. A New Type of Dibenzoyl Tartaric Acid Selective Electrode Based on Polymer Membrane Containing Calix[4]arene Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Ling-zhi; Mei Gong-xiong; He Yong-bing; Li Jiang-feng

    2003-01-01

    A new type of dibenzoyl tartaric acid selective electrode has been developed. Three double-arm calix[4]arene derivatives were employed as the neutral ionophores. The poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing an amide derivative of calix[4]arene as the neutral carrier and a dibutyl phthalate as the plasticizer exhibited the highest sensitivity for dibenzoyl tartaric acid. The slope of linear portion was 27.8 mV per concertration decade. The electrode has a fast response and a long lifetime.

  6. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  7. Highly Sprouting-Tolerant Wheat Grain Exhibits Extreme Dormancy and Cold Imbibition-Resistant Accumulation of Abscisic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yu-ichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Nambara, Eiji; Seo, Mitsunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains induces hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase, which considerably decreases wheat product quality. PHS occurs when cool and wet weather conditions before harvest break dormancy and induce grain germination. In this study, we used PHS-tolerant varieties, Gifu-komugi (Gifu) and OS38, to characterize the mechanisms of both dormancy breakage and dormancy maintenance at low temperatures. Physiologically mature Gifu grains exhibited dormancy after imbibition at 20°C, but germinated at 15°C. In contrast, OS38 grains remained dormant even at temperatures as low as 5°C. Embryo half-grains cut out from the dormant Gifu grains germinated by imbibition at 20°C, similar to conventional varieties worldwide. However, OS38 embryo half-grains were still dormant. Hormonome and pharmacological analyses suggested that ABA and gibberellin metabolism are important for temperature-dependent dormancy maintenance and breakage. Imbibition at 15°C decreased ABA levels but increased gibberellin levels in embryos of freshly harvested Gifu grains. Additionally, low temperatures induced expression of the ABA catabolism genes,TaABA8' OH1 and TaABA8' OH2, and the gibberellin biosynthesis gene,TaGA3ox2, in the embryos. However, in embryos of freshly harvested OS38 grains, ABA levels were increased while gibberellin levels were suppressed at 15°C. In these dormant embryos, low temperatures induced the TaNCED ABA biosynthesis genes, but suppressed TaABA8' OH2 and TaGA3ox2.These results show that the regulatory mechanism influencing the expression of ABA and gibberellin metabolism genes may be critical for dormancy maintenance and breakage at low temperatures. Our findings should help improve PHS-resistant wheat breeding programs. PMID:26971301

  8. Novel 3,4-seco bile acid diamides as selective anticancer proliferation and migration agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shi-Wei; Chen, Huang; Yu, Li-Fang; Lv, Fang; Xing, Ya-Jing; Liu, Ting; Xie, Jia; Tang, Jie; Yi, Zhengfang; Yang, Fan

    2016-10-21

    A series of new seco-A ring bile acid diamides were synthesized, and their antiproliferative activities against PC3M (prostate), HT29 (colon) and ES-2 (ovarian) cancer cell lines were investigated using SRB assays. Most synthesized compounds presented improved antiproliferative activities compared to the parent bile acids (IC50 > 80 μM), especially the piperazine conjugated compound 27 with IC50 values of 1.07, 4.58 and 3.86 μM against PC3M, HT29 and ES-2 cancer cell lines, respectively. In addition, all the tested compounds showed less cytotoxic activity on a noncancerous cell line (HAF), and the most active compound 27 exhibited the highest selectivity (Selectivity Index, SI(PC3M) = 26.3). Furthermore, 27 could also enhance G1 arrest in PC3M cell, revealed by cell cycle analysis, and increase anti-migration activity on PC3M cells, confirmed by transwell migration assay. PMID:27448915

  9. Interlobular arteries from two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats exhibit impaired vasodilator response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporková, Alexandra; Reddy, N. Rami; Falck, John R.; Imig, John D.; Kopkan, Libor; Sadowski, Janusz; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Background Small renal arteries have a significant role in regulation of renal hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP). To study potential changes in regulation of vascular function in hypertension, we examined renal vasodilatory responses of small arteries from nonclipped kidneys of the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertensive rats to native epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are believed to be involved in regulation of renal vascular function and BP. Two newly synthesized EET analogs were also examined. Methods Renal interlobular arteries isolated from the nonclipped kidneys on day 28 after clipping were preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE), pressurized, and the effects of a 14,15-EET analog, native 14,15-EET, and 11,12-ether-EET-8ZE, an analog of 11,12-EET, on the vascular diameter were determined and compared to the responses of arteries from the kidneys of sham-operated rats. Results In the arteries from non-clipped kidneys isolated in the maintenance phase of Goldblatt hypertension the maximal vasodilatory response to 14,15-EET analog was 30.1 ± 2.8% versus 49.8 ± 7.2% in sham-operated rats; the respective values for 11,12-ther-EET-8ZE were 31.4± 6.4% versus 80.4±6%, and for native EETs they were 41.7 ± 6.6 % versus 62.8 ± 4.4 % (P ≤ 0.05 for each difference). Conclusions We propose that reduced vasodilatory action and decreased intrarenal bioavailability of EETs combined with intrarenal ANG II levels that are inappropriately high for hypertensive rats underlie functional derangements of the nonclipped kidneys of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats. These derangements could play an important role in pathophysiology of sustained BP elevation observed in this animal model of human renovascular hypertension. PMID:27140711

  10. Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotic Candidate for Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB regarded as safe microorganisms; they can naturally live in gastrointestinal tract, so appropriately used as a probiotic for chicken. This study aimed to select six isolates of LAB (E1223, E3, E4, E5, E7, and E8 to obtain the isolates potentially as probiotic candidate for chicken. The six isolates were derived from spontaneous fermented corn obtained from Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Biomedical, PPSHB, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. LAB isolates were tested their susceptibility to antibiotics (bambermycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline then were examined in vitro for their tolerance to gastrointestinal pH (2, 3, 4, and 7.2 and 0.5% bile salt condition, antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and ability to adhere to chicken ileal cells. The results showed the isolates E5, E7, and E8 were sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, they could survive at pH 2, 3, 4, and 7.2, could survive at 0.5% bile salts, produced antimicrobial activity, and able to adhere to ileal cells (9.40±0.00 Log CFU/cm2 of E8 and were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of control (5.30±0.14 Log CFU/cm2. In conclusion, this study showed that isolate E8 had better potential compared to isolates E5 and E7 in most in vitro assays as a probiotic candidate for chicken. E5, E7, and E8 were closely related with Pediococcus pentosaceus based on 16S rRNA gene.

  11. An aldehyde group-based P-acid probe for selective fluorescence turn-on sensing of cysteine and homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlei; Wang, Xiu; Shen, Lei; Deng, Wenping; Liu, Haiyun; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-06-15

    A highly sensitive and selective turn on fluorescent probe P-acid-aldehyde (P-CHO) is developed for the determination of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy). The probe is designed and synthesized by incorporating the specific functional group aldehyde group for thiols into a stable π-conjugated material 4,4'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-phenylene) bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl) dibenzoic acid (P-acid). The probe fluorescence is quenched through donor photoinduced electron transfer (d-PET) between the fluorophore (P-acid) and the recognition group (aldehyde group). In the presence of thiols, Cys and Hcy can selectively react with aldehyde group of the probe because the inhibition of d-PET between fluorophore and recognition group. Therefore, a turn-on fluorescent sensor was established for the fluorescence recovery. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence response of probe is directly proportional to the concentration of Cys in the range of 4-95 NM L(-1), with a detection limit 3.0 nM. In addition, the sensing system exhibits good selectively toward Cys and Hcy in the presence of other amino acids. It has been successfully applied for bioimaging of Cys and Hcy in living cells with low cell toxicity.

  12. Lewis acid promoted ruthenium(II)-catalyzed etherifications by selective hydrogenation of carboxylic acids/esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Cui, Xinjiang; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-04-20

    Ethers are of fundamental importance in organic chemistry and they are an integral part of valuable flavors, fragrances, and numerous bioactive compounds. In general, the reduction of esters constitutes the most straightforward preparation of ethers. Unfortunately, this transformation requires large amounts of metal hydrides. Presented herein is a bifunctional catalyst system, consisting of Ru/phosphine complex and aluminum triflate, which allows selective synthesis of ethers by hydrogenation of esters or carboxylic acids. Different lactones were reduced in good yields to the desired products. Even challenging aromatic and aliphatic esters were reduced to the desired products. Notably, the in situ formed catalyst can be reused several times without any significant loss of activity. PMID:25728921

  13. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  14. Hydrophobicity and Retention Coefficient of Selected Bile Acid Oxo Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posa, Mihalj; Pilipovic, Ana; Lalic, Mladena; Popovic, Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Retention coefficients (k) of cholic acid and its keto derivatives are determined by means of Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography at different temperatures (303K, 309K, and 313K). At each studied temperature, retention factor decreases if the hydroxyl group in the cholic acid molecule

  15. Selective production of aromatics from alkylfurans over solid acid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Dumesic, James A.; Taarning, Esben;

    2013-01-01

    for this reaction, because amorphous solid acids and homogeneous Brønsted acids demonstrate significant activity for p-xylene production. The production of p-xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran proceeded at higher rates compared with the production of toluene and benzene from 2-methylfuran and furan, respectively. Both...

  16. Cloud condensation nucleus behaviour of selected dicarboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mia Frosch Mogensbæk; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Bilde, Merete

    .g. Anttila et al, 2005). Particles composed of two such compounds, namely glutaric acid and pimelic acid, have been studied using a cloud condensation nucleus counter (University of Wyoming, Model 100B). The behaviour of pimelic acid seems to agree quite well with the predictions of Köhler theory. This......, however, is not the case for glutaric acid. A likely explanation is that this rather volatile compound evaporates significantly from the surface of a particle. Attempts have therefore been made to correct for this evaporation, and the results show a much better agreement with Köhler theory. The...... Riekkola, M.L , Determination of organic acids in aerosol particles from a coniferous forest by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Journal of Separation Science, 28, 337-346, 2005....

  17. Acidity of selected industrial wood species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mlađan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acidity of wood has an important role in many areas of wood applications. Hence, this paper presents a study on the acidity of beech, fir and poplar, as the representatives of the most industrially utilized wood species in Serbia. The contents of both the soluble and insoluble acids were determined through the extraction methods with cold distilled water and sodium acetate solution, respectively, followed by the titration with sodium hydroxide solution. The acidity strongly differs among the three wood species used in this research. The amount of insoluble acids was the highest in fir, almost twice as much than in poplar, and about 68 % higher than in fir wood species. Such differences also showed a strong correlation with the gel times of UF adhesive mixes with hot water extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia

  18. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-02-01

    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M-1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities.

  19. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  20. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Kráčmar; Pavel Švec; Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI) was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All resu...

  1. Structure-activity relationship study of betulinic acid, a novel and selective TGR5 agonist, and its synthetic derivatives: potential impact in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Cédric; Strehle, Axelle; Schmidt, Céline; Boudjelal, Geoffrey; Lobstein, Annelise; Schoonjans, Kristina; Souchet, Michel; Auwerx, Johan; Saladin, Régis; Wagner, Alain

    2010-01-14

    We describe here the biological screening of a collection of natural occurring triterpenoids against the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, known to be activated by bile acids and which mediates some important cell functions. This work revealed that betulinic (1), oleanolic (2), and ursolic acid (3) exhibited TGR5 agonist activity in a selective manner compared to bile acids, which also activated FXR, the nuclear bile acid receptor. The most potent natural triterpenoid betulinic acid was chosen as a reference compound for an SAR study. Hemisyntheses were performed on the betulinic acid scaffold, and we focused on structural modifications of the C-3 alcohol, the C-17 carboxylic acid, and the C-20 alkene. In particular, structural variations around the C-3 position gave rise to major improvements of potency exemplified with derivatives 18 dia 2 (RG-239) and 19 dia 2. The best derivative was tested in vitro and in vivo, and its biological profile is discussed.

  2. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, A.H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ahmartin@demet.ufmg.br

    2007-04-15

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm{sup 3} sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite{sup R} IRC748. (author)

  3. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  4. Chiral morphology of calcite through selective binding of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Christine

    2002-03-01

    Many living organisms contain biominerals and composites with finely tuned properties, reflecting a remarkable level of control over the nucleation, growth and shape of the constituent crystals. Peptides and proteins play an important role in achieving this control. Using in situ AFM we find that site-specific binding of amino acid residues to surface steps changes the step-edge free energies, giving rise to direction-specific binding energies unique to individual amino acid enantiomers and leading to chiral modifications that propagate from atomic length scales to macroscopic length scales. Molecular modeling studies support an energetic basis for the differences in binding. Our results emphasize that the mechanism under-lying crystal modification through organic molecules is best understood by considering both stereochemical recognition as well as the effects of binding on the interfacial energies of the growing crystal.

  5. Insights on FXR selective modulation. Speculation on bile acid chemical space in the discovery of potent and selective agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Valentina; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Carino, Adriana; Cipriani, Sabrina; Finamore, Claudia; Masullo, Dario; del Gaudio, Federica; Monti, Maria Chiara; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are the endogenous modulators of the nuclear receptor FXR and the membrane receptor GPBAR1. FXR represents a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of cholestatic liver disorders. Currently available semisynthetic bile acid derivatives cover the same chemical space of bile acids and therefore they are poorly selective toward BA receptors, increasing patient risk for adverse side effects. In this report, we have investigated around the structure of CDCA describing the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of a novel family of compounds modified on the steroidal tetracyclic core and on the side chain. Pharmacological characterization resulted in the identification of several potent and selective FXR agonists. These novel agents might add utility in the treatment of cholestatic disorders by potentially mitigating side effects linked to unwanted activation of GPBAR1. PMID:26740187

  6. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  7. Introduction of structural affinity handles as a tool in selective nucleic acid separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, III, Richard Coale (Inventor); Cano, Luis Antonio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The method is used for separating nucleic acids and other similar constructs. It involves selective introduction, enhancement, or stabilization of affinity handles such as single-strandedness in the undesired (or desired) nucleic acids as compared to the usual structure (e.g., double-strandedness) of the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids. The undesired (or desired) nucleic acids are separated from the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids due to capture by methods including but not limited to immobilized metal affinity chromatography, immobilized single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, and immobilized oligonucleotides. The invention is useful to: remove contaminating genomic DNA from plasmid DNA; remove genomic DNA from plasmids, BACs, and similar constructs; selectively separate oligonucleotides and similar DNA fragments from their partner strands; purification of aptamers, (deoxy)-ribozymes and other highly structured nucleic acids; Separation of restriction fragments without using agarose gels; manufacture recombinant Taq polymerase or similar products that are sensitive to host genomic DNA contamination; and other applications.

  8. Lignosulfonic acid exhibits broadly anti-HIV-1 activity--potential as a microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qiu

    Full Text Available Some secondary metabolites from plants show to have potent inhibitory activities against microbial pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. Here we report that lignosulfonic acid (LSA, a polymeric lignin derivative, exhibits potent and broad activity against HIV-1 isolates of diverse subtypes including two North America strains and a number of Chinese clinical isolates values ranging from 21.4 to 633 nM. Distinct from other polyanions, LSA functions as an entry inhibitor with multiple targets on viral gp120 as well as on host receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5/CXCR4. LSA blocks viral entry as determined by time-of-drug addiction and cell-cell fusion assays. Moreover, LSA inhibits CD4-gp120 interaction by blocking the binding of antibodies specific for CD4-binding sites (CD4bs and for the V3 loop of gp120. Similarly, LSA interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 via its inhibition of specific anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively. Interestingly, the combination of LSA with AZT and Nevirapine exhibits synergism in viral inhibition. For the purpose of microbicide development, LSA displays low in vitro cytotoxicity to human genital tract epithelial cells, does not stimulate NF-κB activation and has no significant up-regulation of IL-1α/β and IL-8 as compared with N-9. Lastly, LSA shows no adverse effect on the epithelial integrity and the junctional protein expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that LSA can be a potential candidate for tropical microbicide.

  9. Selective Oxidative Decarboxylation of Amino Acids to Produce Industrially Relevant Nitriles by Vanadium Chloroperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    But, A.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Wever, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial nitriles from biomass: Vanadium-chloroperoxidase is successfully used to transform selectively glutamic acid into 3-cyanopropanoic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of bio-succinonitrile and bio-acrylonitrile, by using a catalytic amount of a halide salt. This clean oxidative dec

  10. Heteropoly acid promoted Cu and Fe catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Mossin, Susanne L.; Riisager, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 and heteropoly acid promoted Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and EPR. The catalysts exhibited only crystalline TiO2 phases with the active metals and promoters in highly dispersed state. The acidic properties...

  11. Application of molecularly imprinted polymers to selective removal of clofibric acid from water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaomeng Dai

    Full Text Available A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP adsorbent for clofibric acid (CA was prepared by a non-covalent protocol. Characterization of the obtained MIP was achieved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and nitrogen sorption. Sorption experimental results showed that the MIP had excellent binding affinity for CA and the adsorption of CA by MIP was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Scatchard plot analysis revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed in the MIP with dissociation constants of 7.52 ± 0.46 mg L(-1 and 114 ± 4.2 mg L(-1, respectively. The selectivity of MIP demonstrated higher affinity for CA over competitive compound than that of non-imprinted polymers (NIP. The MIP synthesized was used to remove CA from spiked surface water and exhibited significant binding affinity towards CA in the presence of total dissolved solids (TDS. In addition, MIP reusability was demonstrated for at least 12 repeated cycles without significant loss in performance.

  12. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  13. Effect of ZSM-5 Acidity on Aromatic Product Selectivity during Upgrading of Pine Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Mukarakate, Calvin; Starace, Anne K.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Rogers, Allyson K.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of catalyst acidity on the selectivity of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products was studied by passing pine pyrolysis vapors over five ZSM-5 catalysts of varying acidity at 500 degrees C. The SiO2-to-Al2O3 ratio (SAR) of the ZSM-5 zeolite was varied from 23 to 280 to control the acidity of the catalyst and the composition of upgraded products. The upgraded product stream was analyzed by GCMS. Additionally, catalysts were characterized using temperature programmed desorption, diffuse-reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the biomass pyrolysis vapors were highly deoxygenated to form a slate of aromatic hydrocarbons over all of the tested ZSM-5 catalysts. As the overall acidity of the ZSM-5 increased the selectivity toward alkylated (substituted) aromatics (e.g., xylene, dimethyl-naphthalene, and methyl-anthracene) decreased while the selectivity toward unsubstituted aromatics (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene) increased. Additionally, the selectivity toward polycyclic aromatic compounds (2-ring and 3-ring) increased as catalyst acidity increased, corresponding to a decrease in acid site spacing. The increased selectivity toward less substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds with increasing acidity is related to the relative rates of cyclization and alkylation reactions within the zeolite structure. As the acid site concentration increases and sites become closer to each other, the formation of additional cyclization products occurs at a greater rate than alkylated products. The ability to adjust product selectivity within 1-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatic families, as well as the degree of substitution, by varying ZSM-5 acidity could have significant benefits in terms creating a slate of upgraded biomass pyrolysis products to meet specific target market demands.

  14. Study on Logistics Supplier Selection for Comprehensive Convention and Exhibition%大型综合性会展物流供应商选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡依平; 彭争光; 张梦芳

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes characteristics of comprehensive convention and exhibition logistics. And proper logistics supplier is one of the key points for logistics efficient operation by the characteristics. Band 1 indicators and corresponding band 2 indicators are constructed to choose logistics provider. Then, make appropriate change to HoQ, and apply the changed HoQ to choose the logistics provider. The selection process is planned based on changed HoQ. Finally* a case study proves the validity of the theory. At the same time, the dynamic adaptability of the method directs the management and further improvement of the logistics provider.%分析了会展物流的特点,发现这些特点决定了选择合适的物流供应商是会展物流高效运行的关键因素之一.构建了会展物流供应商的一级、二级评价指标体系.应用QFD基本原理,对质量屋(HoQ)进行适当的变形,将其应用于会展物流供应商的选择,规划选择过程.最后以某大型会展物流供应商的选择为例证明该理论的有效性.同时该方法的动态适应性也为物流供应商的管理和进一步改进指明方向.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. PMID:24168893

  16. The flavonoid p-hydroxycinnamic acid exhibits anticancer effects in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells in vitro: Comparison with gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Murata, Tomiyasu; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Shoji, Mamoru

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with a notoriously dismal prognosis. A major contributor to this poor clinical outcome is pancreatic cancer's prominent chemoresistance. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the flavonoid p‑hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA), which is a botanical factor, possesses anticancer effects on cloned human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa‑2 cells that possess resistance to radiation therapy in vitro. Proliferation of MIA PaCa‑2 cells was suppressed after culture with HCA (10‑1,000 nM). Such an effect was also noted in human pancreatic cancer Pt45P1 cells. In the MIA PaCa‑2 cells, HCA induced G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in the cells. The suppressive effects of HCA on proliferation were suggested to be mediated through the inhibition of various signaling pathways related to nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) or nuclear transcription activity. Moreover, HCA was found to stimulate cell death in the MIA PaCa‑2 and Pt45P1 cells in vitro. The anticancer effects of HCA on MIA PaCa‑2 cells were exhibited at a lower concentration than gemcitabine, a potent cancer drug. The flavonoid HCA may be a useful tool in the therapy of human pancreatic cancer in vivo. PMID:26397991

  17. Selective agonists of retinoic acid receptors: comparative toxicokinetics and embryonic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, H M; Elmazar, M M; Hamada, F M; Reichert, U; Shroot, B; Nau, H

    2000-01-01

    Three biologically active synthetic retinoids were investigated that bind selectively to retinoic acid receptors RARs (alpha, beta and gamma). The retinoids were previously demonstrated to have different teratogenic effects in the mouse in terms of potency and regioselectivity. The teratogenic potency rank order (alpha >beta >gamma) was found to be more or less compatible with the receptor binding affinities and transactivation potencies of the retinoid ligands to their respective receptors. The RARalpha agonist (Am580; CD336) induced a wide spectrum of malformations; CD2019 (RARbeta agonist) and especially CD437 (RARgamma agonist) produced more restricted defects. In the current study we tried to address whether the differences in teratogenic effects are solely related to binding affinity and transactivation differences or also due to differences in embryonic exposure. Therefore, transplacental kinetics of the ligands were assessed following administration of a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg of either retinoid given to NMRI mice on day 11 of gestation. Am580 was rapidly transferred to the embryo resulting in the highest embryonic exposure [embryo to maternal plasma area under the time vs concentration curve (AUC)(0-24 h )ratio (E/M) was 1.7], in accordance with its highest teratogenic potency. The low placental transfer of CD2019 (E/M of 0.3) was compatible with its lower teratogenic potential. Of major interest was the finding that the CD437, though being least teratogenic, exhibited considerable embryonic exposure (E/M of 0.6). These findings suggest that both the embryonic exposure and receptor binding transactivation selectivity are crucial determinants of the teratogenicity of these retinoid ligands.

  18. Selective adsorption of L- and D-amino acids on calcite: Implications for biochemical homochirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Filley, T. R.; Goodfriend, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of biochemical homochirality was a key step in the origin of life, yet prebiotic mechanisms for chiral separation are not well constrained. Here we demonstrate a geochemically plausible scenario for chiral separation of amino acids by adsorption on mineral surfaces. Crystals of the common rock-forming mineral calcite (CaCO(3)), when immersed in a racemic aspartic acid solution, display significant adsorption and chiral selectivity of d- and l-enantiomers on pairs of mirror-related crystal-growth surfaces. This selective adsorption is greater on crystals with terraced surface textures, which indicates that d- and l-aspartic acid concentrate along step-like linear growth features. Thus, selective adsorption of linear arrays of d- and l-amino acids on calcite, with subsequent condensation polymerization, represents a plausible geochemical mechanism for the production of homochiral polypeptides on the prebiotic Earth.

  19. Selective Acidic Leaching of Spent Zinc-Carbon Batteries Followed by Zinc Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchian, Hossein; Rafsanjani-Abbasi, Ali; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a selective acidic leaching procedure was employed for recycling zinc from spent zinc-carbon batteries. Leaching experiments were carried out in order to maximize zinc recovery and minimize manganese recovery in diluted sulfuric acid media. Response surface methodology and analysis of variance were employed for experimental design, data analysis, and leaching optimization. The experimental design has 28 experiments that include 24 main runs and four replicate in center point. The optimal conditions obtained from the selective acidic leaching experiments, were sulfuric acid concentration of 1 pct v/v, leaching temperature of 343 K (70 °C), pulp density of 8 pct w/v, and stirring speed of 300 rpm. The results show that the zinc and manganese recoveries after staged selective leaching are about 92 and 15 pct, respectively. Finally, metallic zinc with purity of 99.9 pct and electrolytic manganese dioxide were obtained by electrowinning.

  20. Fatty acid specificity of hormone-sensitive lipase. Implication in the selective hydrolysis of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, T; Holm, C; Langin, D

    2001-12-01

    The selective mobilization of fatty acids from white fat cells depends on their molecular structure, in particular the degree of unsaturation. The present study was designed to examine if the release of fatty acids by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in vitro i) is influenced by the amount of unsaturation, ii) depends on the temperature, and iii) could explain the selective pattern of fatty acid mobilization and notably the preferential mobilization of certain highly unsaturated fatty acids. Recombinant rat and human HSL were incubated with a lipid emulsion. The hydrolysis of 35 individual fatty acids, ranging in chain length from 12 to 24 carbon atoms and in unsaturation from 0 to 6 double bonds was measured. Fatty acid composition of in vitro released NEFA was compared with that of fat cell triacylglycerols (TAG), the ratio % NEFA/% TAG being defined as the relative hydrolysis. The relative hydrolysis of individual fatty acids differed widely, ranging from 0.44 (24:1n-9) to 1.49 (18:1n-7) with rat HSL, and from 0.38 (24:1n-9) to 1.67 (18:1n-7) with human HSL. No major difference was observed between rat and human HSL. The relative release was dependent on the number of double bonds according to chain length. The amount of fatty acid released by recombinant rat HSL was decreased but remained robust at 4 degrees C compared with 37 degrees C, and the relative hydrolysis of some individual fatty acids was affected. The relative hydrolysis of fatty acids moderately, weakly, and highly mobilized by adipose tissue in vivo was similar and close to unity in vitro. We conclude that i) the release of fatty acids by HSL is only slightly affected by their degree of unsaturation, ii) the ability of HSL to efficiently and selectively release fatty acids at low temperature could reflect a cold adaptability for poikilotherms or hibernators when endogenous lipids are needed, and iii) the selectivity of fatty acid hydrolysis by HSL does not fully account for the selective pattern of

  1. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Ikuo; Kawaguchi, Akihiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-03-01

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate and (2/sup 14/C) malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases.

  2. Selective inhibition of type 2 fatty acid synthetase by the antibiotic thiolactomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibits the fatty acid synthesis from both [1-14C]-acetate and [214C] malonyl-CoA of spinach leaves, developing castor bean endosperms and avocado mesocarp. On the other hand, fatty acid synthetases of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium glutamicum are much less sensitive to this antibiotic. As Hayashi et al. have indicated in their paper that thiolactomycin inhibits fatty acid synthetase of Escherichia coli but has little effect on the synthetases of yeast and rat liver, thiolactomycin is suggested to be a selective inhibitor of type 2 fatty acid synthetases. (author)

  3. Enhancing aptamer function and stability via in vitro selection using modified nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Kirsten N; Rangel, Alexandra E; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2016-08-15

    Nucleic acid aptamers have emerged as a promising alternative to antibodies for use as recognition elements in therapeutics, bioimaging, and analytical applications. A key benefit that aptamers possess relative to antibodies is their ability to be chemically synthesized. This advantage, coupled with the broad range of modified nucleotide building blocks that can be constructed using chemical synthesis, has enabled the discovery and development of modified aptamers having extraordinary affinity, specificity, and biostability. Early efforts to generate modified aptamers focused on selection of a native DNA or RNA aptamer, followed by post-selection trial-and-error testing of modifications. However, recent advances in polymerase engineering and templated nucleic acid synthesis have enabled the direct selection of aptamers having modified backbones and nucleobases. This review will discuss these technological advances and highlight the improvements in aptamer function that have been realized through in vitro selection of non-natural nucleic acids. PMID:27012179

  4. A comparative proteomic analysis of the simple amino acid repeat distributions in Plasmodia reveals lineage specific amino acid selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsatellites have been used extensively in the field of comparative genomics. By studying microsatellites in coding regions we have a simple model of how genotypic changes undergo selection as they are directly expressed in the phenotype as altered proteins. The simplest of these tandem repeats in coding regions are the tri-nucleotide repeats which produce a repeat of a single amino acid when translated into proteins. Tri-nucleotide repeats are often disease associated, and are also known to be unstable to both expansion and contraction. This makes them sensitive markers for studying proteome evolution, in closely related species. RESULTS: The evolutionary history of the family of malarial causing parasites Plasmodia is complex because of the life-cycle of the organism, where it interacts with a number of different hosts and goes through a series of tissue specific stages. This study shows that the divergence between the primate and rodent malarial parasites has resulted in a lineage specific change in the simple amino acid repeat distribution that is correlated to A-T content. The paper also shows that this altered use of amino acids in SAARs is consistent with the repeat distributions being under selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that simple amino acid repeat distributions can be used to group related species and to examine their phylogenetic relationships. This study also shows that an outgroup species with a similar A-T content can be distinguished based only on the amino acid usage in repeats, and suggest that this might be a useful feature for proteome clustering. The lineage specific use of amino acids in repeat regions suggests that comparative studies of SAAR distributions between proteomes gives an insight into the mechanisms of expansion and the selective pressures acting on the organism.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  7. Amino acid selective unlabeling for sequence specific resonance assignments in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnarjuna, B.; Jaipuria, Garima; Thakur, Anushikha [Indian Institute of Science, NMR Research Centre (India); D' Silva, Patrick, E-mail: patrick@biochem.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Biochemistry (India); Atreya, Hanudatta S., E-mail: hsatreya@sif.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, NMR Research Centre (India)

    2011-01-15

    Sequence specific resonance assignment constitutes an important step towards high-resolution structure determination of proteins by NMR and is aided by selective identification and assignment of amino acid types. The traditional approach to selective labeling yields only the chemical shifts of the particular amino acid being selected and does not help in establishing a link between adjacent residues along the polypeptide chain, which is important for sequential assignments. An alternative approach is the method of amino acid selective 'unlabeling' or reverse labeling, which involves selective unlabeling of specific amino acid types against a uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N labeled background. Based on this method, we present a novel approach for sequential assignments in proteins. The method involves a new NMR experiment named, {l_brace}{sup 12}CO{sub i}-{sup 15}N{sub i+1}{r_brace}-filtered HSQC, which aids in linking the {sup 1}H{sup N}/{sup 15}N resonances of the selectively unlabeled residue, i, and its C-terminal neighbor, i + 1, in HN-detected double and triple resonance spectra. This leads to the assignment of a tri-peptide segment from the knowledge of the amino acid types of residues: i - 1, i and i + 1, thereby speeding up the sequential assignment process. The method has the advantage of being relatively inexpensive, applicable to {sup 2}H labeled protein and can be coupled with cell-free synthesis and/or automated assignment approaches. A detailed survey involving unlabeling of different amino acid types individually or in pairs reveals that the proposed approach is also robust to misincorporation of {sup 14}N at undesired sites. Taken together, this study represents the first application of selective unlabeling for sequence specific resonance assignments and opens up new avenues to using this methodology in protein structural studies.

  8. Mechanochemical approach for selective deactivation of external surface acidity of ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Satoshi; Sato, Koki; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Tatami, Junichi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Wakihara, Toru

    2015-03-01

    The acid sites associated with the external surface of zeolite particles are responsible for undesirable consecutive reactions, such as isomerization, alkylation, and oligomerization, resulting in a lower selectivity to a target product; therefore, the selective modification (deactivation) of the external surface of zeolite particles has been an important issue in zeolite science. Here, a new method for surface deactivation of zeolite catalyst was tested via a mechanochemical approach using powder composer. Postsynthetic mechanochemical treatment of ZSM-5 zeolite causes a selective deactivation of catalytically active sites existing only on the external surface, as a potentially useful catalyst for highly selective production of p-xylene. PMID:25654542

  9. A selective voltammetric detection for dopamine using poly(gallic acid) film modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemistry behavior of dopamine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry at a poly (gallic acid) film modified glassy carbon electrode.Two electrons and two protons participated in the diffusion-controlled electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine with a diffusion coefficient of 2.186×10~(-5) cm~2/s.The interference of ascorbic acid with the determination of dopamine could be efficiently eliminated.This work provided a simple approach to selectively and sensitively...

  10. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  11. Selective charging of tRNA isoacceptors induced by amino-acid starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmar, K. A.; Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.;

    2005-01-01

    -acid starvation results in 'selective charging' where the charging levels of some tRNA isoacceptors will be low and those of others will remain high. Here, we developed a microarray for the analysis of charged fractions of tRNAs and measured charging for all Escherichia coli tRNAs before and during leucine......, threonine or arginine starvation. Before starvation, most tRNAs were fully charged. During starvation, the isoacceptors in the leucine, threonine or arginine families showed selective charging when cells were starved for their cognate amino acid, directly confirming the theoretical prediction. Codons read...

  12. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Petra; Kráčmar, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fi bre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 152/2009. A modifi ed version of Holt's Method was used for phytic acid (phytate) determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The conte...

  13. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural.

  14. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. PMID:27373451

  15. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  16. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond F.; Lin, Kuan-ting; Hebert, Vincent; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P.; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  17. The influence of stress conditions on the growth of selected lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of certain stress conditions on selected lactic acid bacteria. Where recontamination occurred, lactic acid bacteria was already the dominant bacterial group, with counts of higher than 106/g in vacuum-packaged 'shelf stable' meat products after 1 week storage at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius respectively. Some of the isolates were capable of growing at a pH of 3,9. The minimum pH for growth of a specific culture was dependant on the type of acid that was used to lower the pH. Lactic and acetic acid had the highest inhibitory action. Hydrochloric and citric acid showed similar inhibitory effects, while the effects when using ascorbic acid or gluconic acid for lowering the pH were also fairly similar. Increase in the activity of certain lactic acid bacteria was noticed where the ratio of undissociated to dissociated citric acid in the medium was increased. After exceeding a concentration of 0,048 moles/l undissosiated citric acid in the medium, the activity of the majority of cultures was progressively inhibited. This phenomenon was also found with acetic acid for certain cultures. Selected lactic acid bacteria were resistant to an water activity (a (sub w)) of 0,94 in MRS broth, where NaCl or glycerol was used as a humectant. The minimum a (sub w) for growth was dependent on the type of humectant used. Concentrations of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were necessary to inhibit the majority of strains. The % inhibition by sodium benzoate and methyl paraben did not significantly change with a lowering in the pH of the growth medium. Except in the case of lactic acid, the different acids used to lower the pH of the medium did not have a significant effect on the % inhibition by the chemical preservatives. For the cocci, gamma D10 values of between 0,82 and 1,29 kGy were recorded, whereas the lactobacilli were less resistant to gamma rays, with D10 values of between 0,21 and 0,54 kGy

  18. Deoxygenation of benzoic acid on metal oxides. I. The selective pathway to benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de M.W.; Ommen, van J.G.; Lefferts, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of the selective deoxygenation of benzoic acid to benzaldehyde was studied on ZnO and ZrO2. The results show conclusively that the reaction proceeds as a reverse type of Mars and van Krevelen mechanism consisting of two steps: hydrogen activates the oxide by reduction resulting in the

  19. Selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over mixed metal oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zheng; Zhenxing Yu; Ping Zhang; Yuhang Zhang; Hongying Fu; Xiaoli Zhang; Qiquan Sun; Xinguo Hu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of metal atomic ratio, water content, oxygen content, and calcination temperature on the catalytic perfor-mances of MoVTeNbO mixed oxide catalyst system for the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid have been investigated and discussed. Among the catalysts studied, it was found that the MoVTeNbO catalyst calcined at a temperature of 600 ℃ showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity for acrylic acid under an atmosphere of nitrogen. An effective MoVTeNbO oxide catalyst for propane selective oxidation to acrylic acid was obtained with a combination of a preferred metal atomic ratio (Mo1 V0.31Te0.23Nb0.12). The optimum reaction condition for the selective oxidation of propane was the molar ratio of C3H81 :O2 : H2O : N1 = 4.4 : 12.8 : 15.3 : 36.9. Under such conditions, the conversion of propane and the maximum yield of acrylic acid reached about 50% and 21%, respectively.

  20. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  1. Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles for selective recognition and assay of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Khan, Aimen Idrees; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Raza, Muhammad Hamid; Shah, Asma Tufail; uz Zaman, Waheed

    2015-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted titania nanoparticles are su ccessfully synthesized by sol-gel method for the selective recognition of uric acid. Atomic force microscopy is used to study the morphology of uric acid imprinted titania nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 100-150 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images of thick titania layer indicate the formation of fine network of titania nanoparticles with uniform distribution. Molecular imprinting of uric acid as well as its subsequent washing is confirmed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy measurements. Uric acid rebinding studies reveal the recognition capability of imprinted particles in the range of 0.01-0.095 mmol, which is applicable in monitoring normal to elevated levels of uric acid in human blood. The optical shift (signal) of imprinted particles is six times higher in comparison with non-imprinted particles for the same concentration of uric acid. Imprinted titania particles have shown substantially reduced binding affinity toward interfering and structurally related substances, e.g. ascorbic acid and guanine. These results suggest the possible application of titania nanoparticles in uric acid recognition and quantification in blood serum.

  2. Selective liquid phase oxidation of glycerol to glyceric acid over novel supported Pt catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sproge Elina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several supported platinum catalysts were prepared by extractive-pyrolytic method for the selective glyceric acid production from glycerol. Al2O3, Y2O3, Lu2O3, ZrO2-Y2O3 TiO2, SG, Fe2O3, γ-AlO(OH and C were used as catalyst supports, glycerol oxidation was carried out in the alkaline solutions and oxygen was used as oxidant. The optimal catalyst preparation parameters and glycerol oxidation conditions to obtain glyceric acid were determined. The best result (selectivity to glyceric acid 57% with glycerol conversion 92% was achieved in the presence of 4.8%Pt/Al2O3 catalyst.

  3. A new highly selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid agonist: 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Sløk, F A; Skjaerbaek, N;

    1996-01-01

    -methylisoxazol-4-yl)hexanoic acid (10), were tested as ligands for metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (mGlu1 alpha, mGlu2, mGlu4a, and mGlu6). Whereas AMAA (6) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propinoic acid (AMPA, 7) are potent and highly selective agonists at N...

  4. Soybean germplasms evaluation for acid tidal swamp tolerance using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Jana Mejaya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fertile land on the island of Java in Indonesia decreases due to the shifting from agricultural land to non-agricultural land. Hence, an extensification of soybean culture to outer Java suboptimal land areas is needed, such as tidal swamp which occupies approximately 20.192 million hectares. The main limitations in this soil are soil acidity, Fe toxicity and excess water. To develop soybean varieties tolerant to acid tidal swamp, tolerant soybean gene resources are needed. Hence, glasshouse and field experiments were carried out to identify tolerant gene resources. The glasshouse experiment has been conducted using 185 genotypes of germplasm at the Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java. Selection was carried out by using a selection index method. The glasshouse experiment was followed by field experiment at the Belandean research station, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, using the best 17 genotypes selected from the glass­house trial. Results showed that there was variability of response of each genotype to acidity and Fe toxicity. Therefore, assessment of soybean tolerance to acidity and Fe toxicity should be conducted by root growth. Based on selection index criteria, varieties of Lawit and Menyapa served as check tolerant varieties and showed lower growth than the 17 selected genotypes. In the field experiment, genotype MLGG 1087 was identified as the most tolerant and can serve as a gene resource tolerant to acid tidal swamp because it has the highest relative root growth on root dry weight, and the highest average of root and shoot dry weight.

  5. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Codon-based substitution models have been widely used to identify amino acid sites under positive selection in comparative analysis of protein-coding DNA sequences. The nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate ratio (dN/dS, denoted ) is used as a measure of selective pressure at the protein level......, with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with ... data sets. The results suggest that in small data sets the new BEB method does not generate false positives as did the old NEB approach, while in large data sets it retains the good power of the NEB approach for inferring positively selected sites....

  6. Selective and sensitive determination of uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and dopamine by PDDA functionalized graphene/graphite composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Chen, Zuanguang; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Xinchun; Pan, Jianbin

    2013-08-15

    In this work, a facile electrochemical sensor based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene (PDDA-G) and graphite was fabricated. The composite electrode exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards uric acid (UA), owing to the electrocatalytic effect of graphene nanosheets and the electrostatic attractions between PDDA-G and UA. The anodic peak current of UA obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV) increased over 10-fold compared with bare carbon paste electrode (CPE). And the reversibility of the oxidation process was improved significantly. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine UA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). It was found that all of oxidation peaks of three species could be well resolved, and the peak current of UA was much stronger than the other two components. More importantly, considerable-amount of AA and DA showed negligible interference to UA assay. The calibration curve for UA ranged from 0.5 to 20 μmol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9934. The constructed sensor has been employed to quantitatively determine UA in urine samples. PMID:23708533

  7. Gene Therapy for Advanced Melanoma: Selective Targeting and Therapeutic Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Viola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, the treatment of malignant melanoma still results in the relapse of the disease, and second line treatment mostly fails due to the occurrence of resistance. A wide range of mutations are known to prevent effective treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Hence, approaches with biopharmaceuticals including proteins, like antibodies or cytokines, are applied. As an alternative, regimens with therapeutically active nucleic acids offer the possibility for highly selective cancer treatment whilst avoiding unwanted and toxic side effects. This paper gives a brief introduction into the mechanism of this devastating disease, discusses the shortcoming of current therapy approaches, and pinpoints anchor points which could be harnessed for therapeutic intervention with nucleic acids. We bring the delivery of nucleic acid nanopharmaceutics into perspective as a novel antimelanoma therapeutic approach and discuss the possibilities for melanoma specific targeting. The latest reports on preclinical and already clinical application of nucleic acids in melanoma are discussed.

  8. Folic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles with sensitivity and selectivity colorimetric and fluorescent detection for Hg2+ and efficient catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongyue; Yang, Xin; Xia, Qingdong; Zhang, Qi; Chai, Fang; Wang, Chungang; Qu, Fengyu

    2014-09-01

    In this research, folic acid functionalized silver nanoparticles (FA-AgNPs) were selected as a colorimetric and a ‘turn on’ fluorescent sensor for detecting Hg2+. After being added into Hg2+, AgNPs can emit stable fluorescence at 440 nm when the excitation wavelength is selected at 275 nm. The absorbance and fluorescence of the FA-AgNPs could reflect the concentration of the Hg2+ ions. Thus, we developed a simple, sensitive analytical method to detect Hg2+ based on the colorimetric and fluorescence enhancement of FA-AgNPs. The sensor exhibits two linear response ranges between absorbance and fluorescence intensity with Hg2+ concentration, respectively. Meanwhile, a detection limit of 1 nM is estimated based on the linear relationship between responses with a concentration of Hg2+. The high specificity of Hg2+ with FA-AgNPs interactions provided the excellent selectivity towards detecting Hg2+ over other metal ions (Pb2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Cr6+ and Cr3+). This will provide a simple, effective and multifunctional colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for on-site and real-time Hg2+ ion detection. The proposed method can be applied to the analysis of trace Hg2+ in lake water. Additionally, the FA-AgNPs can be used as efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III).

  9. Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.

    1990-07-01

    Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations ( 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these soils have undergone significant acid loading. While the

  10. 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites: Preparation, characterization and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Qu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    Selective enrichment and isolation of glycopeptides from complex biological samples was indispensable for mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics, however, it remained a great challenge due to the low abundance of glycoproteins and the ion suppression of non-glycopeptides. In this work, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on polyethylenimine modified graphene oxide surface, followed by 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid immobilization by the formation of Au-S bonding (denoted as GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites). The composites showed highly specific and efficient capture of glycopeptides due to their excellent hydrophilicity and abundant boronic acid groups. The composites could selectively capture the glycopeptides from the mixture of glycopeptides and nonglycopeptides, even when the amounts of non-glycopeptides were 100 times more than glycopeptides. Compared with commercial meta-amino phenylboronic acid agarose, the composites showed better selectivity when the sample was decreased to 10 ng. These results clearly verified that the GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites might be a promising material for glycoproteomics analysis.

  11. Selected regulation of gastrointestinal acid-base secretion and tissue metabolism for the diamondback water snake and Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Snakes exhibit an apparent dichotomy in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) performance with feeding and fasting; frequently feeding species modestly regulate intestinal function whereas infrequently feeding species rapidly upregulate and downregulate intestinal function with the start and completion of each meal, respectively. The downregulatory response with fasting for infrequently feeding snakes is hypothesized to be a selective attribute that reduces energy expenditure between meals. To ascertain the links between feeding habit, whole-animal metabolism, and GI function and metabolism, we measured preprandial and postprandial metabolic rates and gastric and intestinal acid-base secretion, epithelial conductance and oxygen consumption for the frequently feeding diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer) and the infrequently feeding Burmese python (Python molurus). Independent of body mass, Burmese pythons possess a significantly lower standard metabolic rate and respond to feeding with a much larger metabolic response compared with water snakes. While fasting, pythons cease gastric acid and intestinal base secretion, both of which are stimulated with feeding. In contrast, fasted water snakes secreted gastric acid and intestinal base at rates similar to those of digesting snakes. We observed no difference between fasted and fed individuals for either species in gastric or intestinal transepithelial potential and conductance, with the exception of a significantly greater gastric transepithelial potential for fed pythons at the start of titration. Water snakes experienced no significant change in gastric or intestinal metabolism with feeding. Fed pythons, in contrast, experienced a near-doubling of gastric metabolism and a tripling of intestinal metabolic rate. For fasted individuals, the metabolic rate of the stomach and small intestine was significantly lower for pythons than for water snakes. The fasting downregulation of digestive function for pythons is

  12. Wet oxidation of glycerol into fine organic acids: catalyst selection and kinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. N. Brainer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase oxidation of glycerol was performed producing fine organic acids. Catalysts based on Pt, Pd and Bi supported on activated carbon were employed to perform the conversion of glycerol into organic acids at 313 K, 323 K and 333 K, under atmospheric pressure (1.0 bar, in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor (MASR. The experimental results indicated glycerol conversions of 98% with production of glyceric, tartronic and glycolic acids, and dihydroxyacetone. A yield of glyceric acid of 69.8%, and a selectivity of this compound of 70.6% were reached after 4 h of operation. Surface mechanisms were proposed and rate equations were formulated to represent the kinetic behavior of the process. Selective formation of glyceric acid was observed, and the kinetic parameter values indicated the lowest activation energy (38.5 kJ/mol for its production reaction step, and the highest value of the adsorption equilibrium constant of the reactant glycerol (10-4 dm³/mol.

  13. MUSIC in triple-resonance experiments: amino acid type-selective (1)H-(15)N correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert; Smalla; Schmieder; Oschkinat

    1999-11-01

    Amino acid type-selective triple-resonance experiments can be of great help for the assignment of protein spectra, since they help to remove ambiguities in either manual or automated assignment procedures. Here, modified triple-resonance experiments that yield amino acid type-selective (1)H-(15)N correlations are presented. They are based on novel coherence transfer schemes, the MUSIC pulse sequence elements, that replace the initial INEPT transfer and are selective for XH(2) or XH(3) (X can be (15)N or (13)C). The desired amino acid type is thereby selected based on the topology of the side chain. Experiments for Gly (G-HSQC); Ala (A-HSQC); Thr, Val, Ile, and Ala (TAVI-HSQC); Thr and Ala (TA-HSQC), as well as Asn and Gln (N-HSQC and QN-HSQC), are described. The new experiments are recorded as two-dimensional experiments and therefore need only small amounts of spectrometer time. The performance of the experiments is demonstrated with the application to two protein domains. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10527741

  14. Mass spectrometric analysis of selected radiolyzed amino acids in an astrochemical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of amino acids, namely arginine, proline and tyrosine previously irradiated to 3.2 mega-Gray in the solid state and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) were analyzed in the present work by mass spectrometry with the purpose to identify the radiolysis products and validate the results obtained previously with DSC and ORD. The radiolysis of amino acids is a top-down approach of a research program designed to assess the radiolysis resistance of these molecules for 4.6 x 109 years once buried in primitive bodies of the Solar System. (author)

  15. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Hanning, Christopher William;

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were...... of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate)....

  16. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Dopamine at Poly(chromotrope 2B)-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in the Presence of Uric Acid and Ascorbic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical method based on a poly(chromotrope 2B)-modified anodized glassy carbon electrode (PCHAGCE) was developed for the determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). The PCHAGCE sensor exhibited excellent electron-mediating behavior towards the oxidation of DA in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.0). It was found that the electrocatalytic activity was significantly dependent on the charge status and molecular structure of the target molecules. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements revealed oxidation signals for DA, UA, and AA that were well-resolved into three distinct peaks with AA–DA, DA–UA, and AA–UA peak potential separations (ΔEp) of 172, 132, and 304 mV, respectively. A detection limit of 0.04 ± 0.001 μM (S/N = 3) and a quantification limit (S/N = 10) of 0.149 ± 0.03 μM were obtained for DA sensing in a linear range of 1 to 40 μM in PBS (pH 7.0) with a very high sensitivity of 1.522 ± 0.032 μA·μM−1. The DA concentrations in human urine samples were also successfully determined with recoveries of 94.0–98.0%. This approach provides a simple, easy, sensitive, and selective method to detect DA in the presence of AA and UA

  17. Parallel Exhibits: Combining Physical and Virtual Exhibits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lischke; T. Dingler; S. Schneegaß; A. Schmidt; M. van der Vaart; P. Wozniak

    2014-01-01

    People have a special fascination for original physical objects, their texture, and visible history. However, the digitization of exhibits and the use of these data is a current challenge for museums. We believe that museums need to capitalize on the affordances of physical exhibits to help users na

  18. Microcultures of lactic acid bacteria: characterization and selection of strains, optimization of nutrients and gallic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-López, Oswaldo; Loera, Octavio; Parada, José Luis; Castillo-Morales, Alberto; Martínez-Ramírez, Cándida; Augur, Christopher; Gaime-Perraud, Isabelle; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Eighteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from coffee pulp silages were characterized according to both growth and gallic acid (GA) consumption. Prussian blue method was adapted to 96-well microplates to quantify GA in LAB microcultures. Normalized data of growth and GA consumption were used to characterize strains into four phenotypes. A number of 5 LAB strains showed more than 60% of tolerance to GA at 2 g/l; whereas at 10 g/l GA growth inhibition was detected to a different extent depending on each strain, although GA consumption was observed in seven studied strains (>60%). Lactobacillus plantarum L-08 was selected for further studies based on its capacity to degrade GA at 10 g/l (97%). MRS broth and GA concentrations were varied to study the effect on growth of LAB. Cell density and growth rate were optimized by response surface methodology and kinetic analysis. Maximum growth was attained after 7.5 h of cultivation, with a dilution factor of 1-1/2 and a GA concentration between 0.625 and 2.5 g/l. Results indicated that the main factor affecting LAB growth was GA concentration. The main contribution of this study was to propose a novel adaptation of a methodology to characterize and select LAB strains with detoxifying potential of simple phenolics based on GA consumption and tolerance. In addition, the methodology presented in this study integrated the well-known RSM with an experimental design based on successive dilutions.

  19. Resistance to erucic acid as a selectable marker for peroxisomal activity: isolation of revertants of an infantile Refsum disease cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir Bioukar, E; Straehli, F; Ng, K H; Rolland, M O; Hashimoto, T; Carreau, J P; Deschatrette, J

    1994-01-01

    A system based on the ability of cells to oxidize very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) was developed to select in vitro normal human fibroblasts from fibroblasts of patients suffering from peroxisomal disorders with multienzymatic deficiencies: Zellweger syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum disease (IRD). Cells treated with various concentrations of erucic acid (C22:1 n-9) revealed an enhanced toxicity of this fatty acid for the fibroblasts of patients compared with normal cells. This differential toxicity is correlated with variable accumulations of C22:1 n-9 and the absence of beta-oxidation products in the mutants. Revertants from clonal IRD cell lines were isolated in the selective medium at frequencies ranging from 3 x 10(-7) to 4 x 10(-6) depending on the line. After six weeks of growth in the absence of selective pressure, the variants exhibited a resistance level to C22:1 n-9 identical to that of normal cells. Furthermore, beta-oxidation of VLCFA is re-established in these selected cells as well as dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity. Immunoblot experiments also demonstrated a restored pattern of acyl-CoA oxidase molecular forms. Last, immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of cytoplasmic structures that were absent in the original IRD cells. Thus, both the deficiencies in metabolic pathways and paucity of the organelle are at least partially corrected in the selected clones.

  20. A Study on Tannic Acid-doped Polypyrrole Films on Gold Electrodes for Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhuo Yao

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Tannic acid-doped polypyrrole (PPY/TA films have been grown on goldelectrodes for selective electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA. Electrochemicalquartz crystal microbalance (EQCM studies revealed that, in vivid contrast toperchlorate-doped polypyrrole films (PPY/ClO4-, the redox switching of PPY/TA filmsin aqueous solutions involved only cation transport if the solution pH was greater than3~4. The PPY/TA Au electrodes also exhibited attractive permselectivity forelectroactive cations, namely, effectively blocking the electrochemical reactions ofanionic ferricyanide and ascorbic acid (AA while well retaining the electrochemicalactivities of hexaammineruthenium (III and dopamine as cationic species. A 500 HzPPY/TA film could effectively block the redox current of up to 5.0 mM AA. Thecoexistence of ascorbic acid in the measurement solution notably enhanced the currentsignal for dopamine oxidation, due probably to the chemical regeneration of dopaminethrough an ascorbic acid-catalyzed reduction of the electro-oxidation product ofdopamine (EC’ mechanism, and the greatest amplification was found at an ascorbic acidconcentration of 1.0 mM. The differential pulse voltammetry peak current for DAoxidation was linear with DA concentration in the range of 0 to 10 μM, with sensitivityof 0.125 and 0.268 μA/μM, as well as lower detection limit of 2.0 and 0.3 μM in a PBSsolution without AA and with 1.0 mM coexisting AA, respectively.

  1. An aminopyrimidine-functionalized cage-based metal-organic framework exhibiting highly selective adsorption of C2H2 and CO2 over CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jingjing; Dou, Li; Liu, Huimin; Chen, Fengli; Bai, Dongjie; Feng, Yunlong; Xiong, Shunshun; Chen, De-Li; He, Yabing

    2016-09-14

    There has been considerable interest in adsorptive separation of C2H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4 gas mixtures due to its industrial significance and scientific challenge. In this work, we have designed and synthesized a bent diisophthalate ligand functionalized with aminopyrimidine groups, and constructed via a solvothermal reaction, a porous copper-based framework. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the framework is a three-dimensional network containing three different types of polyhedral nanocages, which are stacked together to form two distinct types of one-dimensional channels along the crystallographic c axis. The compound after activation shows exceptionally high C2H2 and CO2 uptakes of 211 and 120 cm(3) (STP) g(-1) at 295 K and 1 atm, as well as impressive adsorption selectivities towards C2H2 and CO2 over CH4. High C2H2 and CO2 uptake capacities as well as significant adsorption selectivities of C2H2 and CO2 over CH4 imply potential applications in the adsorptive separation and purification of C2H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4 gas mixtures, which have been verified by column breakthrough experiments. Several important binding sites for C2H2 and CO2 in ZJNU-54 were revealed by quantum chemical calculations, demonstrating that the organic linkers in ZJNU-54 form unique structures that facilitate the adsorption of C2H2, while the amine groups and the Lewis basic pyrimidine-ring nitrogen sites in the organic linker improve the adsorption energies for CO2, finally leading to the increase of adsorption capacities for these two gas molecules. This work provides an efficient strategy for incorporating specific functional groups into cage-based MOFs for generating new adsorbents for highly selective gas storage and separation. PMID:27483189

  2. Interactions of zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine with selected amino acids and with albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliber, Marta; Broda, Małgorzata A.; Nackiewicz, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Effect of selected amino acids (glycine, L-histidine, L-cysteine, L-serine, L-tryptophan) and albumin on the spectroscopic properties and photostability of zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine (ZnPcOC) was explored in the phosphate buffer at a pH of 7.0. The photodegradation of ZnPcOC alone and in the presence of amino acids or albumin has been investigated in aqueous phase using UV-366 nm and daylight irradiation. Kinetic analysis showed that the interaction with amino acids or albumin enhances the photostability of ZnPcOC. To answer the question of how zinc phthalocyanine interacts with amino acids extensive DFT calculations were performed. Analysis of the optimized geometry features of ZnPcOC: amino acids complexes in the gas phase and in water environment as well as the BSSE corrected interaction energies indicates that the more likely is the formation of equatorial complexes in which H-bonds are formed between the COOH groups of the phthalocyanine and carboxyl or amino groups of amino acids. UV-Vis spectra calculated by employing time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) are also consistent with this conclusion.

  3. Interactions of zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine with selected amino acids and with albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliber, Marta; Broda, Małgorzata A; Nackiewicz, Joanna

    2016-02-15

    Effect of selected amino acids (glycine, l-histidine, l-cysteine, l-serine, l-tryptophan) and albumin on the spectroscopic properties and photostability of zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine (ZnPcOC) was explored in the phosphate buffer at a pH of 7.0. The photodegradation of ZnPcOC alone and in the presence of amino acids or albumin has been investigated in aqueous phase using UV-366nm and daylight irradiation. Kinetic analysis showed that the interaction with amino acids or albumin enhances the photostability of ZnPcOC. To answer the question of how zinc phthalocyanine interacts with amino acids extensive DFT calculations were performed. Analysis of the optimized geometry features of ZnPcOC: amino acids complexes in the gas phase and in water environment as well as the BSSE corrected interaction energies indicates that the more likely is the formation of equatorial complexes in which H-bonds are formed between the COOH groups of the phthalocyanine and carboxyl or amino groups of amino acids. UV-Vis spectra calculated by employing time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) are also consistent with this conclusion.

  4. Selective extraction of metals from products of mine acidic water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on possibility of processing of foam products prepared during flotation purification of mine acidic waters for the purpose of selective extraction of non-ferrous (Co, Ni) and rare earth elements (REE) and their separation from the basic macrocomponent of waters-iron. Optimal conditions of selective metal extraction from foam flotation products are the following: T=333 K, pH=3.0-3.5, ratio of solid and liquid phase - 1:4-1:7, duration of sulfuric acid leaching - 30 min. Rare earth extraction under such conditions equals 87.6-93.0%. The degree of valuable component concentration equals ∼ 10. Rare earths are separated from iron by extraction methods

  5. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  6. Synthesis of Homoveratric Acid-Imprinted Polymers and Their Evaluation as Selective Separation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk polymerization method was used to easily and efficiently prepare homo-veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid-imprinted polymers from eight basic monomers: 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, N-allylaniline, N-allylpiperazine, allylurea, allylthiourea, and allylamine, in the presence of homoveratric acid as a template in N,N-dimethylformamide as a porogen. The imprinted polymer prepared from allylamine had the highest affinity to the template, showing an imprinting factor of 3.43, and allylamine polymers MIP8/NIP8 were selected for further studies. Their binding properties were analyzed using the Scatchard method. The results showed that the imprinted polymers have two classes of heterogeneous binding sites characterized by two pairs of Kd, Bmax values: Kd(1 = 0.060 μmol/mL, Bmax(1 = 0.093 μmol/mg for the higher affinity binding sites, and Kd(2 = 0.455 μmol/mL, Bmax(2 = 0.248 μmol/mg for the lower affinity binding sites. Non-imprinted polymer has only one class of binding site, with Kd = 0.417 μmol/mL and Bmax = 0.184 μmol/mg. A computational analysis of the energies of the prepolymerization complexes was in agreement with the experimental results. It showed that the selective binding interactions arose from cooperative three point interactions between the carboxylic acid and the two methoxy groups in the template and amino groups in the polymer cavities. Those results were confirmed by the recognition studies performed with the set of structurally related compounds. Allylamine polymer MIP8 had no affinity towards biogenic amines. The obtained imprinted polymer could be used for selective separation of homoveratric acid.

  7. A Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-chitosan Modified Electrode for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yan JIANG; Chuan Yin LIU; Li Ping JIANG; Guang Han LU

    2005-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode has been prepared.The modified electrode resolves the overlapping voltammetric response of dopamine and ascorbic acid into two well-defined peak by 212 mY. The mechanism of discrimination of dopamine from ascorbic acid is discussed. Dopamine can be determined selectively with the carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode. The electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability.keywords: Nanotube-chitosan modified electrode, dopamine, ascorbic acid.

  8. Selection of folate-producing lactic acid bacteria for improving fermented goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, Maria Giovanna; Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Giovanni GARAU; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; Massa, Tomasina G.; Franco, Mario Andrea; Deiana, Pietrino

    2005-01-01

    Goat milk is a complete food but its low level of folic acid diminisches its nutritional efficacy. In this study, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lb. helveticus strains were selected for folate production in goat milk to improve its quality. A suitable HPLC method was developed to directly determine both total folate and its biologically active derivatives such as 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5- CH3-H4-PteGlu), tetrah...

  9. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  10. Amplified electrochemical detection of nucleic acid hybridization via selective preconcentration of unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Tian, Rui; Zheng, Xingwang; Huang, Rongfu

    2016-08-31

    The common drawback of optical methods for rapid detection of nucleic acid by exploiting the differential affinity of single-/double-stranded nucleic acids for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is its relatively low sensitivity. In this article, on the basis of selective preconcentration of AuNPs unprotected by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, a novel electrochemical strategy for nucleic acid sequence identification assay has been developed. Through detecting the redox signal mediated by AuNPs on 1, 6-hexanedithiol blocked gold electrode, the proposed method is able to ensure substantial signal amplification and a low background current. This strategy is demonstrated for quantitative analysis of the target microRNA (let-7a) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and a detection limit of 16 fM is readily achieved with desirable specificity and sensitivity. These results indicate that the selective preconcentration of AuNPs for electrochemical signal readout can offer a promising platform for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequence. PMID:27506344

  11. Citric acid production by selected mutants of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram-Ul, Haq; Ali, Sikander; Qadeer, M A; Iqbal, Javed

    2004-06-01

    The present investigation deals with citric acid production by some selected mutant strains of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. For this purpose, a conidial suspension of A. niger GCB-75, which produced 31.1 g/l citric acid from 15% (w/v) molasses sugar, was subjected to UV-induced mutagenesis. Among the 3 variants, GCM-45 was found to be a better producer of citric acid (50.0 +/- 2a) and it was further improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl, N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Out of 3,2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant variants, GCMC-7 was selected as the best mutant, which produced 96.1 +/- 1.5 g/l citric acid 168 h after fermentation of potassium ferrocyanide and H2SO4 pre-treated blackstrap molasses in Vogel's medium. On the basis of kinetic parameters such as volumetric substrate uptake rate (Qs), and specific substrate uptake rate (qs), the volumetric productivity, theoretical yield and specific product formation rate, it was observed that the mutants were faster growing organisms and produced more citric acid. The mutant GCMC-7 has greater commercial potential than the parental strain with regard to citrate synthase activity. The addition of 2.0 x 10(-5) M MgSO4 x 5H2O into the fermentation medium reduced the Fe2+ ion concentration by counter-acting its deleterious effect on mycelial growth. The magnesium ions also induced a loose-pelleted form of growth (0.6 mm, diameter), reduced the biomass concentration (12.5 g/l) and increased the volumetric productivity of citric acid monohydrate (113.6 +/- 5 g/l).

  12. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC values of 5% (dry matter aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97, intermediate for almond and peanut (BC values, 1.37-1.64 and the lowest for selected legumes (0.84-1.36. Approach: The purpose of this study was to measure in vitro the buffering capacity potential of legumes and other foods commonly used in Jordan as heartburn remedies to determine the ability of these products to de-acidify, neutralize acid, or increase pH levels of an acid and a base solution. Results: BC of the studied legumes showed positive and strong correlations, with protein, aspartic and glutamic amino acids contents (R = 0.95, 0.94, 0.89, respectively and relatively weak correlation with phosphorus content (R = 0.38. Conclusion/Recommendations: The differences in BC within and among studied samples were largely due to the differences in their chemical compositions. Protein, fiber, ash, organic acids and aspartic and glutamic acids contents and alkalinity of ashes showed significant BC, while high fat content in almond and peanut failed to show considerable BC.

  13. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria exhibiting high scavenging activity for environmental hydrogen peroxide from fermented foods and its two scavenging enzymes for hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akio; Kaneko, Chiaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kouji; Kimata, Shinya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Abe, Akira; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Uchino, Masataka; Satoh, Junichi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    To obtain lactic acid bacteria that scavenge environmental hydrogen peroxide, we developed a specialized enrichment medium and successfully isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus Be1 strain from a fermented food. This strain showed vigorous environmental hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity over a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. High Mn-catalase and NADH peroxidase activities were found in the cell-free extract of the P. pentosaceus Be1 strain, and these two hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes were purified from the cell-free extract of the strain. Mn-catalase has been purified from several microorganisms by several researchers, and the NADH peroxidase was first purified from the original strain in this report. After cloning the genes of the Mn-catalase and the NADH peroxidase, the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of known related enzymes. PMID:27118075

  14. Penetration barrier contributes to bacterial biofilm-associated resistance against only select antibiotics, and exhibits genus-, strain- and antibiotic-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachna; Sahore, Simmi; Kaur, Preetinder; Rani, Alka; Ray, Pallab

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are implicated in a wide range of implant-based and chronic infections. These infections are often associated with adverse therapeutic outcomes, owing to the decreased antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. This altered biofilm susceptibility has been attributed to multiple factors, including a reduced antibiotic penetration. Although several studies have addressed the role of penetration barrier in biofilm-associated drug resistance, it remains inconclusive. This study was done to elucidate antibiotic penetration through biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using an agar disk diffusion assay. Penetration capacity of six antimicrobial drugs from different classes (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides) through biofilms formed by standard strains and clinical isolates from catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was elucidated by measuring their growth-inhibition zones in lawn cultures on Mueller-Hinton agar, following diffusion of an antibiotic from an overlying disk through their biofilm to the agar medium. Penetration of only select antimicrobials (vancomycin and chloramphenicol) was hindered through biofilms. There was considerable variation in biofilm-permeating capacity depending upon the genus, strain/CRBSI isolate and antibiotic tested. Furthermore, antibiotics failed to kill the biofilm cells independent of penetration, indicating that other factors contributed substantially to biofilm resistance. PMID:27402781

  15. Penetration barrier contributes to bacterial biofilm-associated resistance against only select antibiotics, and exhibits genus-, strain- and antibiotic-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachna; Sahore, Simmi; Kaur, Preetinder; Rani, Alka; Ray, Pallab

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are implicated in a wide range of implant-based and chronic infections. These infections are often associated with adverse therapeutic outcomes, owing to the decreased antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. This altered biofilm susceptibility has been attributed to multiple factors, including a reduced antibiotic penetration. Although several studies have addressed the role of penetration barrier in biofilm-associated drug resistance, it remains inconclusive. This study was done to elucidate antibiotic penetration through biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using an agar disk diffusion assay. Penetration capacity of six antimicrobial drugs from different classes (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides) through biofilms formed by standard strains and clinical isolates from catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was elucidated by measuring their growth-inhibition zones in lawn cultures on Mueller-Hinton agar, following diffusion of an antibiotic from an overlying disk through their biofilm to the agar medium. Penetration of only select antimicrobials (vancomycin and chloramphenicol) was hindered through biofilms. There was considerable variation in biofilm-permeating capacity depending upon the genus, strain/CRBSI isolate and antibiotic tested. Furthermore, antibiotics failed to kill the biofilm cells independent of penetration, indicating that other factors contributed substantially to biofilm resistance.

  16. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vizoná Liberato

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs. We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10 bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5, linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  17. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  18. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  19. A micro E-DNA sensor for selective detection of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 李敏; 王丽华; 左小磊

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for selectively detection of dopamine (DA) in the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) is described. A nanometer-sized gold flower microelectrode (NGFME) is prepared by flame-etching and electrochemical deposition. The electrode tip was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The NGFME is sized at about 100 µm and dimensions of thorns of the electrode were in nanometers. By modifying with DA aptamer on the surface, the prepared aptasensor can selectively detect DA even in the presence of high concentration AA. Experimental results show that this NGFME has no response to AA. As a comparison, the carbon fiber electrode without DA aptamer modification is unable to effectively detect DA in the presence of AA. The NGFME is easy-to-prepare, selective and sensitive for DA detection down to 25 µM. The electrode can be expected to detect DA in vivo and in real biological samples.

  20. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural to 5-Formyl-2-furancarboxylic Acid in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maria; Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2016-05-23

    A simple, cheap, and selective catalyst based on copper/cerium oxides is described for the oxidation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF) in water. An almost quantitative conversion (99 %) with excellent (90 %) selectivity towards the formation of 5-formyl-2-furancarboxylic acid, a platform molecule for other high value chemicals, is observed. The catalyst does not require any pretreatment or additives, such as bases, to obtain high yield and selectivity in water as solvent and using oxygen as oxidant. When a physical mixture of the oxides is used, low conversion and selectivity are observed. Air can be used instead of oxygen, but a lower conversion rate is observed if the same overall pressure is used, and the selectivity remains high. The catalyst can be recovered almost quantitatively and reused. Deactivation of the catalyst, observed in repeated runs, is due to the deposition of humins on its surface. Upon calcination the catalyst almost completely recovers its activity and selectivity, proving that the catalyst is robust. PMID:27101568

  1. Diagnosis on Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's exhibition industry, often renowned as the locomotive of the tertiary industry, has developed rapidly in recent years and has become the sunrise industry and gets much concern. However, in exhibition industry circles in China, there is a saying being passed around "rushed exhibitions with bad service, property rights protection is badly needed; a low threshold with high demand, and 5 out of 10 exhibitions are disorganized." This jingle reflects many problems that currently exist in the exhibition industry in China.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.

  3. A rapid microwave synthesis of nitrogen-sulfur co-doped carbon nanodots as highly sensitive and selective fluorescence probes for ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junxia; Yu, Jie; Feng, Suling; Su, Li

    2016-06-01

    A ultrafast one-step microwave-assisted method was developed for the synthesis of nitrogen-sulfur co-doped carbon nanodots (N,S-CDs) by using ethylenediamine as the carbon source and sulfamic acid as the surface passivation reagent. The morphology and the properties of N,S-CDs were explored by a series of techniques, such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prepared N,S-CDs exhibit bright blue photoluminescence with a high fluorescence quantum yield (FLQY) up to 28%, and high stability and excellent water solubility. A N,S-CDs-based fluorescent probe was developed for sensitive detection ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of Cu(2+), based on the mechanism that AA reduces Cu(2+) to Cu(+), then Cu(+) quenches the fluorescence of N,S-CDs through electron or energy transfer due to the interaction between Cu(+) and thiol ligand on the N,S-CDs surface. The observed linear response concentration range was from 0.057 to 4.0μM to AA with a detection limit as low as 18nM. The probe exhibited a highly selective response toward AA even in the presence of possible interfering substances, such as uric acid and citric acid. Moreover, these promising features made the sensing system used for the analysis of human serum and urine samples. PMID:27130124

  4. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases, a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifidobacterium strains to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. Studies were carried out using Bifidibacteriumstrains (B. animalis Bi30, B. catenulatum KD 14 and B. longum KN 29. The strains were cultivated using minimal growth media containing selected natural and synthetic carbon sources: German wheat bran, rye bran, barley spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl esters of phenolic acids. The production of extracellular feruloyl esterase was estimated using the post cultivation supernatants and methyl ferulate. The concentration of ferulic acid released from the ester was determined using HPLC with DAD detection. Results. The most efficient bacterial strain for FAE production was B. animalis cultivated in the presence of methyl p-coumarate and methyl ferulate as the main carbon sources (14.95 nmol·ml-1·min-1 and 4.38 nmol·ml-1·min-1, respectively. In the case of each FAE, the highest activity was obtained at 37oC (pH 6.3 in Theorell/Steinhagen buffer (B. animalis Bi30 or in Tris/HCl buffer (B. catenulatum KD14 and B. longum KN29. Taking under consideration all results, it should be noticed that the highest feruloyl esterase activities were obtained using synthetic methyl esters of phenolic acids. Conclusions. The presented resultsbroaden the knowledgeabout the production of the feruloyl esterase by probiotic bacteria. Although the enzyme is only accessory during

  5. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  6. Retigeric acid B exhibits antitumor activity through suppression of nuclear factor-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that retigeric acid B (RB, a natural pentacyclic triterpenic acid isolated from lichen, inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa cells. However, the mechanism of action of RB remains unclear. In this study, we found that using PC3 and DU145 cells as models, RB inhibited phosphorylation levels of IκBα and p65 subunit of NF-κB in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Detailed study revealed that RB blocked the nuclear translocation of p65 and its DNA binding activity, which correlated with suppression of NF-κB-regulated proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L, cyclin D1 and survivin. NF-κB reporter assay suggested that RB was able to inhibit both constitutive activated-NF-κB and LPS (lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB. Overexpression of RelA/p65 rescued RB-induced cell death, while knockdown of RelA/p65 significantly promoted RB-mediated inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, suggesting the crucial involvement of NF-κB pathway in this event. We further analyzed antitumor activity of RB in in vivo study. In C57BL/6 mice carrying RM-1 homografts, RB inhibited tumor growth and triggered apoptosis mainly through suppressing NF-κB activity in tumor tissues. Additionally, DNA microarray data revealed global changes in the gene expression associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis in response to RB treatment. Therefore, our findings suggested that RB exerted its anti-tumor effect by targeting the NF-κB pathway in PCa cells, and this could be a general mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of RB in other types of cancers as well.

  7. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  8. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. PMID:27474955

  9. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  10. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  11. Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid sensing ion channel–toxin complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Baconguis, Isabelle; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent, amiloride-sensitive channels implicated in diverse physiological processes ranging from nociception to taste. Despite the importance of ASICs in physiology, we know little about the mechanism of channel activation. Here we show that psalmotoxin activates non- and sodium-selective currents in chicken ASIC1a at pH 7.25 and 5.5, respectively. Crystal structures of ASIC1a – psalmotoxin complexes map the toxin binding site to the extracell...

  12. N-Hydroxypyrazolyl glycine derivatives as selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Christensen, Caspar; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2008-01-01

    glycine (NHP5G) derivatives are selectively recognized by N-methyl- d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors and that the ( R)-enantiomers are preferred. Moreover, several of the compounds are able to discriminate between individual subtypes among the NMDA receptors, providing new pharmacological tools. For......A series of analogues based on N-hydroxypyrazole as a bioisostere for the distal carboxylate group of aspartate have been designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically characterized. Affinity studies on the major glutamate receptor subgroups show that these 4-substituted N-hydroxypyrazol-5-yl...

  13. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  14. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Kovalovská; Róbert Mazur; Jozef Hudec

    2011-01-01

    In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 %) from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate) has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 %...

  15. Etruscan Culture Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various

  16. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  17. Selective Michael-type addition of a D-glucuronic acid derivative in the synthesis of model substances for uronic acid containing polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A flexible protocol for the preparation of model substances for uronic acid containing polysaccharides is presented. We have synthesized a D-glucuronic acid derivative which is designed so that it easily can be conjugated with different structures and architectures by selective Michael-type addition. By successful coupling of the glucuronic acid derivative to polyethylene glycol with high degree of conversion, products were obtained that were easily characterized and which resembled polysaccharides in terms of solubility and purification methods that could be employed. The model substance can potentially be used to facilitate optimization of low-degree modification reactions of high molecular weight D-glucuronic acid containing polysaccharides.

  18. Selective oxidation of glycerol to formic acid in highly concentrated aqueous solutions with molecular oxygen using V-substituted phosphomolybdic acids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-01-01

    Formic acid is an important commodity chemical as well as a promising medium for hydrogen storage and hydrogen production. In this paper, we report that formic acid can be produced through selective oxidation of glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, by using vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids as catalysts and molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Significantly, this catalytic system allows for high-concentration conversions and thus leads to exceptional efficiency. Specifically, 3.64 g of formic acid was produced from 10 g of glycerol/water (50/50 in weight) solution. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  19. Sequence-selective targeting of duplex DNA by peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Sequence-selective gene targeting constitutes an attractive drug-discovery approach for genetic therapy, with the aim of reducing or enhancing the activity of specific genes at the transcriptional level, or as part of a methodology for targeted gene repair. The pseudopeptide DNA mimic peptide...... nucleic acid (PNA) can recognize duplex DNA with high sequence specificity and affinity in triplex, duplex and double-duplex invasive modes or non-invasive triplex modes. Novel PNA modification has improved the affinity for DNA recognition via duplex invasion, double-duplex invasion and triplex...... recognition considerably. Such modifications have also resulted in new approaches to targeted gene repair and sequence-selective double-strand cleavage of genomic DNA....

  20. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  1. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2016-08-15

    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect. PMID:27107239

  2. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2016-08-15

    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect.

  3. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Siani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA and oleanolic acids (OA, as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v, the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days. The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995. The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95% and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

  4. Effect of Selectively Introducing Arginine and D-Amino Acids on the Antimicrobial Activity and Salt Sensitivity in Analogs of Human Beta-Defensins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human β-defensins HBD-1and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs. PMID:24086767

  5. Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid-sensing ion channel-spider toxin complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baconguis, Isabelle; Gouaux, Eric [Oregon HSU

    2012-07-29

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent, amiloride-sensitive channels involved in diverse physiological processes ranging from nociception to taste. Despite the importance of ASICs in physiology, we know little about the mechanism of channel activation. Here we show that psalmotoxin activates non-selective and Na+-selective currents in chicken ASIC1a at pH7.25 and 5.5, respectively. Crystal structures of ASIC1a–psalmotoxin complexes map the toxin binding site to the extracellular domain and show how toxin binding triggers an expansion of the extracellular vestibule and stabilization of the open channel pore. At pH7.25 the pore is approximately 10Å in diameter, whereas at pH5.5 the pore is largely hydrophobic and elliptical in cross-section with dimensions of approximately 5 by 7Å, consistent with a barrier mechanism for ion selectivity. These studies define mechanisms for activation of ASICs, illuminate the basis for dynamic ion selectivity and provide the blueprints for new therapeutic agents.

  6. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II.

  7. Modular Attachment of Appended Boron Lewis Acids to a Ruthenium Pincer Catalyst: Metal-Ligand Cooperativity Enables Selective Alkyne Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuei-Nin T; Kampf, Jeff W; Szymczak, Nathaniel K

    2016-08-24

    A new series of bifunctional Ru complexes with pendent Lewis acidic boranes were prepared by late-stage modification of an active hydrogen-transfer catalyst. The appended boranes modulate the reactivity of a metal hydride as well as catalytic hydrogenations. After installing acidic auxiliary groups, the complexes become multifunctional and catalyze the cis-selective hydrogenation of alkynes with higher rates, conversions, and selectivities compared with the unmodified catalyst. PMID:27472301

  8. Nanosized SnO2 Particles Dispersed on a Graphite Electrode for Selective Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel nano-SnO2/graphite electrode has been prepared via polishing procedure to produce active and stable surface. The modified electrode resolves the overlapping voltammetric response of dopamine and ascorbic acid into two well-defined peaks by 230 mV. The mechanism of discrimination of dopamine from ascorbic acid is discussed. Dopamine and ascorbic acid can be determined simultaneously with the modified electrode. The electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability.

  9. Interactions between Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Selective Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Velkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs act as intracellular shuttles for fatty acids as well as lipophilic xenobiotics to the nucleus, where these ligands are released to a group of nuclear receptors called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. PPAR mediated gene activation is ultimately involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that target the activating ligand. Here we show that liver- (L- FABP displays a high binding affinity for PPAR subtype selective drugs. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping and proteolytic protection experiments show that the binding of the PPAR subtype selective drugs produces conformational changes that stabilize the portal region of L-FABP. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies also revealed that L-FABP can form a complex with the PPAR ligand binding domain (LBD of PPARα. This protein-protein interaction may represent a mechanism for facilitating the activation of PPAR transcriptional activity via the direct channeling of ligands between the binding pocket of L-FABP and the PPARαLBD. The role of L-FABP in the delivery of ligands directly to PPARα via this channeling mechanism has important implications for regulatory pathways that mediate xenobiotic responses and host protection in tissues such as the small intestine and the liver where L-FABP is highly expressed.

  10. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kovalovská

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 % from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 % (w/v the source of microorganisms/volume of the fermentation mixture, after the addition of 0.028 % (w/v of CaCl2/volume of the fermentation mixture, 100 μM of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P and the GABA precursor concentration in the fermentation mixture 2.6 mg ml-1 in an atmosphere of gas nitrogen. Pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria increased the selectivity of GABA by an average of 20 % compared with bacteria from the path of Encián.

  11. Determination of tartaric acid in wines by FIA with tubular tartrate-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M G; Amaral, C E; Matos, C M

    2001-03-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system comprising a tartrate-(TAT) selective electrode has been developed for determination of tartaric acid in wines. Several electrodes constructed for this purpose had a PVC membrane with a complex of quaternary ammonium and TAT as anion exchanger, a phenol derivative as additive, and a more or less polar mediator solvent. Characterization of the electrodes showed behavior was best for membranes with o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as solvent. On injection of 500 microL into a phosphate buffer carrier (pH = 3.1; ionic strength 10(-2) mol/L) flowing at 3 mL/min, the slope was 58.06 +/- 0.6 with a lower limit of linear range of 5.0 x 10(-4) mol/L TAT and R2 = 0.9989. The interference of several species, e.g. chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, gallic acid, tannin, sucrose, glucose, fructose, acetate, and citrate, was evaluated in terms of potentiometric selectivity coefficients. The Hofmeister series was followed for inorganic species and the most interfering organic ion was citrate. When red and white wines were analyzed and the results compared with those from an independent method they were found to be accurate, with relative standard deviations below 5.0%.

  12. Effect of Selected Organic Acids on Cadmium Sorption by Variable-and Permanent-Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hong-Qing; LIU Hua-Liang; HE Ji-Zheng; HUANG Qiao-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium (Cd) sorption by two permanent-charge soils, a yellow-cinnamon soil and a yellow-brown soil, and two variable-charge soils, a red soil and a latosol, with addition of selected organic acids (acetate, tartrate, and citrate). Results showed that with an increase in acetate concentrations from 0 to 3.0 mmol L-1, Cd sorption percentage by the yellow-cinnamon soil, the yellow-brown soil, and the latosol decreased. The sorption percentage of Cd by the yellow-cinnamon soil and generally the yellow-brown soil (permanent-charge soils)decreased with an increase in tartrate concentration, but increased at low tartrate concentrations for the red soil and the latosol. Curves of percentage of Cd sorption for citrate were similar to those for tartrate. For the variable-charge soils with tartrate and citrate, there were obvious peaks in Cd sorption percentage. These peaks, where organic acids had maximum influence, changed with soil type, and were at a higher organic acid concentration for the variable-charge soils than for the permanent charge soils. Addition of cadmium after tartrate adsorption resulted in higher sorption increase for the variable-charge soils than permanent-charge soils. When tartrate and Cd solution were added together, sorption of Cd decreased with tartrate concentration for the yellow-brown soil, but increased at low tartrate concentrations and then decreased with tartrate concentration for the red soil and the latosol.

  13. 10-iodo-11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids are selective inhibitors of DYRK1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Hannes; Chaikuad, Apirat; Becker, Anja; Loaëc, Nadège; Lozach, Olivier; Abu Jhaisha, Samira; Becker, Walter; Jones, Peter G; Preu, Lutz; Baumann, Knut; Knapp, Stefan; Meijer, Laurent; Kunick, Conrad

    2015-04-01

    The protein kinase DYRK1A has been suggested to act as one of the intracellular regulators contributing to neurological alterations found in individuals with Down syndrome. For an assessment of the role of DYRK1A, selective synthetic inhibitors are valuable pharmacological tools. However, the DYRK1A inhibitors described in the literature so far either are not sufficiently selective or have not been tested against closely related kinases from the DYRK and the CLK protein kinase families. The aim of this study was the identification of DYRK1A inhibitors exhibiting selectivity versus the structurally and functionally closely related DYRK and CLK isoforms. Structure modification of the screening hit 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid revealed structure-activity relationships for kinase inhibition and enabled the design of 10-iodo-substituted derivatives as very potent DYRK1A inhibitors with considerable selectivity against CLKs. X-ray structure determination of three 11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline-6-carboxylic acids cocrystallized with DYRK1A confirmed the predicted binding mode within the ATP binding site. PMID:25730262

  14. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  15. Comparing organic acids and salt derivatives as antimicrobials against selected poultry-borne Listeria monocytogenes strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lues, Jan Frederick Rykers; Theron, Maria Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    This article reports on the antilisterial properties of selected organic acids and salt derivatives in order to suggest possible alternatives in food preservation and pathogen control in the poultry meat processing industry. The susceptibility of two Listeria monocytogenes isolates was assessed against five organic acids (lactic, acetic, malic, citric, and propionic) and two acid-salt derivatives (sorbic acid [potassium salt] and benzoic acid [sodium salt]) across a series of pH environments. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the acids were tested against the two strains by means of an agar-dilution method. In general, strain CC60 was found to be more resistant than strain CC77 to both organic acids and salts. At pH values of 7 and above, high MIC levels (low susceptibility) were noted for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and lactic acids, whereas susceptibility at lower pH increased reaching pH5 where the isolates were susceptible to all the organic acids tested. A small increase in pH notably reduced antimicrobial activity against the organisms. At pH 7, the isolates just about lost susceptibility to benzoic, lactic, malic, and sorbic acids. Although the activity of the majority of acids was linked to pH, some acids were not as closely related (e.g., potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and citric acid), and this suggests that the type of organic acids plays a role in inhibition. The relatively high MICs reported for compounds that are conventionally used as preservatives against Listeria spp. raise concern. The results furthermore suggest that the type of organic acid used to set pH, and not only pH alone, plays a role in determining inhibition. It was confirmed that a "one size fits all" approach to preservation is not always effective. Furthermore, the need for microbiological data to the subspecies level to inform the selection of preservatives was highlighted. PMID:23190165

  16. Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Bell, Alexis T. (LBNL); (UCB)

    2016-06-17

    Metal oxides of Ce, Gd, La, Mn, and Zr were investigated as promoters for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based FTS catalysts. The extent to which these promoters decrease the selectivity toward CH4 and increase the selectivity toward C5+ hydrocarbons was found to depend on both the loading and the composition of the oxide promoter. Elemental mapping by STEM–EDS revealed that the propensity for a given metal oxide to associate with Co affects the sensitivity of the product distribution to changes in promoter loading. For all promoters, a sufficiently high loading resulted in the product distributions becoming insensitive to further increases in promoter loading, very likely due to the formation of a half monolayer of promoter oxide over the Co surface. Simulations suggest that the fraction of Co active sites that are adjacent to the promoter moieties approaches unity at this degree of coverage. The oxidation state of the promoter metal cation under reaction conditions, determined by in situ XANES measurements, was used to calculate relative Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cation. A strong positive correlation was found between the C5+ product selectivity and the Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cations, suggesting that the promotional effects are a consequence of Lewis acid–base interactions between the reaction intermediates and the promoter metal cations. Rate data obtained at different pressures were used to estimate the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant appearing in the Langmuir–Hinshelwood expression that describes the CO consumption kinetics for both unpromoted and the metal oxide-promoted catalysts. Both parameters exhibited positive correlations with the promoter Lewis acidity. In conclusion, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the metal cations of the promoter act as Lewis acids that interact with the O atom of adsorbed CO to facilitate CO adsorption and

  17. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  18. 4 Exhibition Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China's convention and exhibition industry has grown rapidly in recent years, with some of the nation's key cities becoming hubs of internationally renowned expositions, spurred by the construction of new exhibition centers.In 2003, a total of 3,298 conventions and exhibitions were held in China, up from 3,075 in the previous year. The number is estimated to have hit 4,000 in 2004.

  19. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity analysis of isoform-selective retinoic acid receptor ß ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birgitte W.; Knapp, Anne Eeg; Piu, Fabrice;

    2009-01-01

    We recently discovered the isoform selective RAR beta 2 ligand 4'-octyl-4-biphenylcarboxylic acid (3, AC-55649). Although 3 is highly potent at RAR beta 2 and displays excellent selectivity, solubility issues make it unsuitable for drug development. Herein we describe the exploration of the SAR in...

  20. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  1. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  2. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  3. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  4. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  5. Development and characterisation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on methacrylic acid for selective recognition of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; Wu, Aibo; Qu, Guorun; Li, Rongxiu; Zhang, Dabing

    2007-09-01

    Specific molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the drug reserpine (RES) using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer were developed and characterised for the first time in this study. Evaluation of the various polymers by binding assays indicated that the optimum ratio of functional monomer to template was 4:1. Furthermore, the imprinting effect of the MIPs was assessed by the chromatographic method, which demonstrated that the MIPs had better chromatographic behavior and selectivity than those of the corresponding NIPs. A combination of BET, NMR, UV spectroscopy, and MISPE analyses for investigation of the imprinting and recognition properties revealed that strong specific interactions between the functional monomer and RES in the prepolymerization solutions and the aqueous solutions were probably responsible for RES recognition. The preparation of RES MIPs and elucidation of imprinting and recognition mechanisms may serve as useful references for other drug MIPs.

  6. Dendrite Spacing Selection during Directional Solidification of Pivalic Acid-Ethanol System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-Jin Suk; Young-Min Park; Youn-Che Kim

    2008-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification of pivalic acid (PVA)-ethanol (Eth) mixture was performed to examine whether an allowable range of primary dendrite spacing definitely exists at a given growth velocity and how the range is history-dependent. PVA-0.59 wt pct Eth was unidirectionally solidified in the range of growth velocity 0.5-64 μm/s at the temperature gradient of 2.3 K/mm. Sequential change in growth velocity was imposed to determine the upper and lower limits for the allowable range of stable spacing. An allowable range of the steady state primary spacing was observed at a given growth velocity, and the extent of the range seems to be dependent on the degree to which step-increase or step-decrease in growth velocity is accomplished. As the degree of sequential change in growth velocity increases, the history-dependence of the selection for the primary dendrite spacing tends to disappear.

  7. Label-free and selective sensing of uric acid with gold nanoclusters as optical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chang, Yong; Wu, Wen Bi; Zhang, Pu; Lie, Shao Qing; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-05-15

    Clinically, the amount of uric acid (UA) in biological fluids is closely related to some diseases such as hyperuricemia and gout, thus it is of great significance to sense UA in clinical samples. In this work, red gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with relatively high fluorescence quantum yield and strong fluorescence emission were facilely available using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as template. The fluorescence of BSA-protected AuNCs can be sensitively quenched by H2O2, which is further capable of sensing UA through the specific catalytic oxidation with uricase, since it generates stoichiometric quantity of H2O2 by-product. The proposed assay allows for the selective detection of UA in the range of 10-800 μM with a detection limit of 6.6 μM, which is applicable to sense UA in clinical samples with satisfactory results, suggesting its great potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26992526

  8. Reaction mixtures formed by nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs showed mutagenicity in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trossero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, which is present in preserved meat and can be produced in the oral cavity by reduction of nitrate taken from vegetables, could react in stomach with nitrosatable drugs, giving genotoxic-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC. The mutagenicity of reaction mixtures formed by sodium nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs (sulfathiazole, HST; phtalylsulfathiazole, PhST; complex Co(II-sulfathiazole, Co(II-ST in acidic medium was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test, with TA98 and TA 100 strains. The reactions were carried out at room temperature, with a mole ratio [nitrite]/[sulfa-drug] > 1. The three reaction mixtures showed mutagenic effects in the considered range.

  9. Selective Preparation of Furfural from Xylose over Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Sba-15 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were prepared using the co-condensation and grafting methods, respectively, and their catalytic performance in the dehydration of xylose to furfural was examined. SBA-15-SO3H(C prepared by the co-condensation method showed 92–95% xylose conversion and 74% furfural selectivity, and 68–70% furfural yield under the given reaction conditions. The deactivation and regeneration of the SBA-15-SO3H(C catalyst for the dehydration of xylose was also investigated. The results indicate that the used and regeneration catalysts retained the SBA-15 mesoporous structure, and the S content of SBA-15-SO3H(C almost did not change. The deactivation of the catalysts is proposed to be associated with the accumulation of byproducts, which is caused by the loss reaction of furfural. After regeneration by H2O2, the catalytic activity of the catalyst almost recovered.

  10. Phosphinic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes for sensitive and selective sensing of chromium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deep, Akash, E-mail: dr.akashdeep@csio.res.in; Sharma, Amit L.; Tuteja, Satish K.; Paul, A.K.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • SWCNTs have been conjugated with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (PA/d). • SWCNT-PA/d adduct is demonstrated for electrochemical sensing of Cr(VI). • Linear response is obtained for 0.01–10 ppb Cr(VI). • Sensitivity and the limit of detection are 35 ± 4 nA/ppb and 0.01 ppb, respectively. • Proposed sensing of Cr(VI) is selective with respect to many other metals. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been functionalized with a phosphinic acid derivative ‘bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid’ (PA/d). It has been achieved by treating the chlorinated SWCNTs with PA/d at 80 °C. Successful functionalization and different nanomaterial properties have been investigated by UV–vis–NIR, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, AFM and FE-SEM. PA/d conjugated SWCNTs (CNT–PA) are dispersible in some common organic solvents, e.g. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, DMF, CHCl{sub 3}, and THF. The ‘CNT–PA’ complex was spin-casted on boron doped silicon wafer. Thus fabricated sensing electrode is demonstrated for sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing of chromium(VI) ions. A linear response is obtained over a wide range of Cr(VI) concentration (0.01–10 ppb). The sensor's sensitivity and the limit of detection are observed to be 35 ± 4 nA/ppb and 0.01 ppb, respectively. The practical utility of the proposed sensor is demonstrated by determining the Cr(VI) concentration in an industrial effluent sample and an underground water sample.

  11. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saiful Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  12. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiful Alam, M.; Ren, G.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X.; Jia, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  13. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  14. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV–visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. ► Comparison between non-selective (UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. ► Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. ► Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV–visible (UV–vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV–vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico.

  15. Myeloid differentiation and retinoblastoma phosphorylation changes in HL-60 cells induced by retinoic acid receptor- and retinoid X receptor-selective retinoic acid analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S C; Kazmer, S; Levin, A A; Yen, A

    1996-01-01

    The ability of subtypes of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) singly and in combination to elicit myeloid differentiation, G1/0-specific growth arrest, and retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor protein dephosphorylation was determined in the human myeloblastic leukemia cell line HL-60 using subtype-selective retinoic acid (RA) analogs. RA analogs that selectively bind only to RARs (Am580 and/or TTNPB) or to RXRs (Ro 25-6603, SR11237, and/or SR11234) did not elicit the above-mentioned three cellular responses. In contrast, simultaneous treatment with both an RAR-selective ligand (Am580 or TTNPB) and an RXR-selective ligand (Ro 25-6603, SR11237, or SR11234) induced all three cellular processes. An RAR alpha-selective ligand used with an RXR-selective ligand generated the same responses as did all-trans RA or 9-cis RA, which affect both families of receptors, suggesting an important role for RAR alpha among RAR subtypes in eliciting cellular response. Consistent with this finding, the RAR alpha antagonist, Ro 41-5253, reduced the level of the cellular responses elicited by treatment with an RAR alpha-selective ligand plus RXR-selective ligand. The coupling of the shift of RB to its hypophosphorylated form with G1/0 arrest and differentiation in response to ligands is consistent with a possible role of RB as a downstream target or effector of RAR alpha and RXR in combination.

  16. Selective local lysis and sampling of live cells for nucleic acid analysis using a microfluidic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Aditya; Autebert, Julien; Delamarche, Emmanuel; Kaigala, Govind V.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity is inherent to biology, thus it is imperative to realize methods capable of obtaining spatially-resolved genomic and transcriptomic profiles of heterogeneous biological samples. Here, we present a new method for local lysis of live adherent cells for nucleic acid analyses. This method addresses bottlenecks in current approaches, such as dilution of analytes, one-sample-one-test, and incompatibility to adherent cells. We make use of a scanning probe technology - a microfluidic probe - and implement hierarchical hydrodynamic flow confinement (hHFC) to localize multiple biochemicals on a biological substrate in a non-contact, non-destructive manner. hHFC enables rapid recovery of nucleic acids by coupling cell lysis and lysate collection. We locally lysed ~300 cells with chemical systems adapted for DNA or RNA and obtained lysates of ~70 cells/μL for DNA analysis and ~15 cells/μL for mRNA analysis. The lysates were introduced into PCR-based workflows for genomic and transcriptomic analysis. This strategy further enabled selective local lysis of subpopulations in a co-culture of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, validated by characteristic E-cadherin gene expression in individually extracted cell types. The developed strategy can be applied to study cell-cell, cell-matrix interactions locally, with implications in understanding growth, progression and drug response of a tumor. PMID:27411740

  17. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. PMID:26404012

  18. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  19. Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against alpha-Bungarotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Shamaileh, Hadi A.; Edwards, Stacey L.;

    2012-01-01

    by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 mu M. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low...... in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. Principal Findings: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against alpha-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed...... micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way...

  20. A sensitive and selective imprinted solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC for simultaneous detection of trace quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenjuan; Yi, Jianghua; Fang, Guozhen; Fan, Lipeng; Wang, Shuo

    2013-08-15

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), selective for major metabolites of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides, was prepared through bulk polymerisation using quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) as template, diethylaminoethylmethacrylate as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker in tetrahydrofuran. The synthesised MIP was characterised by Fourier transform infrared and adsorption experiments. MIP exhibited high affinity, fast kinetics for QCA and good selectivity for QCA and methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA). MIP obtained was used as a selective sorbent for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with HPLC to detect QCA and MQCA. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of porcine, chicken and fish muscles were 0.1, 0.3, 0.1 μg/kg for QCA and 0.2, 0.3, 0.1 μg/kg for MQCA, respectively and good recoveries were obtained in the range from 60.0 to 119.4%. These results indicated the MISPE-HPLC procedure could be successfully used for the determination QCA and MQCA in animal muscles.

  1. Material Nuclear Culture, Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele; Mabb, David; Craighead, Alison; Crowe, Nick; Schuppli, Susan; Takeuchi, Kota; Erika, Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Material Nuclear Culture is an exhibition of contemporary artists responses to the physical qualities and material traces of the aesthetics, traditions and legacy of nuclear powered submarines in the UK. Whilst the MOD is currently undertaking a public consultation process on how and where to dismantle and store Britain’s old subs the long term problems of storing radioactive waste remain unresolved. The exhibition will include new sculptural, film, sound and installation works by David ...

  2. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation.

  3. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation. PMID:26139877

  4. Synthesis of Au/Graphene Oxide Composites for Selective and Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we present a novel ascorbic acid (AA) sensor applied to the detection of AA in human sera and pharmaceuticals. A series of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide sheets (Au NP/GO) composites were successfully synthesized by reduction of gold (III) using sodium citrate. Then the Au NP/GO composites were used to construct nonenzymatic electrodes in practical AA measurement. The electrode that has the best performance presents attractive analytical features, such as a low working potential of +0.15 V, a high sensitivity of 101.86 μA mM-1 cm-2 to AA, a low detection limit of 100 nM, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity. And more,it was also employed to accurately and practically detect AA in human serum and clinical vitamin C tablet with the existence of some food additive. The enhanced AA electrochemical properties of the Au NP/GO modified electrode in our work can be attributed to the improvement of electroactive surface area of Au NPs and the synergistic effect from the combination of Au NPs and GO sheets. This work shows that the Au NP/GO/GCEs hold the prospect for sensitive and selective determination of AA in practical clinical application.

  5. Synthesis of new isoxazoline-based acidic amino acids and investigation of their affinity and selectivity profile at ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Andrea; Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni;

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of four new isoxazoline-based amino acids being analogues of previously described glutamate receptor ligands is reported and their affinity for ionotropic glutamate receptors is analyzed in comparison with that of selected model compounds. Molecular modelling investigations have bee...

  6. Porphyrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles for selective electrochemical detection of peroxyacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jie; Tu Wenwen [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lei Jianping, E-mail: jpl@nju.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang Sheng [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Ministry of Education of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-03-30

    Two layers of cationic iron(III) meso-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinum-4-yl)porphyrin (FeTMPyP) and anionic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were alternately assembled on a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-wrapped carbon nanotube (PDDA-CNT)-modified electrode via electrostatic interactions. The porphyrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectrometry. The (FeTMPyP-GNP){sub 2}/PDDA-CNT modified electrode showed two stable and well-defined peaks at -0.112 V and -0.154 V, which were attributed to the GNP-accelerated redox process of Fe(III)TMPyP/Fe(II)TMPyP. The modified electrode possessed excellent electrocatalytic behavior for the reduction of peroxyacetic acid (PAA). The resulting biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to PAA ({approx}3 s), with a wide linear range from 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 1.05 x 10{sup -3} M and a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More importantly, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} did not interfere with the detection. Thus, this biosensor enabled highly sensitive detection of PAA without removing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and showed a promising potential in practical applications.

  7. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  8. The novel Arabidopsis thaliana svt2 suppressor of the ascorbic acid-deficient mutant vtc1-1 exhibits phenotypic and genotypic instability [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/o2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase F Kempinski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is a potent antioxidant that detoxifies reactive oxygen species when plants are exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions. In addition to its antioxidant properties, ascorbic acid and its biosynthetic precursors fulfill a variety of other physiological and molecular functions. A mutation in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis gene VTC1, which encodes GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, results in conditional root growth inhibition in the presence of ammonium. To isolate suppressors of vtc1-1, which is in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 background, seeds of the mutant were subjected to ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. A suppressor mutant of vtc1-1 2, svt2, with wild-type levels of ascorbic acid and root growth similar to the wild type in the presence of ammonium was isolated. Interestingly, svt2 has Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta features, although svt2 is delayed in flowering and has an enlarged morphology. Moreover, the svt2 genotype shares similarities with Ler polymorphism markers and sequences, despite the fact that the mutant derived from mutagenesis of Col-0 vtc1-1 seed. We provide evidence that svt2 is not an artifact of the experiment, a contamination of Ler seed, or a result of outcrossing of the svt2 mutant with Ler pollen. Instead, our results show that svt2 exhibits transgenerational genotypic and phenotypic instability, which is manifested in a fraction of svt2 progeny, producing revertants that have Col-like phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Some of those Col-like revertants then revert back to svt2-like plants in the subsequent generation. Our findings have important implications for undiscovered phenomena in transmitting genetic information in addition to the Mendelian laws of inheritance. Our results suggest that stress can trigger a genome restoration mechanism that could be advantageous for plants to survive environmental changes for which the ancestral genes were better adapted.

  9. Preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction and analysis of salicylic acid in Actinidia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qing-Ping; Peng, Mi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jun-Fang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Compounds with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds (e.g., salicylic acid) have weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between them and functional monomers in the imprinting process. Consequently, the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have no specific adsorption ability. Here, the first magnetic dummy MIPs (MDMIPs) based on benzonic acid as dummy template are successfully developed and evaluated with respect to the applications in selective enrichment and analysis of salicylic acid from complex mixtures. Various parameters affecting absorption/desorption were evaluated for achieving optimal recovery and reducing nonspecific interactions. The prepared MDMIPs showed high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, rapid kinetic binding (40 min) and magnetic separation (5 s), high reproducibility (RSDsalicylic acid was quantified (0.2 μg/g of fresh mass) in Actinidia chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  10. Structure-based drug design targeting the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1: exploiting the bile acid scaffold towards selective agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Sepe, Valentina; Novellino, Ettore; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can regulate nutrient metabolism through the activation of the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1 and the nuclear receptor FXR. Developing an exogenous control over these receptors represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of enterohepatic and metabolic disorders. A number of dual GPBAR1/FXR agonists are known, however their therapeutic use is limited by multiple unwanted effects due to activation of the diverse downstream signals controlled by the two receptors. On the other hand, designing selective GPBAR1 and FXR agonists is challenging since the two proteins share similar structural requisites for ligand binding. Here, taking advantage of our knowledge of the two targets, we have identified through a rational drug design study a series of amine lithocholic acid derivatives as selective GPBAR1 agonists. The presence of the 3α-NH2 group on the steroidal scaffold is responsible for the selectivity over FXR unveiling unprecedented structural insights into bile acid receptors activity modulation. PMID:26567894

  11. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic nanoparticles for the selective extraction of protocatechuic acid from plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Wei, Fen; Chen, Liang; Wang, Sicen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, highly selective core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using protocatechuic acid as the template molecule. The resulting magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The binding performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by static and selective adsorption. The binding isotherms were obtained for protocatechuic acid and fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and Freundlich isotherm model. Furthermore, the resulting materials were used as the solid-phase extraction materials coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective extraction and detection of protocatechuic acid from the extracts of Homalomena occulta and Cynomorium songaricum with the recoveries in the range 86.3-102.2%. PMID:25641806

  12. Structure-based drug design targeting the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1: exploiting the bile acid scaffold towards selective agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Sepe, Valentina; Novellino, Ettore; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids can regulate nutrient metabolism through the activation of the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1 and the nuclear receptor FXR. Developing an exogenous control over these receptors represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of enterohepatic and metabolic disorders. A number of dual GPBAR1/FXR agonists are known, however their therapeutic use is limited by multiple unwanted effects due to activation of the diverse downstream signals controlled by the two receptors. On the other hand, designing selective GPBAR1 and FXR agonists is challenging since the two proteins share similar structural requisites for ligand binding. Here, taking advantage of our knowledge of the two targets, we have identified through a rational drug design study a series of amine lithocholic acid derivatives as selective GPBAR1 agonists. The presence of the 3α-NH2 group on the steroidal scaffold is responsible for the selectivity over FXR unveiling unprecedented structural insights into bile acid receptors activity modulation.

  13. Origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liang-Yong; Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Liu Wei-Li; Feng Song-Lin; David Huang; S.V Babu

    2011-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid. The oxide to nitride removal selectivity of the ceria slurry with picolinic acid is as high as 76.6 in the chemical mechanical polishing. By using zeta potential analyzer, particle size analyzer, horizon profilometer, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the pre-and the post-polished wafer surfaces as well as the pre-and the post-used ceria-based slurries are compared. Possible mechanism of high oxide to nitride selectivity with using ceria-based slurry with picolinic acid is discussed.

  14. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  15. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  16. An Unexpected Mode Of Binding Defines BMS948 as A Full Retinoic Acid Receptor β (RARβ, NR1B2 Selective Agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswarkumar Nadendla

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid is an important regulator of cell differentiation which plays major roles in embryonic development and tissue remodeling. The biological action of retinoic acid is mediated by three nuclear receptors denoted RARα, β and γ. Multiple studies support that RARβ possesses functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor and indeed, its expression is frequently lost in neoplastic tissues. However, it has been recently reported that RARβ could also play a role in mammary gland tumorigenesis, thus demonstrating the important but yet incompletely understood function of this receptor in cancer development. As a consequence, there is a great need for RARβ-selective agonists and antagonists as tools to facilitate the pharmacological analysis of this protein in vitro and in vivo as well as for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we provide experimental evidences that the novel synthetic retinoid BMS948 is an RARβ-selective ligand exhibiting a full transcriptional agonistic activity and activating RARβ as efficiently as the reference agonist TTNPB. In addition, we solved the crystal structures of the RARβ ligand-binding domain in complex with BMS948 and two related compounds, BMS641 and BMS411. These structures provided a rationale to explain how a single retinoid can be at the same time an RARα antagonist and an RARβ full agonist, and revealed the structural basis of partial agonism. Finally, in addition to revealing that a flip by 180° of the amide linker, that usually confers RARα selectivity, accounts for the RARβ selectivity of BMS948, the structural analysis uncovers guidelines for the rational design of RARβ-selective antagonists.

  17. Ammonium-Functionalized Hollow Polymer Particles As a pH-Responsive Adsorbent for Selective Removal of Acid Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Dong; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a novel type of ammonium-functionalized hollow polymer particles (HPP-NH3(+)) with a high density of ammonium groups in the shell has been specially designed and synthesized. Benefiting from both the high surface area and from the high density of positively charged ammonium groups, the as-prepared HPP-NH3(+) can serve as a selective adsorbent for the removal of negatively charged acid dye (e.g., methyl blue a-MB). The equilibrium adsorption data of a-MB on the HPP-NH3(+) were evaluated using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, and Langmuir isotherm exhibited a better fit with a maximum adsorption capacity of 406 mg/g. Most importantly, because of the presence of dual functional groups (ammonium and carboxyl groups), the HPP-NH3(+) showed a significant pH-dependent equilibrium adsorption capacity, which increased dramatically from 59 mg/g to 449 mg/g as the solution pH decreased from 9 to 2. This uniqueness makes the dye-adsorbed HPP-NH3(+) can be facilely regenerated under mild condition (in weak alkaline solution, pH 10) to recover both a-MB and the HPP-NH3(+), whereas the recovery of conventional adsorbents is commonly performed under particularly severe conditions. The regenerated HPP-NH3(+) can be reused for dye removal and the dye removal efficiency remained above 98% even after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Because of its high adsorption capacity, pH-sensitivity, easy regeneration, and good reusability, the HPP-NH3(+) has great potential for the application in the field of water treatment, controlled drug release, and pH-responsive delivery. PMID:27302068

  18. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  19. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  20. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric acid......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  1. Designing an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the provoked dialogue as reflection-in-action is used to look into the designing of an exhibition, and the theoretical background is phenomenological and semiotic related to inquiries in the processes of design and the designer as a theoretical fieldwork. The concept of design...... is enveloped by the design process but also by the end product, which is an artefact. Design is much more than a given form that serves the function of an object. I will provide an illustrative case example focuses on the processes of developing the visual and symbolic design of a small poster exhibition...

  2. Selective enrichment of sialic acid-containing glycopeptides using titanium dioxide chromatography with analysis by HILIC and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Lendal, Sara Eun; Engholm-Keller, Kasper;

    2010-01-01

    -containing glycopeptides is achieved by using a low-pH buffer that contains a substituted acid such as glycolic acid to improve the binding efficiency and selectivity of SA-containing glycopeptides to the TiO(2) resin. By combining TiO(2) enrichment of sialylated glycopeptides with HILIC separation of deglycosylated......The terminal monosaccharide of cell surface glycoconjugates is typically a sialic acid (SA), and aberrant sialylation is involved in several diseases. Several methodological approaches in sample preparation and subsequent analysis using mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled the identification...

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

  4. Selectivity of substrate binding and ionization of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luanloet, Thikumporn; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2015-08-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (EC 1.14.12.4) from Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a hydroxylation and aromatic ring cleavage reaction. The functional roles of two residues, Tyr223 and Tyr82, located ~ 5 Å away from MHPC, were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis, along with ligand binding, product analysis and transient kinetic experiments. Mutation of Tyr223 resulted in enzyme variants that were impaired in their hydroxylation activity and had Kd values for substrate binding 5-10-fold greater than the wild-type enzyme. Because this residue is adjacent to the water molecule that is located next to the 3-hydroxy group of MHPC, the results indicate that the interaction between Tyr223, H2 O and the 3-hydroxyl group of MHPC are important for substrate binding and hydroxylation. By contrast, the Kd for substrate binding of Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. However, only ~ 40-50% of the substrate was hydroxylated in the reactions of both variants, whereas most of the substrate was hydroxylated in the wild-type enzyme reaction. In free solution, MHPC or 5-hydroxynicotinic acid exists in a mixture of monoanionic and tripolar ionic forms, whereas only the tripolar ionic form binds to the wild-type enzyme. The binding of tripolar ionic MHPC would allow efficient hydroxylation through an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. For the Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants, both forms of substrates can bind to the enzymes, indicating that the mutation at Tyr82 abolished the selectivity of the enzyme towards the tripolar ionic form. Transient kinetic studies indicated that the hydroxylation rate constants of both Tyr82 variants are approximately two- to 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our findings suggest that Tyr82 is important for the binding selectivity of MHPC oxygenase towards the tripolar ionic species, whereas the

  5. A novel and selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols with polymer-supported periodic acid under mild aprotic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Mehrosadat Tabaean; S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi

    2012-01-01

    A new polymeric oxidizing reagent was prepared by supporting periodic acid on poly(1,4-phenylene-2,5-pyridine dicarboxyamide).This polymeric reagent was used for the selective oxidation of primary benzylic alcohols to the corresponding benzaldehydes in CH3CN at reflux conditions.Excellent selectivity was observed between primary benzyl alcohols and secondary ones as well as non-benzylic alcohols in the oxidation reactions.Allylic alcohols were also converted to the corresponding aldehydes with good yields.

  6. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  7. Selecting lactic acid bacteria for their safety and functionality by use of a mouse colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Catherine; Poiret, Sabine; Goudercourt, Denise; Dennin, Veronique; Leyer, Gregory; Pot, Bruno

    2006-09-01

    Studies showed that specific probiotics might provide therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease. However, a rigorous screening of new probiotics is needed to study possible adverse interactions with the host, particularly when intended for administration to individuals with certain health risks. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of three lactobacilli (LAB) on intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation using variations of the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. We first compared the in vitro ability of LAB to survive gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and their ability to persist in the GIT of mice following daily oral administration. As a control, we included a nonprobiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient. Feeding high doses of LAB strains to healthy and to TNBS-treated mice did not induce any detrimental effect or abnormal translocation of the bacteria. Oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 had a significant preventive effect on colitis in mice, while Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM did not. None of the three selected LAB strains translocated to extraintestinal organs of TNBS-treated mice. In contrast, L. paracasei exacerbated colitis under severe inflammatory conditions and translocated to extraintestinal organs. This study showed that evaluations of the safety and functionality of new probiotics are recommended. We conclude that not all lactobacilli have similar effects on intestinal inflammation and that selected probiotics such as L. salivarius Ls-33 may be considered in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Selective recovery of Pd(II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: Adsorption performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Tao; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-12-15

    A novel, selective and acid-resisting chitosan fiber adsorbent was prepared by the ion-imprinting technique using Pd(II) and epichlorohydrin as the template and two-step crosslinking agent, respectively. The resulting ion-imprinted chitosan fibers (IIF) were used to selectively adsorb Pd(II) under extremely acidic synthetic metal solutions. The adsorption and selectivity performances of IIF including kinetics, isotherms, pH effects, and regeneration were investigated. Pd(II) rapidly adsorbed on the IIF within 100 min, achieving the adsorption equilibrium. The isotherm results showed that the maximum Pd(II) uptake on the IIF was maintained as 324.6-326.4 mg g(-1) in solutions containing single and multiple metals, whereas the Pd(II) uptake on non-imprinted fibers (NIF) decreased from 313.7 to 235.3 mg g(-1) in solution containing multiple metals. Higher selectivity coefficients values were obtained from the adsorption on the IIF, indicating a better Pd(II) selectivity. The amine group, supposedly the predominant adsorption site for Pd(II), was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH value played a significant role on the mechanism of the selective adsorption in the extremely acidic conditions. Furthermore, the stabilized performance for three cycles of sorption/desorption shows a potential for further large-scale applications. PMID:26073516

  9. Development and characterization of a coronary polylactic acid stent prototype generated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Christian; Vogt, Felix; Höges, Simon; Jauer, Lucas; Borinski, Mauricio; Schulte, Vera A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Meiners, Wilhelm; Jobmann, Monika; Wissenbach, Konrad; Blindt, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In-stent restenosis is still an important issue and stent thrombosis is an unresolved risk after coronary intervention. Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. The additive manufacturing technology Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables rapid, parallel, and raw material saving generation of complex 3- dimensional structures with extensive geometric freedom and is currently in use in orthopedic or dental applications. Here, SLM process parameters were adapted for poly-L-lactid acid (PLLA) and PLLA-co-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) powders to generate degradable coronary stent prototypes. Biocompatibility of both polymers was evidenced by assessment of cell morphology and of metabolic and adhesive activity at direct and indirect contact with human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. γ-sterilization was demonstrated to guarantee safety of SLM-processed parts. From PLLA and PCL, stent prototypes were successfully generated and post-processing by spray- and dip-coating proved to thoroughly smoothen stent surfaces. In conclusion, for the first time, biodegradable polymers and the SLM technique were combined for the manufacturing of customized biodegradable coronary artery stent prototypes. SLM is advocated for the development of biodegradable coronary PLLA and PCL stents, potentially optimized for future bifurcation applications.

  10. Nanocasting Design and Spatially Selective Sulfonation of Polystyrene-Based Polymer Networks as Solid Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Felix H; Sahraoui, Laila; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-12

    Nanocasting is a general and widely applied method in the generation of porous materials during which a sacrificial solid template is used as a mold on the nanoscale. Ideally, the resulting structure is the inverse of the template. However, replication is not always as direct as anticipated, so the influences of the degree of pore filling and of potential restructuring processes after removal of the template need to be considered. These apparent limitations give rise to opportunities in the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PSD) polymer networks of widely varying porosities (BET surface area=63-562 m(2)  g(-1) ; Vtot =0.18-1.05 cm(3)  g(-1) ) by applying a single synthesis methodology. In addition, spatially selective sulfonation on the nanoscale seems possible. Together, nanocasting and sulfonation enable rational catalyst design. The highly porous nanocast and predominantly surface-sulfonated PSD networks approach the activity of the corresponding molecular catalyst, para-toluenesulfonic acid, and exceed those of commercial ion-exchange polymers in the depolymerization of macromolecular inulin.

  11. Fatty Acid-Derived Pro-Toxicants of the Rat Selective Toxicant Norbormide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hans; Conole, Daniel; Atkinson, Darcy J; Laita, Olivia; Jay-Smith, Morgan; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Cavalli, Maurizio; Bova, Sergio; Hopkins, Brian; Brimble, Margaret A; Rennison, David

    2016-06-01

    Norbormide [5-(α-hydroxy-α-2-pyridylbenzyl)-7-(α-2-pyridylbenzylidene)-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, as an acute vasoactive, NRB has a rapid onset of action which makes it relatively unpalatable to rats, often leading to sublethal uptake and accompanying bait shyness. A series of NRB-derived pro-toxicants (3a - i, 4a - i, and 5a - i) were prepared in an effort to 'mask' this acute response and improve both palatability and efficacy. Their synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation (vasocontractile response in rat vasculature, stability in selected rat media) and palatability/efficacy in Sprague-Dawley, wild Norway, and wild ship rats is described. Most notably, pro-toxicant 3d was revealed to be free of all pre-cleavage vasoconstrictory activity in rat caudal artery and was subsequently demonstrated to release NRB in the presence of rat blood, liver, and pancreatic enzymes. Moreover, it consistently displayed a high level of acceptance by rats in a two-choice bait-palatability and efficacy trial, with accompanying high mortality. On this evidence, fatty acid ester prodrugs would appear to offer a promising platform for the further development of NRB-derived toxicants with enhanced palatability and efficacy profiles. PMID:27144301

  12. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Amino Acid Asparagine: Selective Sensing of Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S; Choi, Jeong-Hak; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid asparagine (ASP) was used as a benign reducing and stabilizing agent for the production of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using green chemistry principles. With an increasing concentration of ASP (0.5 to 10 mM), the absorbance intensity at 525 nm increased; however, no effects on the color, size, or shape of the AuNPs were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the AuNPs were either hexagonal or spherical in shape and had an average size of approximately 10 ± 5 nm. Facile colorimetric assays of the AuNPs were applied to detect a variety of heavy metal ion species in water. In this study, the selective detection of arsenic ions (As (III) ions) by quenching, aggregation, and/or red-shifting of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was successfully achieved. The AuNPs sensor was sustainable as a visual colorimetric detection system and spectral assay of hazardous As (III) ions in the reaction medium; thus, it will be useful for aqueous assessment without using any sophisticated or expensive instruments. PMID:26716315

  13. Development and characterization of a coronary polylactic acid stent prototype generated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Christian; Vogt, Felix; Höges, Simon; Jauer, Lucas; Borinski, Mauricio; Schulte, Vera A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Meiners, Wilhelm; Jobmann, Monika; Wissenbach, Konrad; Blindt, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In-stent restenosis is still an important issue and stent thrombosis is an unresolved risk after coronary intervention. Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. The additive manufacturing technology Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables rapid, parallel, and raw material saving generation of complex 3- dimensional structures with extensive geometric freedom and is currently in use in orthopedic or dental applications. Here, SLM process parameters were adapted for poly-L-lactid acid (PLLA) and PLLA-co-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) powders to generate degradable coronary stent prototypes. Biocompatibility of both polymers was evidenced by assessment of cell morphology and of metabolic and adhesive activity at direct and indirect contact with human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. γ-sterilization was demonstrated to guarantee safety of SLM-processed parts. From PLLA and PCL, stent prototypes were successfully generated and post-processing by spray- and dip-coating proved to thoroughly smoothen stent surfaces. In conclusion, for the first time, biodegradable polymers and the SLM technique were combined for the manufacturing of customized biodegradable coronary artery stent prototypes. SLM is advocated for the development of biodegradable coronary PLLA and PCL stents, potentially optimized for future bifurcation applications. PMID:23053808

  14. Fatty acids composition of fruits of selected Central European sedges (Carex L. Cyperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucka-Kocka, A.; Janyszek, M.

    2010-07-01

    Fatty acids in the fruits of 13 sedge species (Ca rex L., Cyperaceae) were analyzed. The oil contents in the fruits of the studied sedges ranged from 3.73 and 46.52%. In the studied fruit oils 14 different fatty acids were identified. The main unsaturated fatty acids were: linoleic, a-linolenic, oleic, oleo palmitic n-7; oleo palmitic n-9, octadecenic, and eicosenoic acids. The following acids were found in the greatest quantities: linoleic, oleic, a-linolenic and palmitic acids. Based on the fatty acid composition, studied taxa can be divided in two groups. The first group (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina) is a very good source of linoleic acid. The second group, including the remaining species, is a good source of a-linolenic acid. The highest oleic acid contents were observed in C. vulpina. The studied material has shown a low concentration of saturated fatty acids, among which palmitic acid was the main one.Results of the analyses allow for the inclusion of the studied species among plants whose fruits are characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. (Author)

  15. Rapid one-step selection method for generating nucleic acid aptamers: development of a DNA aptamer against α-bungarotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse H Lauridsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen®, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD. Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against α-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 µM. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way of deriving an aptamer unlike the time consuming conventional SELEX-based approach. The most important application of this method is that chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries can also be used for aptamer selection as it requires only one enzymatic step. This method could equally be suitable for developing RNA aptamers.

  16. Gluten-Free Precooked Rice-Yellow Pea Pasta: Effect of Extrusion-Cooking Conditions on Phenolic Acids Composition, Selected Properties and Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasla, Abdallah; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Zidoune, Mohammed Nasereddine; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Mitrus, Marcin; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Rice/yellow pea flour blend (2/1 ratio) was used to produce gluten-free precooked pasta using a single-screw modified extrusion-cooker TS-45. The effect of moisture content (28%, 30%, and 32%) and screw speed (60, 80, and 100 rpm) on some quality parameters was assessed. The phenolic acids profile and selected pasta properties were tested, like pasting properties, water absorption capacity, cooking loss, texture characteristics, microstructure, and sensory overall acceptability. Results indicated that dough moisture content influenced all tested quality parameters of precooked pasta except firmness. Screw speed showed an effect only on some quality parameters. The extrusion-cooking process at 30% of dough moisture with 80 rpm is appropriate to obtain rice-yellow pea precooked pasta with high content of phenolics and adequate quality. These pasta products exhibited firm texture, low stickiness, and regular and compact interne structure confirmed by high score in sensory overall acceptability. PMID:27074432

  17. Gluten-Free Precooked Rice-Yellow Pea Pasta: Effect of Extrusion-Cooking Conditions on Phenolic Acids Composition, Selected Properties and Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasla, Abdallah; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Zidoune, Mohammed Nasereddine; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Mitrus, Marcin; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Rice/yellow pea flour blend (2/1 ratio) was used to produce gluten-free precooked pasta using a single-screw modified extrusion-cooker TS-45. The effect of moisture content (28%, 30%, and 32%) and screw speed (60, 80, and 100 rpm) on some quality parameters was assessed. The phenolic acids profile and selected pasta properties were tested, like pasting properties, water absorption capacity, cooking loss, texture characteristics, microstructure, and sensory overall acceptability. Results indicated that dough moisture content influenced all tested quality parameters of precooked pasta except firmness. Screw speed showed an effect only on some quality parameters. The extrusion-cooking process at 30% of dough moisture with 80 rpm is appropriate to obtain rice-yellow pea precooked pasta with high content of phenolics and adequate quality. These pasta products exhibited firm texture, low stickiness, and regular and compact interne structure confirmed by high score in sensory overall acceptability.

  18. Selective preparation of terminal alkenes from aliphatic carboxylic acids by a palladium-catalysed decarbonylation-eliminiation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Trialkylamines were used as additives in the decarbonylation–elimination reaction catalysed by the combination of palladium(II) chloride and DPE-Phos. Aliphatic carboxylic acids were transformed at relatively low temperature into terminal alkenes in high yield and high selectivity, without the need

  19. Selective Synthesis of Unsaturated N-Acylethanolamines by Lipase-Catalyzed N-Acylation of Ethanolamine with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plastina, P.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.; Witkamp, R.F.; Gabriele, B.

    2009-01-01

    The selective synthesis of unsaturated N-acylethanolamines 1b-6b by lipase-catalyzed direct condensation between unsaturated fatty acids 1a-6a and ethanolamine is reported. Reactions were carried out in hexane at 40 °C, in the presence of Candida antarctica Lipase B as the catalyst, to give the corr

  20. Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidations of Phthalimide Protected Allylic Amines : A New Catalytic Route to beta(3)-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Baeza Garcia, Alejandro; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of B-3-amino acids is presented. Phthalimide protected allylic amines are oxidized under Wacker conditions selectively to aldehydes using PdCl2 and CuCl or Pd(MeCN)(2)Cl(NO2) and CuCl2 as complementary catalyst systems. The aldehydes are produced in excellent yields an

  1. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  2. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  3. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Szwajgier; Anna Dmowska

    2010-01-01

    Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases), a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifi...

  4. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-isoxazolol amino acids as selective antagonists at group I metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea;

    2001-01-01

    to originate in (S)-11 (EC(50) = 395 microM, K(b) = 86 and 90 microM, respectively). Compound 9, administered icv, but not sc, was shown to protect mice against convulsions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). Compounds 9 and 11 were resolved using chiral HPLC, and the configurational assignments...

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of a Selective Medium for Lactic Acid Bacteria-Validation on Some Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baida Djeghri-Hocine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB is characterized by fastidious nutritional requirements leading to the need for complex and rich media to allow growth. Owing to their complex requirements which also varied significantly with species, the formulation of selective media for LAB is difficult. Approach: A culture medium for LAB was previously developed based on deproteinated whey supplemented with yeast autolysate and de-lipidated egg yolk. Based on this previously developed medium, some selective media were formulated and their potential for LAB selection and enumeration was examined. Results: In this study, it was considered as a basis to define a selective medium, by adding a pH indicator and some inhibitory compounds to select the LAB flora of various dairy products including milk, disinfected or not, fermented milk and yoghurt. The addition of sodium azide to inhibit the contamination flora, including Gram negative floraand purple bromocresol allowed a direct selection of the Gram + and lactose + flora. An acidic pH (5.0 can also be helpfully considered after protein hydrolysis to avoid protein denaturation. Conclusion: To complete this study, additional work is needed concerning the improvement of culture medium selectivity by considering other inhibitors, of the Gram negative flora (like lithium chloride for instance, of fungi (like actidione, of the Gram positive flora (excepting the LAB flora and an association of these inhibitors.

  6. Selective synthesis of thiodiglycol dicarboxylic acid esters via -TsOH/C-catalysed direct esterification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dahong Jiang; Min Huang

    2012-09-01

    The esterification of thiodiglycol and long alkyl-chain carboxylic acids is reported. Reaction of thiodiglycol with carboxylic acid via -TsOH/C-catalysed direct esterification afforded thiodiglycol dicarboxylic acid esters in good yields and chemoselectivity. The use of immobilized -TsOH on activated carbon as catalyst is crucial for the transformation.

  7. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  8. The selective target of capsaicin on FASN expression and de novo fatty acid synthesis mediated through ROS generation triggers apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaichanok Impheng

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new insight into its possible application as a selective anti-cancer therapy. The present findings showed that capsaicin promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The onset of apoptosis was correlated with a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Apoptotic induction by capsaicin was mediated by inhibition of FASN protein expression which was accompanied by decreasing its activity on the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The expression of FASN was higher in HepG2 cells than in normal hepatocytes that were resistant to undergoing apoptosis following capsaicin administration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on FASN expression and activity was found to be mediated by an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin failed to alter ACC and ACLY protein expression, suggesting ACC and ACLY might not be the specific targets of capsaicin to induce apoptosis. An accumulation of malonyl-CoA level following FASN inhibition represented a major cause of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction instead of deprivation of fatty acid per se. Here, we also obtained similar results with C75 that exhibited apoptosis induction by reducing the levels of fatty acid without any change in the abundance of FASN expression along with increasing ROS production. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that capsaicin exhibits a potent anti-cancer property by targeting

  9. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  10. Influence of selected lab cultures on the evolution of free amino acids, free fatty acids and Fiore Sardo cheese microflora during the ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Nicoletta P; Murgia, Marco A; Garau, Giovanni; Sanna, Maria G; Deiana, Pietrino

    2008-04-01

    Fiore Sardo Protected Denomination of Origin is a traditional Sardinian (Italy) hard cheese produced exclusively from whole raw ovine milk and coagulated with lamb rennet paste. Currently, Fiore Sardo is still produced by shepherds at the farmhouse level without the addition of any starter culture and the cheese-making process is characterized by significant waste. The first objective of the present work was to investigate the autochthonous microflora present in milk and Fiore Sardo cheese in order to select lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures with suitable cheese-making attributes and, possibly reduce the production waste. Secondly, the ability of selected cultures to guarantee cheese healthiness and quality was tested in experimental cheese-making trials. In this study, we show that the typical lactic microflora of raw ewe's milk and Fiore Sardo cheese is mostly composed of mesophilic LAB such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei. Moreover, strains belonging to the species were selected for cheese-making attributes and used in experimental cheese-making trials carried out in different farms producing Fiore Sardo. The evolution of the cheese microflora, free amino acids and free fatty acids during the ripening showed that the experimental cheeses were characterized by a balanced ratio of the chemical constituents, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms and, remarkably, by the absence of production waste that were significant for the control cheeses.

  11. Metalophthalocyanine complexes as ion-carriers in membrane-selective electrodes for detection of thiosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Souri, Ali

    2004-08-02

    The potentiometric response properties of several PVC-based membrane electrodes using phthalocyanine complexes of aluminum (AlPc), nickel (NiPc) and copper (CuPc) as anion carriers, toward thiosalicylic acid (TSA) were investigated. The influences of lipophilic ionic additives (cationic and anionic) and the pH of the buffered solutions were used for the interpretation of the mechanism of the potentiometric response of sensors. The sensitivity, linear range, detection limit, and potentiometric selectivity of the membrane sensors show a considerable dependence on the nature of central metal of the ionophore. The membrane electrodes based on AlPc demonstrate sub-Nernstian responses toward TSA over the range of 0.01 to 1x10{sup -5} M. In the case of NiPc and CuPc as ionophores and in the presence of trioctylmethyl ammonium (TOMA{sup +}) as a cationic additive, a Nernstian response could be established in a range of 4 orders of magnitudes of TSA concentration (0.01 to 1x10{sup -6} M). The results of potentiometric investigations revealed that from thermodynamic point of view, the axial coordination of thiosalicylate with the central metal of NiPc and CuPc is more efficient with respect to AlPc. This preference in response to TSA was discussed on the basis of the softness nature of NiPc and CuPc and more affinity for coordination with the thiolate group of thiosalicylate as a soft anion. These potentiometric sensors manifest prominent advantages of high selectivity for TSA over the various inorganic and organic anions, fast response times and micromolar detection limits and can be used over a wide pH range of 4.0-8.0. The prepared electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc were successfully applied in the potentiometric titration of sub-milimolar quantities of Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions and very good recovery results were obtained in these measurements. The results of complexometric studies between Hg{sup 2+} and TSA using electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc as indicator

  12. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... was used to study the overall exometabolome of cell-free ferments of three Lb. paracasei strains. The metabolites potentially causing the main antifungal activity of these Lb. paracasei strains were identified by correlating the results of the antifungal activity test with the metabolites produced. Besides...... for prolonging shelf-life of food without the addition of specific preservatives. Increased interest in the use of these bacteria for biopreservation has led to identification of a range of potent strains, and in addition, isolation and identification of various antifungal metabolites produced by these cultures...

  13. Selective Voltammetric Determination of Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN,Yan-Li; JIA,Neng-Qin; WANG,Zhi-Yong; SHEN,He-Bai

    2008-01-01

    A novel chemically modified electrode was fabricated by immobilizing ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode.The electrocatalytic behavior of the OMC modified electrode towards the oxidation of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was studied.Compared to a glassy carbon electrode,the OMC modified electrode showed a faster electron transfer rate and reduced the overpotentials greatly.Furthermore,the OMC modified electrode resolved the overlapping voltammetric responses of UA and AA into two well-defined voltammetric peaks with peak separation of ca.0.38 V.All results show that the OMC modified electrode has a good electrocatalytic ability to UA and AA,and has an excellent response towards UA even in the presence of high concentration AA.

  14. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complexa)

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios; Liliana del Valle Sosa; Jorge Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the com...

  15. Chiral selectivity of amino acid adsorption on chiral surfaces—The case of alanine on Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S. [Department of Physics, Campus Plaine - CP 231, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-07

    We study the binding pattern of the amino acid alanine on the naturally chiral Pt surfaces Pt(531), Pt(321), and Pt(643). These surfaces are all vicinal to the (111) direction but have different local environments of their kink sites and are thus a model for realistic roughened Pt surfaces. Alanine has only a single methyl group attached to its chiral center, which makes the number of possible binding conformations computationally tractable. Additionally, only the amine and carboxyl group are expected to interact strongly with the Pt substrate. On Pt(531), we study the molecule in its pristine as well as its deprotonated form and find that the deprotonated one is more stable by 0.47 eV. Therefore, we study the molecule in its deprotonated form on Pt(321) and Pt(643). As expected, the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the deprotonated molecule provide a local binding “tripod” and the most stable adsorption configurations optimize the interaction of this “tripod” with undercoordinated surface atoms. However, the interaction of the methyl group plays an important role: it induces significant chiral selectivity of about 60 meV on all surfaces. Hereby, the L-enantiomer adsorbs preferentially to the Pt(321){sup S} and Pt(643){sup S} surfaces, while the D-enantiomer is more stable on Pt(531){sup S}. The binding energies increase with increasing surface density of kink sites, i.e., they are largest for Pt(531){sup S} and smallest for Pt(643){sup S}.

  16. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabbour, N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%, Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%, Lactobacillus brevis (9.61% and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%. All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3% were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo- 4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis.

    Un total de 177 cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB fueron aisladas en las primeras etapas de la fermentación de aceitunas verdes marroquíes Picholine, incluyendo Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%, Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%, Lactobacillus brevis (9.61% y Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%. Todos los aislados fueron evaluados mediante su tolerancia a extractos de hojas de olivo y oleuropeína. La mayoría de los aislados (85,3% degradaron oleuropeína, cuando fueron evaluados usando oleuropeína o 5-Bromo-4-cloro- 3-indolil β-D-glucuronido (X-Gluc como sustrato. La capacidad de biodegradación de las cepas seleccionadas para cada especie fue confirmada mediante análisis por HPLC.

  17. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  18. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers’ Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers’ spent grain (BSG into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46% glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g, 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  19. Modification on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) scaffold. discovery of bile acid derivatives as selective agonists of cell-surface G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GP-BAR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Valentina; Renga, Barbara; Festa, Carmen; D'Amore, Claudio; Masullo, Dario; Cipriani, Sabrina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Monti, Maria Chiara; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-09-25

    Bile acids are signaling molecules interacting with the nuclear receptor FXR and the G-protein coupled receptor 1 (GP-BAR1/TGR5). GP-BAR1 is a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Endogenous bile acids and currently available semisynthetic bile acids are poorly selective toward GP-BAR1 and FXR. Thus, in the present study we have investigated around the structure of UDCA, a clinically used bile acid devoid of FXR agonist activity, to develop a large family of side chain modified 3α,7β-dihydroxyl cholanoids that selectively activate GP-BAR1. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that administration of compound 16 selectively increases the expression of pro-glucagon 1, a GP-BAR1 target, in the small intestine, while it had no effect on FXR target genes in the liver. Further, compound 16 results in a significant reshaping of bile acid pool in a rodent model of cholestasis. These data demonstrate that UDCA is a useful scaffold to generate novel and selective steroidal ligands for GP-BAR1. PMID:25162837

  20. Stereo and region-selective biosynthesis of two new dihydroartemisinic acid glycosides by suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The system of plant-cultured cells is one of the optimal systems to investigate biosynthesis pathway and their bioactive intermediates. Objective: To study the biosynthesis of dihydroartemisinic acid (1 by suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: Substrate (compound 1 was administered into the suspension-cultured cells of A. annua and co-cultured for 2 days. The methanol extract was separated on various column chromatography methods and the structures of two biosynthesis products were elucidated based on the analysis of 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, 2D NMR, and ESI-MS. Time-course curve was also established. Furthermore, in vitro antitumor activities of compounds 1-3 against HepG2, K562, and A549 cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: Two new compounds were obtained, namely 3α-hydroxy-dihydroartemisinic acid-α-D - glucopyranosyl ester (2 and 15-hydroxy-cadin-4-en-12-oic acid-β-d - glucopyranosyl ester (3. The results demonstrated that the cultured cells of A. annua possessed the abilities to stereo-selective hydroxylate and region-selective glycosylate sesquiterpene compounds in a highly efficient manner. Inhibitory effects of compounds 1-3 on proliferation of HepG2, K562, and A549 cell lines in vitro were also investigated. Conclusion: Two new dihydroartemisinic acid glycosides were obtained by stereo- and region-selective biosynthesis with cultured cells of A. annua.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  2. Improvement of bone formation biomarkers after 1-year consumption with milk fortified with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and selected vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Fonolla, Juristo; Quesada, Miguel; Poyatos, Antonio; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the replacement of regular milk with fortified milk in hyperlipidemic adults for 1 year would improve bone biomarkers. The fortified milk contained eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils, oleic acid, vitamins A, B(6), and E, as well as folic acid. We believe that the fortified milk will improve the blood fatty acid profile and vitamin status in subjects to benefit bone health biomarkers. From the 84 patients who accepted to participate, 11 of these were excluded for the presence of metabolic diseases and 1 was excluded for noncompliance with the protocol. Seventy-two hyperlipidemic patients (35-65 years) were randomly divided between 2 study groups. The supplement group (E; n = 39) consumed 0.5 L/d of fortified milk that contained fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins. The control group (C; n = 33) consumed 0.5 L/d of semiskimmed milk containing the same amount of total fat. Blood samples were taken at T(0), T(3), T(6), and T(12) months to determine plasma fatty acids, vitamins B(6), E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum folate, calcium, soluble osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin, parathormone, type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide, and malondialdehyde. After 1 year, the E group showed a significant increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (42%), docosahexaenoic acid (60%), vitamin B6 (38%), OPG (18%), RANKL (7%), OPG/RANKL (10%), red blood cell folate (21%), serum folate (53%), calcium (4%), vitamin D (11%), and osteocalcin (22%). Dietary supplementation with the fortified milk drink improved nutritional status and bone formation markers in adult hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:20579524

  3. NMR conformational properties of an Anthrax Lethal Factor domain studied by multiple amino acid-selective labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourtsis, Dionysios J.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Pairas, George [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Bentrop, Detlef [Institute of Physiology II, University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Spyroulias, Georgios A., E-mail: G.A.Spyroulias@upatras.gr [Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • A polypeptide, N-ALF{sub 233}, was overexpressed in E. coli and successfully isolated. • We produced {sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C labeled protein samples. • Amino acid selective approaches were applied. • We acquired several heteronuclear NMR spectra, to complete the backbone assignment. • Prediction of the secondary structure was performed. - Abstract: NMR-based structural biology urgently needs cost- and time-effective methods to assist both in the process of acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra and their subsequent analysis. Especially for bigger proteins (>20 kDa) selective labeling is a frequently used means of sequence-specific assignment. In this work we present the successful overexpression of a polypeptide of 233 residues, corresponding to the structured part of the N-terminal domain of Anthrax Lethal Factor, using Escherichia coli expression system. The polypeptide was subsequently isolated in pure, soluble form and analyzed structurally by solution NMR spectroscopy. Due to the non-satisfying quality and resolution of the spectra of this 27 kDa protein, an almost complete backbone assignment became feasible only by the combination of uniform and novel amino acid-selective labeling schemes. Moreover, amino acid-type selective triple-resonance NMR experiments proved to be very helpful.

  4. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  5. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Rios, Belinda; Del Valle Sosa, Liliana; Santiago, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT) was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence. PMID:26798810

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...

  7. Characteristics of post-impregnated SBA-15 with 12- Tungstophosphoric acid and its correlation with catalytic activity in selective esterification of glycerol to monolaurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, P. Y.; Abdullah, A. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Selective esterification of glycerol and lauric acid to monolaurin was conducted using 12-tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) incorporated SBA-15 as catalyst. They were synthesized with HPW loadings of 10-40 wt. % via post impregnation and characterized in terms of surficial and structural characteristic, acidity and morphology. Relatively high lauric acid conversion (up to 95%) and monolaurin yield (53%) were observed while the activity was successfully correlated to the material behaviours, i.e. highly acidic active acid sites within highly uniformed mesopores. The effects of different reaction parameters including reactant ratio (1:1-5:1), catalyst loading (1-5 wt. %) and length of fatty acid were also elucidated. Reduced fatty acid conversion was observed when longer fatty acids were used, thus further strengthen the idea of size selectivity effect provided by the synthesized catalysts.

  8. Defining the molecular basis for the first potent and selective orthosteric agonists of the FFA2 free fatty acid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Christiansen, Elisabeth;

    2013-01-01

    FFA2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and has generated interest as a therapeutic target for metabolic and inflammatory conditions. However, definition of its functions has been slowed by a dearth of selective ligands that can distinguish it from...... the closely related FFA3. At present, the only selective ligands described for FFA2 suffer from either poor potency, altered signaling due to allosteric modes of action, or a lack of function at non-human orthologs of the receptor. To address the need for novel selective ligands, we synthesized two compounds...... potentially having FFA2 activity and examined the molecular basis of their function. These compounds were confirmed to be potent and selective FFA2 agonists that interact with the orthosteric binding site. A combination of ligand structure-activity relationship, pharmacological analysis, homology modeling...

  9. Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Production of Nitric Acid by the Use of Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabljanac, Ž.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the dual-pressure process of nitric acid production. The process of selective catalytic reduction is carried out using the TiO2/WO3 heterogeneous catalyst applied on a ceramic honeycomb structure with a high geometric surface area per volume. The process design parameters for nitric acid production by the dual-pressure procedure in a capacity range from 75 to 100 % in comparison with designed capacity for one production line is shown in the Table 1. Shown is the effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction in the temperature range of the tail gas from 180 to 230 °C with direct application of liquid ammonia, without prior evaporation to gaseous state. The results of inlet and outlet concentrations of nitrous oxides in the tail gas of the nitric acid production process are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 shows the temperature dependence of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2in the tail gas of nitric acid production with the application of a constant mass flow of liquid ammonia of 13,0 kg h-1 and average inlet mass concentration of the nitrous oxides expressed as NO2of 800,0 mgm-3 during 100 % production capacity. The specially designed liquid-ammonia direct-dosing system along with the effective homogenization of the tail gas resulted in emission levels of nitrous oxides expressed as NO2 in tail gas ranging from 100,0 to 185,0 mg m-3. The applied low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of the nitrous oxides in the tail gases by direct use of liquid ammonia is shown in Figure 4. It is shown that low-temperature selective catalytic reduction with direct application of liquid ammonia opens a new opportunity in the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions during nitric acid production without the risk of dangerous ammonium nitrate occurring in the process of subsequent energy utilization of

  10. NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF SOME SELECTED FISH AND CRAB MEATS AND FATTY ACID ANALYSIS OF OIL EXTRACTED FROM PORTUNUS PELAGICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D Premarathna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The meat of male P.pelagicusn3 was analyzed for protein fat moisture and ash contents by proximate analysis. The flesh of shark Caracharhinus spp.n 3thalapath Istiophorus spp.n 3 were also analyzed for water-soluble protein content. Peptide-mapping was also carried out for the water-soluble protein fraction of all three types of samples. Moreoverthe sub-samples n3 of the crab meat samples and commercial fish oil samples n3 were also analyzed for fatty acid profile and content using gas chromatography. The results of proximate analysis revealed a composition of 89.40.072 mean SE moisture 75.70.069 protein 13.00.002 ash and 02.20.047 fat in crab meat. The analysis water-soluble fraction revealed species-specific patterns on SDS-PAGE demonstrating greater amounts of myosin heavy chain and fimbrin compared to that of shark and thalapath flesh. As it was expected a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in crab oil representing 40.68 of the total fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile exhibited greater percentages of oleic acid 28.03 and eicosapentaenoic acid EPA 12.12 when compared to existing data related to that of commercial fish oil. In conclusion the study revealed high protein content and a low fat content in the meat of P. pelagicus. The water-soluble protein profile meat of P. pelagicus could possibly be differentiated by peptide mapping which shows thick bands for the myosin heavy chain MHC and fimbrin. Oil of P. pelagicus carries relatively greater amounts of EPA and oleic acid. Thus the consumption of crabs would help to prevent nutritional deficiencies in the future.

  11. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang

    2003-01-01

    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  12. Selective remodeling of cardiolipin fatty acids in the aged rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapoport Stanley I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart is rich in cardiolipin, a phospholipid acylated in four sites, predominately with linoleic acid. Whether or not aging alters the composition of cardiolipin acyl chains is controversial. We therefore measured the fatty acid concentration of cardiolipin in hearts of 4, 12 and 24 month old rats that consumed one diet, adequate in fatty acids for the duration of their life. Results The concentration (nmol/g of linoleic acid was decreased in 24 month old rats (3965 ± 617, mean ± SD vs 4 month old rats (5525 ± 656, while the concentrations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in 24 month old rats (79 ± 9 vs 178 ± 27 and 104 ± 16 vs 307 ± 68 for arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, 4 months vs 24 months, respectively. Similar changes were not observed in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids or plasma unesterified fatty acids, suggesting specificity of these effects to cardiolipin. Conclusion These results demonstrate that cardiolipin remodeling occurs with aging, specifically an increase in highly unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Equilibrium Speciation of Select Lanthanides in the Presence of Acidic Ligands in Homo- and Heterogeneous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Troy A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This dissertation explores lanthanide speciation in liquid solution systems related to separation schemes involving the acidic ligands: bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), lactate, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Equilibrium speciation of neodymium (Nd3+), sodium (Na+), HDEHP, water, and lactate in the TALSPEAK liquid-liquid extraction system was explored under varied Nd3+ loading of HDEHP in the organic phase and through extraction from aqueous HCl and lactate media. System speciation was probed through vapor pressure osmometry, visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 22Na and 13C labeled lactate radiotracer distribution measurements, Karl Fischer titrations, and equilibrium pH measurements. Distribution of Nd3+, Na+, lactate, and equilibrium pH were modeled using the SXLSQI software to obtain logKNd and logKNa extraction constants under selected conditions. Results showed that high Nd3+ loading of the HDEHP led to Nd3+ speciation that departs from the ion exchange mechanism and includes formation of highly aggregated, polynuclear [NdLactate(DEHP)2]x; (with x > 1). By substituting lanthanum (La3+) for Nd3+ in this system, NMR scoping experiments using 23Na, 31P nuclei and 13C labeled lactate were performed. Results indicated that this technique is sensitive to changes in system speciation, and that further experiments are warranted. In a homogeneous system representing the TALSPEAK aqueous phase, Lactate protonation behavior at various temperatures was characterized using a combination of potentiometric titration and modeling with the Hyperquad computer program. The temperature dependent deprotonation behavior of lactate showed little change with temperature at 2.0 M NaCl ionic strength. Cloud point extraction is a non-traditional separation technique that starts with a homogeneous

  14. Beyond ketonization: selective conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins over balanced Lewis acid–base pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylon, Rebecca A. L.; Sun, Junming; Martin, Kevin J.; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dwindling petroleum reserves combined with increased energy demand and political factors encouraging an increase in energy independence have led to a large amount of research on sustainable alternatives. To this end, biomass conversion has been recognized as themost readily viable technology to produce biofuel concerning our reliance on liquid fuels for transportation and has the advantage of being easily integrated into our heavy use of combustion engines. The interest in biomass conversion has also resulted in reduced costs and a greater abundance of bio-oil, a mixture of hundreds of oxygenates including alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ketones. However, the presence of carboxylic acids in bio-oil derived from lignocellulose pyrolysis leads to low pH, instability, and corrosiveness. In addition, carboxylic acids (i.e. acetic acid) can also be produced via fermentation of sugars. This can be accomplished by a variety of homoacetogenic microorganisms that can produce acetic acid with 100% carbon yield.

  15. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturted fatty acids to the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso eGil-Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during gestation and development of the cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is that of maternal origin. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labelled fatty acids have shown the preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets (LD. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized in lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes related with lipolysis, modifying their rate of placental transfer and metabolization. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge on the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process.

  16. Rapid and selective derivatizatin method for the nitrogen-sensitive detection of carboxylic acids in biological fluids prior to gas chromatographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingeman, H.; Haan, H.B.P.; Hulshoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and selective derivatization procedure is described for the pre-column labelling of carboxylic acids with a nitrogen-containing label. The carboxylic acid function is activated with 2-bromo-1-methylpyridinium iodide and the activated carboxylic acid function reacts with a primary or a second

  17. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient. Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence.

  18. Acidity-controlled selective oxidation of alpha-pinene, isolated from Indonesian pine's turpentine oils (pinus merkusii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masruri; Farid Rahman, Mohamad; Nurkam Ramadhan, Bagus

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-pinene was isolated in high purity from turpentine oil harvested from Pinus merkusii plantation. The recent investigation on selective oxidation of alpha-pinene using potassium permanganate was undertaken under acidic conditions. The result taught the selective oxidation of alpha-pinene in acidic using potassium permanganate lead to the formation of 2-(3-acetyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetaldehyde or pinon aldehyde. The study method applied reaction in various different buffer conditions i.e. pH 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, and each reaction product was monitored using TLC every hour. Product determination was undertaken on spectrometry basis such as infrared, ultra violet-visible, gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  19. Using Triple Helix Forming Peptide Nucleic Acids for Sequence-selective Recognition of Double-stranded RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hnedzko, Dziyana; Cheruiyot, Samwel K.; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs play important roles in regulation of gene expression. Specific recognition and inhibition of these biologically important RNAs that form complex double-helical structures will be highly useful for fundamental studies in biology and practical applications in medicine. This protocol describes a strategy developed in our laboratory for sequence-selective recognition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) using triple helix forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) that bind in the major grov...

  20. Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of Canadian and East African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Schellenberg

    Full Text Available The common but poorly understood condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV increases vulnerability to HIV infection and is associated with the absence of H(2O(2-producing Lactobacillus. Vaginal lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce anti-HIV factors such as organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2, and may bind and inactivate HIV particles during scavenging of mannose. These factors define potential criteria for initial selection of candidate probiotics to block heterosexual transmission of HIV. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to characterize acid production on mannose and H(2O(2 production in vaginal isolates from Canadian adolescents (192 isolates, 16 individuals and commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya (576 isolates, 96 individuals. Selection of isolates from H(2O(2-detecting media suggested an idiosyncratic individual-level profile and extensive phenotypic diversity, including the identification of a subset of "double-strong" acid- and H(2O(2-producers with phenotypes similar to well-characterized probiotic strains. Molecular fingerprinting of all isolates by capillary electrophoresis of 16S-23S rRNA interspacer amplicons was coupled with chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT sequencing in a subset, tentatively identifying 96% of isolates although only 19% were sequenced. Most isolates belonged to Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium or Gardnerella, with a total of 37 species in 15 genera, as well as 5 potentially novel organisms, identified in this study. This sensitivity was likely enhanced by phenotype-based selection on two chromogenic media formulations. Identification of double-strong isolates may provide a rational basis for selection and further characterization of vaginal probiotics, with potential application as part of HIV prevention initiatives in western Canada and East Africa.

  1. HPLC monitoring of spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of selected amino acids in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godziek, Agnieszka; Maciejowska, Anna; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Kowalska, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    This is our new study in a series of publications devoted to exploration of applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to providing answers to difficult questions from the area of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms with non-linear reactions. Although an excellent analytical performance of HPLC is an indisputable fact, so far its performance as a tool in the kinetic and mechanistic studies has been tested to a lesser extent. In our earlier studies, spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids in solution was demonstrated by means of HPLC upon a few amino acid examples, and on that basis a theoretical model has been developed, anticipating an interdependence of dynamics on chemical structures of amino acids involved. In order to expand the spectrum of experimentally investigated amino acid cases, in this study we present the results valid for three novel amino acids of significant life sciences importance, which differ in terms of peptidization dynamics. Experimental evidence originates from the achiral HPLC with the evaporative light scattering detection and MS detection. A conclusion is drawn that different spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids may significantly influence chemical composition of proteins encountered in living organisms. Hence, a need emerges for systematic physicochemical studies on spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of proteinogenic amino acids in liquid abiotic (but also in the biotic) systems.

  2. Transport Selectivity of a Diethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate-Based Thymine-imprinted Polymeric Membrane over a Cellulose Support for Nucleic Acid Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xiang-Jin; CHEN Chang-Bao; ZHOU Jie; WU Chun-Hui

    2007-01-01

    The binding mechanism between 9-vinyladenine and pyrimidine base thymine in methanol was studied with UV-visible spectrophotometric method. Based on this study, using thymine as a template molecule, 9-vinyladenine as a novel functional monomer and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a new cross-linker, a specific diethylene glycol dimethacrylate-based molecularly imprinted polymeric membrane was prepared over a cellulose support.Then, the resultantly polymeric membrane morphologies were visualized with scanning electron microscopy and its permselectivity was examined using thymine, uracil, cytosine, adenine and guanine as substrates. This result showed that the imprinting polymeric membrane prepared with diethylene glycol dimethacrylate exhibited higher transport capacity for the template molecule thymine and its optimal analog uracil than other nucleic acid bases. The membrane also took on higher permselectivity than the imprinted membrane made with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. When a mixture including five nucleic acid bases thymine, uracil, cytosine, adenine and guanine passed through the diethylene glycol dimethacrylate-based thymine-imprinted polymeric membrane,recognition of the membrane for the template molecule thymine and its optimal analog uracil was demonstrated. It was predicted that the molecularly imprinted membrane prepared with diethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker might be applicable to thymine assay of absolute hydrolysates of DNA or uracil assay of absolute hydrolysates of RNA in biological samples because of its high selectivity for the template molecule thymine and its optimal analog uracil.

  3. Simultaneous and selective production of levan and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ing-Lung; Yu, Yun-Ti

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis(natto) Takahashi, used to prepare the fermented soybean product natto, was grown in a basal medium containing 5% (w/w) sucrose and 1.5% (w/w) L-glutamate and produced 58% (w/w) poly(gamma-glutamic acid) and 42% (w/w) levan simultaneously. After 21 h, 40-50 mg levan ml-1 had been produced in medium containing 20% (w/w) sucrose but without L-glutamate. In medium containing L-glutamic acid but without sucrose, mainly poly(gamma-glutamic acid) was produced. PMID:15703872

  4. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  5. In Vitro Gender-Dependent Inhibition of Porcine Cytochrome P450 Activity by Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ekstrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner.

  6. No difference in high-magnification morphology and hyaluronic acid binding in the selection of euploid spermatozoa with intact DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suchada Mongkolchaipak; Teraporn Vutyavanich

    2013-01-01

    In this study,we compared conventional sperm selection with high-magnification morphology based on the motile sperm organellar morphology examination (MSOME) criteria,and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding for sperm chromosome aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation rates.Semen from 50 severe male factor cases was processed through density gradient centrifugation,and subjected to sperm selection by using the conventional method (control),high magnification at x 6650 or HA binding.Aneuploidy was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for chromosomes 13,18,21,X and Y,and DNA fragmentation by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method.Spermatozoa selected under high-magnification had a lower DNA fragmentation rate (2.6% vs.1.7%; P=0.032),with no significant difference in aneuploidy rate (0.8% vs 0.7%; P=0.583),than those selected by the HA binding method.Spermatozoa selected by both methods had much lower aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation rate than the controls (7% aneuploidy and 26.8% DNA fragmentation rates,respectively).In the high-magnification group,the aneuploidy rate was lower when the best spermatozoa were selected than when only the second-best spermatozoa were available for selection,but the DNA fragmentation rate was not different.In conclusion,sperm selection under high magnification was more effective than under HA binding in selecting spermatozoa with low DNA fragmentation rate,but the small difference (0.9%) might not be clinically meaningful.Both methods were better than the conventional method of sperm selection.

  7. Positive selection results in frequent reversible amino acid replacements in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane F Botosso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age and the elderly, causing annual disease outbreaks during the fall and winter. Multiple lineages of the HRSVA and HRSVB serotypes co-circulate within a single outbreak and display a strongly temporal pattern of genetic variation, with a replacement of dominant genotypes occurring during consecutive years. In the present study we utilized phylogenetic methods to detect and map sites subject to adaptive evolution in the G protein of HRSVA and HRSVB. A total of 29 and 23 amino acid sites were found to be putatively positively selected in HRSVA and HRSVB, respectively. Several of these sites defined genotypes and lineages within genotypes in both groups, and correlated well with epitopes previously described in group A. Remarkably, 18 of these positively selected tended to revert in time to a previous codon state, producing a "flip-flop" phylogenetic pattern. Such frequent evolutionary reversals in HRSV are indicative of a combination of frequent positive selection, reflecting the changing immune status of the human population, and a limited repertoire of functionally viable amino acids at specific amino acid sites.

  8. 2-Benzazolyl-4-Piperazin-1-Ylsulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic Acids as Novel Selective Histone Deacetylase-6 Inhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available We have screened our compound collection in an established cell based assay that measures the derepression of an epigenetically silenced transgene, the locus derepression assay. The screen led to the identification of 4-[4-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl]sulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic acid (9b as an active which was found to inhibit HDAC1. In initial structure activity relationships study, the 1-methylbenzimidazole ring was replaced by the isosteric heterocycles benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole and the position of the hydroxamic acid substituent on the phenyl ring was varied. Whereas compounds bearing a para substituted hydroxamic acid (9a-d were active HDAC inhibitors, the meta substituted analogues (8a-d were appreciably inactive. Compounds 9a-d selectively inhibited HDAC6 (IC50 = 0.1-1.0 μM over HDAC1 (IC50 = 0.9-6 μM and moreover, also selectively inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells vs. patient matched normal cells. The compounds induce a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase while induction of apoptosis is neglible as compared to controls. Molecular modeling studies uncovered that the MM-GBSA energy for interaction of 9a-d with HDAC6 was higher than for HDAC1 providing structural rationale for the HDAC6 selectivity.

  9. 2-Benzazolyl-4-Piperazin-1-Ylsulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic Acids as Novel Selective Histone Deacetylase-6 Inhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kofler, Marina; Brosch, Gerald; Melesina, Jelena; Sippl, Wolfgang; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Easmon, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    We have screened our compound collection in an established cell based assay that measures the derepression of an epigenetically silenced transgene, the locus derepression assay. The screen led to the identification of 4-[4-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]sulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic acid (9b) as an active which was found to inhibit HDAC1. In initial structure activity relationships study, the 1-methylbenzimidazole ring was replaced by the isosteric heterocycles benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole and the position of the hydroxamic acid substituent on the phenyl ring was varied. Whereas compounds bearing a para substituted hydroxamic acid (9a-d) were active HDAC inhibitors, the meta substituted analogues (8a-d) were appreciably inactive. Compounds 9a-d selectively inhibited HDAC6 (IC50 = 0.1–1.0μM) over HDAC1 (IC50 = 0.9–6μM) and moreover, also selectively inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells vs. patient matched normal cells. The compounds induce a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase while induction of apoptosis is neglible as compared to controls. Molecular modeling studies uncovered that the MM-GBSA energy for interaction of 9a-d with HDAC6 was higher than for HDAC1 providing structural rationale for the HDAC6 selectivity. PMID:26698121

  10. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  11. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  12. Interactions between Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Selective Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Velkov

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular shuttles for fatty acids as well as lipophilic xenobiotics to the nucleus, where these ligands are released to a group of nuclear receptors called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR mediated gene activation is ultimately involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that target the activating ligand. Here we show that liver- (L-) FA...

  13. Investigations into selective metabolic aspects of bifidobacteria: carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and plasmid biology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a diverse ecosystem, and is colonised by a diverse array of bacteria, of which bifidobacteria are a significant component. Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive, saccharolytic, non-motile, non-sporulating, anaerobic, Y-shaped bacteria, which possess a high GC genome content. Certain bifidobacteria possess the ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid (LA) by a biochemical pathway that is hypothesised to be achieved via a linoleic isome...

  14. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  15. Anthranilic acid derivatives as nuclear receptor modulators--development of novel PPAR selective and dual PPAR/FXR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Daniel; Lamers, Christina; Weber, Julia; Flesch, Daniel; Gabler, Matthias; Proschak, Ewgenij; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear receptors, especially the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) fulfill crucial roles in metabolic balance. Their activation offers valuable therapeutic potential which has high clinical relevance with the fibrates and glitazones as PPAR agonistic drugs. With growing knowledge about the various functions of nuclear receptors in many disorders, new selective or dual ligands of these pharmaceutical targets are however still required. Here we report the class of anthranilic acid derivatives as novel selective PPAR or dual FXR/PPAR ligands. We identified distinct molecular determinants that govern selectivity for each PPAR subtype or FXR as well as the amplitude of activation of the respective receptors. We thereby discovered several lead compounds for further optimization and developed a highly potent dual PPARα/FXR partial agonist that might have a beneficial synergistic effect on lipid homeostasis by simultaneous activation of two nuclear receptors involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:25583100

  16. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

  17. Noninvasive tagging of proteins with an inorganic chromophore. Selectivity of chloro(terpyridine)platinum(II) toward amino acids, peptides, and cytochromes c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, H.M. II; Kostic, N.M.

    1988-05-18

    The complex (Pt(trpy)Cl)/sup +/ exhibits unexpected selectivity toward amino acid side chains in cytochromes c from Candida krusei and bakers' yeast. Although kinetic studies with amino acids and peptides as entering ligands prove this complex to be completely selective toward thiol over imidazole, His-33 and His-39 residues (in both proteins) are labeled with greater yields than the Cys-102 residue (in the bakers' yeast protein). The binding sites are determined by peptide mapping and other methods. The Pt(trpy)/sup 2+/ tags are stable, and the protein derivatives are separated by cation-exchange chromatography. The (Pt(trpy)His)/sup 2+/ and (Pt(trpy)Cys)/sup +/ chromophores are easily detected and quantitated owing to their characteristic and strong UV-vis bands. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements show that labeling with the new reagent does not alter the structural and redox properties of the cytochromes c. The unexpected outcome of the protein labeling indicates that, contrary to the common assumption, Cys-102 is not exposed at the protein surface. Modification of this residue with various organic reagents and dimerization of the protein must be accompanied by a perturbation of the conformation, which makes Cys-102 accessible to the reagent or to another molecule of the protein. These predictions from the labeling study are confirmed subsequently by the crystallographic study of the iso-1 cytochrome c from bakers' yeast. The inorganic complex (Pt(trpy)Cl)/sup +/ differs from the other reagents for protein modification by its noninvasiveness, a property that may well render it useful as a probe of the protein surface. 59 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Tailor-Made Boronic Acid Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles with a Tunable Polymer Shell-Assisted for the Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins/Glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihao; Wang, Jiewen; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-11-11

    Biomedical sciences, and in particular biomarker research, demand efficient glycoproteins enrichment platforms. In this work, we present a facile and time-saving method to synthesize phenylboronic acid and copolymer multifunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) using a distillation-precipitation polymerization (DPP) technique. The polymer shell is obtained through copolymerization of two monomers-affinity ligand 3-acrylaminophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) and a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting hydrophilic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs exhibit an enhanced binding capacity toward glycoproteins by an additional functional monomer complementary to the surface presentation of the target protein. The effects of monomer ratio of AAPBA to hydrophilic comonomers on the binding of glycoproteins are systematically investigated. The morphology, structure, and composition of all the synthesized microspheres are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The hydrophilic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) microspheres show an excellent performance in the separation of glycoproteins with high binding capacity; And strong magnetic response allows them to be easily separated from solution in the presence of an external magnetic field. Moreover, both synthetic Fe3O4@P(AAPBA) and copolymeric NPs show good adsorption to glycoproteins in physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs are successfully utilized to selectively capture and identify the low-abundance glycopeptides from the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, the selective isolation and enrichment of glycoproteins from the egg white samples at physiological condition is obtained by Fe3O4@P(AAPBA-co-monomer) NPs as adsorbents.

  19. Biofilm Formation and Detachment in Gram-Negative Pathogens Is Modulated by Select Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Laura M; Cheng, Andrew T; Warner, Christopher J A; Townsley, Loni; Peach, Kelly C; Navarro, Gabriel; Shikuma, Nicholas J; Bray, Walter M; Riener, Romina M; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Linington, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a ubiquitous feature of microbial community structure in both natural and host environments; they enhance transmission and infectivity of pathogens and provide protection from human defense mechanisms and antibiotics. However, few natural products are known that impact biofilm formation or persistence for either environmental or pathogenic bacteria. Using the combination of a novel natural products library from the fish microbiome and an image-based screen for biofilm inhibition, we describe the identification of taurine-conjugated bile acids as inhibitors of biofilm formation against both Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taurocholic acid (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the fish microbiome-derived strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis and identified using standard NMR and MS methods. Screening of the twelve predominant human steroidal bile acid components revealed that a subset of these compounds can inhibit biofilm formation, induce detachment of preformed biofilms under static conditions, and that these compounds display distinct structure-activity relationships against V. cholerae and P. aeruginosa. Our findings highlight the significance of distinct bile acid components in the regulation of biofilm formation and dispersion in two different clinically relevant bacterial pathogens, and suggest that the bile acids, which are endogenous mammalian metabolites used to solubilize dietary fats, may also play a role in maintaining host health against bacterial infection.

  20. Biofilm Formation and Detachment in Gram-Negative Pathogens Is Modulated by Select Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Laura M; Cheng, Andrew T; Warner, Christopher J A; Townsley, Loni; Peach, Kelly C; Navarro, Gabriel; Shikuma, Nicholas J; Bray, Walter M; Riener, Romina M; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Linington, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are a ubiquitous feature of microbial community structure in both natural and host environments; they enhance transmission and infectivity of pathogens and provide protection from human defense mechanisms and antibiotics. However, few natural products are known that impact biofilm formation or persistence for either environmental or pathogenic bacteria. Using the combination of a novel natural products library from the fish microbiome and an image-based screen for biofilm inhibition, we describe the identification of taurine-conjugated bile acids as inhibitors of biofilm formation against both Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taurocholic acid (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the fish microbiome-derived strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis and identified using standard NMR and MS methods. Screening of the twelve predominant human steroidal bile acid components revealed that a subset of these compounds can inhibit biofilm formation, induce detachment of preformed biofilms under static conditions, and that these compounds display distinct structure-activity relationships against V. cholerae and P. aeruginosa. Our findings highlight the significance of distinct bile acid components in the regulation of biofilm formation and dispersion in two different clinically relevant bacterial pathogens, and suggest that the bile acids, which are endogenous mammalian metabolites used to solubilize dietary fats, may also play a role in maintaining host health against bacterial infection. PMID:26992172

  1. Biofilm Formation and Detachment in Gram-Negative Pathogens Is Modulated by Select Bile Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Sanchez

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a ubiquitous feature of microbial community structure in both natural and host environments; they enhance transmission and infectivity of pathogens and provide protection from human defense mechanisms and antibiotics. However, few natural products are known that impact biofilm formation or persistence for either environmental or pathogenic bacteria. Using the combination of a novel natural products library from the fish microbiome and an image-based screen for biofilm inhibition, we describe the identification of taurine-conjugated bile acids as inhibitors of biofilm formation against both Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taurocholic acid (1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of the fish microbiome-derived strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis and identified using standard NMR and MS methods. Screening of the twelve predominant human steroidal bile acid components revealed that a subset of these compounds can inhibit biofilm formation, induce detachment of preformed biofilms under static conditions, and that these compounds display distinct structure-activity relationships against V. cholerae and P. aeruginosa. Our findings highlight the significance of distinct bile acid components in the regulation of biofilm formation and dispersion in two different clinically relevant bacterial pathogens, and suggest that the bile acids, which are endogenous mammalian metabolites used to solubilize dietary fats, may also play a role in maintaining host health against bacterial infection.

  2. Site and chirality selective chemical modifications of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) via Lewis acid-base interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Rajashabala; Scheiner, Steve; Roy, Ajit K; Kar, Tapas

    2015-02-01

    The pristine BNNTs contain both Lewis acid (boron) and Lewis base (nitrogen) centers at their surface. Interactions of ammonia and borane molecules, representatives of Lewis base and acid as adsorbates respectively, with matching sites at the surface of BNNTs, have been explored in the present DFT study. Adsorption energies suggest stronger chemisorption (about 15-20 kcal mol(-1)) of borane than ammonia (about 5-10 kcal mol(-1)) in both armchair (4,4) and zigzag (8,0) variants of the tube. NH3 favors (8,0) over the (4,4) tube, whereas BH3 exhibits the opposite preference, indicating some chirality dependence on acid-base interactions. A new feature of bonding is found in BH3/AlH3-BNNTs (at the edge site) complexes, where one hydrogen of the guest molecule is involved in three-center two-electron bonding, in addition to dative covalent bond (N: → B). This interaction causes a reversal of electron flow from borane/alane to BNNT, making the tube an electron acceptor, suggesting tailoring of electronic properties could be possible by varying strength of incoming Lewis acids. On the contrary, BNNTs always behave as electron acceptor in ammonia complexes. IR, XPS and NMR spectra show some characteristic features of complexes and can help experimentalists to identify not only structures of such complexes but also the location of the guest molecules and design second functionalizations. Interaction with several other neutral BF3, BCl3, BH2CH3 and ionic CH3(+) acids as well as amino group (CH3NH2 and NH2COOH) were also studied. The strongest interaction (>100 kcal mol(-1)) is found in BNNT-CH3(+) complexes and H-bonds are the only source of stability of NH2COOH-BNNT complexes. PMID:25559141

  3. A naphthalene-based two-photon fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive detection of endogenous hypochlorous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Yu-Ren; Zhao, Xiong-Jie; Guo, Dong

    2016-11-01

    An efficient naphthalene-based two-photon fluorescent probe for endogenous HClO has been reported in the present study, which consists of a 6-(2-benzothiazolyl)-2-naphthalenol fluorophore connected with a 4-aminophenol (the fluorescence quenching and response group). This probe exhibits a high selectivity and excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of 7.6nM over other reactive oxygen species and analyte species, and the fluorescence intensity enhanced 103-fold when responsed. Furthermore, it was successfully used for two-photon imaging of endogenous HClO in live cells with high-resolution. PMID:27591640

  4. Selection of Anodic Material Used in Electrolytic Process for Producing Hypophosphorous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Sheng WANG; Bing Kui SONG; Xiao Li HAN; Bao Gui ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Black lead, Ti-Ru and Ti-PbO2 were used as anode and stainless steel was used as cathode.The electrolytic process of producing hypophosphorous acid with four-compartment electrodialytic cell was studied. The comparison of some factors, such as anodic voltage, product concentration and current efficiency, of black lead, Ti-Ru, and Ti-PbO2 electrodes was conducted. As a result, the Ti-PbO2 electrode is the optimal anode material used, it can be in electrolytic process for producing hypophosphorous acid.

  5. Selective determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of ascorbic and uric acids using polymer film modified electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Palraj Kalimuthu; S Abraham John

    2011-05-01

    We report here the highly sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), one of the dopamine metabolites in the presence of important interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using an ultrathin electropolymerized film of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (p-ATT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode in 0.20M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). The bare GC electrode fails to resolve the oxidation peaks of AA, DOPAC and UA in a mixture. Further, the oxidation peak potentials of them were shifted to more positive potential with decreased peak currents in the subsequent cycles. On the other hand, the p-ATT modified electrode not only separated the voltammetric signals of AA, DOPAC and UA but also enhanced their peak currents. The amperometric current response was increased linearly with increasing DOPAC concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10−8 to 1.0 × 10−5 M and the detection limit was found to be 150pM ( =3).

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, docosapentaenoic (DPA, and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34 compared to L. niloticus (27, T. zillii (26, and R. argentea (21. The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F=6.19,  P=0.001. The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F=0.652,  P=0.583. The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA.

  7. Ligand-induced substrate steering and reshaping of [Ag2(H)](+) scaffold for selective CO2 extrusion from formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Athanasios; Khairallah, George N; Krstić, Marjan; Girod, Marion; Daly, Steven; Antoine, Rodolphe; Maitre, Philippe; Mulder, Roger J; Alexander, Stefanie-Ann; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Dugourd, Philippe; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2016-01-01

    Metalloenzymes preorganize the reaction environment to steer substrate(s) along the required reaction coordinate. Here, we show that phosphine ligands selectively facilitate protonation of binuclear silver hydride cations, [LAg2(H)](+) by optimizing the geometry of the active site. This is a key step in the selective, catalysed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications (for example, hydrogen storage). Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared and ultraviolet action spectroscopy and computational chemistry link structure to reactivity and mechanism. [Ag2(H)](+) and [Ph3PAg2(H)](+) react with formic acid yielding Lewis adducts, while [(Ph3P)2Ag2(H)](+) is unreactive. Using bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) reshapes the geometry of the binuclear Ag2(H)(+) scaffold, triggering reactivity towards formic acid, to produce [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) and H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) via CID regenerates [dppmAg2(H)](+). These gas-phase insights inspired variable temperature NMR studies that show CO2 and H2 production at 70 °C from solutions containing dppm, AgBF4, NaO2CH and HO2CH. PMID:27265868

  8. Radioiodinated 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine, a system L selective artificial amino acid: molecular design and transport characterization in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: High expression of the system L amino acid transporter has been observed in clinically important tissues including tumors and the blood-brain barrier. We examined amino acid transport system L selectivity of 14C(U)-L-tyrosine (14C-Tyr), 125I-4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-125I-mTyr), 125I-6-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (6-125I-mTyr), 125I-3-iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine (125I-IMT) and 125I-3-iodo-L-tyrosine (3-125I-Tyr) using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Methods: Cells in the exponential growth phase were incubated with 18.5 kBq of labeled amino acid in 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline-based uptake solution and an uptake solution with/without Na+ at 37oC or 4oC. We examined the effects of the following compounds (1.0 mM) on transport: 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (a specific inhibitor of system A, in Na+-containing uptake solution); 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a specific inhibitor of system L, in Na+-free uptake solution); sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol (NaN3 and DNP, inhibitors of the generation of adenosine triphosphate); p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium (PAH and TEA, inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters); and L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids. Results: 14C-Tyr exhibited affinity for systems L, A and ASC. 4-125I-mTyr and 3-125I-Tyr exhibited high specificity for system L, whereas 6-125I-mTyr and 125I-IMT exhibited affinity for both systems L and ASC. Uptake of 4-125I-mTyr was markedly reduced by incubation at 4 oC, and was not significantly inhibited by NaN3, DNP, PAH or TEA. The inhibition profiles of the L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids indicated that system L mediates the transport of 4-125I-mTyr. Conclusions: 4-125I-mTyr exhibited the greatest system L specificity (93.46±0.13%) of all of the tested amino acids.

  9. Novel 3-carboxy- and 3-phosphonopyrazoline amino acids as potent and selective NMDA receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia;

    2010-01-01

    The design and synthesis of new N1-substituted 3-carboxy- and 3-phosphonopyrazoline and pyrazole amino acids that target the glutamate binding site of NMDA receptors are described. An analysis of the stereochemical requirements for high-affinity interaction with these receptors was performed. We ...

  10. Resistance and Tolerance to Tropodithietic Acid, an Antimicrobial in Aquaculture, Is Hard To Select

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Webber, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) is produced by bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade and is thought to explain the fish probiotic properties of some roseobacters. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial spectrum of TDA and the likelihood...

  11. Renewable linear alpha olefins by selective ethenolysis of decarboxylated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der F.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Blaauw, R.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2012-01-01

    A two-step concept for the production of linear alpha olefins from biomass is reported. As a starting material an internally unsaturated C17 alkene was used, which was obtained by the decarboxylation of oleic acid. Here, we report on the ethenolysis of this bio-based product, using commercially avai

  12. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho

  13. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasan, M.; Gecgel, U.; Demirci, M.

    2011-07-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 {+-} 0.41, 0.51 {+-} 0.24, 1.27 {+-} 0.57, and 0.26 {+-} 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Competitive selection of lactic acid bacteria that persist in the human oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Marco, M.L.; Kingma, F.; Noordman, W.M.; Rademaker, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) might offer opportunities as oral probiotics provided candidate strains persist in the mouth. After intake of a mixture of 69 LAB, strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius were especially recovered. Coaggregation with other microbes is likely not a p

  15. ELECTROCHEMICALLY DEPOSITED POLYMER-COATED GOLD ELECTRODES SELECTIVE FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electropolymerized membranes on gold electrodes doped with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were prepared from a solution containing resorcinol, o-phenylenediamine and 2,4-D. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the incorporation and interact...

  16. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...... for exhibitions, because they make the assessments open to a larger audience such that their basis can be discussed....

  17. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB.

  18. Evaluation of calix-crown ionophores for selective separation of radio-cesium from acidic nuclear waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ansari, S.A. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sarkar, A. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkm@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2006-07-07

    Extraction of Cs-137 from nitric acid was carried out using nitrobenzene solutions of calix-crowns such as calix[4]arene-bis(crown-6) (CC-A), calix[4]arene-bis(benzo crown-6) (CC-B) and calix[4]arene-bis(napthocrown-6) (CC-C). CC-C was found to be superior extractant for Cs(I) as compared to the other two calix-crown ligands used in the present study. The effect of diluent on the extraction of Cs(I) indicated the trend: nitrobenzene > dichloroethane > chloroform > decanol >> carbon tetrachloride {approx} n-hexane {approx} toluene. Subsequently, the studies were carried out with nitrobenzene solutions of the calix-crown ligands (mainly CC-C) on the effects of (a) aqueous phase acidity (b) ligand concentration, and (c) cesium concentration on Cs extraction from nitric acid media. Conditions for quantitative extraction and stripping were optimized and the extracted species conformed to {l_brace}[CsL]{sup +}.[NO{sub 3}]{sup -}.nH{sub 2}O{r_brace}. Selectivity studies were carried out using an irradiated natural U target involving tracer amount of fission products activities. Extraction of Cs(I) from a synthetic high level waste solution was also carried out. The promising results obtained in the present studies indicate possible use of the calix-crown ligand for Cs(I) recovery from the acidic high level waste.

  19. A green two-step process for adipic acid production from cyclohexene. A study on parameters affecting selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavani, F.; Macchia, F.; Pino, R.; Raabova, K.; Rozhko, E. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Alini, S.; Accorinti, P.; Babini, G. [Radici Chimica SpA, Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report about the effect of reaction parameters on catalytic behavior in a twostep process aimed at the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene. In the first step, cyclohexene reacts with an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, under conditions leading to the formation of trans-1,2-cyclohexandiol as the prevailing product; the reaction is catalysed by tungstic acid, in the presence of phosphoric acid and of a PT agent. In the second step, 1,2-cyclohexandiol is oxidized with air, in the presence of an heterogeneous catalyst made of alumina-supported Ru(OH){sub 3}. This process is aimed at using the minimal amount of the costly hydrogen peroxide, since only one mole is theoretically needed per mole of cyclohexene. The first step afforded very high yield to the glycol, using only a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. However, the second step turned out to be the more critical one, since the selectivity to adipic acid was very low because of the concomitant occurrence of several undesired side reactions. The latter were in part due to the reaction conditions used, which were necessary for the activation of cyclohexandiol. (orig.)

  20. Effect of acid-catalyzed formation rates of benzimidazole-linked polymers on porosity and selective CO2 capture from gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Suha; İslamoğlu, Timur; Sekizkardes, Ali Kemal; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2015-04-01

    Benzimidazole-linked polymers (BILPs) are emerging candidates for gas storage and separation applications; however, their current synthetic methods offer limited control over textural properties which are vital for their multifaceted use. In this study, we investigate the impact of acid-catalyzed formation rates of the imidazole units on the porosity levels of BILPs and subsequent effects on CO2 and CH4 binding affinities and selective uptake of CO2 over CH4 and N2. Treatment of 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride hydrate with 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-formylphenyl)benzene and 1,3,5-(4-formylphenyl)-benzene in anhydrous DMF afforded porous BILP-15 (448 m(2) g(-1)) and BILP-16 (435 m(2) g(-1)), respectively. Alternatively, the same polymers were prepared from the neutral 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine and catalytic amounts of aqueous HCl. The resulting polymers denoted BILP-15(AC) and BILP-16(AC) exhibited optimal surface areas; 862 m(2) g(-1) and 643 m(2) g(-1), respectively, only when 2 equiv of HCl (0.22 M) was used. In contrast, the CO2 binding affinity (Qst) dropped from 33.0 to 28.9 kJ mol(-1) for BILP-15 and from 32.0 to 31.6 kJ mol(-1) for BILP-16. According to initial slope calculations at 273 K/298 K, a notable change in CO2/N2 selectivity was observed for BILP-15(AC) (61/50) compared to BILP-15 (83/63). Similarly, ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculations also show the higher specific surface area of BILP-15(AC) and BILP-16(AC) compromises their CO2/N2 selectivity.

  1. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Feng

    Full Text Available Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5 and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231 and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1 were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  2. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  3. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shikha [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Sunil K., E-mail: ghsunil@barc.gov.in [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Joti N., E-mail: jnsharma@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A new class of quart-ammonium based ligands have been designed and synthesized. • Ligand showed high extractability and selectivity for Ru in nitric acid medium. • Results are better compared to other extractants reported so far. • The iodide ion played key role in extraction process. • The composition of the extracted complex was found to be L[Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}I]. - Abstract: A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2 M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L{sup +}I{sup −} and Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective measurement of underivatized methylmalonic acid in serum and plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Gabler, Jessica; El-Khoury, Joe M; Spatholt, Regina; Wang, Sihe

    2012-07-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a functional biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. Measurement of plasma MMA is challenging due to its small molecular weight and hydrophilic nature. Several liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been developed for measuring plasma MMA. However, these methods involve lengthy sample preparation, long chromatographic run time, inadequate sensitivity, or interference from succinic acid (SA). Here we report a novel LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of underivatized MMA in serum or heparinized plasma with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sample preparation involved only strong anion exchange solid phase extraction. The extract was purified by online turbulent flow and analyzed on an Organic Acids column. MS/MS analysis was performed in negative electrospray mode, and the analytical time was 6 min. The use of ion ratio confirmation in combination with chromatographic resolution from SA greatly enhanced the selectivity. No interference was observed. This method was linear from 26.2 to 26,010.0 nM with an accuracy of 98-111 %. Total coefficient of variation was less than 4.6 % for three concentration levels tested. Comparison with a reference laboratory LC-MS/MS method using leftover patient serum specimens (n = 48) showed a mean bias of -2.3 nM (-0.61 %) with a Deming regression slope of 1.016, intercept of -6.6 nM, standard error of estimate of 25.3 nM, and a correlation coefficient of 0.9945. In conclusion, this LC-MS/MS method offers highly sensitive and selective quantitation of MMA in serum and plasma with simple sample preparation. PMID:22618327

  5. Supramolecular chiral host-guest nanoarchitecture induced by the selective assembly of barbituric acid derivative enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien; Maurel, Francois; Dong, Changzhi

    2016-10-01

    Barbituric acid derivatives are prochiral molecules, i.e. they are chiral upon adsorption on surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that barbituric acid derivatives self-assemble into a chiral guest-host supramolecular architecture at the solid-liquid interface on graphite. The host nanoarchitecture has a sophisticated wavy shape pattern and paired guest molecules are nested insides the cavities of the host structure. Each unit cell of the host structure is composed of both enantiomers with a ratio of 1:1. Furthermore, the wavy patterns of the nanoarchitecture are formed from alternative appearance of left- and right-handed chiral building blocks, which makes the network heterochiral. The functional guest-host nanoarchitecture is the result of two-dimensional chiral amplification from single enantiomers to organizational heterochiral supramolecular self-assembly.

  6. Acidity constants and its dependence on solvent selection from first-principles calculations using cluster-continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hieu H.; Taylor, Christopher D.; Henson, Neil J.

    2014-08-01

    Dissociation constants of selected carboxylic acids in aqueous and organic solvents were calculated at quantum chemical level. We considered cases in which trace quantities of water may be present, as well as cases in which water was entirely absent. In the latter cases, alternative proton acceptors need to be considered. For aqueous solvent, short-range solvation effects are considered by adding explicit water molecules as the first solvent shell. In the absence of water, corresponding organic solvents are used directly as the proton acceptors and the resulted pKa are quite comparable to those obtained from previous case of aqueous solvent.

  7. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Khalid Al-Ismail; Ruba A. Taleb; Salam Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC) values of 5% (dry matter) aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine) and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem) were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97), intermed...

  8. 6-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl Acid:a Highly Selective and Sensitive Fluorescent Sensor of Copper(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xu-zhi; CHEN Peng; CHEN He-ru

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe,6-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2-naphthoylacryl acid(ACADAN) was designed and synthesized as a fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ in aqueous media.Significant amplification of fluorescence signals without causing any discernible change of maximum fluorescence emission wavelength(λmax) was observed upon the addition of Cu2+.Importantly,ACADAN is capable of recognizing Cu2+ selectively in aqueous media in the presence of various biologically relevant metal ions and the prevalent toxic metal ions in the environment with high sensitivity(detection limit was 0.1 μmol/L).

  9. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  10. Interesterification reaction activity, fatty acid composition and selectivity ratio of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The interesterification reaction was carried out by adding oleic acid to soybean oil by ratio 1:2 w/w under different conditions of temperature, stirring and catalyst percentages. Assessment of the interesterification of oils was reported by determination of saponification value, iodine value and fatty acids composition. This study showed that linolenic acid which is responsible for flavour instability of soybean oil and consider as primary factor contributing to deterioration of this oil could be reduced to less than or equals 3%.

    Se han llevado a cabo reacciones de interesterificación mediante la adición de ácido oleico a aceite de soja en la relación 1:2 w/w bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura, agitación y porcentaje de catalizador. La evaluación de la interesterificación de los aceites se realizó por determinación del índice de saponificación, el índice de iodo y la composición en ácidos grasos. Este estudio mostró que el ácido linolénico, que es responsable de la inestabilidad del flavor del aceite de soja y considerado como factor primario que contribuye a la deterioración de este aceite, podría ser reducido a cantidades menores o iguales al 3%.

  11. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    .2-5.0 MJ/d diet. Maximum weight loss was obtained after 6 months (dF 12.8 +/- 5.4 kg; PL 13.8 +/- 9.2 kg, x +/- s.d., ns). Plasma Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA were found to be lower than in normal weight controls and were further reduced during treatment (p ... groups. Macronutrient selection was not affected by the dF treatment. In the placebo group weight loss was associated with a high pre-treatment energy intake and a high carbohydrate-protein ratio (p protein intake (%) and age was found to explain 82......% of the variation in weight loss (p food selection nor basal plasma amino acid profiles were predictors of weight loss during long-term treatment...

  12. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  13. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  16. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China International Trade Fair for Home Textiles and Accessories Date: August 28th - 30th, 2012 Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Center Organizers: China National Textile & Appare Council The Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT China Home Textile Association Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd. Exhibits: All kinds of hometextiles and accessories CAD/CAM system, relevant publications &websites. Space: 138,000 sqm. Tel: 0086-10-85229506, 85229504, 85229496, 85229446, 85229546, 85229505

  17. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The 15th China International Trade Fair for Apparel Fabrics and Accessories Date:October 20th–23rd,2009 Venue:Shanghai New International Expo Centre Sponsor:China National Textile & Apparel Council Organizers:The Sub-Council of Textile Industry,CCPIT

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  1. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    OpenAIRE

    Tasan, M.; U. Gecgel; Demirci, M

    2011-01-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands o...

  2. Trends of selected malformations in relation to folic acid recommendations and fortification: an international assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Botto, Lorenzo D

    2006-10-01

    Two crucial issues relative to the benefits and impact of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects are whether supplementation recommendations alone, without fortification, are effective in reducing the population-wide rates of neural tube defects (NTDs), and whether such policies can reduce the occurrence of other birth defects. Using data from 15 registries, we assessed rates and trends of 14 major defects, including NTDs, in areas with official recommendations or fortification to assess the effectiveness of recommendations and fortification on a wide range of major birth defects.

  3. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    OpenAIRE

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaoui, M.; Asehraou, A.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade ole...

  4. Selective Inhibition of Herpesvirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Acycloguanosine, 2′-Fluoro-5-Iodo-Aracytosine, and (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2′-Deoxyuridine

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, A; Öberg, B.

    1981-01-01

    The selectivity of inhibition of herpesvirus deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis by acycloguanosine, 2′-fluoro-5-iodo-aracytosine, and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2′-deoxyuridine was determined by isopycnic banding of 32P-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid from herpesvirus-infected and uninfected cells.

  5. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN(3) -Pincer Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yupeng; Pan, Cheng-Ling; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Huaifeng; Min, Shixiong; Guo, Xunmun; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hailong; Anders, Addison; Lai, Zhiping; Zheng, Junrong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-05-01

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN(3) -pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved.

  6. Highly selective hydrocarboxylation of styrene with oxalic acid or water using palladium ortho-amino arenethiolates with intramolecular co-ordinating nitrogen Lewis bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Kruis, D.; Ruiz, N.; Janssen, M.D.; Boersma, J.; Claver, C.

    1998-01-01

    Under mild conditions and in the presence of a catalytic amount of an S, N-chelated palladium ortho-amino arenethiolate complex, styrene reacts with carbon monoxide and oxalic acid or water to selectively give 2-phenylpropanoic acid in high yield.

  7. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-(5-amino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid)) (PEDOT-PANS) film modified glassy carbon electrode for selective detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-(5-amino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid)) (PEDOT-PANS) film modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by electrochemical polymerization technique. The properties of modified electrode was studied. It was found that the electrochemical properties of modified electrode was very much dependent on the experimental conditions, such as monomer oxidation potential and pH. The modified electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PEDOT-PANS film modified electrode shows electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of dopamine (DA) in acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0) and results in a marked enhancement of the current response. The linear sweep voltammetric (LSV) peak heights are linear with DA concentration from 2 x 10-6 to 1 x 10-5 M. The detection limit is 5 x 10-7 M. More over, the interferences of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) were effectively diminished. This work provides a simple and easy approach for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid

  8. Failure of combination therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bone infection: a case of in vivo selection with resistance to rifampicin and fusidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Guillaume G; Bémer, Pascale; Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Launay, Elise; Geffroy, Loïc; Touchais, Sophie; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiologies of bone and device-related infections. Treatment of these orthopedic infections combines mostly rifampicin with other antibiotics. The recurrence or failure rate after fusidic acid/rifampicin treatment remains low (Staphylococcus aureus bone infection with in vivo selection of rifampicin and fusidic acid resistance. We also report a new mutation in fusA gene involved in fusidic acid resistance. PMID:27194514

  9. Nanocarbons as catalyst for selective oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, B.; Blume, R.; Rinaldi, A.; Trunschke, A.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Selective oxidations are key steps of industrial oil and gas processing for the synthesis of high-value chemicals. Mixed metal oxides based on redox active V or Mo are frequently used for oxidative C-H bond activation. However, multiple processes require precious metals or suffer from low product selectivity demanding an ongoing search for cost-effective alternatives. Recently, the nanostructured carbon was reported to catalyze the metal-free selective alkane activation by oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH). Electron-rich surface carbonyls coordinate this reaction and mimic the active oxygen species in metal oxide catalysts. Here we show that the graphitic carbon, beyond ODH, has the potential to selectively mediate the insertion of an oxygen atom into an organic molecule, i.e., acrolein. Multi-step atom rearrangements considerably exceed the mechanistic complexity of hydrogen abstraction and were so far believed to be the exclusive domain of metal (oxide) catalysis. In the carbon catalyzed process, the nucleophilic oxygen atoms terminating the graphite (0001) surface abstract the formyl hydrogen and the activated aldehyde gets oxidized by epoxide-type mobile oxygen, thus the sp{sup 2} carbon acts as a bifunctional catalyst. Substantial similarities between the metal oxide- and carbon-catalyzed reactions could be identified. Our results shed light on a rarely known facet of applications of nanostructured carbon materials being decorated with diverse oxygen functionalities to coordinate complex catalytic processes. We could successfully transfer the results obtained from the graphite model to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) providing a higher surface area, defect density, and intrinsic activity, to substantially increase the reactivity per catalyst volume. Indeed, low dimensional nanostructured carbon is a highly flexible and robust material which can be modified in a multiple manner to optimize its properties with respect to the intended application. The exploration of

  10. EFFECT OF AERO-/ANAEROBIOSIS ON DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Kráčmar; Vladimír Dráb; Tereza Podešvová; Eva Pollaková; Leona Buňková; František Buňka

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines are undesirable compounds produced in foods mainly through bacterial decarboxylase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate some environmental conditions (particularly aero/anaerobiosis, sodium chloride concentration (0–2% w/w), and amount of lactose (0–1% w/w)) on the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase enzymes of selected six technological important Lactococcus lactis strains. The levels of parameters tested were chosen according to real situation in fer...

  11. In vitro assessment of the ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to counteract foodborn pathogenic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Virna de Santiago, 1984-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are among the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide due to the considerable human rates of illness reported. The role of two selected Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two probiotic strains, L. casei Shirota and L. rhamnosus GG, in the attenuation of ...

  12. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    OpenAIRE

    M. Saiful Alam; Ren, G.; Lu, L.; Y. Zheng; Peng, X.; Jia, Z

    2013-01-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB i...

  13. Microwave selective heating for size effect of water droplet in W/O emulsion with sorbitan fatty acid monostearate surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable water/oil (W/O) emulsion was prepared by adjustment with sorbitan fatty acid monoester surfactants. The prepared W/O emulsion was stable for 60 min in the atmosphere; however, the formation of non-uniform water droplets in the height of the emulsion in the quartz tube reactor were observed by the backscattering measurements with an infrared laser at 850 nm. The increase of temperature under microwave irradiation was influenced sensitively by the position of those water droplets. Those results were caused from the size and concentration of water droplets in the W/O emulsion. On the other hand, selective heating of the water droplets caused heating of the entire W/O emulsion, although the temperature difference between the water droplets and the oil phase was 20 °C. - Graphical abstract: The feature of a selective heating phenomenon in a W/O emulsion under microwave irradiation was investigated both practically and theoretically. Temperature profiles of emulsions stabilized with different sorbitan fatty acid monoester surfactants indicated that a smaller size distribution of water droplets leads to a higher heating rate. Moreover, computational studies suggested that water droplets in oil are 20 °C higher than the organic phase. - Highlights: • The microscopic heating features of microwaves in a W/O emulsion were examined. • The microwave heating behaviors reflected the properties of water droplets. • The heat convection process in a W/O emulsion was studied by a theoretical approach

  14. Urea derivates of ursolic, oleanolic and maslinic acid induce apoptosis and are selective cytotoxic for several human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerwerk, Sven; Heller, Lucie; Kuhfs, Julia; Csuk, René

    2016-08-25

    2,3-Di-O-acetyl-maslinic acid benzylamide (5) has previously been shown to possess high cytotoxicity for a variety of human tumor cell lines while being of low cytotoxicity to non-malignant cells. Structural modifications performed on 5 revealed that the presence of these acetyl groups in 5 and the presence of (2β,3β)-configurated centers seems necessary for obtaining high cytotoxicity combined with best selectivity between malignant cells and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts. Compounds carrying an ursane skeleton showed weaker cytotoxicity than their oleanane derived analogs. In addition, the benzylamide function in compound 5 should be replaced by a phenylurea moiety to gain better cytotoxicity while retaining and improving the selectivity. Thus, maslinic acid derived N-[2β,3β-di-O-acetyl-17β-amino-28-norolean-12-en-17-yl]phenylurea (45) gave best results showing EC50 = 0.9 μM (for A2780 ovarian cancer cells) with EC50 > 120 μM for fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and triggered apoptosis while caspase-3 was not activated by this compound.

  15. Isolation and Selection of Anti-Candida albicans Metabolites Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Various Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanes SUNGSRI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and fifty-two of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been isolated and screened from fermented foods, natural sources and dairy effluents on De Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. Fifty-one isolates, in the percentile of 9.24, produced the secondary metabolites that could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans BCC6120 by using dual culture overlay assay. The culture broth of LAB, moreover, showed anti-C. albicans activity in acidic condition at pH range of 3.0-5.0 by using agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the isolate L-47-2 showed much more colonization surrounding the surface of sterile toothpick and test tube when growing in MRS broth. The identification of isolate L-47-2 by morphological and biochemical characteristics using API 50 CHL Test Kit and further confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that isolate L47-2 was similar to Lactobacillus paracasei with 99% nucleotide identity.    

  16. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E John, Richard D Price

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (she would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, filler injection, nonsurgical procedures, technique

  17. Specific polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate lipid delivery and oocyte development in C. elegans revealed by molecular-selective label-free imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Hsiung, Kuei-Ching; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lo, Szecheng J.; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2016-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit critical functions in biological systems and their importance during animal oocyte maturation has been increasingly recognized. However, the detailed mechanism of lipid transportation for oocyte development remains largely unknown. In this study, the transportation of yolk lipoprotein (lipid carrier) and the rate of lipid delivery into oocytes in live C. elegans were examined for the first time by using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The accumulation of secreted yolk lipoprotein in the pseudocoelom of live C. elegans can be detected by CARS microscopy at both protein (~1665 cm‑1) and lipid (~2845 cm‑1) Raman bands. In addition, an image analysis protocol was established to quantitatively measure the levels of secreted yolk lipoprotein aberrantly accumulated in PUFA-deficient fat mutants (fat-1, fat-2, fat-3, fat-4) and PUFA-supplemented fat-2 worms (the PUFA add-back experiments). Our results revealed that the omega-6 PUFAs, not omega-3 PUFAs, play a critical role in modulating lipid/yolk level in the oocytes and regulating reproductive efficiency of C. elegans. This work demonstrates the value of using CARS microscopy as a molecular-selective label-free imaging technique for the study of PUFA regulation and oocyte development in C. elegans.

  18. Specific polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate lipid delivery and oocyte development in C. elegans revealed by molecular-selective label-free imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Hsiung, Kuei-Ching; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lo, Szecheng J.; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2016-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit critical functions in biological systems and their importance during animal oocyte maturation has been increasingly recognized. However, the detailed mechanism of lipid transportation for oocyte development remains largely unknown. In this study, the transportation of yolk lipoprotein (lipid carrier) and the rate of lipid delivery into oocytes in live C. elegans were examined for the first time by using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The accumulation of secreted yolk lipoprotein in the pseudocoelom of live C. elegans can be detected by CARS microscopy at both protein (~1665 cm-1) and lipid (~2845 cm-1) Raman bands. In addition, an image analysis protocol was established to quantitatively measure the levels of secreted yolk lipoprotein aberrantly accumulated in PUFA-deficient fat mutants (fat-1, fat-2, fat-3, fat-4) and PUFA-supplemented fat-2 worms (the PUFA add-back experiments). Our results revealed that the omega-6 PUFAs, not omega-3 PUFAs, play a critical role in modulating lipid/yolk level in the oocytes and regulating reproductive efficiency of C. elegans. This work demonstrates the value of using CARS microscopy as a molecular-selective label-free imaging technique for the study of PUFA regulation and oocyte development in C. elegans.

  19. In vitro colonic metabolism of coffee and chlorogenic acid results in selective changes in human faecal microbiota growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charlotte E; Tzounis, Xenofon; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Mottram, Don S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-04-28

    Coffee is a relatively rich source of chlorogenic acids (CGA), which, as other polyphenols, have been postulated to exert preventive effects against CVD and type 2 diabetes. As a considerable proportion of ingested CGA reaches the large intestine, CGA may be capable of exerting beneficial effects in the large gut. Here, we utilise a stirred, anaerobic, pH-controlled, batch culture fermentation model of the distal region of the colon in order to investigate the impact of coffee and CGA on the growth of the human faecal microbiota. Incubation of coffee samples with the human faecal microbiota led to the rapid metabolism of CGA (4 h) and the production of dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid, while caffeine remained unmetabolised. The coffee with the highest levels of CGA (Pcoffees) induced a significant increase in the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. relative to the control vessel at 10 h after exposure (Pcoffee) induced a significant increase in the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. (P<0·05). CGA alone also induced a significant increase in the growth of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group (P<0·05). This selective metabolism and subsequent amplification of specific bacterial populations could be beneficial to host health.

  20. The use of ion-selective membranes for the recovery of sulphuric acid out of contaminated solutions. Comparing electrodialysis, electro electrodialysis and diffusion dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattoir, S.

    1998-02-01

    The amount of waste arising from dismantled reactors is minimized by decontamination processes. These processes result in contaminated effluents, containing acid and metal salts. The quantity of final waste can be substantially reduced when the acid is extracted out of the decontamination effluents prior to neutralisation. This report discusses three membrane techniques for the displacement of acids out of mixed acid/salt solutions: electrodialysis (ED), electro electrodialysis (EED) and diffusion dialysis (DD). EED uses an electrical potential difference across an anion-selective membrane; DD uses a concentration difference across an anion-selective membrane; ED uses an electrical potential difference, across an anion- and a cation-selective membrane. EED can displace up to 90% of the sulphuric acid, the amount of metal ions in the displaced-acid solution is less than 1% of the ions in the original contaminated solution. Treatment costs are estimated to about 18 Belgian Francs per litre. In DD the purity of the displaced acid is comparable to EED. Treatment costs are about 21 Belgian Francs per litre. In ED 90% acid-displacement is easily reached, but 5% metal ions are also displaced. Treatment costs are about 6 Belgian Francs per litre. Therefore, in spite of the lower purity of the resulting acid, ED is economically speaking the best choice.

  1. Hyaluronic acid-coated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with brucine as selective nanovectors for intra-articular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhipeng Chen,* Juan Chen,* Li Wu, Weidong Li, Jun Chen, Haibo Cheng, Jinhuo Pan, Baochang CaiDepartment of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate the potential of hyaluronic acid (HA-coated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSANPs as a novel chondrocyte-targeting drug-delivery nanomedicine.Methods: The HA-BSANPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Fluorescence imaging was used to visualize the distribution of nanoparticles after intra-articular injection. The chondrocyte-targeting efficiency and cellular uptake mechanism of HA-BSANPs were investigated using endocytic inhibitors.Results: HA-BSANPs were successfully prepared with HA coating the surface and amorphous drug in the core. Compared with BSANPs, HA-BSANPs exhibited improved uptake by chondrocytes through a receptor-mediated active uptake mechanism. The endocytosis process of BSANPs and HA-BSANPs involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis. No apparent thickening or hyperplasia of the synovium was observed in either BSANPs or HA-BSANPs. The HA-BSANPs could reside in the articular cavity of rats for more than 14 days, which was significantly longer than BSANPs.Conclusion: HA-BSANPs are a promising carrier for articular-related diseases due to elongated articular residence and improved chondrocytic accumulation.Keywords: chondrocyte, intra-articular injection, hyaluronic acid, BSA, nanoparticles

  2. Leaching and selective copper recovery from acidic leachates of Três Marias zinc plant (MG, Brazil) metallurgical purification residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-07-15

    Zinc plant purification residue (ZPR), a typical Zn-hydrometallurgical waste, was collected from the Três Marias Zn plant (MG, Brazil). ZPR was characterized for its metal content and fractionation, mineralogy, toxicity and leachability. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results revealed that this ZPR displays high percentages of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the highly mobilizable fractions, increasing its hazardous potential. Bulk chemical analysis, pH dependent leaching and acid (H2SO4) leaching studies confirm that the ZPR is polymetallic, rich in Cd, Cu and Zn. The sulfuric acid concentration (1 M), agitation speed (450 rpm), temperature (40 °C) and pulp density (20 g L(-1)) were optimized to leach the maximum amount of heavy metals (Cd, Cu and Zn). Under optimum conditions, more than 50%, 70% and 60% of the total Cd, Cu and Zn present in the ZPR can be leached, respectively. The metals in the acid leachates were investigated for metal sulfide precipitation with an emphasis on selective Cu recovery. Metal sulfide precipitation process parameters such as initial pH and Cu to sulfide ratio were optimized as pH 1.5 and 1:0.5 (Cu:sulfide) mass ratio, respectively. Under optimum conditions, more than 95% of Cu can be selectively recovered from the polymetallic ZPR leachates. The Cu precipitates characterization studies reveal that they are approximately 0.1 μm in diameter and mainly consist of Cu and S. XRD analysis showed covellite (CuS), chalcanthite (CuSO4·5H2O) and natrochalcite (NaCu2(SO4)2(OH)·H2O) as the mineral phases. ZPRs can thus be considered as an alternative resource for copper production. PMID:27074201

  3. Regional selectivity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release sensitive to inhibitors of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G.; Raiteri, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)ACh) were studied in synaptosomes prepared from rat hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and striatum and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)choline. When synaptosomes were exposed in superfusion to exogenous GABA (0.01-0.3 mM) the basal release of newly synthesized (/sup 3/H)ACh was increased in a concentration-dependent way in hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus nerve endings. In contrast, the release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was not significantly affected by GABA in striatal synaptosomes. The effect of GABA was not antagonized significantly by bicuculline or picrotoxin. Muscimol caused only a slight not significant increase of (/sup 3/H)ACh release when tested at 0.3 mM whereas, at this concentration, (-)-baclofen was totally inactive. The GABA-induced release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was counteracted by SKF 89976A, SKF 100561, and SKF 100330A, three strong and selective GABA uptake inhibitors. The data suggest that, in selective areas of the rat brain, GABA causes release of (/sup 3/H)ACh following penetration into cholinergic nerve terminals through a GABA transport system.

  4. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  5. How selected tissues of lactating holstein cows respond to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Beate; Angulo, Joaquin; Olivera, Martha; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a 10-week supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids [via sunflower oil/DHA-rich algae (SUNA) or linseed oil/DHA-rich algae (LINA) enriched diets] versus saturated fatty acids (SAT) of lactating German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation on expression patterns of lipid metabolism-associated genes and gene products in hepatic, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous/perirenal/omental adipose tissue was assessed. Most pronounced transcriptomic responses to dietary PUFA were obtained in hepatic [down-regulated ACACA (FC = 0.83, SUNA; FC = 0.86, LINA), FADS1 (FC = 0.60, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), FADS2 (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.79, LINA), FASN (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), SCD (FC = 0.37, SUNA; FC = 0.47, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 0.79, SUNA, LINA) expression] and omental adipose [up-regulated ACACA (FC = 1.58, SUNA; FC = 1.22, LINA), ADFP (FC = 1.33, SUNA; FC = 1.32, LINA), CEBPA (FC = 1.75, SUNA; FC = 1.40, LINA), FASN (FC = 1.57, SUNA; FC = 1.21, LINA), LPL (FC = 1.50, SUNA; FC = 1.20, LINA), PPARG (FC = 1.36, SUNA; FC = 1.12, LINA), SCD (FC = 1.41, SUNA; FC = 1.17, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 1.56, SUNA; FC = 1.18, LINA) expression] tissue. Interestingly, gene/gene product associations were comparatively low in hepatic and omental adipose tissue compared with longissimus muscle, perirenal adipose and subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating matches only in regard to minor concentrations of SCD product 18:1c9, FADS1 product 20:4n-6 and FADS2 product 18:3n-6 in hepatic tissue, and higher concentrations of ACACA and FASN gene products 12:0 and 14:0 and SCD product 18:2c9,t11 in omental adipose tissue. Whereas all analyzed tissues accumulated dietary PUFA and their ruminally generated biohydrogenation products, tissue-divergent preferences for certain fatty acids were identified. This descriptive study reports tissue-divergent effects of dietary PUFA and outlines the significance of a PUFA intervention

  6. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  7. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  8. The Effect of K and Acidity of NiW-Loaded HY Zeolite Catalyst for Selective Ring Opening of 1-Methylnaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Eun-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Rang; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Lee, Chang-Ha; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Bi-functional catalysts were prepared using HY zeolites with various SiO2/Al2O3 ratios for acidic function, NiW for metallic function, and K for acidity control. 1-Methylnaphthalene was selected as a model compound for multi-ring aromatics in heavy oil, and its selective ring opening reaction was investigated using the prepared bi-functional catalysts with different levels of acidity in a fixed bed reactor system. In NiW/HY catalysts without K addition, the acidity decreased with the SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of the HY zeolite. Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst showed the highest acidity but slightly lower yields for the selective ring opening than Ni1.1W1.1/HY(30) catalyst. The acidity of the catalyst seemed to play an important role as the active site for the selective ring opening of 1-methylnaphthalene but there should be some optimum catalyst acidity for the reaction. Catalyst acidity could be controlled between Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) and Ni1.1W1.1/HY(30) by adding a moderate amount of K to Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst. K0.3Ni1.1W1.1/HY(12) catalyst should have the optimum acidity for the selective ring opening. The addition of a moderate amount of K to the NiW/HY catalyst must improve the catalytic performance due to the optimization of catalyst acidity.

  9. Ionomycin, a carboxylic acid ionophore, transports Pb(2+) with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdahl, W L; Chapman, C J; Taylor, R W; Pfeiffer, D R

    2000-03-10

    Studies utilizing phospholipid vesicle loaded with chelator/indicators for polyvalent cations show that ionomycin transports divalent cations with the selectivity sequence Pb(2+) > Cd(2+) > Zn(2+) > Mn(2+) > Ca(2+) > Cu(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+) > Sr(2+). The selectivity of this ionophore for Pb(2+) is in contrast to that observed for A23178 and 4-BrA23187, which transport Pb(2+) at efficiencies that are intermediate between those of other cations. When the selectivity difference of ionomycin for Pb(2+) versus Ca(2+) was calculated from relative rates of transport, with either cation present individually and all other conditions held constant, a value of approximately 450 was obtained. This rose to approximately 3200 when both cations were present and transported simultaneously. 1 microM Pb(2+) inhibited the transport of 1 mM Ca(2+) by approximately 50%, whereas the rate of Pb(2+) transport approached a maximum at a concentration of 10 microM Pb(2+) when 1 mM Ca(2+) was also present. Plots of log rate versus log ionomycin or log Pb(2+) concentration indicated that the transporting species is of 1:1 stoichiometry, ionophore to Pb(2+), but that complexes containing an additional Pb(2+) may occur. The species transporting Pb(2+) may include H.IPb.OH, wherein ionomycin is ionized once and the presence of OH(-) maintains charge neutrality. Ionomycin retained a high efficiency for Pb(2+) transport in A20 B lymphoma cells loaded with Indo-1. Both Pb(2+) entry and efflux were observed. Ionomycin should be considered primarily as an ionophore for Pb(2+), rather than Ca(2+), of possible value for the investigation and treatment of Pb(2+) intoxication. PMID:10702273

  10. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  11. Selective extraction of trivalent actinides from lanthanides with dithiophosphinic acids and tributylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.; Barrans, R.; Schroeder, N.; Wade, K.; Jones, M.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mills, J.; Howard, G. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Freiser, H.; Muralidharan, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A variety of chemical systems have been developed to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides based on the slightly stronger complexation of the trivalent actinides with ligands that contain soft donor atoms. The greater stability of the actinide complexes in these systems has often been attributed to a slightly greater covalent bonding component for the actinide ions relative to the lanthanide ions. The authors have investigated several synergistic extraction systems that use ligands with a combination of oxygen and sulfur donor atoms that achieve a good group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. For example, the combination of dicyclohexyldithiophosphinic acid and tributylphosphate has shown separation factors of up to 800 for americium over europium in a single extraction stage. Such systems could find application in advanced partitioning schemes for nuclear waste.

  12. The influence of mechanical activation of chalcopyrite on the selective leaching of copper by sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achimovičová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chalcopyrite, CuFeS2, has been selective leached by H2SO4 as leaching agent (170 g/dm3 in procedure of hydrometallurgical production of copper. Mechanical activation of the chalcopyrite resulted in mechanochemical surface oxidation as well as in the mineral surface and bulk disordering. Furthermore, the formation of agglomerates during grinding was also occured. Surface changes of the samples using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were investigated before and after leaching. The leaching rate, specific surface area, structural disorder as well as copper extraction increased with the mechanical activation of mineral.

  13. 构建大连会展旅游品牌战略的路径选择——以上海世博旅游为例%Route selection of constructing Dalian exhibition tourism brand strategy——take Shanghai world exhibition tourism as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞; 高维全

    2011-01-01

    MICE tourism is a new derived product whi-ch MICE tourism products combine the characteristics of activities.MICE tourism is also China's tourism market structure adjustment and optimization results.This exhibition from the analysis of the relationship between industry and tourism,summed up the successful experience of Shanghai World Expo Tour,described Dalian create MICE brand's advantages,and constructive comments made to build Dalian brand strategy MICE.%会展旅游是旅游产品结合会展活动的特性而衍生出来的新产品,也是中国旅游市场结构不断调整优化的结果。本文从分析会展业与旅游业之间的关系入手,总结了上海世博旅游的成功经验,并阐述了大连创建会展旅游品牌的优势条件,最后对构建大连会展旅游的品牌战略提出了建设性的意见。

  14. Metal selectivity of Sargassum spp. and their alginates in relation to their alpha-L-guluronic acid content and conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas A; Llanes, Francisco; Volesky, Bohumil; Mucci, Alfonso

    2003-01-15

    The discovery of a consistent and unusual enrichment in homopolymeric alpha-L-guluronic acid G-blocks in alginates extracted from a suite of Sargassum brown algae is described in this study. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize these alginates which display homopolymeric guluronic acid block (G-block) frequency values (F(GG)) between 0.37 and 0.81. The presence of these G-blocks results in an enhanced selectivity for cadmium or calcium relative to monovalent ions such as sodium and the proton as well as smaller divalent ions such as magnesium. Results of competitive exchange experiments for the Cd-Ca-alginate system yield selectivity coefficient, K*(Cd)Ca, values between 0.43 +/- 0.10 and 1.32 +/- 0.02 for a range in F(GG) of 0.23 to 0.81. In contrast to the Cd-Ca-alginate system, the Mg-Ca-alginate and Mg-Cd-alginate systems yielded maximum values of K*(Mg)Ca (18.0 +/- 1.4) and K*(Mg)Cd (16.0 +/- 0.9) for the alginates extracted from Sargassum fluitans (F(GG) = 0.81; Cuba) and Sargassum thunbergii (F(GG) = 0.75; Korea), respectively. Selectivity studies with mixed-metal pair alginate systems highlight the importance of the specific macromolecular conformation of the alginate polymer in determining metal binding behavior in multiple-metal systems. Furthermore, they demonstrate the importance of the conformation of the alginate as it occurs within the tissue of Sargassum in determining the metal binding behavior of this algal biosorbent. The unique composition of the alginates present in species of Sargassum may represent a distinct advantage over other brown algal species when considering their implementation for the strategic removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated and industrial wastewaters. PMID:12564896

  15. Electrochemical Sensor for the Selective Determination of Prindopril Based on Phosphotungestic Acid Plastic Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel PVC membrane sensor for perindopril based on perindopril-phosphotungstate ion pair complex was prepared. The influence of membrane composition (i.e. percent of PVC, plasticizer, ion-pair complex, and kind of plasticizer), inner solution, pH of test solution and foreign cations on the electrode performance was investigated. The optimized membrane demonstrates Nernstian response (30.9 ± 1.0 mV per decade) for perindopril cations over a wide linear range from 9.0 Χ 10-7 to 1 Χ 10-2 M at 25 .deg. C. The potentiometric response is independent of the pH in the range of 4.0-9.5. The proposed sensor has the advantages of easy preparation, fast response time. The selectivity coefficients indicate excellent selectivity for perindopril over many common cations (e. g., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, rhamnose, maltose, glycine and benzamide). The practical applications of this electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of perindopril in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results

  16. Electrochemical Sensor for the Selective Determination of Prindopril Based on Phosphotungestic Acid Plastic Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zareh, Mohsen M. [Univ. of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Wasel, Anower M. [Association of Drug Agency, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Alkreem, Yasser M. [Zagazig Univ., Zagazig (Egypt)

    2013-10-15

    A novel PVC membrane sensor for perindopril based on perindopril-phosphotungstate ion pair complex was prepared. The influence of membrane composition (i.e. percent of PVC, plasticizer, ion-pair complex, and kind of plasticizer), inner solution, pH of test solution and foreign cations on the electrode performance was investigated. The optimized membrane demonstrates Nernstian response (30.9 ± 1.0 mV per decade) for perindopril cations over a wide linear range from 9.0 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M at 25 .deg. C. The potentiometric response is independent of the pH in the range of 4.0-9.5. The proposed sensor has the advantages of easy preparation, fast response time. The selectivity coefficients indicate excellent selectivity for perindopril over many common cations (e. g., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, rhamnose, maltose, glycine and benzamide). The practical applications of this electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of perindopril in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results.

  17. The complete targeted profile of the organic acid intermediates of the citric acid cycle using a single stable isotope dilution analysis, sodium borodeuteride reduction and selected ion monitoring GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamer, Orval; Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Choinière, Luc; Chénard, Valérie; St-Pierre, Julie; Avizonis, Daina

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative profiling of the organic acid intermediates of the citric acid cycle (CAC) presents a challenge due to the lack of commercially available internal standards for all of the organic acid intermediates. We developed an analytical method that enables the quantitation of all the organic acids in the CAC in a single stable isotope dilution GC/MS analysis with deuterium-labeled analogs used as internal standards. The unstable α-keto acids are rapidly reduced with sodium borodeuteride to the corresponding stable α-deutero-α-hydroxy acids and these, along with their unlabeled analogs and other CAC organic acid intermediates, are converted to their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. Selected ion monitoring is employed with electron ionization. We validated this method by treating an untransformed mouse mammary epithelial cell line with well-known mitochondrial toxins affecting the electron transport chain and ATP synthase, which resulted in profound perturbations of the concentration of CAC intermediates.

  18. Structural stability, acidity, and halide selectivity of the fluoride riboswitch recognition site

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2015-01-14

    Using static and dynamics DFT methods we show that the Mg2+/F-/phosphate/water cluster at the center of the fluoride riboswitch is stable by its own and, once assembled, does not rely on any additional factor from the overall RNA fold. Further, we predict that the pKa of the water molecule bridging two Mg cations is around 8.4. We also demonstrate that the halide selectivity of the fluoride riboswitch is determined by the stronger Mg-F bond, which is capable of keeping together the cluster. Replacing F- with Cl- results in a cluster that is unstable under dynamic conditions. Similar conclusions on the structure and energetics of the cluster in the binding pocket of fluoride-inhibited pyrophosphatase suggest that the peculiarity of fluoride is in its ability to establish much stronger metal-halide bonds.

  19. EFFECT OF AERO-/ANAEROBIOSIS ON DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are undesirable compounds produced in foods mainly through bacterial decarboxylase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate some environmental conditions (particularly aero/anaerobiosis, sodium chloride concentration (0–2% w/w, and amount of lactose (0–1% w/w on the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase enzymes of selected six technological important Lactococcus lactis strains. The levels of parameters tested were chosen according to real situation in fermented dairy products technology (especially cheese-making. Tyramine was determined by the ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrine derivatization and spectrophotometric detection. Tyrosine decarboxylation occurred during the active growth phase. Under the model conditions used, oxygen availability had influence on tyramine production, anaerobiosis seemed to favour the enzyme activity because all L. lactis strains produced higher tyramine amount. doi:10.5219/43

  20. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining opioid receptor activity as an "address domain".

  1. Selecting against S1P3 enhances the acute cardiovascular tolerability of 3-(N-benzyl)aminopropylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jeffrey J; Doherty, George; Toth, Leslie; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark; Milligan, James; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Sun, Shu-Yu; West, Sarah; Xie, Huijuan; Nomura, Naomi; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2004-07-01

    Structurally modified 3-(N-benzylamino)propylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists that maintain affinity for S1P1, and have decreased affinity for S1P3 are efficacious, but exhibit decreased acute cardiovascular toxicity in rodents than do nonselective agonists.

  2. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Hannah E; Price, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique. PMID:19936165

  3. Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootala, Sujit; Ossipov, Dmitri; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander; Hilborn, Jöns

    2015-08-01

    Current treatments for osteoporosis involve the administration of high doses of bisphosphonates (BPs) over a number of years. However, the efficiency of the absorption of these drugs and specificity towards targeted osteoclastic cells is still suboptimal. In this study, we have exploited the natural affinity of high (H) and low (L) molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) towards a cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) receptors on osteoclasts to use it as a biodegradable targeting vehicle. We covalently bonded BP to functionalised HA (HA-BP) and found that HA-BP conjugates were highly specific to osteoclastic cells and reduced mature osteoclast numbers significantly more than free BP. To study the uptake of HA-BP, we fluorescently derivatised the polymer-drug with fluorescein B isothiocyanate (FITC) and found that L-HA-BP could seamlessly enter osteoclastic cells. Alternatively, we tested polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a synthetic polymer delivery vehicle using similar chemistry to link BP and found that osteoclast numbers did not reduce in the same way. These findings could pave the way for biodegradable polymers to be used as vehicles for targeted delivery of anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:26222035

  4. Sequential Extraction of Aluminum and Iron from Acidic Soils by Chemical Selective Dissolution Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJIZHENG; A.VIOLANTE; 等

    1998-01-01

    Potassium chloride, Na-pyrophosphate,CuCl2,NH4-oxalate,dithionit-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and Na-citrate solutions were employed to etract aluminum(Al) and iron(Fe) sequentially and separately from 15 acidic soils located at the Mangshan Mountains,Hunan Province,China,Many evidences showed that separate pyrophosphate extracted mainly KCl-extractable Al,organo-Al complexes and some inorganic Al compounds,whereas separate CuCl2 extracted KCl-extractable Al and some organo-Al complexes,CuCl2 extracted much less amounts of Al than pyrophosphate did from the soils .Separate oxalate did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate seuentially extractable Al and Fe ,Also,separate DCB did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate-DCB sequentially extractable Al. The forms of Al extacted by oxalate and DCB from the soils were majorly noncrystalline.The interlayered materials of 1.4-nm intergrade minerals of the soils were attributed mainly to hydroxy Al polymers.

  5. Zinc and copper sorption and fixation by an acid soil clay: effect of selective dissolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, N.; McBride, M.B.

    Copper and zinc sorption-desorption studies were carried out over a range of pH values using clay fractions separated from two horizons of an acid soil from New York. In the pH range of high sorption, as much as 95% of the sorbed metal could not be desorbed and thus was considered fixed. Sorption and fixation of Cu and Zn increased rapidly above pH 4 and 5, respectively, for the whole soil clays. Following removal of the oxide fraction by oxalate and citrate-dethionite extractions, sorption and fixation were reduced considerably at pH values below the onset of hydrolysis of the metals in bulk solution. Citrate-dithionite extraction was more effective than oxalate in reducing Zn sorption and fixation. These extraction procedures had less effect on the ability of the clays to sorb and fix Cu. It is concluded that microcrystalline and noncrystalline oxides in the clay fraction of this soil, representing < 20% off the clay by weight, provide reactive surfaces for the chemisorption of Cu and Zn. At low pH, adsorption at these surfaces may be the dominant mechanism of heavy metal immobilization, especially in the subsoil horizons.

  6. Electrochemical Co-Reduction Synthesis of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongya Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO, HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and other electrochemical methods. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposite could be easily controlled by adjusting the HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 concentration ratio. The electrochemical experiments showed that when the concentration ratio of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 was 1:1, the obtained AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite (denoted as Au1Pt1NPs-GR possessed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA. As such, Au1Pt1NPs-GR nanocomposites were used to detect DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA and uric acid (UA using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV technique and on the modified electrode, there were three separate DPV oxidation peaks with the peak potential separations of 177 mV, 130 mV and 307 mV for DA and AA, DA and UA, AA and UA, respectively. The linear range of the constructed DA sensor was from 1.6 μM to 39.7 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3. The obtained DA sensor with good stability, high reproducibility and excellent selectivity made it possible to detect DA in human urine samples.

  7. In Vitro Influence of Mycophenolic Acid on Selected Parameters of Stimulated Peripheral Canine Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Guzera

    Full Text Available Mycophenolic acid (MPA is an active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, a new immunosuppressive drug effective in the treatment of canine autoimmune diseases. The impact of MPA on immunity is ambiguous and its influence on the canine immune system is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine markers of changes in stimulated peripheral canine lymphocytes after treatment with MPA in vitro. Twenty nine healthy dogs were studied. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with mitogens and different MPA concentrations- 1 μM (10-3 mol/m3, 10 μM or 100 μM. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD. The expression of antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, forkhead box P3 [FoxP3] and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] was assessed with monoclonal antibodies. The proliferation indices were analyzed in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE-labeled cells. All analyses were performed using flow cytometry. The influence of MPA on apoptosis was dependent on the mechanism of cell activation and MPA concentration. MPA caused a decrease in the expression of lymphocyte surface antigens, CD3, CD8 and CD25. Its impact on the expression of CD4 and CD21 was negligible. Its negative influence on the expression of FoxP3 was dependent on cell stimulation. MPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, MPA inhibited the activity of stimulated canine lymphocytes by blocking lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The influence of MPA on the development of immune tolerance-expansion of Treg cells and lymphocyte apoptosis-was ambiguous and was dependent on the mechanism of cellular activation. The concentration that MPA reaches in the blood may lead to inhibition of the functions of the canine immune system. The applied panel of markers can be used for evaluation of the effects of immunosuppressive compounds in the dog.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Standard Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Bacteriocins – Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bodaszewska-Lubas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the antibacterial potential of standard strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB producing bacteriocins of various classes, thus demonstrating various mechanisms of cell membrane damages against the Streptococcus agalactiae strains (Group B Streptococcus, GBS, depending on surface polysaccharides and surface alpha-like protein genes.Materials/Methods:Antimicrobial property of the strains of L. plantarum C 11, L. sakei DSMZ 6333, and L. lactis ATCC 11454 producing bacteriocins: JK and EF plantaricins, sakacin and nisin, respectively, against the GBS strains was evaluated. The chosen to the study GBS strains were represented by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, V and they had bca, epsilon, rib, alp2 or alp3 alpha-like protein genes. The experiment was conducted by means of suspension culture and the bacteria count was determined using the serial dilution method.Results:A great ability of L. plantarum C 11 strain was proven to inhibit the GBS growth. The strain of L. sakei DSMZ 6333 did not demonstrate any ability to inhibit the growth of GBS, whereas L. lactis ATCC 11454 inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae indicator strains to a minor extent. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the GBS strains representing various serotypes against the antimicrobial activity of model LAB strains. The least sensitive to the activity of bacteriocins were the strains representing serotypes Ib and III, whereas the strains representing serotype II were the most sensitive. The sensitivity of the GBS strains to the antimicrobial activity of LAB was not dependent on alpha-like protein genes.Discussion:Among the LAB standard strains producing bacteriocins, the strongest antimicrobial property was observed in the strain of L. plantarum C 11. Because of the generally known and verified strong antagonistic property of the strains of L. plantarum species against indicator bacteria, it is necessary

  9. Highly selective production of succinic acid by metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens and its efficient purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Hyohak; Lim, Sung Won; Kim, Tae Yong; Ahn, Jung Ho; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Moon-Hee; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-10-01

    Succinic acid (SA) is one of the fermentative products of anaerobic metabolism, and an important industrial chemical that has been much studied for its bio-based production. The key to the economically viable bio-based SA production is to develop an SA producer capable of producing SA with high yield and productivity without byproducts. Mannheimia succiniciproducens is a capnophilic rumen bacterium capable of efficiently producing SA. In this study, in silico genome-scale metabolic simulations were performed to identify gene targets to be engineered, and the PALK strain (ΔldhA and Δpta-ackA) was constructed. Fed-batch culture of PALK on glucose and glycerol as carbon sources resulted in the production of 66.14 g/L of SA with the yield and overall productivity of 1.34 mol/mol glucose equivalent and 3.39 g/L/h, respectively. SA production could be further increased to 90.68 g/L with the yield and overall productivity of 1.15 mol/mol glucose equivalent and 3.49 g/L/h, respectively, by utilizing a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and ammonia solution as a pH controlling solution. Furthermore, formation of byproducts was drastically reduced, resulting in almost homo-fermentative SA production. This allowed the recovery and purification of SA to a high purity (99.997%) with a high recovery yield (74.65%) through simple downstream processes composed of decolorization, vacuum distillation, and crystallization. The SA producer and processes developed in this study will allow economical production of SA in an industrial-scale. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2168-2177. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27070659

  10. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  11. Dissociative Ionization Mechanism and Appearance Energies in Adipic Acid Revealed by Imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence, Selective Deuteration, and Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Maarten F; Slowik, Jay G; Prévôt, André S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras

    2016-05-26

    Adipic acid, a model compound for oxygenated organic aerosol, has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Internal energy selected cations were prepared by threshold photoionization using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (iPEPICO). The threshold photoelectron spectrum yields a vertical ionization energy (IE) of 10.5 eV, significantly above the calculated adiabatic IE of 8.6 eV. The cationic minimum is accessible after vertical ionization by H-transfer from one of the γ-carbons to a carbonyl oxygen and is sufficiently energetic to decay by water loss at the ionization onset. The slope of the breakdown curves, quantum chemical calculations, and selective deuteration of the carboxylic hydrogens establish the dissociative photoionization mechanism. After ionization, one γ-methylene hydrogen and the two carboxylic hydrogens are randomized prior to H2O loss. On the basis of the deuteration degree in the H2O + CO-loss product at higher energies, a direct water-loss channel without complete randomization also exists. The breakdown diagram and center of gravity of the H2O + CO-loss peak were modeled to obtain 0 K appearance energies of 10.77, 10.32, and 11.53 eV for H2O + CO loss, CH2COOH loss, and H2O + CH2COOH loss from adipic acid. These agree well with the CBS-QB3 calculated values of 10.68, 10.45, and 11.57 eV, respectively, which shows that threshold photoionization can yield energetics data as long as the dissociation is statistical, even when the parent ion cannot be observed. The results can be used as a starting point for a deeper understanding of the ionization and low-energy fragmentation of organic aerosol components. PMID:27100102

  12. Facile synthesis of red emitting 3-aminophenylboronic acid functionalized copper nanoclusters for rapid, selective and highly sensitive detection of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Ge; Zhang, Fei; Gao, Ya; Zhou, Qing-Meng; Zhao, Ye; Li, Yan; Huo, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2016-12-15

    As an emerging class of fluorescent probes, copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) have been considered as an intriguing candidate for detecting biomoleculars due to their outstanding fluorescent properties, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we fabricated bovine serum albumin (BSA) protected Cu NCs (BSA-Cu NCs) and further functionalized them with 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) for selectively discerning glycoproteins. In aqueous solution, Cu(2+) ions were directly reduced into BSA-Cu NCs by hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O) at room-temperature using BSA as the capping agent. The synthetic process was very rapid, simple and easy for controlling due to the lack of any other complicated procedure such as heating and adjusting the pH value of the reactive mixture. The APBA-Cu NCs showed strong fluorescent emission at 630nm in the red range. So it can effectively avoid the disturbance of auto-fluorescence in biosamples. The fluorescence of the APBA-Cu NCs was obviously quenched by glycoprotein samples. Then, the APBA-Cu NCs were employed as a probe for selective capture and sensitive detection of glycoproteins with a wide linear range of 5-220nM and a low detection limit of 2.60nM owing to the covalent reaction between the boric acid group of APBA and the cis-glycol groups of the glycoproteins. The developed method was also successfully applied to determine glycoproteins in egg white of chickens and human urine samples with quantitative spike recoveries from 95% to 104%. PMID:27376198

  13. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation.

  14. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted ¿-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites...... in brain, of which the latter have not been linked unequivocally to function, but are speculated to be GHB receptors. In this study, a series of biaromatic 4-substituted GHB analogues, including 4'-phenethylphenyl, 4'-styrylphenyl, and 4'-benzyloxyphenyl GHB analogues, were synthesized and characterized...... pharmacologically in a [3H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid ([3H]NCS-382) binding assay and in GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor binding assays. The compounds were selective for the high-affinity GHB binding sites and several displayed Ki values below 100 nM. The affinity...

  15. Selective complexation and reactivity of metallic nitride and oxometallic fullerenes with Lewis acids and use as an effective purification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Steven; Mackey, Mary A; Pickens, Jane E; Stuart, Melissa A; Confait, Bridget S; Phillips, J Paige

    2009-12-21

    Metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) and oxometallic fullerenes (OMFs) react quickly with an array of Lewis acids. Empty-cage fullerenes are largely unreactive under conditions used in this study. The reactivity order is Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@C(78) > Sc(3)N@C(68) > Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80) > Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80). Manipulations of Lewis acids, molar ratios, and kinetic differences within the family of OMF and MNF metallofullerenes are demonstrated in a selective precipitation scheme, which can be used either alone for purifying Sc(3)N@I(h)-C(80) or combined with a final high-performance liquid chromatography pass for Sc(4)O(2)@I(h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@D(5h)-C(80), Sc(3)N@C(68), or Sc(3)N@C(78). The purification process is scalable. Analysis of the experimental rate constants versus electrochemical band gap explains the order of reactivity among the OMFs and MNFs. PMID:19911812

  16. Temporal changes (1997–2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997–2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease). - Highlights: • Four PFOS precursors and four diPAPs were detected in Swedish human serum. • Disappearance half-lives (1997–2012) of PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. • No significant temporal trends were found for diPAPs in human serum. • Linear and branched isomers were detected for three PFAAs and three precursors. - The disappearance half-lives (1997–2012) of four PFOS precursors in human serum were shorter compared to PFOS, whereas for four detected diPAPs no concentration change over time was observed

  17. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Ye, Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S; Carlson, Susan E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S; Joshi, Kalpana S; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product-precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  18. Marked increase in PROP taste responsiveness following oral supplementation with selected salivary proteins or their related free amino acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Melis

    Full Text Available The genetic predisposition to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP varies among individuals and is associated with salivary levels of Ps-1 and II-2 peptides, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP. We evaluated the role of these proteins and free amino acids that selectively interact with the PROP molecule, in modulating bitter taste responsiveness. Subjects were classified by their PROP taster status based on ratings of perceived taste intensity for PROP and NaCl solutions. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of Ps-1 and II-2 proteins in unstimulated saliva were performed by HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Subjects rated PROP bitterness after supplementation with Ps-1 and II-2, and two amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys whose interaction with PROP was demonstrated by (1H-NMR spectroscopy. ANOVA showed that salivary levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins were higher in unstimulated saliva of PROP super-tasters and medium tasters than in non-tasters. Supplementation of Ps-1 protein in individuals lacking it in saliva enhanced their PROP bitter taste responsiveness, and this effect was specific to the non-taster group.(1H-NMR results showed that the interaction between PROP and L-Arg is stronger than that involving L-Lys, and taste experiments confirmed that oral supplementation with these two amino acids increased PROP bitterness intensity, more for L-Arg than for L-Lys. These data suggest that Ps-1 protein facilitates PROP bitter taste perception and identifies a role for free L-Arg and L-Lys in PROP tasting.

  19. Apoptosis selectively induced in BEL-7402 cells by folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles combined with 100 Hz magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wen,1 Shulian Jiang,1 Zhiqiang Chen,1 Wei Zhao,1 Yongxiang Yi,1 Ruili Yang,1 Baoan Chen2 1Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University, 2Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Objective: To explore the effect of folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles (FA-MNPs combined with a 100 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF on the apoptosis of liver cancer BEL-7402 cells. Materials and methods: MNPs (20 nm were prepared by coprecipitation, and then folic acid was coated onto MNPs to prepare FA-MNPs. BEL-7402 cells and HL7702 cells were selected as liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, respectively. The ELF-EMF was generated from a solenoid coil. Cellular uptake of NPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cell inhibition. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: FA-MNPs combined with a 100 Hz magnetic field significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced higher apoptosis compared to either the ELF-EMF alone or FA-MNPs alone. FA-MNPs showed a better apoptosis effect and higher iron uptake in BEL-7402 cells compared to in HL7702 cells. On the basis of the ELF-EMF, higher doses of FA-MNPs brought higher apoptosis and higher iron uptake in either BEL-7402 cells or HL7702 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that FA-MNPs may induce apoptosis in a cellular iron uptake-dependent manner when combined with an ELF-EMF in BEL-7402 cells.Keywords: extremely low-frequency magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticle, apoptosis, liver cancer, folic acid

  20. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol rati

  1. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  2. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in fruit pulp processing byproducts and potential probiotic properties of selected Lactobacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L. and Fragaria vesca L. pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86% and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49 and L. fermentum 111 were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30 and 1.00% did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  3. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  4. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  5. Selective Colorimetric Recognition Properties of the Bis(indolyl) methene Receptors for Amino Acids%双吲哚烯类受体对氨基酸的比色识别作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利涛; 何晓明; 郭勇; 徐健; 邵士俊

    2011-01-01

    设计合成了一系列3,3′-双吲哚烯类受体分子,应用紫外-可见吸收光谱研究了该类受体对20种天然氨基酸分子的识别作用.结果表明,在乙腈-水溶液中,双吲哚烯受体分子可以通过其氢键受体位点的质子化作用比色识别天冬氨酸及谷氨酸等酸性氨基酸;而硝基取代的双吲哚烯受体分子则通过其氢键供体位点的去质子化作用比色识别精氨酸和赖氨酸等碱性氨基酸.在乙腈-水的中性缓冲溶液体系中,硝基取代的双吲哚烯类受体分子通过与巯基发生亲核加成反应,高选择性地比色识别半胱氨酸和同型半胱氨酸.%The development of artificial receptors for the selective recognition of biologically important species has been one of the best concerned topic in the field of supramolecular chemistry. The effective and selective molecular recognition or sensing of unprotected amino acids in aqueous solution is still a challenging problem due to their highly hydrophilic character. In this paper, a series of 3 ,3'-bis( indolyl) methene receptors was designed and synthesized, and the recognition properties of the receptors for 20 natural amino acids were studied via UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The result indicated that the receptors exhibited selective colorimet-ric sensing for amino acids by protonated/deprotonated process of the hydrogen bond site of the receptors in CH3CN/H2O(1: 1, volume ratio). The introduction of methoxy group into indole ring, which increased the basicity of the hydrogen bond acceptor unit, can promote the occurrence of the protonated process and increase the sensing sensitivity for acidic amino acids. The receptors with nitro group exhibited obviously colorimetric sensing for basic amino acids (arginine, lysine) due to the deprotonation of the hydrogen bond donor unit of receptors. In CH3CN/H2O(1: 1, volume ratio; 0.01 mol/L HEPES, pH =7.4) neutral buffered solution, the receptors without nitro group showed

  6. Auto Technology Exhibition in Tianjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Automotive Technology Exhibition Tianjing2009,jointly hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China(SAE-China),China Automotive Technology and Research Center(CATRC)and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area(TETD),is to be held in Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center from August 27 to August 30 this year.In line with China's national 11th Five-year Plan,The Automobile Industry Revitalization and Adjustments Planning and The Equipment Manufacturing Revitalization and Adjustments Planning,this Exhibition,centered on the theme of automobile and equipment manufacturing,arranges the exhibition halls respectively for private autos,commercial autos and equipment manufacturing etc.

  7. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  8. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yupeng

    2016-04-22

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. AuPt Alloy on TiO2: A Selective and Durable Catalyst for L-Sorbose Oxidation to 2-Keto-Gulonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Chinchilla, Lidia E; Campisi, Sebastian; Botton, Gianluigi A; Prati, Laura; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Villa, Alberto

    2015-12-21

    Pt nanoparticles were prepared by a sol immobilization route, deposited on supports with different acid/base properties (MgO, activated carbon, TiO2 , Al2O3, H-Mordenite), and tested in the selective oxidation of sorbose to 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGUA), an important precursor for vitamin C. In general, as the basicity of the support increased, a higher catalytic activity occurred. However, in most cases, a strong deactivation was observed. The best selectivity to 2-KGUA was observed with acidic supports (TiO2 and H-Mordenite) that were able to minimize the formation of C1/C2 products. We also demonstrated that, by alloying Pt to Au, it is possible to enhance significantly the selectivity of Pt-based catalysts. Moreover, the AuPt catalyst, unlike monometallic Pt, showed good stability in recycling because of the prevention of metal leaching during the reaction. PMID:26611807

  10. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  11. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  12. Discovery of a Potent, Selective, and Efficacious Class of Reversible α-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Effective as Analgesicsa

    OpenAIRE

    Boger, Dale L.; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Du, Wu; Hardouin, Christophe; Fecik, Robert A.; Cheng, Heng; Hwang, Inkyu; Hedrick, Michael P.; Leung, Donmienne; Acevedo, Orlando; Guimarães, Cristiano R. W.; Jorgensen, William L.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades neuromodulating fatty acid amides including anandamide (endogenous cannabinoid agonist) and oleamide (sleep-inducing lipid) at their sites of action and is intimately involved in their regulation. Herein we report the discovery of a potent, selective, and efficacious class of reversible FAAH inhibitors that produce analgesia in animal models validating a new therapeutic target for pain intervention. Key to the useful inhibitor discovery was the routi...

  13. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  14. Molecular recognition between ligands and nucleic acids: Novel pyridine- and benzoxazole-containing agents related to Hoechst 33258 that exhibit altered DNA sequence specificity deduced from footprinting analysis and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathini, Y.; Rao, K.E.; Shea, R.G.; Lown, J.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    The syntheses of certain analogues of the DNA minor groove binding agent Hoechst 33258 designed to exhibit altered sequence recognition are described. The structural modifications include the following: substitution of pyridine for the benzene ring of the benzimidazole moiety, replacement of one benzimidazole unit by a benzoxazole in the two possible orientations with respect to the DNA receptor, and a synthesis of 2,2{prime}-m-phenylenebis(6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)benzimidazole). Sequence recognition of these agents on a HindIII/EcoRI fragment of pBR322 DNA was determined by MPE footprinting procedures. Some of the analogues exhibited altered DNA sequence preference compared with Hoechst 33258. In particular, a structure bearing a benzoxazole moiety with the oxygen oriented inward to the minor groove together with an inward-directed pyridine nitrogen appears to confer the property of recognition of a GC base pair within the binding sequence. The possible factors, structural, stereochemical, and electrostatic, contributing to the altered DNA sequence recognition properties are discussed.

  15. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells Exposed to Lettuce Leaf Lysate in Refrigerated Conditions Exhibit Differential Expression of Selected Virulence and Adhesion-Related Genes with Altered Mammalian Cell Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nicole M; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Banerjee, Pratik

    2016-07-01

    Contamination by and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in ready-to-eat produce have emerged as significant food safety and public health concerns. Viable produceborne pathogens cope with several stresses (e.g., temperature fluctuations and lowtemperature storage) during production and storage of the commodities. In this study, we investigated the impact of transient cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) cells in a produce matrix (romaine lettuce leaf lysate). EcO157 cells were exposed to 25°C for 1 h, 4°C for 1 h, and 4°C for 10 min in lettuce lysate. The expression of selected genes coding for virulence, stress response, and heat and cold shock proteins was quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay. Treated EcO157 cells adhered to MAC-T mammalian cells were enumerated by in vitro bioassay. Expression of the Shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1a) was upregulated significantly (P lettuce lysate. The adhesion assay revealed a temperature-dependent reduction in the attachment of cold-shocked EcO157 cells. The results of the current study indicate a reduction in the attachment of cold-shocked EcO157 to epithelial cells and higher levels of Shiga toxin gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:27357048

  16. A streptavidin paramagnetic-particle based competition assay for the evaluation of the optical selectivity of quadruplex nucleic acid fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largy, Eric; Hamon, Florian; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule

    2012-05-01

    Although quadruplex nucleic acids are thought to be involved in many biological processes, they are massively overwhelmed by duplex DNA in the cell. Small molecules, able to probe quadruplex nucleic acids with high optical selectivity, could possibly achieve the visualization of these processes. The aim of the method described herein is to evaluate quickly the optical selectivity of quadruplex nucleic acid probes, in isothermal conditions, using widely available materials, small quantities of oligonucleotides and virtually any kind and quantity of biological competitor. The assay relies on the use of streptavidin-coated paramagnetic particles and biotinylated quadruplex forming oligonucleotides, allowing a quick and easy separation of the quadruplex target from the competitor. In the present study, two quadruplex nucleic acids (the DNA and RNA human telomeric repeats) have been used as targets while a duplex DNA oligonucleotide, total DNA, total RNA, another quadruplex nucleic acid and a protein have been used as competitors. The optical selectivity of various probes, displaying different photophysical properties and binding selectivities, has been successfully examined, allowing the identification of a best candidate for further cell microscopy experiments. This assay allows a quick and reliable assessment of the labeling properties of a quadruplex binder in cellular environment conditions. It is an interesting alternative to gel electrophoresis experiments since it is performed in solution, has a well-resolved separation system and allows easy quantifications.

  17. In situ electrochemical synthesis of highly loaded zirconium nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for the selective determination of dopamine and paracetamol in presence of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhil Vilian, A T; Rajkumar, Muniyandi; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-03-01

    Highly loaded zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were supported on graphene oxide (ERGO/ZrO2) via an in situ, simple and clean strategy on the basis of the electrochemical redox reaction between zirconyl chloride and graphene oxide (ZrOCl2 and GO). The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology of the as prepared nanocomposite were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This ZrO2 decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified GCE (ERGO/ZrO2) exhibits a prominent electrocatalytic activity toward the selective detection and determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamol (PA) in presence of ascorbic acid (AA). The peaks of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) for DA and PA oxidation at ERGO/ZrO2 modified electrode surface were clearly separated from each other when they co-existed in the physiological pH (pH 7.0) with a potential value of 140 mV (between AA and DA) and 330 mV (between AA and PA). It was, therefore, possible to simultaneously determine DA and PA in the samples at ERGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite modified GCE. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 9-237 μM of PA and DA. The ERGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite electrode has been satisfactorily used for the determination of DA and PA in the presence of AA at pharmaceutical formulations in human urine samples with a linear range of 3-174 μM. The proposed biosensor shows a wide linear range, low detection limit, good reproducibility and acceptable stability, providing a biocompatible platform for bio sensing and bio catalysis.

  18. Yeasts isolation for bio-reduction of wines volatile acidity: Combined use of differential and selective culture media

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Amaral, Carla; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The main component of the volatile acidity of wines is acetic acid. The maximum acceptable limit for volatile acidity in most wines is 1.2 g/L of acetic acid due to the associated unpleasant vinegar aroma and acrid taste. Acetic acid is a by-product of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under winemaking conditions. However, this acid may also appear in wine due to spoilage agents, such as the acetic acid bacteria and spoilage yeasts. Winemakers have been using a refermentation...

  19. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells Exposed to Lettuce Leaf Lysate in Refrigerated Conditions Exhibit Differential Expression of Selected Virulence and Adhesion-Related Genes with Altered Mammalian Cell Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nicole M; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Banerjee, Pratik

    2016-07-01

    Contamination by and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in ready-to-eat produce have emerged as significant food safety and public health concerns. Viable produceborne pathogens cope with several stresses (e.g., temperature fluctuations and lowtemperature storage) during production and storage of the commodities. In this study, we investigated the impact of transient cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) cells in a produce matrix (romaine lettuce leaf lysate). EcO157 cells were exposed to 25°C for 1 h, 4°C for 1 h, and 4°C for 10 min in lettuce lysate. The expression of selected genes coding for virulence, stress response, and heat and cold shock proteins was quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay. Treated EcO157 cells adhered to MAC-T mammalian cells were enumerated by in vitro bioassay. Expression of the Shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1a) was upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) upon cold shock treatments, but virulence genes related to EcO157 attachment (eaeA, lpfA, and hcpA) were down-regulated. Two key members of the cold shock regulon, cold shock protein (cspA) and gyrA, were significantly induced (P < 0.05) at the refrigeration temperature (4°C). Significant upregulation of an SOS response gene, recA, was also observed. E. coli heat shock regulon member grpE was induced, but a universal stress protein (uspA) was downregulated at the refrigeration temperatures in lettuce lysate. The adhesion assay revealed a temperature-dependent reduction in the attachment of cold-shocked EcO157 cells. The results of the current study indicate a reduction in the attachment of cold-shocked EcO157 to epithelial cells and higher levels of Shiga toxin gene expression at the molecular level.

  20. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter

  1. Selective orthosteric free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) agonists: identification of the structural and chemical requirements for selective activation of FFA2 versus FFA3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Smith, Nicola J; Christiansen, Elisabeth;

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, GPR43) is a G protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor for short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2, and can hence be considered as highly poten...

  2. Selective Oxidation of Isobutane to Methacrylic Acid over Supported V-Mo-P Based Composite Oxide Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feifei Sun; Yunfeng Geng; Shunhe Zhong

    2002-01-01

    Heteropolyacid, the most popular catalyst for the direct oxidation of isobutane, exhibits high catalytic activity, poor thermal stability and a short lifetime. Therefore, the catalyst requires further research to improve its performance. Catalysts composed of mixed oxides (V2O5, P2O5, or MoO3) supported on silica were prepared by the sol-gel method to catalyze the reaction. Results of XRD, IR, and BET corroborated that the mixed oxides were dispersed homogeneously on the surface of support. The activity of lattice oxygen in the catalysts was studied by TPR, and the chemisorption property of isobutane on the surface of the catalysts was investigated by the TPD method. H2-TPR of the catalysts revealed that the lattice oxygen of the vanadium-based catalysts is more active than that of the molybdenum-based catalysts. The rcdox property of V or Mo species is slightly affected by other compositions of the series catalysts. The TPD curves illustrate that there are two kinds of adsorptive species of isobutane on the surface of the V and Mo based catalysts. The adsorbing species on the VMoP/SiO2 catalyst are identical to the main adsorbing species on VP/SiO2 and MoP/SiO2. The catalyst VMoP/SiO2 is more active than others in the selective oxidation of isobutane.

  3. Novel salicylic acid-oriented thiourea-type receptors as colorimetric chemosensor: Synthesis, characterizations and selective naked-eye recognition properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaowei; Cao, Xiufang; Chen, Changshui; Ke, Shaoyong

    2012-10-01

    Based on the salicylic acid backbone, three highly sensitive and selective colorimetric chemosensors with an acylthiourea binding unit have been designed, synthesized and characterized. These chemosensors have been utilized for selective recognition of fluoride anions in dry DMSO solution by typical spectroscopic titration techniques. Furthermore, the obtained chemosensors AR1-3 have shown naked-eye sensitivity for detection of biologically important fluoride ion over other anions in solution.

  4. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  5. Enantiomer-selective pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and sex effects of various alpha-lipoic acid dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert Hermann,1 Julius Mungo,2 Peter Jürgen Cnota,2 Dan Ziegler3 1Clinical Research Appliance (cr appliance, Gelnhausen, Germany; 2MEDA Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Bad Homburg, Germany; 3Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Abstract: The present study aimed to examine the enantiomer-selective pharmacokinetics (PK, relative bioavailability (Frel, and sex effects of various oral dosage forms of racemic alpha-lipoic acid (ALA. In an open-label, randomized, four-period, four-sequence crossover study, 24 healthy adult subjects (12 males and 12 females received single doses of 600 mg of ALA in fasted state at four different occasions as follows: three 200 mg tablets (T 200; two 300 mg tablets (T 300; one 600 mg tablet (T 600; and a racemic ALA solution (OS. All tablet formulations (Thioctacid HR were considered test treatments, while the OS (Thioctacid, 600 T served as the reference treatment. Serial blood samples were collected over 8 hours postdose to quantify R-(+- and S-(–-ALA enantiomer plasma concentrations for the PK evaluation. The maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and total exposure (area under the curve [AUC]0–t were compared between treatments by analysis of variance. Weight-normalized Cmax and the AUC data of male and female study subjects were applied to examine the presence of sex effects. All treatments displayed rapid absorption of both enantiomers with median time to maximum concentration (tmax values ranging from 0.33–0.5 hours. The Frel of all tablet formulations was comparable, with R-(+-enantiomer Cmax test/reference ratios ranging from 36% (T 600 to 43% (T 200, and R-(+-enantiomer AUC test/reference ratios ranging from 64% (T 600 to 79% (T 300, indicating a favorable Frel of all tablet formulations, especially in terms of the total extent of absorption (AUC. An examination of weight-normalized female/male Cmax and AUC sex ratios for both ALA

  6. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ligang [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Di [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Zhao, Fuhua [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Tonggang [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Mu, Xindong, E-mail: muxd@qibebt.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. • The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. • Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. • Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  7. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  8. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of

  9. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  10. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Galbo

    Full Text Available In type 2 Diabetes (T2D free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs. The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity.

  11. 13-methyltetradecanoic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity on T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating p-AKT and activating caspase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cai

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD, a saturated branched-chain fatty acid purified from soy fermentation products, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanism of action of 13-MTD on T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Growth inhibition in response to 13-MTD was evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay in three T-NHL cell lines (Jurkat, Hut78, EL4 cells. Flow cytometry analyses were used to monitor the cell cycle and apoptosis. Proteins involved in 13-MTD-induced apoptosis were examined in Jurkat cells by western blotting. We found that 13-MTD inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of T-NHL cell lines. 13-MTD treatment also induced a concentration-dependent arrest of Jurkat cells in the G1-phase. During 13-MTD-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a caspase enzymolysis product were detected after incubation for 2 h, and increased after extending the incubation time. However, there was no change in the expression of Bcl-2 or c-myc proteins. The appearance of apoptotic Jurkat cells was accompanied by the inhibition of AKT and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, 13-MTD could also effectively inhibit the growth of T-NHL tumors in vivo in a xenograft model. The tumor inhibition rate in the experimental group was 40%. These data indicate that 13-MTD inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation followed by caspase activation, which may provide a new approach for treating T-cell lymphomas.

  12. A simple and selective liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of ε-aminocaproic acid in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh S. Moorthy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the clinical pharmacology of the antifibrinolytic drug epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA is critical for rational drug administration in children. The aim of this study is to develop a reliable assay for the determination of EACA in human plasma. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS assay for EACA in human plasma. Sample preparation involved plasma dilution (1:2040, followed by reversed-phase chromatographic separation and selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry. EACA had a linear range of 1 - 250 μg/mL. The intraday precision based on the standard deviation of replicates of quality control samples ranged from 4.7 to 10.4% and the accuracy ranged from 92-106%. The interday precision ranged from 4.6 to 9.8% and the accuracy ranged from 95-103%. Stability studies showed that EACA was stable during the conditions for sample preparation and storage. The described method is robust and successfully employed for clinical studies of EACA in children

  13. The Significance of Lewis Acid Sites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide on Vanadium-Based Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marberger, Adrian; Ferri, Davide; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2016-09-19

    The long debated reaction mechanisms of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia (NH3 ) on vanadium-based catalysts rely on the involvement of Brønsted or Lewis acid sites. This issue has been clearly elucidated using a combination of transient perturbations of the catalyst environment with operando time-resolved spectroscopy to obtain unique molecular level insights. Nitric oxide reacts predominantly with NH3 coordinated to Lewis sites on vanadia on tungsta-titania (V2 O5 -WO3 -TiO2 ), while Brønsted sites are not involved in the catalytic cycle. The Lewis site is a mono-oxo vanadyl group that reduces only in the presence of both nitric oxide and NH3 . We were also able to verify the formation of the nitrosamide (NH2 NO) intermediate, which forms in tandem with vanadium reduction, and thus the entire mechanism of SCR. Our experimental approach, demonstrated in the specific case of SCR, promises to progress the understanding of chemical reactions of technological relevance.

  14. The Significance of Lewis Acid Sites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide on Vanadium-Based Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marberger, Adrian; Ferri, Davide; Elsener, Martin; Kröcher, Oliver

    2016-09-19

    The long debated reaction mechanisms of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia (NH3 ) on vanadium-based catalysts rely on the involvement of Brønsted or Lewis acid sites. This issue has been clearly elucidated using a combination of transient perturbations of the catalyst environment with operando time-resolved spectroscopy to obtain unique molecular level insights. Nitric oxide reacts predominantly with NH3 coordinated to Lewis sites on vanadia on tungsta-titania (V2 O5 -WO3 -TiO2 ), while Brønsted sites are not involved in the catalytic cycle. The Lewis site is a mono-oxo vanadyl group that reduces only in the presence of both nitric oxide and NH3 . We were also able to verify the formation of the nitrosamide (NH2 NO) intermediate, which forms in tandem with vanadium reduction, and thus the entire mechanism of SCR. Our experimental approach, demonstrated in the specific case of SCR, promises to progress the understanding of chemical reactions of technological relevance. PMID:27553251

  15. Betulinic acid selectively increases protein degradation and enhances prostate cancer-specific apoptosis: possible role for inhibition of deubiquitinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Reiner

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs, which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy.

  16. Glucose biosensor based on multisegment nanowires exhibiting reversible magnetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerola, Gislaine P; Takahashi, Giovanna S; Perez, Geraldo G; Recco, Lucas C; Pedrosa, Valber A

    2014-11-01

    We describe the amperometric detection of glucose using oriented nanowires with magnetic switching of the bioelectrochemical process. The fabrication process of the nanowires was prepared through controlled nucleation and growth during a stepwise electrochemical deposition, and it was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to study the magnetoswitchable property; this control was accomplished by changing the surface orientation of nanowires. Under the optimal condition, the amperometric response was also linear up to a glucose concentration of 0.1-16.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 81 μA mM(-1). The detection limit was estimated for 4.8×10(-8) mol L(-1), defined from a signal/noise ratio of 3. It also exhibits good reproducibility and high selectivity with insignificant interference from ascorbic acid, acetoaminophen, and uric acid. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect the blood sugar in human serum samples without any pretreatment, and the results were comparatively in agreement with the clinical assay. PMID:25127595

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  18. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-08-01

    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27441527

  19. Identification of potent and selective retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARγ) antagonists for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain using structure based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Norman E; Bleisch, Thomas J; Jones, Scott A; Richardson, Timothy I; Doti, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Stout, Stephanie L; Durst, Gregory L; Chambers, Mark G; Oskins, Jennifer L; Lin, Chaohua; Adams, Lisa A; Page, Todd J; Barr, Robert J; Zink, Richard W; Osborne, Harold; Montrose-Rafizadeh, Chahrzad; Norman, Bryan H

    2016-07-15

    A series of triaryl pyrazoles were identified as potent pan antagonists for the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) α, β and γ. X-ray crystallography and structure-based drug design were used to improve selectivity for RARγ by targeting residue differences in the ligand binding pockets of these receptors. This resulted in the discovery of novel antagonists which maintained RARγ potency but were greater than 500-fold selective versus RARα and RARβ. The potent and selective RARγ antagonist LY2955303 demonstrated good pharmacokinetic properties and was efficacious in the MIA model of osteoarthritis-like joint pain. This compound demonstrated an improved margin to RARα-mediated adverse effects. PMID:27261179

  20. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid--a potent, selective GABAB receptor agonist in the guinea-pig ileum and rat anococcygeus muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, J. M.; Dingsdale, R. A.; Parsons, M.E.; Dolle, R. E.; Howson, W.

    1989-01-01

    1. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, was tested for activity on guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat isolated anococcygeus muscle preparations. The effects of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid were compared with those of GABA and baclofen. 2. In the electrically stimulated ileum, 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid, like GABA and baclofen, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cholinergic twitch contraction, the IC50 value being 1.84 +/- 0.23 microM (n = 1...

  1. [Case of continuous trans-arterial calcium gluconate infusion using a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line that exhibited dramatic improvement of chemical burns on the fingers caused by hydrofluoric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Tanaka, Kotaro; Minemura, Atsuko; Tamatsukuri, Tatsuro; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) is commonly used and many injuries occur on the upper extremities following exposure to HFA. The use of calcium gluconate (CG) -containing gel or local injections of CG are widely used for the initial treatment of HFA exposure. However, severe pain continues in some cases despite the treatment. There was a report that trans-arterial CG infusion could improve HFA burns, however, such treatment is not an established clinical procedure. A 30-year-old male presented at our hospital with severe pain in his left thumb. He had been cleaning tiles with an HFA-containing detergent. We diagnosed him with a chemical burn due to HFA exposure. Local CG injections were tried several times, but his terrible pain continued. Therefore, a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line was inserted from the left radial artery, and continuous transarterial CG injection was performed. His terrible pain dramatically improved. Direct arterial sphygmomanometry systems are widely used in the critical care field to monitor the hemodynamics and ICU staffs are used to dealing with it. Moreover, continuous saline infusion prevents the tube obstruction. Continuous CG infusion from a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line is simple and safe way to administer CG in HFA burns.

  2. Selective adsorption in two porous triazolate–oxalate-bridged antiferromagnetic metal-azolate frameworks obtained via in situ decarboxylation of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvothermal reactions of metal salts, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid (H2atzc) and ammonium oxalate in different temperature produced two metal azolate frameworks, namely, [Cu3(atzc)2(atz)(ox)]·1.5H2O (1) and [Co5(atz)4(ox)3(HCOO)2]·DMF (2) (H2atzc=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid, Hatz=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, and ox=oxalate), in which the atzc precusor was in situ decarboxylated. Structural determination reveals that 1 contains [Cu3(atzc)2(atz)]2− layers of mixed μ4-atzc and μ3-atz ligands, which are pillared by ox2− groups to form a 3D porous framework. Compound 2 contains 2D layers with basic spindle-shaped decanuclear units, which extended by ox2− and formates to form 3D porous framework. Gas adsorption investigation revealed that two kinds of frameworks exhibited selective CO2 over N2 sorption. Moreover, activated 2 shows H2 storage capacity. Additionally, magnetic properties of both the compounds have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal reactions of metal salts, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylate and oxalate produced two metal azolate frameworks, which could store gas molecules, especially H2 due to small pores. in situ decarboxylation of precursor was observed. - Highlights: • Two MAFs were synthesized via in situ decarboxylation of H2atzc. • Both activated frameworks exhibited selective CO2 over N2 sorption. • Activated 2 could adsorb H2, which makes it promising candidates for gas storage

  3. Efficient Purification of Ginkgolic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves by Selective Adsorption of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, M.; Chen, B.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs; anacardic acids; 6-alkylsalicylic acids) are both unwanted constituents in standardized Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) extracts and desirable constituents for pharmacological assays. Thus, for the quality control of Ginkgo extracts, the availability of pure GAs is important. In this in

  4. A new structural class of subtype-selective inhibitor of cloned excitatory amino acid transporter, EAAT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Hermit, M B; Nielsen, B;

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the pharmacological effects of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) and the enantiomers of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2, 5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid (TDPA) on cloned human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2 and 3 (EAAT1-3) expres...

  5. A Green Synthesis of 2-Ethylanthraquinone by Dehydration of 2-(4'-ethylbenzoyl) benzoic Acid over Solid Acid Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shu XU; Xin Wen GUO; Gui Ru WANG; Zhu Xia ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The dehydration of 2-(4'-ethylbenzoyl) benzoic acid (BE acid) to 2-ethylanthraquinone(2-EAQ) was investigated over solid acid catalysts. The results showed that H-beta zeolite catalyst modified by dilute HNO3 solution exhibited an excellent performance. In our study, theconversion of BE acid can reach 96.7%, and the selectivity to 2-EAQ is up to 99.6%.

  6. A large factory-scale application of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria for PDO Pecorino Siciliano cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Rosa; Carpino, Stefania; Gaglio, Raimondo; Pino, Alessandra; Rapisarda, Teresa; Caggia, Cinzia; Marino, Giovanni; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Settanni, Luca; Todaro, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The main hypothesis of this study was that the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) selected for their dairy traits are able to stabilize the production of PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) Pecorino Siciliano cheese, preserving its typicality. The experimental plan included the application of a multi-strain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture, composed of starter (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CAG4 and CAG37) and non starter (Enterococcus faecalis PSL71, Lactococcus garviae PSL67 and Streptococcus macedonicus PSL72) strains, during the traditional production of cheese at large scale level in six factories located in different areas of Sicily. The cheese making processes were followed from milk to ripened cheeses and the effects of the added LAB were evaluated on the microbiological, chemico-physical and sensorial characteristics of the final products. Results highlighted a high variability for all investigated parameters and the dominance of LAB cocci in bulk milk samples. The experimental curds showed a faster pH drop than control curds and the levels of LAB estimated in 5-month ripened experimental cheeses (7.59 and 7.27 Log CFU/g for rods and cocci, respectively) were higher than those of control cheeses (7.02 and 6.61 Log CFU/g for rods and cocci, respectively). The comparison of the bacterial isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR evidenced the dominance of the added starter lactococci over native milk and vat LAB, while the added non starter LAB were found at almost the same levels of the indigenous strains. The sensory evaluation showed that the mixed LAB culture did not influence the majority of the sensory attributes of the cheeses and that each factory produced cheeses with unique characteristics. Finally, the multivariate statistical analysis based on all parameters evaluated on the ripened cheeses showed the dissimilarities and the relationships among cheeses. Thus, the main hypothesis of the work was accepted since the

  7. Green Revolution for Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai World Expo is widely regarded as another grand international pageant, so many people thought that the opening ceremony must be as much magnificent and brilliant as the opening ceremony for Beijing Olympics.However, it was revealed by Wan Jifei, Executive Director of the ExecutiveCommittee of the Shanghai World Expo that the opening ceremony of the Expo was not that luxurious and extravagant as that for the Beijing Olympics, but would have its own characteristics under the elaborate design and thorough arrangement conducted by the host. The veto against that luxurious opening ceremony was actually a practice echoing for the concept of Green World Expo, which would be applied for every corner from the beginning to the end of the Expo, including the construction of exhibition hall, building of exhibition stand and advertisement etc.

  8. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase mechanism-based inactivation by psoralen derivatives: cloning and characterization of a C4H from a psoralen producing plant-Ruta graveolens-exhibiting low sensitivity to psoralen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravot, Antoine; Larbat, Romain; Hehn, Alain; Lièvre, Karine; Gontier, Eric; Goergen, Jean Louis; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) complete cDNA was cloned from the leaves of Ruta graveolens, a psoralen producing plant. The recombinant enzyme (classified CYP73A32) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mechanism-based inactivation was investigated using various psoralen derivatives. Only psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were found to inactivate C4H. The inactivation was dependent on the presence of NADPH, time of pre-incubation, and inhibitor concentration. Inactivation stoichiometry was 0.9 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A1 and 1.1 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A32. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that [3H]psoralen was irreversibly bound to the C4H apoprotein. K(i) and k(inact) for psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen inactivation on the two C4H revealed a lower sensitivity for CYP73A32 compared to CYP73A1. Inactivation kinetics were also determined for CYP73A10, a C4H from another furocoumarin-producing plant, Petroselinum crispum. This enzyme was found to behave like CYP73A32, with a weak sensitivity to psoralen and 8-MOP inactivation. Cinnamic acid hydroxylation is a key step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds, psoralen derivatives included. Our results suggest a possible evolution of R. graveolens and P. crispum C4H that might tolerate substantial levels of psoralen derivatives in the cytoplasmic compartment without a depletive effect on C4H and the general phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  9. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  10. Marketing for exhibitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determinate how the European companies may market the international trade fairs in order to attract and serve Russian business customers. The aim was to find out what kind of marketing are tools available for small companies perceiving new market opportunities with Russian business market. The study was carried out by analysing the secondary sources and a massive corpus of publications related to marketing in Russia and exhibitions. The research method was c...

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  12. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  13. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  14. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. PMID:27554143

  15. Single substitutions to closely related amino acids contribute to the functional diversification of an insect-inducible, positively selected plant cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    A causal link has been reported between positively selected amino acids in plant cystatins and the inhibitory range of these proteins against insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Here we assessed the impact of single substitutions to closely related amino acids on the contribution of positive selection to cystatin diversification. Cystatin sequence alignments, while confirming hypervariability, indicated a preference for related amino acids at positively selected sites. For example, the non-polar residues leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were shown to predominate at positively selected site 2 in the N-terminal region, unlike selected sites 6 and 10, where polar residues are preferred. The model cystatin SlCYS8 and single variants with Leu, Ile or Val at position 2 were compared with regard to their ability to bind digestive proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata and to induce compensatory responses in this insect. A functional proteomics procedure to capture target Cys proteases in midgut extracts allowed confirmation of distinct binding profiles for the cystatin variants. A shotgun proteomics procedure to monitor whole Cys protease complements revealed protease family specific compensatory responses in the insect, dependent on the variant ingested. Our data confirm the contribution of closely related amino acids to the functional diversity of positively selected plant cystatins in a broader structure/function context imposing physicochemical constraints to primary structure alterations. They also underline the complexity of protease/inhibitor interactions in plant-insect systems, and the challenges still to be met in order to harness the full potential of ectopically expressed protease inhibitors in crop protection.

  16. Elaboration of selective solar energy absorbers beginning with stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, L.; Bonino, J.P.; Benavente, R.; Laaouini, A.; Traverse, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    An original simple and cheap method of elaboration of selective surfaces is described. The method involves anodic oxydation of stainless steel in acid solution with addition of sulfides; chemical conversion of the metallic surface is achieved. The selective surfaces exhibit an excellent thermal stability.

  17. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    /Significances Taken together, this study demonstrated that virulent parasite (AG83+Sias) establish a unique sialic acids-mediated binding and subsequent phagocytosis in the host cell through the selective exploitation of siglec-1. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction altered the downstream signaling pathways which contributed impairment of immune effector functions of macrophages. To the best of our knowledge, this is a comprehensive report describing sialic acids-siglec interactions and their role in facilitating uptake of the virulent parasite within the host. PMID:27494323

  18. A New Orientation - The 3rd China Oil Painting Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXueying

    2004-01-01

    At the and of 2003,the 3rd China Oil Painting Exhibition displayed nearly 10,000 works from 34 three-phase selection process including publie appraisal, 20 works were granted China Oil Painting Artistic Awards.

  19. Styrene-maleic acid copolymer-encapsulated CORM2, a water-soluble carbon monoxide (CO) donor with a constant CO-releasing property, exhibits therapeutic potential for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongzhuan; Fang, Jun; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2014-08-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO), the physiological product of heme oxygenase during catabolic breakdown of heme, has versatile functions and fulfills major anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in cell systems. Administration of CO is thus thought to be a reasonable therapeutic approach in diseases-such as inflammatory bowel disease-that are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (CORM2) is a commonly used CO donor, but it has poor aqueous solubility and a very short CO-releasing half-life (t1/2). In the present study, we prepared micelles consisting of water-soluble styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) encapsulating CORM2 (SMA/CORM2) that had a hydrodynamic size of 165.3nm. Compared with free CORM2, SMA/CORM2 demonstrated better water solubility (>50mg/ml in a physiological water solution). Moreover, because of micelle formation in an aqueous environment, the CO release rate was slow and sustained. These properties resulted in much longer in vivo bioactivity of SMA/CORM2 compared with that of free CORM2, i.e. the t1/2 in blood of SMA/CORM2 in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection was about 35 times longer than that of free CORM2. We then evaluated the therapeutic potential of SMA/CORM2 in a murine model of inflammatory colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Administration (either i.v. or oral) of SMA/CORM2 once at the beginning of colitis, 3days after DSS treatment, significantly improved colitis symptoms-loss of body weight, diarrhea, and hematochezia-as well as histopathological colonic changes-shortening of the colon and necrosis or ulcers in the colonic mucosa. Up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in this DSS-induced colitis was significantly suppressed in SMA/CORM2-treated mice. SMA/CORM2 may thus be a superior CO donor and may be a candidate drug, which involves cytokine suppression, for ROS-related diseases including

  20. Two acidic, anticoagulant PLA2 isoenzymes purified from the venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia exhibit different potency to inhibit thrombin and factor Xa via phospholipids independent, non-enzymatic mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis K Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia is responsible for snakebite fatality in Indian subcontinent and in south-western China. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4 is one of the toxic components of snake venom. The present study explores the mechanism and rationale(s for the differences in anticoagulant potency of two acidic PLA2 isoenzymes, Nk-PLA2α (13463.91 Da and Nk-PLA2β (13282.38 Da purified from the venom of N. kaouthia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By LC-MS/MS analysis, these PLA2s showed highest similarity (23.5% sequence coverage with PLA2 III isolated from monocled cobra venom. The catalytic activity of Nk-PLA2β exceeds that of Nk-PLA2α. Heparin differentially regulated the catalytic and anticoagulant activities of these Nk-PLA2 isoenzymes. The anticoagulant potency of Nk-PLA2α was comparable to commercial anticoagulants warfarin, and heparin/antithrombin-III albeit Nk-PLA2β demonstrated highest anticoagulant activity. The anticoagulant action of these PLA2s was partially contributed by a small but specific hydrolysis of plasma phospholipids. The strong anticoagulant effect of Nk-PLA2α and Nk-PLA2β was achieved via preferential, non-enzymatic inhibition of FXa (Ki = 43 nM and thrombin (Ki = 8.3 nM, respectively. Kinetics study suggests that the Nk-PLA2 isoenzymes inhibit their "pharmacological target(s" by uncompetitive mechanism without the requirement of phospholipids/Ca(2+. The anticoagulant potency of Nk-PLA2β which is higher than that of Nk-PLA2α is corroborated by its superior catalytic activity, its higher capacity for binding to phosphatidylcholine, and its greater strength of thrombin inhibition. These PLA2 isoenzymes thus have evolved to affect haemostasis by different mechanisms. The Nk-PLA2β partially inhibited the thrombin-induced aggregation of mammalian platelets suggesting its therapeutic application in the prevention of unwanted clot formation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In order to develop peptide

  1. QUALITY SIGNALS IN WINE MARKETING: THE ROLE OF EXHIBITION AWARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, U.R.; Krska, P.

    2001-01-01

    Wine producers have their products evaluated at various wine exhibitions for the purpose of receiving awards that can be displayed on the bottles. This contribution introduces an approach to estimate optimal prices for wine exhibition awards. A case study has been employed in cooperation with a major Czech wine company to investigate the practical usefulness of the method. Estimating the relative importance of selected wine exhibitions as award origins and determining the partial utilities of...

  2. Selective removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/2,5-diaminobenzene sulfonic acid composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kera, Nazia H; Bhaumik, Madhumita; Ballav, Niladri; Pillay, Kriveshini; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Maity, Arjun

    2016-08-15

    A polypyrrole/2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid (PPy/DABSA) composite, synthesised by the in situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of DABSA, was studied as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the composite were investigated by ATR-FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX, TGA, XRD and XPS studies. The adsorption of Cr(VI) by PPy/DABSA composite was highly pH dependent and optimum removal was achieved at pH 2. Adsorption of Cr(VI) was confirmed by EDX and XPS studies. The isotherm data fitted the linear Langmuir model well, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 303mg/g at 25°C. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) were calculated using isotherm data and confirmed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The activation energy of the adsorption process suggested that Cr(VI) was chemisorbed by PPy/DABSA composite. PPy/DABSA composite could be used for three consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles without loss of its original adsorption capacity. Highly selective removal of Cr(VI) was observed even when co-existing ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and NO3(-) were present in the solution. In summary, the potential of PPy/DABSA composite for remediating industrial wastewater contaminated by Cr(VI) has been demonstrated.

  3. Gifted Kids Create a Large Scale Museum Exhibit in Indianapolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Mary Lou; Bostwick, Alice

    1989-01-01

    Indianapolis gifted students in grades five-seven created a museum exhibit to express the views of youth while giving adults an opportunity to listen. The process involved brainstorming, selecting a topic (drug and alcohol abuse), gathering information, forming committees, building a scale model, and creating the actual exhibit. (JDD)

  4. Selective Chemical Conversion of Sugars in Aqueous Solutions without Alkali to Lactic Acid Over a Zn-Sn-Beta Lewis Acid-Base Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Zheng; Peng, Boyu; Gu, Minyan; Zhou, Xuefei; Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. However, in aqueous solutions without alkali, its efficient preparation via the direct catalysis of sugars is hindered by a side dehydration reaction to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural due to Brønsted acid, which originates from organic acids. Herein, we report that a previously unappreciated combination of common two metal mixed catalyst (Zn-Sn-Beta) prepared via solid-state ion exchange synergistically promoted this reaction. In water without a base, a conversion exceeding 99% for sucrose with a lactic acid yield of 54% was achieved within 2 hours at 190 °C under ambient air pressure. Studies of the acid and base properties of the Zn-Sn-Beta zeolite suggest that the introduction of Zn into the Sn-Beta zeolite sequentially enhanced both the Lewis acid and base sites, and the base sites inhibited a series of side reactions related to fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its subsequent decomposition.

  5. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756

  6. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  7. Novel potent and selective bile acid derivatives as TGR5 agonists: biological screening, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thomas, Charles; Gioiello, Antimo; Une, Mizuho; Hofmann, Alan F; Saladin, Régis; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-03-27

    TGR5, a metabotropic receptor that is G-protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase, has been recognized as the molecular link connecting bile acids to the control of energy and glucose homeostasis. With the aim of disclosing novel selective modulators of this receptor and at the same time clarifying the molecular basis of TGR5 activation, we report herein the biological screening of a collection of natural occurring bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and some steroid hormones, which has resulted in the discovery of new potent and selective TGR5 ligands. Biological results of the tested collection of compounds were used to extend the structure-activity relationships of TGR5 agonists and to develop a binary classification model of TGR5 activity. This model in particular could unveil some hidden properties shared by the molecular shape of bile acids and steroid hormones that are relevant to TGR5 activation and may hence be used to address the design of novel selective and potent TGR5 agonists.

  8. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  9. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  10. Dancing in the Boardroom (exhibition)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2016-01-01

    The Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit (MOCAD) invited Chloë Brown to present the United States premiere of three pieces of work in the DEPE Space gallery: 'Dancing in the Boardroom (Turnin' My Heartbeat Up)' video, her large drawing 'From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit' and the video 'Dancing in the Street', which was filmed along the route in Detroit that the drawing follows. The exhibition explores connections between the post-industrial cities of Stoke-on-Trent UK and Detroit USA...

  11. Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile acid stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huey-Ling; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chien, Chin-Sung; Chou, Shi-Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2012-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (Bsep) mediates the hepatic excretion of bile acids, and its deficiency causes progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The current study aimed to induce bile acid stress in Bsep −/− mice and to test the efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in this disease model. We fed Bsep −/− and wild-type mice cholic acid (CA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Both CA and UDCA caused cholestasis and apoptosis in the Bsep −/− mouse liver. Wild-type mice had minimal liver inj...

  12. Selective Complexation and Reactivity of Metallic Nitride and OxoMetallic Fullerenes with Lewis Acids and Use as an Effective Purification Method

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Steven; Mackey, Mary A.; Pickens, Jane E.; Stuart, Melissa A.; Confait, Bridget S.; Phillips, J. Paige

    2009-01-01

    Metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) and oxometallic fullerenes (OMFs) react quickly with an array of Lewis acids. Empty-cage fullerenes are largely unreactive under conditions used in this study. The reactivity order is Sc4O2@Ih-C80 > Sc3N@C78 > Sc3N@C68 > Sc3N@D5h-C80 > Sc3N@Ih-C80. Manipulations of Lewis acids, molar ratios and kinetic differences within the family of OMF and MNF metallofullerenes are demonstrated in a selective precipitation scheme, which can be used either alone for purify...

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having 2,6-Diaminopurine Nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. The peptide nucleic acids of the invention comprise ligands selected from a group cons...

  14. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  15. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 μmol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  16. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  17. PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID PHOSPHATASE FROM SPIRODELA OLIGORRHIZA AND ITS AFFINITY FOR SELECTED ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acid phosphatase from the aquatic plant Spirodela oligorrhiza (duckweed) was isolated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and partially characterized. The enzyme was purified 1871-fold with a total yield of 40%. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the pure acid phosphatase ...

  18. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  19. Selective fermentation of carbohydrate and protein fractions of Scenedesmus, and biohydrogenation of its lipid fraction for enhanced recovery of saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Parameswaran, Prathap; Li, Ang; Aguinaga, Alyssa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    Biofuels derived from microalgae have promise as carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. However, difficulty extracting microalgae-derived lipids and the co-extraction of non-lipid components add major costs that detract from the benefits of microalgae-based biofuel. Selective fermentation could alleviate these problems by managing microbial degradation so that carbohydrates and proteins are hydrolyzed and fermented, but lipids remain intact. We evaluated selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass in batch experiments buffered at pH 5.5, 7, or 9. Carbohydrates were fermented up to 45% within the first 6 days, protein fermentation followed after about 20 days, and lipids (measured as fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) were conserved. Fermentation of the non-lipid components generated volatile fatty acids, with acetate, butyrate, and propionate being the dominant products. Selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass increased the amount of extractable FAME and the ratio of FAME to crude lipids. It also led to biohydrogenation of unsaturated FAME to more desirable saturated FAME (especially to C16:0 and C18:0), and the degree of saturation was inversely related to the accumulation of hydrogen gas after fermentation. Moreover, the microbial communities after selective fermentation were enriched in bacteria from families known to perform biohydrogenation, i.e., Porphyromonadaceae and Ruminococcaceae. Thus, this study provides proof-of-concept that selective fermentation can improve the quantity and quality of lipids that can be extracted from Scenedesmus. PMID:26222672

  20. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...