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Sample records for acid etched implants

  1. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Saksø, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation...... was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation.The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were...... compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri-implant...

  2. No positive effect of Acid etching or plasma cleaning on osseointegration of titanium implants in a canine femoral condyle press-fit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saksø, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Vestergaard; Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø

    2013-01-01

    Implant surface treatments that improve early osseointegration may prove useful in long-term survival of uncemented implants. We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants.......Implant surface treatments that improve early osseointegration may prove useful in long-term survival of uncemented implants. We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants....

  3. Torque Analysis of a Triple Acid-Etched Titanium Implant Surface

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    Ana Emília Farias Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants treated with triple acid etching. Twenty-one rats were used in this study. For all animals, the tibia was prepared with a 2 mm drill, and a titanium implant (2 × 4 mm was inserted after treatment using the subtraction method of triple acid etching. The flaps were sutured. Seven animals were killed 14, 28, and 63 days after implant installation, and the load necessary for removing the implant from the bone was evaluated by using a torque meter. The torque values were as follows: 3.3 ± 1.7 Ncm (14 days, 2.2 ± 1.3 Ncm (28 days, and 6.7 ± 1.4 Ncm (63 days. The torque value at the final healing period (63 days was statistically significantly different from that at other time points tested (ANOVA, p=0.0002. This preliminary study revealed that treatment with triple acid etching can create a promising and efficient surface for the process of osseointegration.

  4. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, Jean; Demanget, Nicolas; Pellier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II–V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease. (paper)

  5. Bone Response to Two Dental Implants with Different Sandblasted/Acid-Etched Implant Surfaces: A Histological and Histomorphometrical Study in Rabbits

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    Antonio Scarano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scientific evidence in the field of implant dentistry of the past 20 years established that titanium rough surfaces have shown improved osseointegration rates. In a majority of dental implants, the surface microroughness was obtained by grit blasting and/or acid etching. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo two different highly hydrophilic surfaces at different experimental times. Methods. Calcium-modified (CA and SLActive surfaces were evaluated and a total of 18 implants for each type of surface were positioned into the rabbit articular femoral knee-joint in a split model experiment, and they were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically at 15, 30, and 60 days of healing. Results. Bone-implant contact (BIC at the two-implant surfaces was significantly different in favor of the CA surface at 15 days (p=0.027, while SLActive displayed not significantly higher values at 30 (p=0.51 and 60 days (p=0.061. Conclusion. Both implant surfaces show an intimate interaction with newly formed bone.

  6. Resonance frequency analysis of thermal acid-etched, hydrophilic implants during first 3 months of healing and osseointegration in an early-loading protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, P.; Said, C.; Tahmaseb, A.; Wismeijer, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Safe loading of dental implants requires an optimal osseointegration. This osseointegration process during healing could be analyzed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate RFA changes during healing in splinted, early-loaded, thermal acid-etched,

  7. Peri-Implant Endosseous Healing Properties of Dual Acid-Etched Mini-Implants with a Nanometer-Sized Deposition of CaP : A Histological and Histomorphometric Human Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; Albrektsson, Tomas; Hoffman, Maria; Johansson, Carina B.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this histological and histomorphometric study was to compare the early peri-implant endosseous healing properties of a dual acid-etched (DAE) surface (Osseotite (R), Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) with a DAE surface modified with nanometer-sized calcium

  8. Efficacy of standard (SLA) and modified sandblasted and acid-etched (SLActive) dental implants in promoting immediate and/or early occlusal loading protocols: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrone, Leandro; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Mercúrio, Carlos Eduardo; Cardoso, Bruna; Preshaw, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    To assess the survival percentage, clinical and radiographic outcomes of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants and its modified surface (SLActive) in protocols involving immediate and early occlusal loading. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register CENTRAL were searched in duplicate up to, and including, June 2013 to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies of at least 6-month duration published in all languages. Studies limited to patients treated with SLA and/or SLActive implants involving a treatment protocol describing immediate and early loading of these implants were eligible for inclusion. Data on clinical and/or radiographic outcomes following implant placement were considered for inclusion. Of the 447 potentially eligible publications identified by the search strategy, seven RCTs comprising a total of 853 implants (8% titanium plasma-sprayed, 41.5% SLA and 50.5% SLActive) and 12 prospective observational studies including 1394 SLA and 145 SLActive implants were included in this review. According to the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias, one of the studies was considered to be at a low risk of bias, whereas the remaining studies were considered to be at an unclear risk. Regarding the observational studies, all of them presented a medium methodological quality based on the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. There were no significant differences reported in the studies in relation to implant loss or clinical parameters between the immediate/early loading and delayed loading protocols. Overall, 95% of SLA and 97% of SLActive implants still survive at the end of follow-up. Despite of the positive findings achieved by the included studies, few RCTs were available for analysis for SLActive implants. Study heterogeneity, scarcity of data and the lack of pooled estimates represent a limitation between studies' comparisons and should be considered when interpreting

  9. Self-etching ceramic primer versus hydrofluoric acid etching: Etching efficacy and bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Damanhoury, Hatem M; Gaintantzopoulou, Maria D

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of pretreatment of hybrid and glass ceramics using a self-etching primer on the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface topography, in comparison to pretreatment with hydrofluoric acid and silane. 40 rectangular discs from each ceramic material (IPS e.max CAD;EM, Vita Mark II;VM, Vita Enamic;VE), were equally divided (n=10) and assigned to one of four surface pretreatment methods; etching with 4.8% hydrofluoric acid followed by Monobond plus (HFMP), Monobond etch & prime (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MEP), No treatment (NT) as negative control and Monobond plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) with no etching (MP) as positive control. SBS of resin cement (Multilink-N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to ceramic surfaces was tested following a standard protocol. Surface roughness was evaluated using an Atomic force microscope (AFM). Surface topography and elemental analysis were analyzed using SEM/EDX. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni test at a significance level of α=0.05. Pretreatment with HFMP resulted in higher SBS and increased surface roughness in comparison to MEP and MP. Regardless the method of surface pretreatment, the mean SBS values of EM ceramic was significantly higher (pceramics for resin-luting cementation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium Topography, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zahran

    Full Text Available Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5-7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time.

  11. Fabrication of micromechanical structures on substrates selectively etched using a micropatterned ion-implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shizuka; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Ishikawa, Haruo; Ogiso, Hisato

    2001-01-01

    An advanced micromachining technique using ion implantation to modify materials was studied. Gold ion implantation into silicon decreased the etching rate when the silicon was etched in potassium hydroxide solution after the ion implantation; the implanted region remained, thus forming the microstructure. Observation of the cross-section of the resulting etched structure by transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure was made only from the ion-implanted region, and that gold was precipitated on the surface. To clarify the mechanism involved in the decrease in the etching rate, we varied the etching conditions. Our results show that precipitation of implanted gold on the surface decreased the etching rate, because solubility of gold is lower

  12. Shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel with additional phosphoric acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Guhr, Silke; Schilke, Reinhard; Borchers, Lothar; Geurtsen, Werner; Günay, Hüsamettin

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel and the effect of additional phosphoric acid etching. Seventy sound human molars were randomly divided into three test groups and one control group. The enamel surfaces of the control group (n=10) were treated with Syntac Classic (SC). Each test group was subdivided into two groups (each n=10). In half of each test group, ground enamel surfaces were coated with the self-etch adhesives AdheSe (ADH), Xeno III (XE) or Futurabond NR (FNR). In the remaining half of each test group, an additional phosphoric acid etching of the enamel surface was performed prior to applying the adhesives. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute after storing the samples in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Fracture modes were determined by SEM examination. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and the two-sided Dunnett Test were used (p>0.05). Additional phosphoric etching significantly increased the shear bond strength of all the examined self-etch adhesives (padhesive fractures. For all the self-etch adhesives, a slight increase in mixed fractures occurred after conditioning with phosphoric acid. An additional phosphoric acid etching of enamel should be considered when using self-etch adhesives. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate the long-term success of the examined adhesives.

  13. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  14. Comparison of Self-Etch Primers with Conventional Acid Etching System on Orthodontic Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Amit; Zope-Khalekar, Yogita; Chitko, Shrikant S.; Kerudi, Veerendra V.; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Jaltare, Pratik; Dolas, Siddhesh G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The self-etching primer system consists of etchant and primer dispersed in a single unit. The etching and priming are merged as a single step leading to fewer stages in bonding procedure and reduction in the number of steps that also reduces the chance of introduction of error, resulting in saving time for the clinician. It also results in smaller extent of enamel decalcification. Aim To compare the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontic bracket bonded with Self-Etch Primers (SEP) and conventional acid etching system and to study the surface appearance of teeth after debonding; etching with conventional acid etch and self-etch priming, using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods Five Groups (n=20) were created randomly from a total of 100 extracted premolars. In a control Group A, etching of enamel was done with 37% phosphoric acid and bonding of stainless steel brackets with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California). Enamel conditioning in left over four Groups was done with self-etching primers and adhesives as follows: Group B-Transbond Plus (3M Unitek), Group C Xeno V+ (Dentsply), Group D-G-Bond (GC), Group E-One-Coat (Coltene). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was also evaluated. Additionally, the surface roughness using profilometer were observed. Results Mean SBS of Group A was 18.26±7.5MPa, Group B was 10.93±4.02MPa, Group C was 6.88±2.91MPa while of Group D was 7.78±4.13MPa and Group E was 10.39±5.22MPa respectively. In conventional group ARI scores shows that over half of the adhesive was remaining on the surface of tooth (score 1 to 3). In self-etching primer groups ARI scores show that there was no or minor amount of adhesive remaining on the surface of tooth (score 4 and 5). SEP produces a lesser surface roughness on the enamel than conventional etching. However, statistical analysis shows significant correlation (pbracket bonding after enamel conditioning with any of the SEPs tested. The SEPs used in Groups C (Xeno V

  15. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching on Fatigue Limits of Self-etching Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Scheidel, D D; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing to determine the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel and dentin prior to application of self-etch adhesives for bonding resin composite to these substrates. Three self-etch adhesives--1) G- ænial Bond (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); 2) OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp, Orange, CA, USA); and 3) Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE Dental Products, St Paul, MN, USA)--were used to bond Z100 Restorative resin composite to enamel and dentin surfaces. A stainless-steel metal ring with an inner diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to flat-ground (4000 grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFL. Fifteen specimens each were used to determine initial SBS to human enamel/dentin, with and without pre-etching with a 35% phosphoric acid (Ultra-Etch, Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT, USA) for 15 seconds prior to the application of the adhesives. A staircase method of fatigue testing (25 specimens for each test) was then used to determine the SFL of resin composite bonded to enamel/dentin using a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of SBS data, and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFL data. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the area of the bonded restorative/tooth interface. For all three adhesive systems, phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel demonstrated significantly higher (padhesives clearly demonstrated different tendencies between enamel and dentin. The effect of using phosphoric acid, prior to the application of the self-etching adhesives, on SBS and SFL was dependent on the adhesive material and tooth substrate and should be carefully considered in clinical situations.

  16. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  17. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10 17 cm -2 to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10 17 cm -2 , layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author)

  18. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J. (Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain)); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Electronica)

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2] to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2], layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author).

  19. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: A comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanna Raghu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  20. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievilae, Paeivi; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    Local gallium implantation of silicon by a focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to create a mask for anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. The dependence of the etch stop properties of gallium-doped silicon on the implanted dose has been investigated and a dose of 4 x 10 13 ions cm -2 has been determined to be the threshold value for achieving observable etching resistance. Only a thin, approx. 50 nm, surface layer is found to be durable enough to serve as a mask with a high selectivity of at least 2000:1 between implanted and non-implanted areas. The combined FIB-TMAH process has been used to generate various types of 3D nanostructures including nanochannels separated by thin vertical sidewalls with aspect ratios up to 1:30, ultra-narrow (approx. 25 nm) freestanding bridges and cantilevers, and gratings with a resolution of 20 lines μm -1 .

  1. In vitro evaluation of microleakage around orthodontic brackets using laser etching and Acid etching methods.

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    Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available path of microleakage between the enamel and adhesive potentially allows microbial ingress that may consequently cause enamel decalcification. The aim of this study was to compare microleakage of brackets bonded either by laser or acid etching techniques.The specimens were 33 extracted premolars that were divided into three groups as the acid etching group (group 1, laser etching with Er:YAG at 100 mJ and 15 Hz for 15s (group 2, and laser etching with Er:YAG at 140 mJ and 15 Hz for 15s (group 3. After photo polymerization, the teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. Then the specimens were sealed with nail varnish, stained with 2% methylen blue for 24hs, sectioned, and examined under a stereomicroscope. They were scored for marginal microleakage that occurred between the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces from the occlusal and gingival margins. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal- Wallis test.For the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive surfaces, significant differences were not observed between the three groups.According to this study, the Er:YAG laser with 1.5 and 2.1 watt settings may be used as an adjunctive for preparing the surface for orthodontic bracket bonding.

  2. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by local gallium implantation and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekurov, N; Grigoras, K; Franssila, S; Tittonen, I; Peltonen, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that gallium-ion-implanted silicon serves as an etch mask for fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures by cryogenic plasma etching (deep reactive ion etching). The speed of focused ion beam (FIB) patterning is greatly enhanced by the fact that only a thin approx. 30 nm surface layer needs to be modified to create a mask for the etching step. Etch selectivity between gallium-doped and undoped material is at least 1000:1, greatly decreasing the mask erosion problems. The resolution of the combined FIB-DRIE process is 20 lines μm -1 with the smallest masked feature size of 40 nm. The maximum achieved aspect ratio is 15:1 (e.g. 600 nm high pillars 40 nm in diameter).

  3. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF ACID ETCHING ON AFFECTED ENAMEL

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    Simona Stoleriu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to establish and compare the effects of ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acids on the enamel affected by incipient carious lesions with different evolution. Materials and method. 20 teeth with acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions were considered for the study. The teeth were sectioned in two halves through the middle of the non-cavitary lesions. The halves of 5 white spot-type lesions and of 5 brown spot-type ones were analyzed as to their surface roughness, on an atomic force microscope (AFM. 5 halves with white spot-type lesions and 5 halves with brown spot-type ones were subjected to acid etching with 37% ortophosphoric acid (Scotchbond etchant gel, 3M ESPE, and an equal number of samples was subjected to the action of 15% hydrochloric acid (ICON-etch, DMG Dental Products Ltd for 2 min, then washed with water and analyzed by AFM. Results. The initial surface roughness of the enamel was higher in the white spot–type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. For both types of carious non-cavitary lesions, acid etching with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid significantly increased the surface roughness of the enamel, comparatively with the status of the enamel surface prior to etching. The hydrochloric acid led to a surface roughness significantly higher than in the case of ortophosphoric acid, in both acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The roughness values obtained through etching with ortophosphoric and hydrochloric acid were higher in the white spot-type carious lesions, comparatively with the brown spot-type ones. Conclusions. Both the 37% ortophosphoric acid and the 15% hydrochloric acid determined a significantly higher surface roughness of the enamel affected by acute and chronic non-cavitary carious lesions. The surface condition of the brown spot-type carious lesions was less significantly modified, comparatively with that of the white spot-type lesions, by the

  4. Can previous acid etching increase the bond strength of a self-etching primer adhesive to enamel?

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    Ana Paula Morales Cobra Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Because a greater research effort has been directed to analyzing the adhesive effectiveness of self etch primers to dentin, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by microtensile testing, the bond strength to enamel of a composite resin combined with a conventional adhesive system or with a self-etching primer adhesive, used according to its original prescription or used with previous acid etching. Thirty bovine teeth were divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth each (n= 10. In one of the groups, a self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond - Kuraray was applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and, in the other, it was applied after previous acid etching. In the third group, a conventional adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus - 3M-ESPE was applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The results obtained by analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the adhesive systems (F = 22.31. The self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond presented lower enamel bond strength values than the conventional adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (m = 39.70 ± 7.07 MPa both when used according to the original prescription (m = 27.81 ± 2.64 MPa and with previous acid etching (m = 25.08 ± 4.92 MPa.

  5. Comparison of enamel bond fatigue durability between universal adhesives and two-step self-etch adhesives: Effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Shunichi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Nojiri, Kie; Nagura, Yuko; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-03-30

    The effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching on enamel bond fatigue durability of universal adhesives and two-step self-etch adhesives was investigated. Four universal adhesives and three two-step self-etch adhesives were used. The initial shear bond strengths and shear fatigue strengths to enamel with and without phosphoric acid pre-etching using the adhesives were determined. SEM observations were also conducted. Phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel was found to increase the bond fatigue durability of universal adhesives, but its effect on two-step self-etch adhesives was material-dependent. In addition, some universal adhesives with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed similar bond fatigue durability to the two-step self-etch adhesives, although the bond fatigue durability of universal adhesives in self-etch mode was lower than that of the two-step self-etch adhesives. Phosphoric acid pre-etching enhances enamel bond fatigue durability of universal adhesives, but the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond fatigue durability of two-step self-etch adhesives was material-dependent.

  6. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after acid-etched and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-etched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laser ablation has been suggested as an alternative method to acid etching; however, previous studies have obtained contrasting results. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS and fracture mode of orthodontic brackets that are bonded to enamel etched with acid and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, buccal surfaces of 15 non-carious human premolars were divided into mesial and distal regions. Randomly, one of the regions was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s and another region irradiated with Er:YAG laser at 100 mJ energy and 20 Hz frequency for 20 s. Stainless steel brackets were then bonded using Transbond XT, following which all the samples were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to 500 thermal cycles. SBS was tested by a chisel edge, mounted on the crosshead of universal testing machine. After debonding, the teeth were examined under Χ10 magnification and adhesive remnant index (ARI score determined. SBS and ARI scores of the two groups were then compared using t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Significant level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean SBS of the laser group (16.61 ± 7.7 MPa was not significantly different from that of the acid-etched group (18.86 ± 6.09 MPa (P = 0.41. There was no significant difference in the ARI scores between two groups (P = 0.08. However, in the laser group, more adhesive remained on the brackets, which is not suitable for orthodontic purposes. Conclusion: Laser etching at 100 mJ energy produced bond strength similar to acid etching. Therefore, Er:YAG laser may be an alternative method for conventional acid-etching.

  7. Surface Modification of Ti-35Nb-10Ta-1.5Fe by the Double Acid-Etching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Lario; Angélica Amigó; Francisco Segovia; Vicente Amigó

    2018-01-01

    Surface topography and composition influence the osteoblastic proliferation and osseointegration rates, which favor the biomechanical stability of bone anchoring and implants. In recent years, beta titanium alloys have been developed, and are composed of biocompatible elements, have low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties to improve the long performance behavior of biomaterials. In the present research, the influence of the acid-etching process was studied in...

  8. Selective etching of injection molded zirconia-toughened alumina: Towards osseointegrated and antibacterial ceramic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, Quentin; Caravaca, Carlos; Meille, Sylvain; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme; Biotteau-Deheuvels, Katia; Kuntz, Meinhard; Chandrawati, Rona; Herrmann, Inge K; Spicer, Christopher D; Stevens, Molly M; Anglada, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds. In this work, we developed an integrated strategy aiming to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces. The micro-topography was controlled by injection molding. Meanwhile a novel process involving the selective dissolution of zirconia (selective etching) was used to produce nano-roughness and interconnected nanoporosity. Potential utilization of the porosity for loading and delivery of antibiotic molecules was demonstrated, and the impact of selective etching on mechanical properties and hydrothermal stability was shown to be limited. The combination of injection molding and selective etching thus appears promising for fabricating a new generation of ZTA components implantable in direct contact with bone. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is the current gold standard for the fabrication of orthopedic ceramic components. In the present work, we propose an innovative strategy to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces: we demonstrate that injection molding allows a flexible design of surface micro-topography and can be combined with selective etching, a novel process that induces nano-roughness and surface interconnected porosity without the need for coating, avoiding reliability issues. These surface modifications have the

  9. The Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times on Bonding Performance and Surface Free Energy with Single-step Self-etch Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching times on shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free energy (SFE) with single-step self-etch adhesives. The three single-step self-etch adhesives used were: 1) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE), 2) Clearfil tri-S Bond (Kuraray Noritake Dental), and 3) G-Bond Plus (GC). Two no pre-etching groups, 1) untreated enamel and 2) enamel surfaces after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer, were prepared. There were four pre-etching groups: 1) enamel surfaces were pre-etched with phosphoric acid (Etchant, 3M ESPE) for 3 seconds, 2) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 5 seconds, 3) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 10 seconds, and 4) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 15 seconds. Resin composite was bonded to the treated enamel surface to determine SBS. The SFEs of treated enamel surfaces were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interface. The specimens with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFEs than the specimens without phosphoric acid pre-etching regardless of the adhesive system used. SBS and SFEs did not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds. There were no significant differences in SBS and SFEs between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The data suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of ground enamel improves the bonding performance of single-step self-etch adhesives, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds.

  10. Characterization of selectively etched halloysite nanotubes by acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Daniel; Ferri, Jose M.; Ripoll, Laura; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Lopez-Martinez, Juan; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a type of naturally occurring inorganic nanotubes that are characterized by a different composition between their external and internal walls. The internal walls are mainly composed of alumina whilst external walls are composed of silica. This particular structure offers a dual surface chemistry that allows different selective surface treatments which can be focused on increasing the lumen, increasing porosity, etc. In this work, HNTs were chemically treated with different acids (sulphuric, acetic and acrylic acid), for 72 h at a constant temperature of 50 °C. As per the obtained results, the treatment with sulphuric acid is highly aggressive and the particular shape of HNTs is almost lost, with a remarkable increase in porosity. The BET surface area increases from 52.9 (untreated HNTs) up to 132.4 m2 g-1 with sulphuric acid treatment, thus showing an interesting potential in the field of catalysis. On the other hand, the treatment with acetic acid led to milder effects with a noticeable increase in the lumen diameter that changed from 13.8 nm (untreated HNTs) up to 18.4 nm which the subsequent increase in the loading capacity by 77.8%. The aluminium content was measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The final results using two systems, suggest a good correlation between the acid strength and the aluminium reduction. Consequently, is possible to conclude that new applications for HNTs can be derived from selective etching with acids. Sulphuric acid widens the potential of HNTs in the field of catalysis while weak acids such as acetic and acrylic acids give a controlled and homogeneous lumen increase with the corresponding increase in the loading capacity.

  11. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium–zirconium alloy after acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Walter, Martin S. [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lyngstadaas, S. Petter [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Wintermantel, Erich [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium–zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p < 0.01) on the titanium–zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium. - Highlights: ► TiZr alloy showed increased hydrogen levels over Ti. ► The alloying element Zr appeared to catalyze hydrogen absorption in Ti. ► Surface roughness was significantly increased for the TiZr alloy over Ti. ► TiZr alloy revealed nanostructures not observed for Ti.

  12. Liquid droplet sensing using twisted optical fiber couplers fabricated by hydrofluoric acid flow etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gyeongho; Jung, Youngho; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2017-04-01

    We report a directional-coupler-based refractive index sensor and its cost-effective fabrication method using hydrofluoric acid droplet wet-etching and surface-tension-driven liquid flows. The proposed fiber sensor consists of a pair of twisted tapered optical fibers with low excess losses. The fiber cores in the etched microfiber region are exposed to the surrounding medium for efficient interaction with the guided light. We observe that the etching-based low-loss fiber-optic sensors can measure the water droplet volume by detecting the refractive index changes of the surrounding medium around the etched fiber core region.

  13. Nanostructural effect of acid-etching and fluoride application on human primary and permanent tooth enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Youjin; Choi, Samjin; Kim, So Jung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nanostructural effects of fluoride application and the acid-etching time with respect to the time elapsed after fluoride application on the primary and permanent tooth enamel layers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 192 non-carious teeth were assigned to sixteen experimental groups (n = 12) including primary (1 to 8) and permanent (9 to 16) teeth, based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. The APF pre-treatment led to a decrease in surface roughness in both the primary and permanent teeth. After the APF treatment, the roughness in both primary and permanent teeth increased with the time elapsed. An acid-etching time of 40 s led to increased nanostructural changes in the enamel surfaces compared to the conventional acid-etching time of 20 s. This acid-etching process led to a higher roughness changes in the primary teeth than in the permanent teeth. To obtain proper enamel adhesion of a sealant after APF pre-treatment, it is important to apply acid-etching two weeks after pre-treatment. In addition, the acid-etching time should be prolonged to apply etching more quickly than two weeks, regardless of the primary and permanent teeth. Highlights: ► APF pre-treatment led to decreased surface roughness in the enamel. ► After APF treatment, the more roughness increased with increasing time elapsed. ► Acid-etching should be performed two weeks after fluoride application.

  14. Nanostructural effect of acid-etching and fluoride application on human primary and permanent tooth enamels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Youjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Samjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Jung [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hun-Kuk, E-mail: sigmoidus@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program of Medical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the nanostructural effects of fluoride application and the acid-etching time with respect to the time elapsed after fluoride application on the primary and permanent tooth enamel layers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 192 non-carious teeth were assigned to sixteen experimental groups (n = 12) including primary (1 to 8) and permanent (9 to 16) teeth, based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. The APF pre-treatment led to a decrease in surface roughness in both the primary and permanent teeth. After the APF treatment, the roughness in both primary and permanent teeth increased with the time elapsed. An acid-etching time of 40 s led to increased nanostructural changes in the enamel surfaces compared to the conventional acid-etching time of 20 s. This acid-etching process led to a higher roughness changes in the primary teeth than in the permanent teeth. To obtain proper enamel adhesion of a sealant after APF pre-treatment, it is important to apply acid-etching two weeks after pre-treatment. In addition, the acid-etching time should be prolonged to apply etching more quickly than two weeks, regardless of the primary and permanent teeth. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APF pre-treatment led to decreased surface roughness in the enamel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After APF treatment, the more roughness increased with increasing time elapsed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid-etching should be performed two weeks after fluoride application.

  15. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costescu Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  16. Acid Etching as Surface Treatment Method for Luting of Glass-Ceramic Restorations, part 1: Acids, Application Protocol and Etching Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Barjaktarova-Valjakova

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Acid etching of the bonding surface of glass - ceramic restorations is considered as the most effective treatment method that provides a reliable bond with composite cement. Selective removing of the glassy matrix of silicate ceramics results in a micromorphological three-dimensional porous surface that allows micromechanical interlocking of the luting composite.

  17. Ga+ focused-ion-beam implantation-induced masking for H2 etching of ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Huang, Jun-Han; Chu, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2010-01-01

    Gallium implantation of ZnO by a focused-ion beam is used to create a mask for ZnO dry etching with hydrogen. Effects of Ga + fluence on the etch stop properties and the associated mechanisms are investigated. The fluence of 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 is determined to be optimum to render the best mask quality. While lower fluences would cause less etching selectivity, higher fluences would cause erosion of the surface and particles to be precipitated on the surface after H 2 treatment at high temperature. In contrast to the commonly adopted gallium oxide formation on Si, transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that, for the fluences ≤ 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 , Ga + ions are incorporated as dopants into ZnO without any second phases or precipitates, indicating the Ga-doped ZnO layer behaves as a mask for H 2 etching due to the higher electronegativity of Ga + towards oxygen. However, for the fluences ≥ 4.6 x 10 16 cm -2 , the surface particles are responsible for the etch stop and are identified as ZnGa 2 O 4 . We finally demonstrate a complicated pattern of 'NCKU' on ZnO by using this technique. The study not only helps clarify the related mechanisms, but also suggests a feasible extension of the etch stop process that can be applied to more functional material.

  18. A comparison of buried oxide characteristics of single and multiple implant SIMOX and bond and etch back wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, N.K.; Bockman, J.F.; McGruer, N.E.; Chapski, J.

    1990-01-01

    The current through the buried oxides of single and multiple implant SIMOX and bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) wafers were measured as a function of radiation dose. From these measurements, conductivity and static capacitances were derived. High frequency capacitances were also measured. Leakage current through the buried oxide of multiple implant SIMOX is considerably less than that of single implant SIMOX (more than an order of magnitude). High frequency and static capacitances, as a function of total dose, were used to study the buried oxide---top silicon interface and the buried oxide---bottom silicon interface. Multiple implant had fewer interface traps than single implant at pre-rad and after irradiation

  19. Acid Solutions for Etching Corrosion-Resistant Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    New study characterized solutions for etching austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, and titanium alloys (annealed). Solutions recommended for use remove at least 0.4 mil of metal from surface in less than an hour. Solutions do not cause intergranular attack on metals for which they are effective, when used under specified conditions.

  20. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-01-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0-3) by

  1. Enhancement of laser induced damage threshold of fused silica by acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Xiang Xia; Jiang Yong; Zu Xiaotao; Yuan Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo; Wang Haijun; Li Xibin; Lu Haibing; Jiang Xiaodong; Wang Chengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning is developed to enhance the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica. Firstly, the fused silica is etched for 1 ∼ 100 min with a buffered 1% HF solution. After acid etching, its transmittance, surface roughness and LIDT are measured. The results reveal that the fused silica has the highest LIDT and transmittance after etching for 10 min. Then UV laser (355 nm) conditioning is adopted to process the 10-min-etched fused silica. When the laser fluence is below 60% of fused silica's zero probability damage threshold, the LIDT increases gradually with the increase of laser conditioning fluence. However, the LIDT rapidly decreases to be lower than the threshold of the 10-min-etched fused silica when the conditioning fluence is up to 80% of the threshold. Proper acid etching and laser conditioning parameters will effectively enhance the laser damage resistance of fused silica. (authors)

  2. Grafting of acrylic acid on etched latent tracks induced by swift heavy ions on polypropylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia Bermudez, G.; Torres, A.; Gutierrez, M.C.; Magni, M.; Celma, G.; Tadey, D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to continue with a systematic study that include different polymers and monomers, the residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, that remain after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. To produce tracks, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with 208 Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, these were etched and grafted with acrylic acid (AA) monomers. Experimental curves of grafting yield as a function of grafting time with the etching time as a parameter were measured. Also, the grating yield as a function of the fluence and etching time was obtained. In addition, the permeation of solutions, with different pH, through PP grafted foils was measured

  3. Synthesis of SiC microstructures in Si technology by high dose carbon implantation: Etch-stop properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Morante, J.R.; Esteve, J.; Acero, M.C.; Skorupa, W.; Koegler, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of high dose carbon ion implantation in Si for the production of membranes and microstructures is investigated. Si wafers were implanted with carbon doses of 10 17 and 5 x 10 17 cm -2 , at an energy of 300 keV and a temperature of 500 C. The structural analysis of these samples revealed the formation of a highly stable buried layer of crystalline β-SiC precipitates aligned with the Si matrix. The etch-stop properties of this layer have been investigated using tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide as etchant solution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements performed on the etched samples have allowed an estimate of the minimum dose needed for obtaining an etch-stop layer to a value in the range 2 to 3 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . This behavior has been explained assuming the existence of a percolation process in a SiC/Si binary system. Finally, very thin crystalline membranes and self-standing structures with average surface roughness in the range 6 to 7 nm have been obtained

  4. Bond strength and morphology of enamel using self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kiss Moura

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Composite resin (Filtek Z250 buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis and treated (bur-cut or SiC-paper enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition: Clearfil SE Bond (CSE; OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP; AdheSe (AD; Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP and Adper Single Bond (SB. After storage in water (24 h/37°C, the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm² cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05. The mean bond strength values (MPa and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5, OP (11.3±2.3, AD (11.2±2.8, TY (11.1±3.0, SBMP (21.9±4.0 and SB (24.9±3.0. Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. CONCLUSION: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed.

  5. Effect of EDTA and phosphoric Acid pretreatment on the bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesives to ground enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ihab M; Elkassas, Dina W; Yousry, Mai M

    2010-10-01

    This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9-1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6-1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel.

  6. Influence of external magnetic field on the etching of a steel ball in an aqueous solution of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ilchenko M.; Yu, Gorobets O.; Bondar, I.A.; Gaponov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of change of shape of a steel ball was revealed as a result of its etching in an aqueous solution of nitric acid under influence of an external magnetic field. The elongation of a ferromagnetic ball was observed along the direction of an external magnetic field while etching took place uniformly in all the directions without magnetic field application. The steel ball etching in a magnetic field is characterized by formation of three cylindrically symmetric regions with different etching rates and surface structures, divided from each other by clear borders (namely, the pole, equator and transition regions are formed). The non-monotone dependences of etching rate, surface structure of a sample and sample shape after etching on an external magnetic field are observed.

  7. Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengjun; Iltanen, Kari; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka; Grigoras, Kestutis

    2013-01-01

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al 2 O 3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al 2 O 3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga + ) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al 2 O 3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga + FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al 2 O 3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga + ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 μm. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated. (paper)

  8. Enamel Deproteinization using Papacarie and 10% Papain Gel on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Before and After Acid Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R M; Yeluri, R; Singh, C; Munshi, A K

    2015-01-01

    To suggest Papacarie(®) as a new deproteinizing agent in comparison with indigenously prepared 10% papain gel before and after acid etching that may enhance the quality of the bond between enamel surface and composite resin complex. One hundred and twenty five extracted human premolars were utilized and divided into five groups: In the group 1, enamel surface was etched and primer was applied. In group 2, treatment with papacarie(®) for 60 seconds followed by etching and primer application. In group 3, etching followed by treatment with papacarie(®) for 60 seconds and primer application. In group 4, treatment with 10% papain gel for 60 seconds followed by etching and primer application. In group 5, etching followed by treatment with 10% papain gel for 60 seconds and primer application . After bonding the brackets, the mechanical testing was performed using a Universal testing machine. The failure mode was analyzed using an adhesive remnant index. The etching patterns before and after application of papacarie(®) and 10% papain gel was also evaluated using SEM. The values obtained for shear bond strength were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (p Adhesive remnant index no statistical difference was seen between the groups (p=0.538). Papacarie(®) or 10% papain gel can be used to deproteinize the enamel surface before acid etching to enhance the bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  9. Effect of Reduced Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times 
on Enamel Surface Characteristics and Shear Fatigue Strength Using Universal Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Fischer, Nicholas; Barkmeier, Wayne; Baruth, Andrew; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times on enamel fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives and surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three universal adhesives were used in this study (Clearfil Universal Bond [C], G-Premio Bond [GP], Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SU]). Four pre-etching groups were employed: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid and immediately rinsed with an air-water spray, and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 5, 10, or 15 s. Ground enamel was used as the control group. For the initial bond strength test, 15 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were used. For the shear fatigue test, 20 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of composite adhesively bonded to ground and pre-etched enamel were determined. AFM observations of ground and pre-etched enamel were also conducted, and surface roughness as well as surface area were evaluated. The initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of the universal adhesives in the pre-etched groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, and were not influenced by the pre-etching time. Significantly higher surface roughness and surface area of enamel surfaces in pre-etched groups were observed compared with those in the control group. While the surface area was not significantly influenced by etching time, surface roughness of the enamel surfaces in the pre-etched groups significantly increased with pre-etching time. The results of this in vitro study suggest that reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times do not impair the fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives. Although fatigue bond strength and surface area were not influenced by phosphoric-acid etching times, surface roughness increased with increasing etching time.

  10. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups. PMID:27008254

  11. Influence of previous acid etching on bond strength of universal adhesives to enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Silva, Tatiane Josefa; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment on the bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin with 2 different universal self-etching adhesives. The null hypothesis was that the acid treatment performed prior to adhesive application would not significantly change the bond strength to enamel or dentin for either universal adhesive tested. A sample of 112 bovine incisors were selected and embedded in acrylic resin. Half were ground until a flat enamel surface was obtained, and the other half were polished until a 6 × 6-mm area of dentin was exposed, resulting into 2 groups (n = 56). The enamel and dentin groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to the adhesive system applied: Futurabond U or Scotchbond Universal. Each of these subgroups was divided into 2 additional subgroups (n = 14); 1 subgroup received phosphoric acid pretreatment, and 1 subgroup did not. The bond strength was assessed with a microtensile test. Data from enamel and dentin specimens were analyzed separately using 1-way analysis of variance. The acid pretreatment did not significantly change the bond strength of the adhesives tested, either to enamel (P = 0.4161) or to dentin (P = 0.4857). The acid etching pretreatment did not affect the bond strength to dentin and enamel when the tested universal multipurpose adhesive systems were used.

  12. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-02-01

    Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch.

  13. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  14. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (pcorrosion current density) and Ipass (pcorrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections. PMID:24671257

  15. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (pdextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (pdextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections.

  16. Effect of Surface Treatment on Enamel Cracks After Orthodontic Bracket Debonding: Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-Etching Versus Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Hassanali; Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Baherimoghadam, Tahereh; Azmi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to compare enamel cracks after orthodontic bracket debonding in the surfaces prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-galliumgarnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and the conventional acid-etching technique. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 60 sound human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=30). The teeth in group A were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, while the teeth in group B were subjected to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (gold handpiece, MZ8 tip, 50Hz, 4.5W, 60μs, 80% water and 60% air). Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces and were then debonded in both groups. The samples were inspected under a stereomicroscope at ×38 magnification to assess the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding and after debonding. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare the frequency of enamel cracks in the two groups. Levene’s test was applied to assess the equality of variances. Results: No significant difference was noted in the frequency or length of enamel cracks between the two groups after debonding (P>0.05). Conclusions: Despite the same results of the frequency and length of enamel cracks in the two groups and by considering the side effects of acid-etching (demineralization and formation of white spot lesions), Er,Cr:YSGG laser may be used as an alternative to acid-etching for enamel surface preparation prior to bracket bonding. PMID:29296111

  17. Ultrastructure of the surface of dental enamel with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) with and without acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozal, Carola B; Kaplan, Andrea; Ortolani, Andrea; Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the ultrastructure and mineral composition of the surface of the enamel on a molar with MIH, with and without acid etching. A permanent tooth without clinical MIH lesions (control) and a tooth with clinical diagnosis of mild and moderate MIH, with indication for extraction, were processed with and without acid etching (H3PO4 37%, 20") for observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM) ZEISS (Supra 40) and mineral composition analysis with an EDS detector (Oxford Instruments). The control enamel showed normal prismatic surface and etching pattern. The clinically healthy enamel on the tooth with MIH revealed partial loss of prismatic pattern. The mild lesion was porous with occasional cracks. The moderate lesion was more porous, with larger cracks and many scales. The mineral composition of the affected surfaces had lower Ca and P content and higher O and C. On the tooth with MIH, even on normal looking enamel, the demineralization does not correspond to an etching pattern, and exhibits exposure of crystals with rods with rounded ends and less demineralization in the inter-prismatic spaces. Acid etching increased the presence of cracks and deep pores in the adamantine structure of the enamel with lesion. In moderate lesions, the mineral composition had higher content of Ca, P and Cl. Enamel with MIH, even on clinically intact adamantine surfaces, shows severe alterations in the ultrastructure and changes in ionic composition, which affect the acid etching pattern and may interfere with adhesion.

  18. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS. Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva. In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS. Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤ 0.05. Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148 and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73. Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes.

  19. Radiographic Bone Density around Dental Implants with Surface Modification by Laser Ablation followed by Hydroxyapatite Coating: A Study in Rabbit Tibiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazelato, Tiago; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Morais, J

    followed by hydroxyapatite coating with a surface that was oxide-blasted followed by acid etching. On this study twenty-four rabbits received two implants in each tibia, an oxide-blasted + acid-etched (ATS) and a hydroxyapatite-coated (HAP) implant. Radiographs of the implants were recorded after 4, 8...

  20. Effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Parvizi, Shaghayegh; Keshvad, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength of two hot-pressed glass ceramics reinforced by leucite or lithium disilicate crystals. Forty glass ceramic disks (14-mm diameter, 2-mm thick) consisting of 20 leucite-based ceramic disks (IPS Empress) and 20 lithia disilicate-based ceramic (IPS Empress 2) were produced by hot-pressing technique. All specimens were polished and then cleaned ultrasonically in distilled water. Ten specimens of each ceramic group were then etched with 9% hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel for 2 minutes and cleaned ultrasonically again. The biaxial flexural strength was measured by the piston-on-three-ball test in a universal testing machine. Data based on ten specimens in each group were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Microstructure of ceramic surfaces before and after acid etching was also examined by a scanning electron microscope. The mean biaxial flexural strength values for each group tested were (in MPa): nonetched IPS Empress = 118.6 +/- 25.5; etched IPS Empress = 102.9 +/- 15.4; nonetched IPS Empress 2 = 283.0 +/- 48.5; and etched IPS Empress 2 = 250.6 +/- 34.6. The results showed that the etching process reduced the biaxial flexural strengths significantly for both ceramic types (p= 0.025). No significant interaction between the ceramic type and etching process was found (p= 0.407). From the results, it was concluded that surface HF acid etching could have a weakening effect on hot-pressed leucite or lithia disilicate-based glass ceramic systems.

  1. The effect of different surgical drilling procedures on full laser-etched microgrooves surface-treated implants: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Yoo, Daniel Y; Janal, Malvin N; Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Coelho, Paulo G

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of instrumentation technique on the early osseointegration histomorphometrics and biomechanical fixation of fully laser-etched microgrooves implant surfaces in a sheep model. Six sheep were subjected to bilateral hip surgeries 3 and 6 weeks before euthanasia. A total of 48 implants (∅4.5 mm, 8 mm in length) were distributed among four sites (8 per animal) and placed in bone sites drilled to 4.6 mm (reamer), 4.1 mm (loose), 3.7 mm (medium) and 3.2 mm (tight) in diameter. After healing, the animals were euthanized and half of the implants were biomechanically tested, while the remainder was subjected to non-decalcified histologic processing. The histomorphometric parameters assessed were bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-model analysis of variance with significance level set at P bone seemed to be in contact to the implant surface, at 3 weeks, whereas the implants placed in press-fit situations were mainly supported by cortical bone. The laser-etched microgrooved implant presented osteoconductive and biocompatible properties for all surgical procedures tested. However, procedures providing increasingly higher press-fit scenarios presented the strongest histomorphometric and biomechanical responses at 3 and 6 weeks. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Selective etching of n-type silicon in pn junction structure in hydrofluoric acid and its application in silicon nanowire fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiquan; Jin Zhonghe; Zheng Yangming; Ma Huilian; Wang Yuelin; Li Tie

    2008-01-01

    Boron is selectively implanted on the surface of an n-type silicon wafer to form a p-type area surrounded by an n-type area. The wafer is then put into a buffered oxide etch solution. It is found that the n-type area can be selectively etched without illumination, with an etching rate lower than 1 nm min -1 , while the p-type area can be selectively etched under illumination with a much higher etching rate. The possible mechanism of the etching phenomenon is discussed. A simple fabrication process of silicon nanowires is proposed according to the above phenomenon. In this process only traditional micro-electromechanical system technology is used. Dimensions of the fabricated nanowire can be controlled well. A 50 nm wide and 50 nm thick silicon nanowire has been formed using this method

  3. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel: effect of acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Scribante, Andrea; Della Zoppa, Federica; Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect of surface pretreatment with phosphoric acid on the enamel bond strength of four-one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values. One hundred bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. The materials used in this study included four-one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values: Adper(™) Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (ph = 0,8-1), Futurabond NR (ph = 1,4), G-aenial Bond (ph = 1,5), Clearfil(3) S Bond (ph = 2,7). One two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond/ph = 0,8-1) was used as control. The teeth were assigned into two subgroups according to bonding procedure. In the first subgroup (n = 50), no pretreatment agent was applied. In the second subgroup (n = 50), etching was performed using 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s. After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the enamel surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Model 3343, Instron Corp., Canton, Mass., USA). After the testing procedure, the fractured surfaces were examined with an optical microscope at a magnification of 10× to determine failure modes. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the amount of adhesive left on the enamel surface. Descriptive statistics of the shear bond strength and frequency distribution of ARI scores were calculated. Enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid significantly increased bond strength values of all the adhesives tested. No significant differences in bond strength were detected among the four different one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH. Two-step self-etch adhesive showed the highest bond strength. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Selective Acid Etching Improves the Bond Strength of Universal Adhesive to Sound and Demineralized Enamel of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    To evaluate the influence of enamel condition and etching strategy on bond strength of a universal adhesive in primary teeth. Thirty-six primary molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6) according to the enamel condition (sound [S] and demineralized [DEM]/cariogenic challenge by pH cycling prior to restorative procedures) and adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]) used in either etch-and-rinse (ER) or selfetching (SE) mode, with Clearfil SE Bond as the self-etching control. The adhesives were applied to flat enamel surfaces and composite cylinders (0.72 mm2) were built up. After 24-h storage in water, specimens were subjected to the microshear test. Bond strength (MPa) data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Significant differences were found considering the factors adhesive system (p = 0.003) and enamel condition (p = 0.001). Demineralized enamel negatively affected the bond strength, with μSBS values approximately 50% lower than those obtained for sound enamel. SBU performed better in etch-and-rinse mode, and the bond strength found for SBU applied in self-etching mode was similar to that of CSE. Enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to primary enamel. Demineralized primary enamel results in lower bond strength.

  5. Saddle-fin cell transistors with oxide etch rate control by using tilted ion implantation (TIS-fin) for sub-50-nm DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Min Soo; Choi, Kang Sik; Sun, Woo Kyung

    2010-01-01

    As DRAM cell pitch size decreases, the need for a high performance transistor is increasing. Though saddle-fin (S-fin) transistors have superior characteristics, S-fin transistors are well known to be more sensitive to process variation. To make uniform S-fin transistors, for the first time, we developed a new fin formation method using tilted ion implantation along the wordline direction after a recess gate etch. Due to the increased etch rate of the oxide film by ion implantation damage, fins are made at the bottom channel of the recess gate after wet etching. The resulting tilt implanted saddle-fin (TIS-fin) transistor has remarkably improved characteristics, such as ∼8% subthreshold swing (SS) and a 40% drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) decrease. Especially, the TIS-fin with a neutral dopant has a reduced threshold voltage (Vth) variation within a wafer (<100 mV), which is comparable with that of a mass-produced sphere-shaped recessed channel array transistor (SRCAT).

  6. Active application of primer acid on acid-treated enamel: Influence on the bond effectiveness of self-etch adhesives systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Costa, Daiane Cristianismo; Bosso, Mariana Avalone; Coppini, Erick Kamiya; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Santos; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2017-08-01

    Evaluate the composite-to-enamel bond after passive or active application of self-etching primer systems on polished or pre-etched enamel with phosphoric acid. Two self-etch adhesives systems (SEAS) were used: Clearfil SE Bond and Easy Bond. Third human molars were divided into 8 groups (N = 10). The crown of each tooth was sectioned into halves and the mesial/distal surfaces were used. The adhesives were actively or passively applied on enamel with or without prior phosphoric-acid etching. Resin composite cylinders were built after adhesive application. After stored in relative humidity for 24 hr/37°C the specimens were subjected to microshear test in universal testing a machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under SEM. The 2-step SEAS system presented significantly higher adhesive bond strength means (47.37 MPa) than the 1-step (36.87 MPa). A poor enamel- etching pattern was observed in active mode showing irregular and short resin tags, however there was not compromised the bond strength. Active or passive application produced similar values of bond strength to enamel regardless of enamel pretreatment and type of SEAS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers and phosphoric acid effectiveness on composite to enamel bond: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Basanagouda S; Rao, Bk Raghavendra; Sharathchandra, Sm; Hegde, Reshma; Kumar, G Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the one total-etch self-priming adhesive, one two-step self-etching primer adhesive, and one 'all-in-one' self-etching adhesive system on the adhesion of a resin composite to enamel. Thirty-six freshly extracted human mandibular molars were selected for this study. A fat area about 5 mm in diameter was created on the exposed mesial surface of enamel of each tooth by moist grinding with 320, 420 and 600 grit silicon carbide paper. Twelve teeth were randomly assigned into three groups. In group 1, Adper Easy One (3M ESPE), a one step self-etching primer adhesive was applied and light curing unit for 10 seconds. In group 2, Adper SE Plus, a two-step self-etching primer with bottle A containing the aqueous primer and bottle B containing the acidic adhesive was applied and light cured for 10 seconds. Group 3 (control)-etchant 37% phosphoric acid is applied to the surface for 15 seconds and rinsed with water and air dried and adhesive (single bond 2) is applied to the surface and tube is placed and light cured for 20 seconds. Composite material (Z350) was placed in the tube and light cured for 40 seconds in all the groups. Bond strength testing was done using universal testing machine at the enamel-composite interface. The debonded enamel surface was evaluated in stereomicroscope to assess the cohesive, adhesive or mixed fracture. Data was statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Group 1 performed least among all groups with a mean score of 19.46 MPa. Group 2 had a mean score of 25.67 MPa. Group 3 had a mean score of 27.16 MPa. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, the bond strength values of the two-step self-etching primer systems tested were similar to the total-etch. And, one step self-etching primers have lower bond strength compared to the total-etch.

  8. The bonding of heavy metals on nitric acid-etched coal fly ashes functionalized with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, M.I.; Aller, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Coal fly ash is a waste by-product of the coal fire industry, which generates many environmental problems. Alternative uses of this material would provide efficient solutions for this by-product. In this work, nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was assessed for retention of Al(III), As(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Hg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using various surface analytical techniques. Visualization of the organically-functionalized coal fly ash particle was possible using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the elemental composition of the functionalized material, before and after retention of the metal ions, was obtained by energy dispersive (ED)-X ray spectrometry (XRS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and Raman spectrometry were used to obtain information about the functional groups. It was found that some metal(oid) ions (As, Ni, Pb, Zn) were coordinated through the mercaptan group, while other metal(oid)s (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn) were apparently bonded to oxygen atoms. A low-cost and effective solid phase retention system for extraction of heavy metals from aqueous solutions was thus developed. - Graphical abstract: Nitric acid-etched coal fly ash labelled with 2-mercaptoethanol or thioglycolic acid was intended for the retention of heavy metals. The bonding characteristics between the organic compounds with the solid support, as well as with the metal ions, were evaluated using surface analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Coal fly ashes were organically-functionalized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes were spectrometrically characterized. • Organically-functionalized coal fly ashes can be used as an effective solid sorbent for metal(oid)s. • This retention

  9. Optical ridge waveguides preserving the thermo-optic features in LiNbO3 crystals fabricated by combination of proton implantation and selective wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-24

    We report on a new, simple method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in a z-cut LiNbO3 wafer by using proton implantation and selective wet etching. The measured modal field is well confined in the ridge waveguide region, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulation. With thermal annealing treatment at 400 degrees C, the propagation loss of the ridge waveguides is determined to be as low as approximately 0.9 dB/cm. In addition, the measured thermo-optic coefficients of the waveguides are in good agreement with those of the bulk, suggesting potential applications in integrated photonics.

  10. Di- and tri-carboxylic-acid-based etches for processing high temperature superconducting thin films and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Barr, L.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Plut, T.A.; Urea, D.; Siegal, M.P.; Martens, J.S.; Johansson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The development of passive and active electronics from high-temperature superconducting thin films depends on the development of process technology capable of producing appropriate feature sizes without degrading the key superconducting properties. We present a new class of chelating etches based on di- and tri-carboxylic acids that are compatible with positive photoresists and can produce sub-micron feature sizes while typically producing increases the microwave surface resistance at 94 GHz by less than 10%. This simple etching process works well for both the Y--Ba--Cu--O and Tl--Ba--Ca--Cu--O systems. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of chelating etches with an activator such as HF allows the etching of related oxides such as LaAlO 3 , which is a key substrate material, and Pb(Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 )O 3 (PZT) which is a key ferroelectric material for HTS and other applications such as nonvolatile memories

  11. Effect of etching with distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Catina; Venturini, Andressa B; Grasel, Rafaella; Bottino, Marco C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the mechanical behavior of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic. Bar-shaped specimens were produced from ceramic blocks (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were polished, chamfered, and sonically cleaned in distilled water. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 23). The HF1, HF3, HF5, and HF10 specimens were etched for 20 s with acid concentrations of 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, while the SC (control) sample was untreated. The etched surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. Finally, the roughness was measured, and 3-point bending flexural tests were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were also determined. No statistical difference in the roughness and flexural strength was determined among the groups. The structural reliabilities (Weilbull moduli) were similar for the tested groups; however, the characteristic strength of the HF1 specimen was greater than that of the HF10 specimen. Compared with the untreated ceramic, the surface roughness and flexural strength of the ceramic were unaffected upon etching, regardless of the acid concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 885-891, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts in the deciduous and permanent teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Zheng, Jinhua; Mori, Kazuhisa; Mataga, Izumi; Kobayashi, Kan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts between the deciduous molars and permanent molars. They were observed by the polarizing and scanning electron microscopies. The enamel rods were less made slender by EDTA etching and the outlines of the apatite crystals, constituting the enamel rods, were clearer at the occlusal pit part of the deciduous molar than that of the permanent molar in reverse of that at the cusp part. It is thought that the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar is more easily decayed by the dental caries than that of the deciduous molar because the former is more easily decayed by the acidic etching than the latter in reverse at the cusp part. It is considered that the thin superficialmost layer of the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar has originally higher degree of resistance to the dental caries

  13. Histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts in the deciduous and permanent teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Dental Hygiene, Nippon Dental University College at Niigata, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan)]. E-mail: masashi@ngt.ndu.ac.jp; Zheng, Jinhua [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Mori, Kazuhisa [Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Mataga, Izumi [Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kan [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the histological structures and acidic etching sensitivities of the enamels at the occlusal pit parts between the deciduous molars and permanent molars. They were observed by the polarizing and scanning electron microscopies. The enamel rods were less made slender by EDTA etching and the outlines of the apatite crystals, constituting the enamel rods, were clearer at the occlusal pit part of the deciduous molar than that of the permanent molar in reverse of that at the cusp part. It is thought that the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar is more easily decayed by the dental caries than that of the deciduous molar because the former is more easily decayed by the acidic etching than the latter in reverse at the cusp part. It is considered that the thin superficialmost layer of the enamel at the occlusal pit part of the permanent molar has originally higher degree of resistance to the dental caries.

  14. Influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on bond durability of universal adhesives and surface free-energy characteristics of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel. Three universal adhesives and extracted human molars were used. Two no-pre-etching groups were prepared: ground enamel; and enamel after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 s to remove the smear layer. Four pre-etching groups were prepared: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 3, 5, 10, and 15 s. Shear bond strength (SBS) values of universal adhesive after no thermal cycling and after 30,000 or 60,000 thermal cycles, and surface free-energy values of enamel surfaces, calculated from contact angle measurements, were determined. The specimens that had been pre-etched showed significantly higher SBS and surface free-energy values than the specimens that had not been pre-etched, regardless of the aging condition and adhesive type. The SBS and surface free-energy values did not increase for pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. There were no significant differences in SBS values and surface free-energy characteristics between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. The effects of pH on N-methacryloyl glycine primer on bond strength to acid-etched dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, N; Suzuki, K; Asakura, T; Nakai, H; Yasuda, S; Nemoto, K

    1996-07-01

    To develop a more effective adhesive primer, it is imperative to understand the adhesion mechanisms of the resin to the demineralized dentin through a dentin primer. When the bonding agent was directly applied to the dentin etched by 40 wt % phosphoric acid without a primer pretreatment, the bond strength of the resin to the dentin was 5 MPa. Conversely, when the demineralized dentin was pretreated with the N-methacryloyl glycine (NM alpha A) primer solution with a pH value of 1.5, the bond strength increased considerably to 15 MPa. However, the bond strength dropped dramatically from 15 to 3 MPa when the sodium salt of NM alpha A was added, thereby increasing the pH value of the NM alpha A primer solution from 3.2 to 5.0. When the pH value was increased above 3.5 (pKa value), the number of ionized NM alpha A species increased in the solution. As a result, the bond strength of the resin fell to approximately 3 MPa. This result was obtained despite the 5-micron-thick hybrid layer that was created in the subsurface of the intertubular dentin. The number of unionized NM alpha A species increased by lowering the pH value below 3.5. As a result, the NM alpha A primer provided a higher bond strength of the resin to the demineralized dentin. In contrast, when 10 wt % citric acid containing 3 wt % ferric chloride was applied to the dentin, maximum bond strength was obtained when the pH value of the NM alpha A primer solution was 3.5. The pH dependency of the bond strength obtained following 10 wt % citric acid containing 3 wt % ferric chloride etching is different from the results obtained from 40 wt % phosphoric acid etching. This can be attributed to the difference in the characteristics of the demineralized collageous layer.

  16. The impact of hydrofluoric acid etching followed by unfilled resin on the biaxial strength of a glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posritong, Sumana; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Eckert, George J; Bottino, Marco A; Bottino, Marco C

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the null hypotheses that hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching time would neither decrease the biaxial flexural strength of a glass-based veneering ceramic nor enhance it after silane and unfilled resin (UR) applications. Disc-shaped IPS e.max ZirPress specimens were allocated into 12 groups: G1-control (no-etching), G2-30 s, G3-60 s, G4-90 s, G5-120 s, G6-60 s+60 s. Groups (G7-G12) were treated in the same fashion as G1-G6, but followed by silane and UR applications. Surface morphology and roughness (Ra and Rq) of the ceramics were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry, respectively. Flexural strength was determined by biaxial testing. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and the Sidak test (α=0.05). Weibull statistics were estimated and finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to verify the stress concentration end areas of fracture. The interaction (etching time vs. surface treatment) was significant for Ra (p=0.008) and Rq (0.0075). Resin-treated groups presented significantly lower Ra and Rq than non-treated groups, except for the 60s group (pceramic microstructure and that the UR was able to penetrate into the irregularities. A significant effect of etching time (p=0.029) on flexural strength was seen. G7-G12 presented higher strength than G1-G6 (pceramic flexural strength. Moreover, the flexural strength could be enhanced after UR treatment. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  18. Bond strength of composite to dentin: effect of acid etching and laser irradiation through an uncured self-etch adhesive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, F L A; Carvalho, J G; Andrade, M F; Saad, J R C; Hebling, J; Lizarelli, R F Z

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µ-TBS) of laser irradiation of etched/unetched dentin through an uncured self-etching adhesive. Dentinal surfaces were treated with Clearfil SE Bond Adhesive (CSE) either according to the manufacturer’s instructions (CSE) or without applying the primer (CSE/NP). The dentin was irradiated through the uncured adhesive, using an Nd:YAG laser at 0.75 or 1 W power settings. The adhesive was cured, composite crowns were built up, and the teeth were sectioned into beams (0.49 mm 2 ) to be stressed under tension. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey statistics (α = 5%). Dentin of the fractured specimens and the interfaces of untested beams were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that non-etched irradiated surfaces presented higher µ-TBS than etched and irradiated surfaces (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation alone did not lead to differences in µ-TBS (p > 0.05). SEM showed solidification globules on the surfaces of the specimens. The interfaces were similar on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces. Laser irradiation of dentin through the uncured adhesive did not lead to higher µ-TBS when compared to the suggested manufacturer’s technique. However, this treatment brought benefits when performed on unetched dentin, since bond strengths were higher when compared to etched dentin. (paper)

  19. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN HFETs utilizing post-metallization etching by nitric acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) processed by using a simple post-metallization etching (PME) treatment. Decreased gate length (L G ) can be achieved by using nitric acid (HNO 3 ) PME treatment owing to the high etching selectivity of HNO 3 of Ni against the Au and GaN layer. Influences on L G , etched gate profiles and device characteristics with respect to different PME processing parameters by HNO 3 treatment are systematically investigated. Optimum device performance is obtained as L G was reduced to 0.5 µm by using a 1 µm long gate mask by immersing the device into a 45% diluted HNO 3 solution for 35 s. Improved device performances, including maximum drain–source current density (I DS,max : 657.6 mA mm −1 → 898.5 mA mm −1 ), drain–source saturation current density at zero gate bias (I DSS0 : 448.3 mA mm −1 → 653.4 mA mm −1 ), maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m,max : 158.3 mS mm −1 → 219.2 mS mm −1 ), unity-gain cut-off frequency (f T : 12.35 GHz → 22.05 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (f max : 17.55 GHz → 29.4 GHz) and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.: 26.3% → 34.5%) compared to the untreated reference device, have been successfully achieved. (invited paper)

  20. pKa value and buffering capacity of acidic monomers commonly used in self-etching primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, Ulrich; Mücke, Angela; Zimmermann, Jörg; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to characterize acidic monomers used in self-etching primers/adhesives by determination of their pKa values and by calculation of their calcium dissolving capacity in comparison with phosphoric and hydrochloric acid. The following acidic monomers were included in this study: 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), dimethacryloyloxyethyl hydrogen phosphate (di-HEMA-phosphate), ethyl 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxabutyl]acrylate (EAEPA), 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-ox-abutyl]acrylic acid (HAEPA), and 2,4,6 trimethylphenyl 2-[4-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxabutyl]acrylate (MAEPA). The pKa values were obtained by titration with 0.1 mol/l NaOH in aqueous solution. The inflection points of the resulting potentiometric titration curve were determined as pKa values. In the case of the sparingly water-soluble acidic monomers MAEPA and 4-META, the co-solvent method using different water/ethanol ratios for MAEPA or water/acetone ratios for 4-META was used. The dissolving capacity of each acidic monomer is defined as the amount of hydroxyapatite (HA) dissolved by 1 g of acid. For each monomer, the HA dissolving capacity was calculated bythe corresponding pKa value and the molecular weight. To confirm the calculated dissolving capacities, increasing amounts of HA powder (100 mg portions) were slowly added to 15 mmol/l aqueous solutions of the monomers to determine how much HA could be dissolved in the acidic solutions. For all the investigated acidic monomers, pKal values between 1.7 to 2.5 were observed. The pKa2 values for the phosphate/phosphonate derivatives are between 7.0 and 7.3, and are comparable to phosphoric acid. For dicarboxylic acid derivatives, the pKa2 values are in the range of 4.2 to 4.5. Due to their comparable molecular weights and pKal values, the three tested acids di-HEMA phosphate, MDP and 4-META all possess comparable dissolving capacities for HA (ie, 0

  1. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  2. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) fabricated using silver (Ag) ions assisted electroless etching method. Silicon nanocrystallites with sizes <5 nm embedded in amorphous silica have been observed from PSiNW samples etched using the optimum hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration. The strongest photoluminescence (PL) signal has been measured from samples etched with 4.8 M of HF, beyond which a significant decreasing in PL emission intensity has been observed. A qualitative model is proposed for the formation of PSiNWs in the presence of Ag catalyst. This model affirms our observations in PL enhancement for samples etched using HF <4.8 M and the eventual PL reduction for samples etched beyond 4.8 M of HF concentration. The enhancement in PL signals has been associated to the formation of PSiNWs and the quantum confinement effect in the Si nanocrystallites. Compared to PSiNWs without Si-O x, the HF treated samples exhibited significant blue PL peak shift of 100 nm. This effect has been correlated to the formation of defect states in the surface oxide. PSiNWs fabricated using the electroless etching method can find useful applications in optical sensors and as anti-reflection layer in silicon-based solar cells. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Process for etching zirconium metallic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panson, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a process for etching of zirconium metallic articles formed from zirconium or a zirconium alloy, wherein the zirconium metallic article is contacted with an aqueous hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid etching bath having an initial ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid and an initial concentration of hydrofluoric and nitric acids, the improvement, is described comprising: after etching of zirconium metallic articles in the bath for a period of time such that the etching rate has diminished from an initial rate to a lesser rate, adding hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid to the exhausted bath to adjust the concentration and ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid therein to a value substantially that of the initial concentration and ratio and thereby regenerate the etching solution without removal of dissolved zirconium therefrom; and etching further zirconium metallic articles in the regenerated etching bath

  4. The biocompatibility of SLA-treated titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeongil; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Koh, Seung-Yong; Park, Ju-Han; Lee, In-Seop

    2008-01-01

    The titanium implant surface was sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA) to increase the implant surface for osseointegration. The topography of the titanium surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer. The SLA implant demonstrated uniform small micro pits (1-2 μm in diameter). The values of average roughness (R a ) and maximum height (R t ) were 1.19 μm and 10.53 μm respectively after sandblasting and the acid-etching treatment. In the cell-surface interaction study, the human osteoblast cells grew well in vitro. The in vivo evaluation of the SLA implant placed in rabbit tibia showed good bone-to-implant contact (BIC) with a mean value of 29% in total length of the implant. In the short-term clinical study, SLA implants demonstrated good clinical performance, maintaining good crestal bone height

  5. Effects of the Addictives on Etching Characteristics of Aluminum Foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Jang, J.M.; Chi, C.S. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D.C. [Sungnam Polytechnic, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, J.H.; Oh, H.J. [Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of additives in the HCI etching solution on etching behaviors of aluminium foil as dielectric film for electrolytic capacitors were investigated. The etch pits formed in 1M hydrochloric acid containing ethylene glycol as an additive contain more fine and homogeneous etch tunnels compared to thoese in 1 M hydrochloric acid only, which led to the increase in the effective internal surface area of aluminum foil. After anodizing of aluminum foil etched in etching solutions, the LCR meter results have shown that the capacitance of dielectric film etched in hydrochloric acid with ethylene glycol was increased remarkably compared to that etched in hydrochloric acid only. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs.

  6. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, F.J.J.; Ofec, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients.

  7. Effect of the association between citric acid and EDTA on root surface etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Manzolli Leite, Elza Regina; Leite, Amauri Antiquera; Cezar Sampaio, Josá Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to compare the clot stabilization on root surfaces conditioned with citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Scaled root samples (n = 100) were set in fve groups: group I-control group (saline solution); group II (24% EDTA); group III (25% citric acid); group IV (EDTA + citric acid); group V (citric acid + EDTA). Fifty samples were assessed using the root surface modifcation index (RSMI). The other 50 received a blood drop after conditioning. Clot formation was assessed using blood elements adhesion index (BEAI). A blind examiner evaluated photomicrographs. Statistical analysis considered p EDTA employment before citric acid (group-IV) reduced clot formation in comparison to citric acid use alone (group-III). Root conditioning with citric acid alone and before EDTA had the best results for smear layer removal and clot stabilization. EDTA inhibited clot stabilization on root surface and must have a residual activity once it has diminished clot adhesion to root even after citric acid conditioning. Thus, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells without affecting clot stabilization. Clinical signifcance: To demonstrate that citric acid use on root surfaces previously affected by periodontal disease may favor clot stabilization and may have a benefcial effect on surgical outcomes. Also, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells.

  8. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG and coarse grained (CG titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  9. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Denis V; Zemtsova, Elena G; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Smirnov, Vladimir M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed.

  10. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  11. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  12. Ridge optical waveguide in an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass produced by He+ ion implantation combined with Ar+ ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Yang; Chen Feng; Hu Lili; Xing Pengfei; Chen Yanxue; Wang Xuelin; Wang Keming

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a ridge optical waveguide in an Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass. The He + ion implantation (at energy of 2.8 MeV) is first applied onto the sample to produce a planar waveguide substrate, and then Ar + ion beam etching (at energy of 500 eV) is carried out to construct rib stripes on the sample surface that has been deposited by a specially designed photoresist mask. According to a reconstructed refractive index profile of the waveguide cross section, the modal distribution of the waveguide is simulated by applying a computer code based on the beam propagation method, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed waveguide mode by using the end-face coupling method. Simulation of the incident He ions at 2.8 MeV penetrating into the Er 3+ /Yb 3+ co-doped phosphate glass substrate is also performed to provide helpful information on waveguide formation

  13. Methods of increasing the harshness of texture of old concrete pavements--acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Of the four acids tested in the laboratory, the nitric and hydrochloric types were selected for field experiments. These two acids performed about equally well, the choice as to which to use is dictated by price and availability. In the field experim...

  14. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Enamel Prepared By Er:YAG Laser and Conventional Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M.H.; Namvar, F.; Chalipa, J.; Saber, K.; Chiniforush, N.; Sarmadi, S.; Mirhashemi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel prepared by Er:YAG laser with two different powers and conventional acid-etching. Materials and Methods: Forty-five human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly assigned to three groups based on conditioning method: Group 1- conventional etching with 37% phosphoric acid; Group 2- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1 W; and Group 3- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1.5 W. Metal brackets were bonded on prepared enamel using a light-cured composite. All groups were subjected to thermocycling process. Then, the specimens mounted in auto-cure acryle and shear bond strength were measured using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per second. After debonding, the amount of resin remaining on the teeth was determined using the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scored 1 to 5. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare shear bond strengths and the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate differences in the ARI for different etching types. Results: The mean and standard deviation of conventional acid-etch group, 1W laser group and 1.5W laser group was 3.82 ± 1.16, 6.97 ± 3.64 and 6.93 ± 4.87, respectively. Conclusion: The mean SBS obtained with an Er:YAG laser operated at 1W or 1.5W is approximately similar to that of conventional etching. However, the high variability of values in bond strength of irradiated enamel should be considered to find the appropriate parameters for applying Er:YAG laser as a favorable alternative for surface conditioning. PMID:22924098

  15. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Enamel Prepared By Er:YAG Laser and Conven-tional Acid-Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel prepared by Er:YAG laser with two different powers and conventional acid-etching.Materials and Methods: Forty-five human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly assigned to three groups based on conditioning method: Group 1- conventional etching with 37% phosphoric acid; Group 2- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1 W; and Group 3- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1.5 W. Metal brackets were bonded on prepared enamel using a light-cured composite. All groups were subjected to thermocycling process. Then, the specimens mounted in auto-cure acryle and shear bond strength were measured using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per second. After debonding, the amount of resin remaining on the teeth was determined using the adhesive remnant index (ARI scored 1 to 5. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare shear bond strengths and the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate differences in the ARI for different etching types.Results: The mean and standard deviation of conventional acid-etch group, 1W laser group and 1.5W laser group was 3.82 ± 1.16, 6.97 ± 3.64 and 6.93 ± 4.87, respectively.Conclusion: The mean SBS obtained with an Er:YAG laser operated at 1W or 1.5W is approximately similar to that of conventional etching. However, the high variability of values in bond strength of irradiated enamel should be considered to find the appropriate parameters for applying Er:YAG laser as a favorable alternative for surface conditioning.

  16. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  17. Effect of nano Cu coating on porous Si prepared by acid etching Al-Si alloy powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunli; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    As a promising anode material for lithium ion battery, nano-Cu coated porous Si powder was fabricated through two stages: first, preparation of porous nano Si fibers by acid-etching Al-Si alloy powder; second, modified by nano-Cu particles using an electroless plating method. The nano-Cu particles on the surface of nano-Si fibers, not only increase the conductivity of material, but also inhibit the fuse process between nano Si fibers during charge/discharge cycling process, resulting in increased cycling stability of the material. In 1 M LiPF 6 /EC: DMC (1:1) + 1.5 wt% VC solution at current density of 200 mA g −1 , the 150th discharge capacity of nano-Cu coated porous Si electrode was 1651 mAh g −1 with coulombic efficiency of 99%. As anode material for lithium ion battery, nano-Cu coated porous Si nano fiber material is easier to prepare, costs less, and produces higher performance, representing a promising approach for high energy lithium ion battery application

  18. Implant decontamination with phosphoric acid during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hentenaar, Diederik F M; De Waal, Yvonne C M; Strooker, Hans; Meijer, Henny J A; Van Winkelhoff, Arie-Jan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is known as an infectious disease that affects the peri-implant soft and hard tissue. Today, scientific literature provides very little evidence for an effective intervention protocol for treatment of peri-implantitis. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial

  19. Influence of Pre-etching Times on Fatigue Strength of Self-etch Adhesives to Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Endo, Hajime; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    To use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence of phosphoric acid pre-etching times prior to application of self-etch adhesives on enamel bonding. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives (Prime&Bond Elect and Scotchbond Universal), a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive (G-ӕnial Bond), and a conventional two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR) were used. The SBS and SFS were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching for 3, 10, or 15 s prior to application of the adhesives, and without pre-etching (0 s) as a control. A staircase method was used to determine the SFS with 10 Hz frequency for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. The mean demineralization depth for each treated enamel surface was also measured using a profilometer. For all the adhesives, the groups with pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFS than groups without pre-etching. However, there was no significant difference in SBS and SFS among groups with > 3 s of preetching. In addition, although the groups with pre-etching showed significantly deeper demineralization depths than groups without pre-etching, there was no significant difference in depth among groups with > 3 s of pre-etching. Three seconds of phosphoric acid pre-etching prior to application of self-etch adhesive can enhance enamel bonding effectiveness.

  20. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuat, Vanthanh [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Le Quy Don Technical University, No. 100, Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 7EN-248 (Viet Nam); Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai, E-mail: jinhaisi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  1. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid; Estudo in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V preparadas com laser de Er:YAG e condicionadas com acido ou com laser de Er:YAG e acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-07-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0-3) by

  2. Marginal microleakage in vitro study on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or etched with Er:YAG laser and acid; Estudo in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V preparadas com laser de Er:YAG e condicionadas com acido ou com laser de Er:YAG e acido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Henrique Dutra Simoes

    2001-07-01

    Microleakage at the interface between the teeth and the restorative materials remains a problem with composite resin restorations. Microleakage at the gingival margins of class V cavities restorations still challenge as they are usually placed in dentin and/or cementum. Previous studies have shown that the cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser is possible. It has been reported that Er:YAG laser has ability to create irregular surface providing micromechanical retention for adhesive dental restorative materials and to improve marginal sealing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage on class V cavities prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with acid or with Er:YAG laser and acid, in compared to those prepared and etched conventionally. Thirty human molars were divided into three groups, namely: group I - prepared with Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser II - Germany) and etched with 37% phosphoric acid; group II - prepared with Er:YAG laser and etched with Er:YAG laser and 37% phosphoric acid; group III (control group) - prepared with high speed drill and etched with 37% phosphoric acid. All cavities were treated with same adhesive system (Single Bond - 3M) and restored with the composite resin (Z100 - 3M), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were stored at 37 deg C in water for 24 hours, polished with Sof-Lex discs (3M), thermally stressed, sealed with a nail polish coating except for the area of the restoration and 1 mm around it, and immersed in a 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours. After that, the specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in a photodeveloping solution and exposed to a fluorescent light for 8 hours. The teeth were embedded in an autopolymerizing resin and sectioned longitudinally using a diamond saw microtome under running water. The sections were photographed. The microleakage at the occlusal cavity and at the gingival margins of each specimen was evaluated with scores (0

  3. Imaging appearance of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implant injections for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, W; Cofer, S A; Lane, J I

    2015-06-01

    Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants are used in treating velopharyngeal insufficiency. These posterior nasopharyngeal implants can be mistaken for pathologic conditions such as retropharyngeal abscess on imaging. We studied the imaging appearance of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants in patients treated for velopharyngeal insufficiency. A consecutive series of patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer were included in this study. Data on patient characteristics and volume of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injected were obtained. Postoperative imaging characteristics on plain radiography, CT, and MR imaging were assessed. The imaging appearance of postoperative complications was determined. Sixteen patients were included in this study. Seven patients underwent postoperative plain radiographs, 5 patients underwent CT, and 9 patients underwent MR imaging. Plain radiographs demonstrated soft-tissue swelling in the retropharyngeal space, which resolved at 1 month. On CT, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants appeared as bilateral nasopharyngeal soft-tissue masses isoattenuated to hypoattenuated relative to muscle in 80% (4/5) of patients. On MR imaging, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants appeared as bilateral nasopharyngeal soft-tissue masses that were isointense to muscle on T1 (8/9, 88.9%) and hyperintense to muscle on T2 (8/9, 88.9%) and demonstrated no restricted diffusion (4/4, 100.0%) or peripheral enhancement (7/7, 100.0%). The normal postoperative findings of posterior nasopharyngeal dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection on MR imaging is characterized by the presence of bilateral nasopharyngeal soft-tissue masses that are isointense to muscle on T1 and hyperintense on T2, with no restricted diffusion or peripheral enhancement. Velopharyngeal dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants are iso- to hypoattenuated to muscle on CT and are not visible

  4. Anodic processes in the chemical and electrochemical etching of Si crystals in acid-fluoride solutions: Pore formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulin, V. P.; Ulin, N. V.; Soldatenkov, F. Yu., E-mail: f.soldatenkov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The interaction of heavily doped p- and n-type Si crystals with hydrofluoric acid in the dark with and without contact with metals having greatly differing work functions (Ag and Pd) is studied. The dependences of the dissolution rates of Si crystals in HF solutions that contain oxidizing agents with different redox potentials (FeCl{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and CrO{sub 3}) on the type and level of silicon doping are determined. Analysis of the experimental data suggests that valence-band holes in silicon are not directly involved in the anodic reactions of silicon oxidation and dissolution and their generation in crystals does not limit the rate of these processes. It is also shown that the character and rate of the chemical process leading to silicon dissolution in HF-containing electrolytes are determined by the interfacial potential attained at the semiconductor–electrolyte interface. The mechanism of electrochemical pore formation in silicon crystals is discussed in terms of selfconsistent cooperative reactions of nucleophilic substitution between chemisorbed fluorine anions and coordination- saturated silicon atoms in the crystal subsurface layer. A specific feature of these reactions for silicon crystals is that vacant nonbonding d{sup 2}sp{sup 3} orbitals of Si atoms, associated with sixfold degenerate states corresponding to the Δ valley of the conduction band, are involved in the formation of intermediate complexes. According to the suggested model, the pore-formation process spontaneously develops in local regions of the interface under the action of the interfacial potential in the adsorption layer and occurs as a result of the detachment of (SiF{sub 2}){sub n} polymer chains from the crystal. Just this process leads to the preferential propagation of pores along the <100> crystallographic directions. The thermodynamic aspects of pore nucleation and the effect of the potential drop across the interface, conduction type, and free-carrier concentration

  5. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial of Self-etching Adhesives and Selective Enamel Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, C E; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Giannini, M; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V(+)) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with each adhesive system and divided into two subgroups (n=28; etch and non-etch). All 112 cavities were restored with the nanohybrid composite Esthet.X HD. The clinical effectiveness of restorations was recorded in terms of retention, marginal integrity, marginal staining, caries recurrence, and postoperative sensitivity after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (modified United States Public Health Service). The Friedman test detected significant differences only after 18 months for marginal staining in the groups Clearfil SE non-etch (p=0.009) and Xeno V(+) etch (p=0.004). One restoration was lost during the trial (Xeno V(+) etch; p>0.05). Although an increase in marginal staining was recorded for groups Clearfil SE non-etch and Xeno V(+) etch, the clinical effectiveness of restorations was considered acceptable for the single-step and two-step self-etching systems with or without selective enamel etching in this 24-month clinical trial.

  6. Tensile bond strength and SEM analysis of enamel etched with Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid: a comparative study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Luis H.; Tanaka, Celso Shin-Ite; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Villaverde, Antonio B.; Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Brugnera Junior, Aldo; Moriyama, Yumi; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2008-01-01

    Er:YAG laser has been studied as a potential tool for restorative dentistry due to its ability to selectively remove oral hard tissue with minimal or no thermal damage to the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the tensile bond strength (TBS) of an adhesive/composite resin system to human enamel surfaces treated with 37% phosphoric acid, Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) with a total energy of 16 J (80 mJ/pulse, 2Hz, 200 pulses, 250 ms pulse width), and Er:YAG laser followed by phosphoric acid etching. Analysis of the treated surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological differences among the groups. TBS means (in MPa) were as follows: Er:YAG laser + acid (11.7 MPa) > acid (8.2 MPa) > Er:YAG laser (6.1 MPa), with the group treated with laser+acid being significantly from the other groups (p=0.0006 and p= 0.00019, respectively). The groups treated with acid alone and laser alone were significantly different from each other (p=0.0003). The SEM analysis revealed morphological changes that corroborate the TBS results, suggesting that the differences in TBS means among the groups are related to the different etching patterns produced by each type of surface treatment. The findings of this study indicate that the association between Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid can be used as a valuable resource to increase bond strength to laser-prepared enamel. (author)

  7. Self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in clinical dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Fusun; Blatz, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Current adhesive systems follow either an "etch-and-rinse" or "self-etch" approach, which differ in how they interact with natural tooth structures. Etch-and-rinse systems comprise phosphoric acid to pretreat the dental hard tissues before rinsing and subsequent application of an adhesive. Self-etch adhesives contain acidic monomers, which etch and prime the tooth simultaneously. Etch-and-rinse adhesives are offered as two- or three-step systems, depending on whether primer and bonding are separate or combined in a single bottle. Similarly, self-etch adhesives are available as one- or two-step systems. Both etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems form a hybrid layer as a result of resins impregnating the porous enamel or dentin. Despite current trends toward fewer and simpler clinical application steps, one-step dentin bonding systems exhibit bonding agent lower bond strengths and seem less predictable than multi-step etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems. The varying evidence available today suggests that the choice between etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems is often a matter of personal preference. In general, however, phosphoric acid creates a more pronounced and retentive etching pattern in enamel. Therefore, etch-and-rinse bonding systems are often preferred for indirect restorations and when large areas of enamel are still present. Conversely, self-etch adhesives provide superior and more predictable bond strength to dentin and are, consequently, recommended for direct composite resin restorations, especially when predominantly supported by dentin.

  8. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  9. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Nicholas A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Smith, Barbara S. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Although clotting reductions were

  10. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Nicholas A.; Smith, Barbara S.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO 2 peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: ►Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. ►Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. ►Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. ►Although clotting reductions were seen, protein adsorption remained similar.

  11. Influence of different pre-etching times on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Scheidel, Donal D; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence on dentin bonding of phosphoric acid pre-etching times before the application of self-etch adhesives. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives [Prime & Bond Elect (EL) and Scotchbond Universal (SU)], a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive [G-aenial Bond (GB)], and a two-step self-etch adhesive [OptiBond XTR (OX)] were used. The SBS and SFS values were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching times of 3, 10, or 15 s before application of the adhesives, and for a control without pre-etching. For groups with 3 s of pre-etching, SU and EL showed higher SBS values than control groups. No significant difference was observed for GB among the 3 s, 10 s, and control groups, but the 15 s pre-etching group showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values than the control group. No significant difference was found for OX among the pre-etching groups. Reducing phosphoric acid pre-etching time can minimize the adverse effect on dentin bonding durability for the conventional self-etch adhesives. Furthermore, a short phosphoric acid pre-etching time enhances the dentin bonding performance of universal adhesives. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-01-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80 deg. and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3x10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90 deg. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1x10 15 ions/cm 2

  13. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  14. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of etching time on enamel bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Mudgil, A; Levine, A

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching time on bond strengths of composite to enamel. Proximal surfaces of extracted molars were etched with either a conventional etchant (35% phosphoric acid) or one of two dentin/enamel conditioners, 10% maleic acid (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Etchant), or a solution of oxalic acid, aluminum nitrate, and glycine (Gluma 1 & 2 Conditioner). Each agent was applied for 15, 30, or 60 seconds. Specimens etched with 35% phosphoric acid had the highest mean bond strengths at each etching time. At the manufacturer's recommended application times, the other two agents gave significantly lower shear bond strengths than phosphoric acid.

  16. Preparation of 1-pyrenebutyric acid and pyrene submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrene and 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules were deposited on glass and copper substrates with the formation of submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation through polar and non-polar liquid layers. The size of the smallest 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules dots prepared on a glass substrate by implantation through water and diiodomethane was estimated to be about 400 nm and 300 nm at laser fluences of 235 J/cm 2 and 326 J/cm 2 , respectively. The fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed that the implanted 1-pyrenebutyric acid molecules did not decompose during the implantation process. The smallest size of a pyrene dot was 700 nm at the laser fluence of 378 J/cm 2 . However, the pyrene dots could be formed only by implantation through a water layer.

  17. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Effect of pre-etching on sealing ability of two current self-etching adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Khosravi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the effect of phosphoric acid etching on microleakage of two current self-etching adhesives on enamel margins in comparison to a conventional total- etch system. Methods: Sixty buccal class V cavities were made at the cemento-enamel junction with beveled enamel margins of extracted human premolar teeth and randomly divided into five groups (12 specimens in each group. Group 1 was applying with Clearfil SE bond, Group 2 with 35% phosphoric acid etching of enamel margins plus Clearfil SE bond, Group3 with I bond, Group 4 with 35% phosphoric acid etching of enamel margins plus I bond and Group5 with Scotchbond multi-purpose. All groups restored with a composite resins. After 24 hours storage with 100% humidity, the samples were thermocycled, immersed in a dye solution and sectioned buccoligually and enamel margins microleakage were evaluated on a scale of 0 to 2. Results: The differences between Groups 1 & 3 and Groups 3 & 4 were significant (P<0.05 but no significant differences between Groups1 & 2 or 1 & 5 were observed. Conclusion: The findings suggest that all-in-one adhesive systems need pre-etching enamel margins with phosphoric acid for effectively seal. Key words: Self-Etching Adhesives, Microleakage, Enamel, Total-Etch system

  19. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Nazish

    2015-06-01

    The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved.

  20. Spontaneous progression of ligature induced peri-implantitis at implants with different surface roughness: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglundh, T; Gotfredsen, K; Zitzmann, N U

    2007-01-01

    : The aim of the current experiment was to study the progression of peri-implantitis around implants with different surface roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In five beagle dogs, three implants with either a sandblasted acid-etched surface (SLA) or a polished surface (P) were installed bilaterally......BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is associated with the presence of submarginal plaque, soft-tissue inflammation and advanced breakdown of the supporting bone. The progression of peri-implantitis following varying periods of continuing plaque accumulation has been studied in animal models. OBJECTIVE...... in the edentulous premolar regions. After 3 months on a plaque control regimen, experimental peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement and plaque accumulation was allowed to progress until about 40% of the height of the supporting bone had been lost. After this 4-month period, ligatures were removed...

  1. Six-month evaluation of adhesives interface created by a hydrophobic adhesive to acid-etched ethanol-wet bonded dentine with simplified dehydration protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Fernanda T; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Braga, Roberto R

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of simplified dehydration protocols, in the absence of tubular occlusion, on bond strength and interfacial nanoleakage of a hydrophobic experimental adhesive blend to acid-etched, ethanol-dehydrated dentine immediately and after 6 months. Molars were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups (n=5). Under pulpal pressure simulation, dentine crowns were acid-etched with 35% H(3)PO(4) and rinsed with water. Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose was used for the control group. The remaining groups had their dentine surface dehydrated with ethanol solutions: group 1=50%, 70%, 80%, 95% and 3x100%, 30s for each application; group 2 the same ethanol sequence with 15s for each solution; groups 3, 4 and 5 used 100% ethanol only, applied in seven, three or one 30s step, respectively. After dehydration, a primer (50% BisGMA+TEGDMA, 50% ethanol) was used, followed by the neat comonomer adhesive application. Resin composite build-ups were then prepared using an incremental technique. Specimens were stored for 24h, sectioned into beams and stressed to failure after 24h or after 6 months of artificial ageing. Interfacial silver leakage evaluation was performed for both storage periods (n=5 per subgroup). Group 1 showed higher bond strengths at 24h or after 6 months of ageing (45.6+/-5.9(a)/43.1+/-3.2(a)MPa) and lower silver impregnation. Bond strength results were statistically similar to control group (41.2+/-3.3(ab)/38.3+/-4.0(ab)MPa), group 2 (40.0+/-3.1(ab)/38.6+/-3.2(ab)MPa), and group 3 at 24h (35.5+/-4.3(ab)MPa). Groups 4 (34.6+/-5.7(bc)/25.9+/-4.1(c)MPa) and 5 (24.7+/-4.9(c)/18.2+/-4.2(c)MPa) resulted in lower bond strengths, extensive interfacial nanoleakage and more prominent reductions (up to 25%) in bond strengths after 6 months of ageing. Simplified dehydration protocols using one or three 100% ethanol applications should be avoided for the ethanol-wet bonding technique in the absence of tubular occlusion, as they showed decreased bond strength, more

  2. Imunohistological aspects of the tissue around dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimigean, Victor; Nimigean, Vanda R.; Sǎlǎvǎstru, Dan I.; Moraru, Simona; BuÅ£incu, Lavinia; Ivaşcu, Roxana V.; Poll, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: study of soft and hard tissues around implants. Material and methods: For the immunohistochemical and histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface, we examined pieces of peri-implant mucosa harvested from 35 patients. The implant/bone interface was assessed using histologic and histomorphometric examination of hard tissues around unloaded, early loaded or delayed loaded dental implants with pre-established design, with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface, placed both in extraction sockets, or after bone healing following tooth removal. This study was performed on 9 common race dogs. Results: The histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface showed regenerative modifications and moderate chronic subepithelial inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the soft tissue biopsies revealed the presence of specific immunocompetent cells and proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Bone-implants contacts were more obvious in the apical half of the implants and at the edges of the threads, than between them. A mature, lamelliform bone containing lacunae with osteocytes and lack of connective tissue were noticed around implants that were late placed and loaded. The new-formed bone was also abundant in the crestal zone, not only in the apical part of the implants. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the microstructure of dental implant/soft and hard tissue interface will improve the longevity of osseointegrated implants.

  3. Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated premolars restored with glass ionomer cement or acid etch composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ranga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to the weakness of endodontically treated posterior teeth requires more strengthened restoration to withstand occlusal forces. The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars restored with different materials in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD cavity preparations. Materials and Methods: MOD cavity preparations in 80 endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars were restored using four different methods. Fiber rings were filled with stone plaster and the teeth were placed into the plaster up to the level of cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were grouped according to restorative method, mounted in an Instrom T.T. machine, and the buccal walls subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. Result: The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups compared. All teeth fractured in a similar manner irrespective of the restorative method used. Conclusion: The resistance to the fracture of the teeth was the same when they were stored with glass ionomer cement as a base over which composite resin was placed. When the entire cavities were filled with glass ionomer cement, the resistance to fracture of the teeth decreased significantly compared with the acid etch resin technique.

  4. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  5. Effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel etched with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid combined with conventional adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.

  6. The effect of titanium implant surface modification on the dynamic process of initial microbial adhesion and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, A.; Li, X.; Huang, B.; Tsoi, J.K.-H.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Chen, Z.; Deng, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamic process of biofilm adhesion on titanium implant with two surface treatments, either pickled (PT) or moderately roughened by sandblasting with large grits and acid-etched (SLA). Materials and methods: Two types of titanium disks with

  7. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Sougrat, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) fabricated using silver (Ag) ions assisted electroless etching method. Silicon nanocrystallites with sizes <5 nm embedded in amorphous silica have been

  8. Single Mode Optical Fiber based Refractive Index Sensor using Etched Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, Geeta; Mallik, Arun; Bhatnagar, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    The use of optical fiber for sensor applications is a topic of current interest. We report the fabrication of etched single mode optical fiber based refractive index sensor. Experiments are performed to determine the etch rate of fiber in buffered hydrofluoric acid, which can be high or low depending upon the temperature at which etching is carried out. Controlled wet etching of fiber cladding is performed using these measurements and etched fiber region is tested for refractive index sensing...

  9. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) implants mimicking distal ureteral calculi on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb P. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Periureteral or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer (Deflux, Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden) is an increasingly common endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We report a confusing radiographic finding of bilateral calcified Dx/HA injections initially thought to represent bilateral distal ureteral stones in a boy who presented with intermittent periumbilical pain. Urologists, radiologists, and emergency room physicians should be aware of the potential for calcification of ureteral implants of Dx/HA, and of the potentially confusing radiographic images that may result. (orig.)

  10. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) implants mimicking distal ureteral calculi on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Caleb P.; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2008-01-01

    Periureteral or subtrigonal injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer (Deflux, Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden) is an increasingly common endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We report a confusing radiographic finding of bilateral calcified Dx/HA injections initially thought to represent bilateral distal ureteral stones in a boy who presented with intermittent periumbilical pain. Urologists, radiologists, and emergency room physicians should be aware of the potential for calcification of ureteral implants of Dx/HA, and of the potentially confusing radiographic images that may result. (orig.)

  11. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  12. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yonghong; Yang Yingge; Zheng Zhiming; Li Wen; Wang Peng; Yao Liming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N + implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ∼ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38 deg. C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  13. Attachment and spreadout study of 3T3 cells onto PP track etched films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolko, Eduardo; Mazzei, Ruben; Tadey, Daniel; Lombardo, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Polymer surface modifications are obtained by the application of radiation treatments and other physico-chemical methods: fission fragment (ff) irradiation and etching. The biocompatibility of the surface is then observed by cell seeding and cell adhesion experiments. Approaches to improvement of the cell adhesion are obtained by different methods: for example, in PS, cell adhesion is improved after ion implantation; in PMMA, after bombarding the polymer, the surface is reconditioned with surfactants and proteins and in PVDF, cell adhesion is assayed on nuclear tracks membranes. In this work, we obtained important cell adhesion improvements in PP films by irradiation with swift heavy ions and subsequent etching of the nuclear tracks. We use BOPP (isotactic -25 μm thickness). Irrradiations were performed with a Cf-252 californium ff source. The source has a heavy ff and a light one, with 160-200 MeV energy divided among them corresponding to ff energies between 1 and 2 MeV/amu. A chemical etching procedure consisting of a solution of sulphuric acid and chromium three oxide at 85 deg. C was used. The 3T3 NIH fibroblast cell line was used for the cell adhesion experiment. Here we report for the first time, the results of a series of experiments by varying the ff fluence and the etching time showing that attachment and spreadout of cells are very much improved in this cell line according to the number of pores and the pore size

  14. Influence of asymmetric etching on ion track shapes in polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clochard, M.-C.; Wade, T.L.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Balanzat, E.

    2007-01-01

    By combining low-energy ion irradiation with asymmetric etching, conical nanopores of controlled geometry can be etched in polycarbonate (PC). Cone bases vary from 0.5 to 1 μm. Top diameters down to 17 nm are reached. When etching from one side, the pH on the other side (bathed in neutral or acidic buffer) was monitored. Etching temperature ranged from 65 deg. C to 80 deg. C. Pore shape characterization was achieved by electro replication combined with SEM observation. The tip shape depended on whether an acidic buffer was used or not on the stopped side

  15. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  16. Screening of lactic acid bacteria with high autolysis rate by N+-implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jie; Lu Jiaping; Liu Lu; Zhang Shuwen

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain lactic acid bacteria with high autolysis rate, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus GS1 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LD3 were mutated by 50 keV N + ions implantation. The results indicated that the survival rate curve took a saddle shape in the range of 1 x 2.6 x 10 13 ∼ 6 x 2.6 x 10 13 and the total mutation rate was 57% ∼ 74%. The survival rate were 25% ∼ 33% on the suitable dose 4 x 2.6 x 10 13 ion/cm 2 . Among the mutated strains with mutation rate in the range of 127.98% ∼-51.96%, the highest autolysis rate mutation strains were named LD3-A3 and GS1-B13. Compare with original strains, autolysis rates of LD3-A3 and GS1-B13 increased by 127.98% and 115.11% respectively. Fermentation properties of LD3-A3 and GS1-B13 were stable after 5 generation transfer inoculation. It indicates that the ion implantation technique is a feasible method in lactic acid bacteria breeding. (authors)

  17. Purposeful exposure of a polylactic acid barrier to achieve socket preservation for placement of dental implants: case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul S; Rosen, Adam D

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a polylactic acid barrier that was left exposed in the process of socket preparation for the placement of dental implants. A retrospective chart review found 43 patients with 48 extraction sockets that were treated in this manner. Teeth were removed and the sockets were thoroughly debrided, with 40 of them receiving a bone replacement graft covered by the polylactic acid barrier and the additional 8 receiving the membrane alone. Suturing left the barrier exposed, and the sites were re-entered on average at 23 weeks for the placement of a dental implant. All sites were able to receive a dental implant, demonstrating the ability to leave a polylactic acid barrier exposed and achieve successful guided bone regeneration (GBR) results. This ultimately helped avoid some of the negative sequelae of trying to achieve primary closure of the flaps at the time of tooth extraction.

  18. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  19. Plasma etching of patterned tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssila, S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma etching of tungsten is discussed from the viewpoint of thin film structure and integrated circuit process engineering. The emphasis is on patterned tungsten etching for silicon device and X-ray mask fabrication. After introducing tungsten etch chemistries and mechanisms, microstructural aspects of tungsten films (crystal structure, grain size, film density, defects, impurities) in relation to etching are discussed. Approaches to etch process optimization are presented, and the current state-of-the-art of patterned tungsten etching is reviewed. (orig.)

  20. In vitro bonding effectiveness of three different one-step self-etch adhesives with additional enamel etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Charu; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Udai Pratap; Manuja, Naveen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of additional enamel etching on the shear bond strength of three self-etch adhesives. Class II box type cavities were made on extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into one control group of etch and rinse adhesive and three test groups of self-etch adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond, Futurabond NR, Xeno V). The teeth in the control group (n = 10) were treated with Adper™ Single Bond 2. The three test groups were further divided into two subgroups (n = 10): (i) self-etch adhesive was applied as per the manufacturer's instructions; (ii) additional etching of enamel surfaces was done prior to the application of self-etch adhesives. All cavities were restored with Filtek Z250. After thermocycling, shear bond strength was evaluated using a Universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using anova independent sample's 't' test and Dunnett's test. The failure modes were evaluated with a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10×. Additional phosphoric acid etching of the enamel surface prior to the application of the adhesive system significantly increased the shear bond strength of all the examined self-etch adhesives. Additional phosphoric acid etching of enamel surface significantly improved the shear bond strength. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Bond Strength between Grooved Titanium Alloy Implant Abutments and Provisional Veneering Materials after Surface Treatment of the Abutments: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Gowtham; Krishnan, Murugesan; Srinivasan, Suganya; Balasubramanian, Muthukumar

    2017-01-01

    Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell-Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this study confirmed that a combination of surface treatments and bond agents enhances the

  2. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  3. Etching in microsystem technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Microcomponents and microdevices are increasingly finding application in everyday life. The specific functions of all modern microdevices depend strongly on the selection and combination of the materials used in their construction, i.e., the chemical and physical solid-state properties of these materials, and their treatment. The precise patterning of various materials, which is normally performed by lithographic etching processes, is a prerequisite for the fabrication of microdevices.The microtechnical etching of functional patterns is a multidisciplinary area, the basis for the etching p

  4. Nanotubular topography enhances the bioactivity of titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyan; Zhang, Xinchun; Yan, Wangxiang; Chen, Zhipei; Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Anxun; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Surface modification on titanium implants plays an important role in promoting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) response to enhance osseointegration persistently. In this study, nano-scale TiO 2 nanotube topography (TNT), micro-scale sand blasted-acid etched topography (SLA), and hybrid sand blasted-acid etched/nanotube topography (SLA/TNT) were fabricated on the surfaces of titanium implants. Although the initial cell adherence at 60 min among TNT, SLA and TNT/SLA was not different, SLA and SLA/TNT presented to be rougher and suppressed the proliferation of MSC. TNT showed hydrophilic surface and balanced promotion of cellular functions. After being implanted in rabbit femur models, TNT displayed the best osteogenesis inducing ability as well as strong bonding strength to the substrate. These results indicate that nano-scale TNT provides favorable surface topography for improving the clinical performance of endosseous implants compared with micro and hybrid micro/nano surfaces, suggesting a promising and reliable surface modification strategy of titanium implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of hierarchical micro/nanosurface titanium implant on osseointegration in ovariectomized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J; Zhou, H; Zhao, L; Sun, Y; Guan, S; Liu, B; Kong, L

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric etching and anodized hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface titanium implant was placed in mandibles of ovariectomized sheep for 12 weeks, and it showed improved osseointegration by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation, histomorphometry, and biomechanical test. This study aimed to investigate the effects of micro/nanotextured titanium implant on osseointegration in ovariectomized (OVX) sheep. The hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface of titanium implant was fabricated by acid in 0.5% (w/v) hydrofluoric (HF) and anodized in HF acid electrolytes with a DC power of 20 V, and the machined surface implants with no treatment served as control group. The implants were placed in mandibles of OVX sheep, respectively. Twelve weeks after implantation, RFA, microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, and biomechanical tests were applied to detect the osseointegration of the two groups. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) values, the maximum pull-out forces, and the bone-implant contact (BIC) were 65.5 ± 6.3, 490.6 ± 72.7 N, and 58.31 ± 5.79% in the micro/nanogroup and 58.3 ± 8.9, 394.5 ± 54.5 N, and 46.85 ± 5.04% in the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in ISQ values (p > 0.05), but in the micro/nanogroup, the maximal pull-out force and the BIC were increased significantly (p Micro-CT analysis showed that the bone volume ratio and the trabecular number increased significantly (p micro/nanogroup. Implant modification by HF acid etching and anodization to form a hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface could improve titanium implant osseointegration in OVX sheep 12 weeks after implantation.

  6. Etching method employing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  7. Improving release completeness from PLGA-based implants for the acid-labile model protein ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luisa; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of hot melt extrusion (HME) for the preparation of PLGA-based ovalbumin-loaded implants as well as to characterize and improve protein release from the implants. Ovalbumin (OVA) was stable during extrusion, which was attributed to a protective effect of the biodegradable matrix. OVA release was characterized by a low burst, a slow release up to day 21, which plateaued thereafter resulting in incomplete release for all evaluated protein loadings. Release incompleteness was accompanied by the formation of an insoluble residual mass. Further characterization of this mass indicated that it consisted of non-covalent protein aggregates and polymer, where ovalbumin was ionically bound as the pH inside the degrading matrix decreased below the pI of the protein. Although higher protein release was obtained with the inclusion of weak bases because of their neutralizing effect, OVA aggregation and release incompleteness were not fully avoided. With the use of shellac, a well-known enteric and biocompatible polymer, as protective excipient, a distinct late release phase occurred and release completeness was increased to more than 75% cumulative release. Shellac apparently protected the protein against the acidic microclimate due to its low solubility at low pH. Protected OVA was thus released once the pH increased due to a declining PLGA-oligomer formation. The result was a triphasic release profile consisting of an initial burst, a slow diffusion phase over about 7 weeks, and an erosion-controlled dissolution phase over the next 3 weeks. An acid-labile protein like OVA was thus feasibly protected from interactions with PLGA and its degradation products, resulting in a controlled delivery of more than 85% of the original payload. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Device fabrication by plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogab, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma etching as applied to many of the materials encountered in the fabrication of LSI's is complicated by loading effect-the dependence of etch rate on the integrated surface area to be etched. This problem is alleviated by appropriate choice of etchant and etching conditions. Appropriate choice of system parameters, generally most concerned with the inherent lifetime of etchant species, may also result in improvement of etch rate uniformity on a wafer-by-wafer basis

  9. Morphological Evaluation of the Adhesive/Enamel interfaces of Two-step Self-etching Adhesives and Multimode One-bottle Self-etching Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Matsui, Naoko; Hamba, Hidenori; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) at the adhesive/enamel interface of self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric acid etching. Four adhesives were used in 8 groups: Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Optibond XTR (XTR), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), and Clearfil BOND SE ONE (ONE) without prior phosphoric-acid etching, and each adhesive with phosphoric acid etching for 10 s (P-SEB, P-XTR, P-SBU and P-ONE, respectively). After application of self-etching adhesives on ground enamel surfaces of human teeth, a flowable composite was placed. For observation of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 4.5 h, followed by 5% NaOCl with ultrasonication for 20 min. After the acid-base challenge, morphological attributes of the interface were observed using SEM. ABRZ formation was confirmed in all groups. The funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present in SBU and ONE, where nearly 10 to 15 μm of enamel was dissolved. With phosphoric acid etching, the ABRZs were obviously thicker compared with no phosphoric acid etching. Enamel beneath the bonding interface was more susceptible to acid dissolution in SBU and ONE. In the case of the one-bottle self-etching adhesives and universal adhesives that intrinsically have higher pH values, enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality.

  10. Effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 supplementations on phospholipid fatty acid composition in mice uterus during window of pre-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Amir; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Salmassi, Ali; Latifi, Zeinab; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shaaker, Maghsood; Ghasemnejad, Tohid; Roshangar, Leila; Nouri, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Since fatty acid composition of uterus phospholipids is likely to influence embryo implantation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on implantation rate as well as uterine phospholipid fatty acids composition during mice pre-implantation period. Sixty female mice were randomly distributed into:1) control (standard pellet), 2) omega-3 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-3 fatty acids) and 3) omega-6 (standard pellet + 10% w/w of omega-6 fatty acids). Uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition during the pre-implantation window (days 1-5 of pregnancy) was analyzed using gas-chromatography. The implantation rate on the fifth day of pregnancy was also determined. Our results showed that on days 1, 2 and 3 of pregnancy, the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as total omega-6 fatty acids were significantly higher and the levels of linolenic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids were statistically lower in the omega-6 group compared to the omega-3 group (p omega-6 fatty acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids levels were significantly different between the two dietary supplemented groups (p omega-6 fatty acids, especially ARA, with the implantation rate. The present study showed that diets rich in omega-3 and -6 fatty acids could differently modify uterine phospholipid fatty acid composition and uterine levels of phospholipid ARA, and that the total omega-6 fatty acids had a positive association with the implantation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of etching on bonding of a self-etch adhesive to dentine affected by amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epasinghe, Don Jeevanie; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung

    2018-02-01

    Dentine affected by amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is histologically altered due to loss of hypoplastic enamel and becomes hypermineralized. In the present study, we examined the effect of additional acid etching on microtensile bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to AI-affected dentine. Flat coronal dentine obtained from extracted AI-affected and non-carious permanent molars were allocated to two groups: (a) Clearfil SE Bond (control); and (b) Clearfil SE Bond and additional etching with 34% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. The bonded teeth were sectioned into .8-mm 2 beams for microtensile bond strength testing, and stressed to failure under tension. The bond strength data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (dentine type and etching step) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (P<.05). Representative fractured beams from each group were examined under scanning electron microscopy. Both factors, dentine substrate (P<.001) and etching step (P<.05), and their interactions (P<.001), were statistically significant. Additional etching had an adverse effect on the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to normal dentine (P<.005), and no significant improvement was found for AI-affected dentine (P=.479). Additional acid etching does not improve the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to AI-affected dentine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Osseointegration of titanium, titanium alloy and zirconia dental implants: current knowledge and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Dieter D; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bone healing around dental implants follows the pattern and sequence of intramembraneous osteogenesis with formation of woven bone first of all followed later by formation of parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. Bone apposition onto the implant surface starts earlier in trabecular bone than in compact bone. While the first new bone may be found on the implant surface around 1 week after installation, bone remodeling starts at between 6 and 12 weeks and continues throughout life. Bone remodeling also involves the bone-implant interface, thus transiently exposing portions of the implant surface. Surface modifications creating micro-rough implant surfaces accelerate the osseointegration process of titanium implants, as demonstrated in numerous animal experiments. Sandblasting followed by acid-etching may currently be regarded as the gold standard technique to create micro-rough surfaces. Chemical surface modifications, resulting in higher hydrophilicity, further increase the speed of osseointegration of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants in both animals and humans. Surface modifications of zirconia and alumina-toughened zirconia implants also have an influence on the speed of osseointegration, and some implant types reach high bone-to-implant contact values in animals. Although often discussed independently of each other, surface characteristics, such as topography and chemistry, are virtually inseparable. Contemporary, well-documented implant systems with micro-rough implant surfaces, placed by properly trained and experienced clinicians, demonstrate high long-term survival rates. Nevertheless, implant failures do occur. A low percentage of implants are diagnosed with peri-implantitis after 10 years in function. In addition, a low number of implants seem to be lost for primarily reasons other than biofilm-induced infection. Patient factors, such as medications interfering with the immune system and bone cells, may be an element contributing to continuous bone

  13. Total DNA of Glycyrrhiza uralensis transformed into Hansenula anomala by ion implantation:Preparing Glycyrrhizic acid in recombined yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiang; Mao Peihong; Lu Jie; Ma Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) is physiologically active. In this study, the total DNA of wild G. uralensis was randomly transformed into Hansenula anomaly by implantation of low-energy Ar + and N + , to produce five recombinant yeast strains relating to biological synthesis of the GA or Glycyrrhetinic acid (GAs). After culturing in liquid medium for 96 h, the resultant GA, 18α-GAs and 18β-Gas were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the corresponding concentrations were 114.49, 0.56, and 0.81 mg·L -1 . After one hundred primers were analyzed with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the seven different DNA fragments were produced by the N7059 strain of recombined yeasts, and, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verified that one of them came from the genome of G. uralensis, indicating a successful transfer of genetic information by ion implantation. (authors)

  14. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  15. Influence of water storage on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Scheidel, Donal D; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine enamel and dentin bond durability after long-term water storage using self-etch adhesives. Two single step self-etch adhesives (SU, Scotchbond Universal and GB, G-ӕnial Bond) and a two-step self-etch adhesive (OX, OptiBond XTR) were used. The shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (FS) of the enamel and dentin were obtained with and without phosphoric acid pre-etching prior to application of the adhesives. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h, 6 months, and one year. A staircase method was used to determine the FS using a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. The SBS and FS of enamel bonds were significantly higher with pre-etching, when compared to no pre-etching for the same water storage period. The FS of dentin bonds with pre-etching tended to decrease relative to no pre-etching at the same storage period. For the one year storage period, SU and GB with pre-etching showed significantly lower FS values than the groups without pre-etching. The influence of water storage on FS of the self-etch adhesives was dependent on the adhesive material, storage period and phosphoric acid pre-etching of the bonding site. Phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the effectiveness of self-etch adhesive systems. Inadvertent contact of phosphoric acid on dentin appears to reduce the ability of self-etch adhesives to effectively bond resin composite materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Observation of topography and analysis of surface contamination of titanium implant after roughness treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongdan; Yang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dayi; Zhang, Xingdong

    2007-04-01

    The roughness treatment of dental implant surface could improve the bone bonding and increase the success rate of implant, but the difference of diverse treatments is still unknown. In this study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectrometer (EDS) and the test of contact angle, we studied the microstructure, surface contamination and surface energy, and hence conducted a comparative analysis of the following surface roughness treatments: Polished Treatment (PT), Sandblasting with Alumina(SA), Sandblasting with Aluminia and Acid-etched (SAA), Sandblasting with Titanium Acid-etched (STA), Electro-erosion Treatment(ET). The result of SEM showed that the surface displayed irregularities after roughness treatments and that the surface properties of different roughness treatments had some distinctions. SAA and SA had some sharp edges and protrutions; the STA showed a regular pattern like honeycomb, but the ET sample treated by electric erosion exhibited the deeper pores of different sizes and the pores with a perforated secondary structure. The EDS indicated that the surface was contaminated after the treatment with foreign materials; the SA surface had some embedded contaminations even after acid etching. The measurement of water contact angle indicated that the morphology correlated with the surface treatments. These findings suggest that the distinction of surface structure and composition caused by different treatments may result in the disparity in biological behavior of dental implant.

  17. Evaluation of mandibular posterior single implants with two different surfaces: a 5-year comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Jung-Yoo; Kim, Chang-Sung; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2008-10-01

    Anatomic and biomechanical limitations can jeopardize successful single implantation in the mandibular posterior area. To overcome the limitations, the design and the surface of the fixtures were modified. This study evaluated the cumulative survival rate (CSR) of mandibular molars replaced with a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) single implant or an anodized (ANO) single implant and examined associated factors, such as the surface treatment, position, and length and diameter of the implants. One hundred ninety-three single implants restored with an SLA implant and 112 single implants restored with an ANO implant in the mandibular molar area were selected from subjects who had visited the Department of Periodontology, Dental Hospital of Yonsei University, from March 2001 through June 2006. In the SLA group, 123 and 70 implants were placed in the first and second molar area, respectively. In the ANO group, 55 and 57 implants were placed in the first and second molar area, respectively. The 1- to 6-year CSR of the SLA and ANO groups was calculated using the life-table analysis. In addition, associated factors, such as the surface treatment, position, and length and diameter of the implants, were compared and analyzed using the chi(2) test (P CSR of 98.96%; four of 112 ANO implants failed, giving a CSR of 96.43%. There were no significant differences with regard to the surface treatment, position, and length and diameter of the implants. Despite the anatomic and biomechanical limitation in the mandibular posterior area, mandibular posterior single implants showed a high CSR during the observation period. Mandibular posterior single implants can be an effective and reliable treatment modality that is not affected by the surface treatment, position, or length and diameter of the implant.

  18. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Frank J J; Ofec, Ronen; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Ten Bruggenkate, Christiaan M

    2015-10-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients. Patients who had dental implant surgery in the period between November 1997 and June 2001, with a follow-up of at least 10 years, were investigated for clinical and radiological examination. Among the 506 inserted dental implants in 250 patients, 10-year data regarding the outcome of implants were available for 374 dental implants in 177 patients. In the current study, peri-implantitis was defined as advanced bone loss (≧1.5 mm. postloading) in combination with bleeding on probing. At 10-year follow-up, only one implant was lost (0.3%) 2 months after implant surgery due to insufficient osseointegration. The average bone loss at 10 year postloading was 0.52 mm. Advanced bone loss at 10-year follow-up was present in 35 dental implants (9.8%). Seven percent of the observed dental implants showed bleeding on probing in combination with advanced bone loss and 4.2% when setting the threshold for advanced bone loss at 2.0 mm. Advanced bone loss without bleeding on probing was present in 2.8% of all implants. In this prospective study, the 10-year survival rate at implant and patient level was 99.7% and 99.4%, respectively. Peri-implantitis was present in 7% of the observed dental implants according to the above-mentioned definition of peri-implantitis. This study shows that SLA implants offer predictable long-term results as support in the treatment of fully and partially edentulous patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods.

  20. Mechanical stability of immediately loaded implants with various surfaces and designs: a pilot study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Weinländer, Michael; Lekovic, Vojislav; von Berg, Karl-Heinz Linne; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2009-01-01

    Immediate loading is among the most innovative techniques in implant therapy today. This pilot study investigates the biomechanical outcome of various designs and surfaces that claim to shorten implant treatment. In each quadrant of two mongrel dogs, four different implants were used for immediate loading. The following implants were placed 3 months after tooth extraction: screw with low thread profile and anodic oxidized surface (LPAOS), solid screw with wide thread profile and titanium plasma spray coating (WPTPS), screw with low profile and hybrid design of double-etched and machined surface (LPHES), and screw with two thread profiles and a sandblasted and acid-etched surface (DTSAE). The insertion torque of each implant was above 35 Ncm. Resonance frequency analysis was performed after implant placement and again after sacrifice. Additionally, the removal torque and the amount of embedded titanium particles in the peri-implant bone were measured. All 16 prostheses were functional after a 5-month loading period. The highest mean removal torque values were recorded with WPTPS implants (24.4 Ncm/mm), followed by DTSAE implants (22.3 Ncm/mm) and LPAOS implants (18.7 Ncm/mm); the lowest score was obtained by LPHES (12.0 Ncm/mm). The ISQ values increased between the time of surgery and recall for all systems on average, but a significant positive correlation was found for DTSAE only. Significantly higher amounts of titanium were found in the surrounding bone with WPTPS (0.76%) and LPAOS (0.41%) in comparison with DTSAE (0.10%) and LPHES (0.03%). Immediate loading is possible with various designs and surfaces if high primary stability can be achieved during implant placement.

  1. Bone cutting capacity and osseointegration of surface-treated orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the practicality and the validity of different surface treatments of self-drilling orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) by comparing bone cutting capacity and osseointegration. Self-drilling OMIs were surface-treated in three ways: Acid etched (Etched), resorbable blasting media (RBM), partially resorbabla balsting media (Hybrid). We compared the bone cutting capacity by measuring insertion depths into artificial bone (polyurethane foam). To compare osseointegration, OMIs were placed in the tibia of 25 rabbits and the removal torque value was measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after placement. The specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The bone cutting capacity of the etched and hybrid group was lower than the machined (control) group, and was most inhibited in the RBM group ( p drilling OMIs, without a corresponding reduction in bone cutting capacity.

  2. Particle precipitation in connection with KOH etching of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Christensen, Carsten; Pedersen, Casper

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show that the precipi......This paper considers the precipitation of iron oxide particles in connection with the KOH etching of cavities in silicon wafers. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the source to the particles is the KOH pellets used for making the etching solution. Experiments show...... that the precipitation is independent of KOH etching time, but that the amount of deposited material varies with dopant type and dopant concentration. The experiments also suggest that the precipitation occurs when the silicon wafers are removed from the KOH etching solution and not during the etching procedure. When...... not removed, the iron oxide particles cause etch pits on the Si surface when later processed and exposed to phosphoric acid. It has been found that the particles can be removed in an HCl solution, but not completely in an H2SO4- H2O2 solution. The paper discusses the involved precipitation mechanism in terms...

  3. In vivo evaluation of an antibacterial coating containing halogenated furanone compound-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles on microarc-oxidized titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yicheng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xianghui; Zhao, Xianghui; Sun, Weige; Ren, Huifang; Wu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To prevent peri-implant infection, a new antibacterial coating containing a halogenated furanone compound, (Z-)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles, has been fabricated. The current study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of the antibacterial coating under a simulated environment of peri-implant infection in vivo. Microarc-oxidized titanium implants treated with minocycline hydrochloride ointment were used as positive control group, and microarc-oxidized titanium implants without any treatment were used as blank control group. Three kinds of implants were implanted in dogs' mandibles, and the peri-implant infection was simulated by silk ligation and feeding high sugar diet. After 2-month implantation, the results showed that no significant differences were detected between the experimental and positive control groups (P>0.05), but the data of clinical measurements of the blank control group were significantly higher than those of the other two groups (Pmicroscope observation and histological examination showed that more new bone was formed on the surface of the experimental and positive control groups. It can be concluded that the antibacterial coating fabricated on implants has remarkable preventive effect on peri-implant infection at the early stage.

  4. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of a new implant design supporting immediately loaded full arch rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Alessandro; Sinjari, Bruna; Gherlone, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic appearance of a new implant design, with particular emphasis given to the type of prosthesis connection. Two dental implants of the same type (Torque Type®, WinSix®, BioSAFin. S.r.l. - Ancona, Italy), with sandblasted and acid etched surfaces (Micro Rough Surface®), but differing from each other for the prosthesis connection system, were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis at different magnifications: TTI...

  5. Osseointegration of biochemically modified implants in an osteoporosis rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Stadlinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of implant surface modifications on osseointegration in an osteoporotic rodent model. Sandblasted, acid-etched titanium implants were either used directly (control or were further modified by surface conditioning with NaOH or by coating with one of the following active agents: collagen/chondroitin sulphate, simvastatin, or zoledronic acid. Control and modified implants were inserted into the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomised (OVX osteoporotic rats (n = 32/group. In addition, aged oestrogen competent animals received either control or NaOH conditioned implants. Animals were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. The excised tibiae were utilised for biomechanical and morphometric readouts (n = 8/group/readout. Biomechanical testing revealed at both time points dramatically reduced osseointegration in the tibia of oestrogen deprived osteoporotic animals compared to intact controls irrespective of NaOH exposure. Consistently, histomorphometric and microCT analyses demonstrated diminished bone-implant contact (BIC, peri-implant bone area (BA, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV and bone-mineral density (BMD in OVX animals. Surface coating with collagen/chondroitin sulphate had no detectable impact on osseointegration. Interestingly, statin coating resulted in a transient increase in BIC 2 weeks post-implantation; which, however, did not correspond to improvement of biomechanical readouts. Local exposure to zoledronic acid increased BIC, BA, BV/TV and BMD at 4 weeks. Yet this translated only into a non-significant improvement of biomechanical properties. In conclusion, this study presents a rodent model mimicking severely osteoporotic bone. Contrary to the other bioactive agents, locally released zoledronic acid had a positive impact on osseointegration albeit to a lesser extent than reported in less challenging models.

  6. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M. P.; Hihn, J. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  7. The effects of implant surface roughness and surgical technique on implant fixation in an in vitro model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between implant surface parameters, surgical approach and initial implant fixation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty tapered, conical, screw-shaped implants with machined or etched surface topography were implanted into the

  8. Effects of substitute coated with hyaluronic acid or poly-lactic acid on implant fixation. Experimental study in ovariectomized and glucocorticoid treated sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Andersen, Thomas L

    2018-01-01

    Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with HyA or PD...... formation, HyA and PDDLA are indeed considered valuable as new coating materials for composite ceramics when tested in a sheep model - even in bones of a compromised quality.......Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with Hy...... allograft obtained from a healthy donor sheep (control), pure HA/βTCP, HA/βTCP-HyA or HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After 12 weeks, the bone formation adjacent to the implant surface was evaluated by histology and histomorphometry, while the implant fixation was measured by a push-out test. The investigation showed a bone...

  9. Etching Effect of an Atmospheric DC Arc Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Min; Kim, Ji Hun; Kang, In Je; Lee, Heon Ju

    2010-01-01

    Thermal plasmas (especially arc plasma) were extensively industrialized, principally by aeronautic sector. Cold plasma technologies have been developed in the microelectronics but their vacuum equipment limits their implantation. Plasmas used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Use of DC arc plasmatrons in welding, soldering, and cutting of metals is well known. A DC-arc plasmatron with high durability was reported to be a suitable device for etching silicon and photo-resist surfaces

  10. Metal-assisted etch combined with regularizing etch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Joanne; Miller, Jeff; Jura, Michael; Black, Marcie R.; Forziati, Joanne; Murphy, Brian; Magliozzi, Lauren

    2018-03-06

    In an aspect of the disclosure, a process for forming nanostructuring on a silicon-containing substrate is provided. The process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) performing a clean, including partial or total removal of the metal used to assist the chemical etch, and (c) performing an isotropic or substantially isotropic chemical etch subsequently to the metal-assisted chemical etch of step (a). In an alternative aspect of the disclosure, the process comprises (a) performing metal-assisted chemical etching on the substrate, (b) cleaning the substrate, including removal of some or all of the assisting metal, and (c) performing a chemical etch which results in regularized openings in the silicon substrate.

  11. Etching of enamel for direct bonding with a thulium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaş Sarp, Ayşe S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2011-03-01

    Background: Laser etching of enamel for direct bonding can decrease the risk of surface enamel loss and demineralization which are the adverse effects of acid etching technique. However, in excess of +5.5°C can cause irreversible pulpal responses. In this study, a 1940- nm Thulium Fiber Laser in CW mode was used for laser etching. Aim: Determination of the suitable Laser parameters of enamel surface etching for direct bonding of ceramic brackets and keeping that intrapulpal temperature changes below the threshold value. Material and Method: Polycrystalline ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded on bovine teeth by using 2 different kinds of etching techniques: Acid and Laser Etching. In addition to these 3 etched groups, there was also a group which was bonded without etching. Brackets were debonded with a material testing machine. Breaking time and the load at the breaking point were measured. Intrapulpal temperature changes were recorded by a K-type Thermocouple. For all laser groups, intrapulpal temperature rise was below the threshold value of 5.5°C. Results and Conclusion: Acid-etched group ( 11.73 MPa) significantly required more debonding force than 3- second- irradiated ( 5.03 MPa) and non-etched groups ( 3.4 MPa) but the results of acid etched group and 4- second- irradiated group (7.5 MPa) showed no significant difference. Moreover, 4- second irradiated group was over the minimum acceptable value for clinical use. Also, 3- second lasing caused a significant reduction in time according to acid-etch group. As a result, 1940- nm laser irradiation is a promising method for laser etching.

  12. Microdroplet-etched highly birefringent low-loss fiber tapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Jared C; Poon, Joyce K S

    2012-07-01

    We use hydrofluoric acid microdroplets to directly etch highly birefringent biconical fiber tapers from standard single-mode fibers. The fiber tapers have micrometer-sized cross sections, which are controlled by the etching condition. The characteristic teardrop cross section leads to a high group birefringence of B(G)≈0.017 and insertion losses <0.7 dB over waist lengths of about 2.1 mm.

  13. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, A; Maji, D; Das, S

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µ m thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C 16 H 36 FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C 5 H 9 NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µ m min −1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5–15 gm l −1 of silicic acid (SiO 2xH2 O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µ m etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures. (paper)

  14. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China); Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Pan, Ge-Bo, E-mail: gbpan2008@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215123 Suzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN surface was etched by 0.3 M EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. - Highlights: • GaN surface was etched by EDTA-2Na. • GaN may be dissolved into EDTA-2Na by forming Ga–EDTA complex. • We propose the complexation dissolution mechanism for the first time. - Abstract: Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 10{sup 9} per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga–EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  15. Laser etching of enamel for direct bonding - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the shear bond strength of mesh shaped stainless steel orthodontic brackets, bonded to acid etched enamel and laser etched enamel and to compare the shear bond strength following acid etching and laser etching. 50 non carious extracted premolar teeth divided in to 5 groups of 10 each were employed in the study. The buccal surfaces of group - I were subjected to conventional etching using 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds, while the other four groups were subjected to Nd:YAG laser etching at different power settings of 80mj, 100mj, 150mj and 200mj respectively for 15 seconds. Brackets were later bonded on to these teeth using Ultimate- light curing primer and adhesive. The shear bond strength of each sample was determined using a universal testing machine and the results were evaluated.

  16. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotropic and anisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how one can calculate the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, track profile and track contour. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (orig.)

  17. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotopic and unisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, the track profile and the track contour can be calculated. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (author)

  18. Self-assembled monolayer resists and nanoscale lithography of silicon dioxide thin films by chemically enhanced vapor etching (CEVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Yun, M.; Kozicki, M. N.; Whidden, T. K.

    1996-10-01

    We report on the use of electron-beam exposed monolayers of undecylenic acid in the etch rate enhancement of silicon dioxide films in HF vapor for the formation of nanoscale features in the oxide. Variations of the etching characteristics with electron beam parameters are examined and the results analyzed in terms of proposed models of the etching mechanism. Apparent variations in the relative concentrations of etch initiator with the thermal history of the samples prior to etching provides support for the dominant etch initiator within this system as the carboxylic acid moiety bound at the oxide surface. Other variations in the etching characteristics are discussed in terms of differences in localized concentrations of hydrocarbon crosslinks and the effect that this has upon the etch initiation. The process has been employed in the production of features in silicon dioxide surface masks with sizes down to 50 nm.

  19. An in vivo study on the effect of coating stability on osteointegration performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid multilayer modified titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Haiyong; Zong, Jiajia; Nie, Yanjiao; Wan, Yizao; Zheng, Xiebin

    2018-03-01

    Aseptic loosening of implant is one of the main causes of Ti-based implant failure. In our previous work, a novel stable collagen/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) multilayer modified titanium coatings (TCs) was developed by layer-by-layer (LBL) covalent immobilization technique, which showed enhanced biological properties compared with TCs that were physically absorbed with Col/HA multilayer in vitro . In this study, a rabbit model with femur condyle defect was employed to compare the osteointegration performance of them. Results indicated that Col/HA multilayer with favourable stability could better facilitate osteogenesis around implants and bone-implant contact. The Col/HA multilayer covalent-immobilized TC may reduce aseptic loosening of implant.

  20. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation improved

  1. Finite element analysis (FEA) of dental implant fixture for mechanical stability and rapid osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shafia; Murtaza, Ahmar; Ali, Hasan; Uddin, Zia Mohy; Zehra, Syedah Sadaf

    2017-10-01

    For rapid osseointegration of dental implant fixtures, various surface treatments including plasma spraying, hydroxyapatite coating, acid-etching, and surface grooving are used. However undesirable effects such as chemical modifications, loss of mechanical properties, prolonged processing times and post production treatment steps are often associated with these techniques. The osseointegration rate of the dental implants can be promoted by increasing the surface area of the dental implant, thus increasing the bone cells - implant material contact and allow bone tissues to grow rapidly. Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques can be used to fabricate dental implant fixtures with desirable surface area in a single step manufacturing process. AM allows the use of Computer Aided Designing (CAD) for customised rapid prototyping of components with precise control over geometry. In this study, the dental implant fixture that replaces the tooth root was designed on commercially available software COMSOL. Nickel - titanium alloy was selected as build materials for dental implant. The geometry of the dental fixture was varied by changing the interspacing distance (thread pitch) and number of threads to increase the total surface area. Three different microstructures were introduced on the surface of dental implant. The designed models were used to examine the effect of changing geometries on the total surface area. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the effect of changing geometries on the mechanical properties of the dental implant fixtures using stress analysis.

  2. Grafting on nuclear tracks using the active sites that remain after the etching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzei, R.; Bermudez, G. Garcia; Chappa, V.C.; Grosso, M.F. del; Fernandez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Poly(propylene) foils were irradiated with Ag ions and then chemically etched to produce samples with structured surfaces. After the etching procedure the active sites that remain on the latent track were used to graft acrylic acid. Nuclear tracks before grafting were visualised using a transmission electron microscope. The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, etching and grafting time, and were also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both measurements suggest that the acrylic acid was grafted on etched tracks using the active sites produced by the swift heavy ion beam

  3. Grafting on nuclear tracks using the active sites that remain after the etching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mazzei@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Bermudez, G. Garcia [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1653 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Chappa, V.C. [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grosso, M.F. del [U. A. de Fisica, Tandar, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); U. A. de Materiales, CNEA, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-09-15

    Poly(propylene) foils were irradiated with Ag ions and then chemically etched to produce samples with structured surfaces. After the etching procedure the active sites that remain on the latent track were used to graft acrylic acid. Nuclear tracks before grafting were visualised using a transmission electron microscope. The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, etching and grafting time, and were also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both measurements suggest that the acrylic acid was grafted on etched tracks using the active sites produced by the swift heavy ion beam.

  4. Biodegradable chitosan and polylactic acid-based intraocular micro-implant for sustained release of methotrexate into vitreous: analysis of pharmacokinetics and toxicity in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Soumyarwit; Banerjee, Rupak K; Augsburger, James J; Al-Rjoub, Marwan F; Donnell, Anna; Correa, Zelia M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of a chitosan (CS) and polylactic acid (PLA) based methotrexate (MTX) intravitreal micro-implant in an animal model using rabbit eyes. CS- and PLA-based micro-implants containing 400 μg of MTX were fabricated using lyophilization and dip-coating techniques. The micro-implants were surgically implanted in the vitreous of eight New Zealand rabbits employing minimally invasive technique. The PLA-coated CS-MTX micro-implant was inserted in the right eye and the placebo micro-implant in the left eye of each rabbit. Two rabbits were euthanized at each pre-determined time point post-implantation (days 5, 12, 19, and 33) for pharmacokinetics and histopathology evaluation. A therapeutic concentration of MTX (0.1-1.0 μM) in the vitreous was detected in the rabbit eyes studied for 33 days. The MTX release from the coated micro-implants followed a first order kinetics (R (2) ~ 0.88), implying that MTX release depends on the concentration of MTX in the micro-implant. Histopathological analysis of the enucleated eyes failed to show any signs of infection or tissue toxicity in any of the specimens. The PLA-coated CS-MTX micro-implants were able to deliver therapeutic release of MTX for a period of more than 1 month without detectable toxicity in a rabbit model. The micro-implants can be further investigated as a prospective alternative to current treatment protocols of repeated intravitreal MTX injections in intraocular disorders such as primary intraocular lymphoma, and selected cases of non-microbial intraocular inflammation.

  5. Optimization of silver-assisted nano-pillar etching process in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Ayu Wazira; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Desa, Mohd Khairunaz Mat; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a respond surface methodology (RSM) model is developed using three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. This model is developed to investigate the influence of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process variables on the nanopillars profiles created in single crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. Design-Expert® software (version 7.1) is employed in formulating the RSM model based on five critical process variables: (A) concentration of silver (Ag), (B) concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF), (C) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (D) deposition time, and (E) etching time. This model is supported by data from 46 experimental configurations. Etched profiles as a function of lateral etching rate, vertical etching rate, height, size and separation between the Si trenches and etching uniformity are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A quadratic regression model is developed to correlate critical process variables and is validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodology. The model exhibits near-linear dependence of lateral and vertical etching rates on both the H2O2 concentration and etching time. The predicted model is in good agreement with the experimental data where R2 is equal to 0.80 and 0.67 for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. The optimized result shows minimum lateral etching with the average pore size of about 69 nm while the maximum etching rate is estimated at around 360 nm/min. The model demonstrates that the etching process uniformity is not influenced by either the etchant concentration or the etching time. This lack of uniformity could be attributed to the surface condition of the wafer. Optimization of the process parameters show adequate accuracy of the model with acceptable percentage errors of 6%, 59%, 1.8%, 38% and 61% for determination of the height, separation, size, the pore size and the etching rate respectively.

  6. Optical diagnostics for plasma etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, T.H.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; de Zeeuw, C.J.H.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several optical diagnostics were used to det. plasma properties and etch rates in an single wafer etch reactor. Results of UV-visible spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy, indicating different mol. species and their densities are presented. The construction of an interferometer to det. the

  7. Immediately loaded implants supporting fixed prostheses in the edentulous maxilla: a preliminary clinical and radiologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Göran; Sahlholm, Sten; Karlsson, Ulf; Nilner, Krister; Lindh, Christina

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the survival rate of immediately loaded ITI sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) solid-screw dental implants in the edentulous maxilla after 8 months of loading. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 63 years) with edentulous maxillae each received 6 implants and 1 implant-supported fixed provisional prosthesis within 24 hours after surgery. After a mean healing time of 15 weeks, the patient received a definitive, screw-retained, implant-supported fixed prosthesis. A total of 168 implants were placed. Clinical parameters were registered after 1 month of loading with the implant-supported fixed prostheses as well as 8 months after implant placement. Radiologic examinations and assessments were made at implant placement and after 8 months. The mean marginal bone level at implant placement was 1.6 mm (range 0 to 5.1; SD 1.1) apical of the reference point (the implant shoulder). The mean marginal bone level at the 8-month follow-up was 3.2 mm (range 0.4 to 5.9; SD 1.1) apical of the reference point. Three implants failed during the healing period. The improved results in the present study might be a result of the positive effect of splinting the implants immediately after placement. ITI SLA solid-screw implants immediately loaded (ie, loaded within 24 hours of placement) and supporting fixed prostheses had successful survival rates after 8 months. The present results constitute a solid baseline for future follow-up studies.

  8. Temperature increase beneath etched dentin discs during composite polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Yildirim, Cihan; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature increase during the polymerization of a composite resin beneath acid-etched or laser-etched dentin discs. The irradiation of dentin with an Er:YAG laser may have a positive effect on the thermal conductivity of dentin. This technique has not been studied extensively. Forty dentin discs (5 mm in diameter and 0.5 or 1 mm in height) were prepared from extracted permanent third molars. These dentin discs were etched with 20% orthophosphoric acid or an Er:YAG laser, and were then placed on an apparatus developed to measure temperature increases. The composite resin was polymerized with a high-intensity quartz tungsten halogen (HQTH) or light-emitting diode unit (LED). The temperature increase was measured under the dentin disc with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Five measurements were made for each dentin disc, curing unit, and etching system combination. Differences between the initial and the highest temperature readings were taken, and the five calculated temperature changes were averaged to determine the value of the temperature increase. Statistical analysis was performed with a three-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests at a 0.05 level of significance. Further SEM examinations were performed. The temperature increase values varied significantly, depending on etching systems (p < 0.05), dentin thicknesses (p < 0.05), and curing units (p < 0.05). Temperature increases measured beneath laser-etched discs were significantly higher than those for acid-etched dentin discs (p < 0.05). The HQTH unit induced significantly higher temperature increases than the LED unit (p < 0.05). The LED unit induced the lowest temperature change (5.2°C) in the 1-mm, acid-etched dentin group. The HQTH unit induced the highest temperature change (10.4°C) for the 0.5-mm, laser-etched dentin group. The risk of heat-induced pulpal damage should be taken into consideration

  9. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.

  10. Etch pit investigation of free electron concentration controlled 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Yeol; Shin, Yun Ji; Kim, Jung Gon; Harima, Hiroshi; Kim, Jihyun; Bahng, Wook

    2013-04-01

    Etch pits were investigated using the molten KOH selective etching method to examine dependence of etch pit shape and size on free electron concentration. The free electron concentrations of highly doped 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) were controlled by proton irradiation and thermal annealing, which was confirmed by a frequency shift in the LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode on micro-Raman spectroscopy. The proton irradiated sample with 5×1015 cm-2 fluence and an intrinsic semi-insulating sample showed clearly classified etch pits but different ratios of threading screw dislocation (TSD) and threading edge dislocation (TED) sizes. Easily classified TEDs and TSDs on proton irradiated 4H-SiC were restored as highly doped 4H-SiC after thermal annealing due to the recovered carrier concentrations. The etched surface of proton irradiated 4H-SiC and boron implanted SiC showed different surface conditions after activation.

  11. Concomitant monitoring of implant formation and drug release of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants in a hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis using UV-vis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-02-20

    For poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA)-based in situ forming implants, the rate of implant formation plays an important role in determining the overall drug release kinetics. Currently, in vitro techniques capable of characterizing the processes of drug release and implant formation at the same time are not available. A hydrogel-based in vitro experimental setup was recently developed requiring only microliter of formulation and forming a closed system potentially suitable for interfacing with various spectroscopic techniques. The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to investigate the feasibility of concomitant UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy for detailed characterization of the behavior of in situ forming PLGA implants in the hydrogel matrix mimicking the subcutis. The model compounds, piroxicam and α-lactalbumin were added to PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin solutions. Upon bringing the PLGA-solvent-compound pre-formulation in contact with the hydrogel, Vis imaging and light microscopy were applied to visualize the depot formation and UV imaging was used to quantify drug transport in the hydrogel. As compared to piroxicam, the α-lactalbumin invoked an acceleration of phase separation and an increase of implant size. α-Lactalbumin was released faster from the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system than the PLGA-triacetin system opposite to the piroxicam release pattern. A linear relationship between the rate of implant formation and initial compound release within the first 4h was established for the PLGA-NMP systems. This implies that phase separation may be one of the controlling factors in drug release. The rate of implant formation may be an important parameter for predicting and tailoring drug release. The approach combining UV imaging, Vis imaging and light microscopy may facilitate understanding of release processes and holds potential for becoming a useful tool in formulation development of in situ forming

  12. Surface modification of Ti dental implants by Nd:YVO4 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco J.C.; Marques, Rodrigo F.C.; Filho, Edson de A.; Guastaldi, Antonio C.

    2007-01-01

    Surface modifications have been applied in endosteal bone devices in order to improve the osseointegration through direct contact between neoformed bone and the implant without an intervening soft tissue layer. Surface characteristics of titanium implants have been modified by addictive methods, such as metallic titanium, titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite powder plasma spray, as well as by subtractive methods, such as acid etching, acid etching associated with sandblasting by either AlO 2 or TiO 2 , and recently by laser ablation. Surface modification for dental and medical implants can be obtained by using laser irradiation technique where its parameters like repetition rate, pulse energy, scanning speed and fluency must be taken into accounting to the appropriate surface topography. Surfaces of commercially pure Ti (cpTi) were modified by laser Nd:YVO 4 in nine different parameters configurations, all under normal atmosphere. The samples were characterized by SEM and XRD refined by Rietveld method. The crystalline phases αTi, βTi, Ti 6 O, Ti 3 O and TiO were formed by the melting and fast cooling processes during irradiation. The resulting phases on the irradiated surface were correlated with the laser beam parameters. The aim of the present work was to control titanium oxides formations in order to improve implants osseointegration by using a laser irradiation technique which is of great importance to biomaterial devices due to being a clean and reproducible process

  13. Does active application of universal adhesives to enamel in self-etch mode improve their performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguercio, Alessandro D; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of adhesion strategy on the enamel microshear bond strengths (μSBS), etching pattern, and in situ degree of conversion (DC) of seven universal adhesives. 84 extracted third molars were sectioned in four parts (buccal, lingual, proximal) and divided into 21 groups, according to the combination of the main factors adhesive (AdheSE Universal [ADU], All-Bond Universal [ABU], Clearfil Universal [CFU], Futurabond U [FBU], G-Bond Plus [GBP], Prime&Bond Elect (PBE), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]), and adhesion strategy (etch-and-rinse, active self-etch, and passive self-etch). Specimens were stored in water (37°C/24h) and tested at 1.0mm/min (μSBS). Enamel-resin interfaces were evaluated for DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under a field-emission scanning electron microscope (direct and replica techniques). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Active self-etch application increased μSBS and DC for five out of the seven universal adhesives when compared to passive application (padhesives in the etch-and-rinse strategy. A slight improvement in etching ability was observed in active self-etch application compared to that of passive self-etch application. Replicas of GBP and PBE applied in active self-etch mode displayed morphological features compatible with water droplets. The DC of GBP and PBE were not affected by the application/strategy mode. In light of the improved performance of universal adhesives when applied actively in SE mode, selective enamel etching with phosphoric acid may not be crucial for their adhesion to enamel. The active application of universal adhesives in self-etch mode may be a practical alternative to enamel etching in specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone Healing Around Dental Implants: Simplified vs Conventional Drilling Protocols at Speed of 400 rpm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz Fernando; Sarendranath, Alvin; Neiva, Rodrigo; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin N; Castellano, Arthur; Coelho, Paulo G

    This study evaluated whether simplified drilling protocols would provide comparable histologic and histomorphometric results to conventional drilling protocols at a low rotational speed. A total of 48 alumina-blasted and acid-etched Ti-6Al-4V implants with two diameters (3.75 and 4.2 mm, n = 24 per group) were bilaterally placed in the tibiae of 12 dogs, under a low-speed protocol (400 rpm). Within the same diameter group, half of the implants were inserted after a simplified drilling procedure (pilot drill + final diameter drill), and the other half were placed using the conventional drilling procedure. After 3 and 5 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the retrieved bone-implant samples were subjected to nondecalcified histologic sectioning. Histomorphology, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) analysis were performed. Histology showed that new bone was formed around implants, and inflammation or bone resorption was not evident for both groups. Histomorphometrically, when all independent variables were collapsed over drilling technique, no differences were detected for BIC and BAFO; when drilling technique was analyzed as a function of time, the conventional groups reached statistically higher BIC and BAFO at 3 weeks, but comparable values between techniques were observed at 5 weeks; 4.2-mm implants obtained statistically higher BAFO relative to 3.75-mm implants. Based on the present methodology, the conventional technique improved bone formation at 3 weeks, and narrower implants were associated with less bone formation.

  15. Bond strength with various etching times on young permanent teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.N.; Lu, T.C. (School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-07-01

    Tensile bond strengths of an orthodontic resin cement were compared for 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-second etching times, with a 37% phosphoric acid solution on the enamel surfaces of young permanent teeth. Fifty extracted premolars from 9- to 16-year-old children were used for testing. An orthodontic composite resin was used to bond the bracket directly onto the buccal surface of the enamel. The tensile bond strengths were tested with an Instron machine. Bond failure interfaces between bracket bases and teeth surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and calculated with mapping of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The results of tensile bond strength for 15-, 30-, 60-, or 90-second etching times were not statistically different. For the 120-second etching time, the decrease was significant. Of the bond failures, 43%-49% occurred between bracket and resin interface, 12% to 24% within the resin itself, 32%-40% between resin and tooth interface, and 0% to 4% contained enamel fragments. There was no statistical difference in percentage of bond failure interface distribution between bracket base and resin, resin and enamel, or the enamel detachment. Cohesive failure within the resin itself at the 120-second etching time was less than at other etching times, with a statistical significance. To achieve good retention, to decrease enamel loss, and to reduce moisture contamination in the clinic, as well as to save chairside time, a 15-second etching time is suggested for teenage orthodontic patients.

  16. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the microleakage level of fissure sealants prepared by a fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis prior to acid etching. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone.

  17. Nanoporous hydroxyapatite/sodium titanate bilayer on titanium implants for improved osteointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradò, A; Perrin-Schmitt, F; Le, Q V; Giraudel, M; Fischer, C; Koenig, G; Jacomine, L; Behr, L; Chalom, A; Fiette, L; Morlet, A; Pourroy, G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the strength and quality of the titanium-hydroxyapatite interface in order to prevent long-term failure of the implanted devices originating from coating delamination and to test it in an in-vivo model. Ti disks and dental commercial implants were etched in Kroll solution. Thermochemical treatments of the acid-etched titanium were combined with sol-gel hydroxyapatite (HA) coating processes to obtain a nanoporous hydroxyapatite/sodium titanate bilayer. The sodium titanate layer was created by incorporating sodium ions onto the Ti surface during a NaOH alkaline treatment and stabilized using a heat treatment. HA layer was added by dip-coating in a sol-gel solution. The bioactivity was assessed in vitro with murine MC3T3-E1 and human SaOs-2 cells. Functional and histopathological evaluations of the coated Ti implants were performed at 22, 34 and 60days of implantation in a dog lower mandible model. Nanoporous hydroxyapatite/sodium titanate bilayer on titanium implants was sensitive neither to crack propagation nor to layer delamination. The in vitro results on murine MC3T3-E1 and human SaOs-2 cells confirm the advantage of this coating regarding the capacity of cell growth and differentiation. Signs of progressive bone incorporation, such as cancellous bone formed in contact with the implant over the existing compact bone, were notable as early as day 22. Overall, osteoconduction and osteointegration mean scores were higher for test implants compared to the controls at 22 and 34 days. Nanoporous hydroxyapatite/sodium titanate bilayer improves the in-vivo osteoconduction and osteointegration. It prevents the delamination during the screwing and it could increase HA-coated dental implant stability without adhesive failures. The combination of thermochemical treatments with dip coating is a low-cost strategy. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep ultra violet and visible Raman spectroscopy studies of ion implanted 6H-SiC: Recrytallisation behaviour and thermal decomposition/thermal etching of the near surface region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhudzai, R.J., E-mail: rj.kuhudzai@tuks.co.za [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Malherbe, J.B.; Berg, N.G. van der; Hlatshwayo, T.T.; Odutemowo, O.; Prinsloo, L.C. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Buys, A.V. [Laboratory for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Erasmus, R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wendler, E. [Institut Für Festköperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The recystallisation behaviour and thermal decomposition of the near surface amorphised region of 6H-SiC have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. 360 keV ions of iodine and silver were implanted at room temperature into wafers of 6H-SiC resulting in the amorphisation of the near surface region. Vacuum annealing of the samples was performed at 1200 °C for 5 h and then sequentially from 1200 to 1600 °C in steps of 100 °C for 30 h at each annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy was performed using two laser wavelength excitation regimes, the 514 nm laser (visible region) and the 244 nm laser (deep ultraviolet region, DUV). Measurements in the visible region for samples annealed at 1200 °C for 5 h showed that the characteristic 6H-SiC peaks, namely, the Transverse Optical (TO) and Longitudinal Optical (LO) are similar to the virgin samples, albeit with lower intensity due to some retained defects upon recystallisation of the SiC surface region. The similarities between the virgin spectra and the annealed sample were due to the deep penetration of the 514 nm laser into 6H-SiC resulting in the signal from the bulk undamaged 6H-SiC contributing to the overall spectra. However, DUV laser excitation, which only probes the near surface region, shows that after annealing the peaks are broader and asymmetrical compared to the virgin samples. DUV Raman spectra of samples annealed at 1600 °C indicate that SiC has completely decomposed and the top surface layer is now covered by a carbon layer. However the deeper penetrating laser in the visible region showed that the extent of decomposition at 1600 °C was greater for the silver implanted samples than for the iodine implanted samples.

  19. Binding of p-mercaptobenzoic acid and adenine to gold-coated electroless etched silicon nanowires studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Gebavi, Hrvoje; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Daković, Marko; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica

    2018-04-10

    Modern diagnostic tools ever aim to reduce the amount of analyte and the time needed for obtaining the result. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a method that could satisfy both of these requirements, provided that for each analyte an adequate substrate is found. Here we demonstrate the ability of gold-sputtered silicon nanowires (SiNW) to bind p-mercaptobenzoic acid in 10 -3 , 10 -4 and 10 -5 M and adenine in 30 and 100μM concentrations. Based on the normal mode analysis, presented here for the first time, the binding of p-mercaptobenzoic acid is deduced. The intensity enhancement of the 1106cm -1 band is explained by involvement of the CS stretching deformation, and the appearance of the broad 300cm -1 band attributed to SAu stretching mode. Adenine SERS spectra demonstrate the existence of the 7H tautomer since the strongest band observed is at 736cm -1 . The adenine binding is likely to occur in several ways, because the number of observed bands in the 1200-1600cm -1 interval exceeds the number of observed bands in the normal Raman spectrum of the free molecule. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V implants with bone-inspired porosity and micro/nanoscale surface roughness in the rabbit femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J; Cheng, Alice; Sahingur, Kaan; Clohessy, Ryan M; Hopkins, Louis B; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2017-04-28

    Long term success of bone-interfacing implants remains a challenge in compromised patients and in areas of low bone quality. While surface roughness at the micro/nanoscale can promote osteogenesis, macro-scale porosity is important for promoting mechanical stability of the implant over time. Currently, machining techniques permit pores to be placed throughout the implant, but the pores are generally uniform in dimension. The advent of laser sintering provides a way to design and manufacture implants with specific porosity and variable dimensions at high resolution. This approach enables production of metal implants that mimic complex geometries found in biology. In this study, we used a rabbit femur model to compare osseointegration of laser sintered solid and porous implants. Ti-6Al-4V implants were laser sintered in a clinically relevant size and shape. One set of implants had a novel porosity based on human trabecular bone; both sets had grit-blasted/acid-etched surfaces. After characterization, implants were inserted transaxially into rabbit femora; mechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry were conducted 10 weeks post-operatively. There were no differences in pull-out strength or bone-to-implant contact. However, both microCT and histomorphometry showed significantly higher new bone volume for porous compared to solid implants. Bone growth was observed into porous implant pores, especially near apical portions of the implant interfacing with cortical bone. These results show that laser sintered Ti-6Al-4V implants with micro/nanoscale surface roughness and trabecular bone-inspired porosity promote bone growth and may be used as a superior alternative to solid implants for bone-interfacing implants.

  1. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  2. 75 FR 4692 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... NADA provides for veterinarian prescription use of ceftiofur crystalline free acid injectable... January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melanie R. Berson, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV... crystalline free acid) Sterile Suspension. The supplemental NADA provides for veterinarian prescription use of...

  3. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Wang Tao; Yang Yingge; Liu Dan; Fan Yonghong; Wang Dongmei; Yang Qian; Yao Jianming; Zheng Zhiming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  4. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  5. Selective dry etching of silicon containing anti-reflective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Shyam; Nolan, Andrew; Wang, Li; Karakas, Erdinc; Voronin, Sergey; Biolsi, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2018-03-01

    Multi-layer patterning schemes involve the use of Silicon containing Anti-Reflective Coating (SiARC) films for their anti-reflective properties. Patterning transfer completion requires complete and selective removal of SiARC which is very difficult due to its high silicon content (>40%). Typically, SiARC removal is accomplished through a non-selective etch during the pattern transfer process using fluorine containing plasmas, or an ex-situ wet etch process using hydrofluoric acid is employed to remove the residual SiARC, post pattern transfer. Using a non-selective etch may result in profile distortion or wiggling, due to distortion of the underlying organic layer. The drawbacks of using wet etch process for SiARC removal are increased overall processing time and the need for additional equipment. Many applications may involve patterning of active structures in a poly-Si layer with an underlying oxide stopping layer. In such applications, SiARC removal selective to oxide using a wet process may prove futile. Removing SiARC selectively to SiO2 using a dry etch process is also challenging, due to similarity in the nature of chemical bonds (Si - O) in the two materials. In this work, we present highly selective etching of SiARC, in a plasma driven by a surface wave radial line slot antenna. The first step in the process involves an in-situ modification of the SiARC layer in O2 plasma followed by selective etching in a NF3/H2 plasma. Surface treatment in O2 plasma resulted in enhanced etching of the SiARC layer. For the right processing conditions, in-situ NF3/H2 dry etch process demonstrated selectivity values greater than 15:1 with respect to SiO2. The etching chemistry, however, was sensitive to NF3:H2 gas ratio. For dilute NF3 in H2, no SiARC etching was observed. Presumably, this is due to the deposition of ammonium fluorosilicate layer that occurs for dilute NF3/H2 plasmas. Additionally, challenges involved in selective SiARC removal (selective to SiO2, organic

  6. Thermodynamics of nuclear track chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This is a brief paper with new and useful scientific information on nuclear track chemical etching. Nuclear track etching is described here by using basic concepts of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy parameters are considered for the nuclear track etching. The free energy of etching is determined using etching experiments of fission fragment tracks in CR-39. Relationship between the free energy and the etching temperature is explored and is found to be approximately linear. The above relationship is discussed. A simple enthalpy-entropy model of chemical etching is presented. Experimental and computational results presented here are of fundamental interest in nuclear track detection methodology.

  7. Influence of titanium implant surface characteristics on bone regeneration in dehiscence-type defects: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Sager, Martin; Kadelka, Ines; Ferrari, Daniel; Becker, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare bone regeneration in dehiscence-type defects at titanium implants with chemically modified sandblasted/acid-etched (modSLA) or dual acid-etched surfaces with a calcium phosphate nanometre particle modification (DCD/CaP). Buccal dehiscence-type defects were surgically created following implant site preparation in both the upper and the lower jaws of 12 fox hounds. Both types of implants were randomly allocated in a split-mouth design and left to heal in a submerged position for 2 and 8 weeks. Dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis [e.g. new bone height (NBH), percentage of bone-to-implant contact (BIC), area of new bone fill (BF), and area of mineralized tissue (MT) within BF]. At 2 and 8 weeks, both groups revealed comparable mean BF (2.3+/-0.6 to 2.5+/-0.6 mm(2)versus 2.0+/-0.6 to 1.4+/-0.5 mm(2)) and MT (31.1+/-14.3-83.2+/-8.2%versus 38.9+/-15.9-84.4+/-6.3%) values. However, modSLA implants revealed significantly higher mean NBH (2.4+/-0.8 to 3.6+/-0.3 mm versus 0.9+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-1.4 mm) and BIC (53.3+/-11.3-79.5+/-6.6%versus 19.3+/-16.4-47.2+/-30.7%) values than DCD/CaP implants. ModSLA implants may have a higher potential to support osseointegration in dehiscence-type defects than DCD/CaP implants.

  8. Evaluation of bond strength between grooved titanium alloy implant abutments and provisional veneering materials after surface treatment of the abutments: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Materials and Methods: Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell–Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman–Keuls post hoc test. Results: The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Conclusion: Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this

  9. The effect of valproic acid and oxcarbazepine on the distribution of adhesion molecules in embryo implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Erdoğan, Deniz; Coşkun, Zafer Kutay; Cansu, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on embryo implantation in terms of extracellular matrix protein distribution. Thirty female rats (Wistar albino) were assigned to three groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 was administered two doses of saline solution, group 2, two doses of VPA at 300 mg/kg/day and group 3, two doses of OXC at 100 mg/kg/day, for a period of 3 months. Female rats with vaginal plugs mated with males for one night were placed into separate cages. Day of mating was taken as day 0, and implantation areas were obtained with rats being sacrificed on the morning of day 7. Immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopic protocols were then applied. At electron microscopic evaluation, extraembryonic endoderm and ectoderm layers could not be distinguished in semi-thin sections in the VPA group, while they were partially differentiated in the OXC group. At immunohistochemical staining, laminin was observed in the primary embryonic endoderm cell visceral and parietal layers, the uterine luminal epithelial cells and the secondary decidual zone in the control group. In the VPA group, it was weakly expressed in some embryo trophoectoderm cells and uterine luminal epithelial cells and moderately in some decidual cells. In the OXC group, it was moderately expressed in some trophoectoderm and decidual cells. Collagen IV was localized in the ectoplacental cone cells and secondary decidual zone and weak in the luminal epithelial cells in the control group. In the VPA and OXC groups, collagen IV was negative in all embryonic and maternal structures in the VPA and OXC groups. Vimentin was moderately expressed in the luminal epithelium and strongly expressed in the primary decidual zone and ectoplacental cone cells in the control group. In the VPA group, it was negative in the embryo trophoectoderm, decidual and uterine luminal epithelial cells, while in the OXC group it was moderately localized in the

  10. [Enforcing osseointegration of dental implantates spray-coated by bioceramics with the help of hyaluronic acid and hydroxyapatite gel in experimental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A A; Volozhin, A I; Tkachenko, V M; Doktorov, A A; Salim, Ibrakhim Samir

    2007-01-01

    Influence of HAP-gel (2 g of 2% solution of hyaluronic acid mixed with 0,5 g of hydroxyapatite and 0,1 ml of colloidal silver) upon osseointegration in case of delayed introduction of titanium implantates in dog jaw. By scanning electron microscopy it was shown that solely use either of HAP-gel or of ceramic spraying increased direct contact area between bone and implantates in the 6 and 9 months time period. Combination of spray-coated ceramic with HAP-gel was effective in 3 months after implantation, when solely the HAP-gel or the ceramic spraying were little effective. In the following terms of experiment (6 and 9 months) significant differences between groups 3 and 4 (implantate with ceramic spraying but without HAP-gel in the alveolus and implantate with ceramic spraying and with HAP-gel in the alveolus) were not found. The area of implantate integration with jaw bone (cortical part of it was excluded) was equal to 80% and was maximal for the given conditions of the experiment.

  11. Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants investigated using a hydrogel-based subcutaneous tissue surrogate and UV-vis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Larsen, Susan W; Østergaard, Jesper

    2017-10-25

    Phase separation of in situ forming poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) implants with agarose hydrogels as the provider of nonsolvent (water) mimicking subcutaneous tissue was investigated using a novel UV-vis imaging-based analytical platform. In situ forming implants of PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PLGA-triacetin representing fast and slow phase separating systems, respectively, were evaluated using this platform. Upon contact with the agarose hydrogel, the phase separation of the systems was followed by the study of changes in light transmission and absorbance as a function of time and position. For the PLGA-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone system, the rate of spatial phase separation was determined and found to decrease with increasing the PLGA concentration from 20% to 40% (w/w). Hydrogels with different agarose concentrations (1% and 10% (w/v)) were prepared for providing the nonsolvent, water, to the in situ forming PLGA implants simulating the injection site environment. The resulting implant morphology depended on the stiffness of hydrogel matrix, indicating that the matrix in which implants are formed is of importance. Overall, the work showed that the UV-vis imaging-based platform with an agarose hydrogel mimicking the subcutaneous tissue holds potential in providing bio-relevant and mechanistic information on the phase separation processes of in situ forming implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemistry in anisotropic etching of silicon in alkaline solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Q.D.

    2007-01-01

    Etching is the process of using an acidic or caustic chemical to cut into unprotected areas of a particular material. Initially used in the 15th century for decorating plate armor and sword blades, the metal surface (typically steel or copper) was first covered with a wax-like material. Part of the

  13. Comparison of two dental implant surface modifications on implants with same macrodesign: an experimental study in the pelvic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sabrina; Stübinger, Stefan; Schüpbach, Peter; Sidler, Michéle; Klein, Karina; Ferguson, Stephen J; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two different surfaces of one uniform macro-implant design in order to focus exclusively on the osseointegration properties after 2, 4 and 8 weeks and to discuss the animal model chosen. In six mature sheep, n = 36 implants with a highly crystalline and phosphate-enriched anodized titanium oxide surface (TiU) and n = 36 implants with a hydrophilic, sandblasted, large grit and acid-etched surface (SLA) were placed in the pelvic bone. TiU implants were custom-made to match the SLA implant design. The implant stability and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) were assessed by resonance frequency (ISQ), backscatter scanning electron microscopy (B-SEM), light microscopy (LM), micro-CT and intravital fluorochrome staining. Biomechanical removal torque testing was performed. Overall, no statistically significant differences in BIC total (trabecular + cortical) between TiU and SLA were found via LM and B-SEM. BIC values (B-SEM; LM) in both groups revealed a steady rise in trabecular bone attachment to the implant surface after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In the 2- to 4-week time interval in the TiU group (P = 0.005) as well as in the SLA group (P = 0.01), a statistically significant increase in BIC trabecular could be observed via LM. B-SEM values confirmed the statistically significant increase for TiU (P = 0.001). In both groups, BIC trabecular values after 8 weeks were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than after 2 weeks (B-SEM; LM). Biomechanical data confirmed the histological data. The two surfaces proved comparable osseointegration in this sheep model. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Coating Does Not Affect Bone Apposition at the Implant Surface in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.; Gawlitta, Debby; Nikkels, P. G J; Pouran, B.; van Rijen, M. H P; Dhert, W. J A; Vogely, H. C.

    Background: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics

  15. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Coating Does Not Affect Bone Apposition at the Implant Surface in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W; Gawlitta, D; Nikkels, P G J; Pouran, B; van Rijen, M H P; Dhert, W J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10261847X; Vogely, H Ch

    BACKGROUND: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics

  16. Bone regeneration by the osteoconductivity of porous titanium implants manufactured by selective laser melting: a histological and micro computed tomography study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Mayer, Kyrill; Schkommodau, Erik; Thoma, Daniel; Bredell, Marius; Kruse Gujer, Astrid; Grätz, Klaus W; Weber, Franz E

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of large bone defects still poses a major challenge in orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. One possible solution could be the development of personalized porous titanium-based implants that are designed to meet all mechanical needs with a minimum amount of titanium and maximum osteopromotive properties so that it could be combined with growth factor-loaded hydrogels or cell constructs to realize advanced bone tissue engineering strategies. Such implants could prove useful for mandibular reconstruction, spinal fusion, the treatment of extended long bone defects, or to fill in gaps created on autograft harvesting. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties and potential of bone formation of light weight implants generated by selective laser melting (SLM). We mainly focused on osteoconduction, as this is a key feature in bone healing and could serve as a back-up for osteoinduction and cell transplantation strategies. To that end, defined implants were produced by SLM, and their surfaces were left untreated, sandblasted, or sandblasted/acid etched. In vivo bone formation with the different implants was tested throughout calvarial defects in rabbits and compared with untreated defects. Analysis by micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry revealed that all generatively produced porous Ti structures were well osseointegrated into the surrounding bone. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that bone formation was significantly increased in all implant-treated groups compared with untreated defects and significantly increased in sand blasted implants compared with untreated ones. Bone bridging was significantly increased in sand blasted acid-etched scaffolds. Therefore, scaffolds manufactured by SLM should be surface treated. Bone augmentation beyond the original bone margins was only seen in implant-treated defects, indicating an osteoconductive potential of the implants that could be utilized clinically for bone

  17. Wet etching mechanism and crystallization of indium-tin oxide layer for application in light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shui-Hsiang; Kong, Hsieng-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Chen, Guan-Yu

    2018-01-01

    In the article, we describe the etching mechanism of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film, which was wet-etched using a solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3). The etching mechanism is analyzed at various etching durations of ITO films by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and selective area diffraction (SAD) analysis. In comparison with the crystalline phase of SnO2, the In2O3 phase can be more easily transformed to In3+ and can form an inverted conical structure during the etching process. By adjusting the etching duration, the residual ITO is completely removed to show a designed pattern. This is attributed to the negative Gibbs energy of In2O3 transformed to In3+. The result also corresponds to the finding of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis that the Sn/In ratio increases with increasing etching duration.

  18. Optimization of silver-assisted nano-pillar etching process in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhari, Ayu Wazira; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Desa, Mohd Khairunaz Mat; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical analysis for synthesis of nano-pillar in crystalline Si substrates is presented. • Model is in good agreement with experimental for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. • Optimum values for all parameters in fabrication of nanostructured Si are attained. - Abstract: In this study, a respond surface methodology (RSM) model is developed using three-level Box–Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. This model is developed to investigate the influence of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process variables on the nanopillars profiles created in single crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. Design-Expert ® software (version 7.1) is employed in formulating the RSM model based on five critical process variables: (A) concentration of silver (Ag), (B) concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF), (C) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), (D) deposition time, and (E) etching time. This model is supported by data from 46 experimental configurations. Etched profiles as a function of lateral etching rate, vertical etching rate, height, size and separation between the Si trenches and etching uniformity are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A quadratic regression model is developed to correlate critical process variables and is validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodology. The model exhibits near-linear dependence of lateral and vertical etching rates on both the H 2 O 2 concentration and etching time. The predicted model is in good agreement with the experimental data where R 2 is equal to 0.80 and 0.67 for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. The optimized result shows minimum lateral etching with the average pore size of about 69 nm while the maximum etching rate is estimated at around 360 nm/min. The model demonstrates that the etching process uniformity is not influenced by either the etchant concentration or the etching time

  19. Optimization of silver-assisted nano-pillar etching process in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhari, Ayu Wazira, E-mail: ayuwazira@unimap.edu.my [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43650 (Malaysia); School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43650 (Malaysia); Desa, Mohd Khairunaz Mat [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, 14300 (Malaysia); Zaidi, Saleem H. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43650 (Malaysia)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical analysis for synthesis of nano-pillar in crystalline Si substrates is presented. • Model is in good agreement with experimental for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. • Optimum values for all parameters in fabrication of nanostructured Si are attained. - Abstract: In this study, a respond surface methodology (RSM) model is developed using three-level Box–Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. This model is developed to investigate the influence of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process variables on the nanopillars profiles created in single crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. Design-Expert{sup ®} software (version 7.1) is employed in formulating the RSM model based on five critical process variables: (A) concentration of silver (Ag), (B) concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF), (C) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), (D) deposition time, and (E) etching time. This model is supported by data from 46 experimental configurations. Etched profiles as a function of lateral etching rate, vertical etching rate, height, size and separation between the Si trenches and etching uniformity are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A quadratic regression model is developed to correlate critical process variables and is validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodology. The model exhibits near-linear dependence of lateral and vertical etching rates on both the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and etching time. The predicted model is in good agreement with the experimental data where R{sup 2} is equal to 0.80 and 0.67 for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. The optimized result shows minimum lateral etching with the average pore size of about 69 nm while the maximum etching rate is estimated at around 360 nm/min. The model demonstrates that the etching process uniformity is not influenced by either the etchant

  20. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y., E-mail: jean-yves.hihn@univ-fcomte.fr

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  1. Power ultrasound irradiation during the alkaline etching process of the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutarlier, V.; Viennet, R.; Rolet, J.; Gigandet, M.P.; Hihn, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Result of an etching step in ultrasound presence on intermetallic particles on a 2024 aluminum alloy. - Highlights: • Etching step prior to anodization on 2024 aluminum alloy. • Etching rate measurement and hydroxide film characterization by GDOES and SEM. • Various etching parameters (temperature, presence or absence of ultrasound). • Improvement of corrosion resistance show by electrochemical tests. - Abstract: Prior to any surface treatment on an aluminum alloy, a surface preparation is necessary. This commonly consists in performing an alkaline etching followed by acid deoxidizing. In this work, the use of power ultrasound irradiation during the etching step on the 2024 aluminum alloy was studied. The etching rate was estimated by weight loss, and the alkaline film formed during the etching step was characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The benefit of power ultrasound during the etching step was confirmed by pitting potential measurement in NaCl solution after a post-treatment (anodizing).

  2. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.

    2016-01-01

    A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.

  3. Effects of different titanium zirconium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gordon; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was the evaluation of biofilm development on different implant surfaces. Initial biofilm formation was investigated on five different implant surfaces, machined titanium (MTi), modified machined acid-etched titanium (modMATi), machined titanium zirconium (MTiZr), modified machined and acid-etched titanium zirconium (modMATiZr) and sandblasted large grid and acid-etched titanium zirconium surface (SLATiZr) for 24 and 48 h. Biocompatibility was tested after tooth brushing of the samples via cell viability testing with human gingival fibroblasts. After 24 h of biofilm collection, mean plaque surface was detected in the following descending order: After 24 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. Both M surfaces showed significant higher biofilm formation than the other groups. After 48 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. After tooth brushing: SLATiZr > modMATi > modMATiZr > MTi > MTiZr. All native samples depicted significant higher cell viability than their corresponding surfaces after biofilm removal procedure. The TiZr groups especially the modMATiZr group showed slower and less biofilm formation. In combination with the good biocompatibility, both modMA surfaces seem to be interesting candidates for surfaces in transgingival implant design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Laser etching as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Kelly, R.

    1989-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are removed from surfaces by intense laser beams. This fact has been known almost since the discovery of the laser. Within the present overall area of interest, namely understanding ion-beam-induced sputtering, it is equally important both to contrast laser etching to ion sputtering and to understand the underlying physics taking place during laser etching. Beyond some initial broad observations, the specific discussion is limited to, and aimed at, two areas: (i) short wavelength, UV, laser-pulse effects and (ii) energy fluences sufficiently small that only monolayers (and not microns) of material are removed per pulse. 38 refs.; 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Formation of Mach angle profiles during wet etching of silica and silicon nitride materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghulinyan, M., E-mail: ghulinyan@fbk.eu [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Bernard, M.; Bartali, R. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Deptartment of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Pucker, G. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Photoresist adhesion induces the formation of complex etch profiles in dielectrics. • Hydrofluoric acid etching of silica glass and silicon nitride materials was studied. • The phenomenon has been modeled in analogy with sonic boom propagation. • The material etch rate and resist adhesion/erosion define the final profile. - Abstract: In integrated circuit technology peeling of masking photoresist films is a major drawback during the long-timed wet etching of materials. It causes an undesired film underetching, which is often accompanied by a formation of complex etch profiles. Here we report on a detailed study of wedge-shaped profile formation in a series of silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride materials during wet etching in a buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution. The shape of etched profiles reflects the time-dependent adhesion properties of the photoresist to a particular material and can be perfectly circular, purely linear or a combination of both, separated by a knee feature. Starting from a formal analogy between the sonic boom propagation and the wet underetching process, we model the wedge formation mechanism analytically. This model predicts the final form of the profile as a function of time and fits the experimental data perfectly. We discuss how this knowledge can be extended to the design and the realization of optical components such as highly efficient etch-less vertical tapers for passive silicon photonics.

  6. Introducing etch kernels for efficient pattern sampling and etch bias prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, François; Lutich, Andrey; Schatz, Jirka

    2018-01-01

    Successful patterning requires good control of the photolithography and etch processes. While compact litho models, mainly based on rigorous physics, can predict very well the contours printed in photoresist, pure empirical etch models are less accurate and more unstable. Compact etch models are based on geometrical kernels to compute the litho-etch biases that measure the distance between litho and etch contours. The definition of the kernels, as well as the choice of calibration patterns, is critical to get a robust etch model. This work proposes to define a set of independent and anisotropic etch kernels-"internal, external, curvature, Gaussian, z_profile"-designed to represent the finest details of the resist geometry to characterize precisely the etch bias at any point along a resist contour. By evaluating the etch kernels on various structures, it is possible to map their etch signatures in a multidimensional space and analyze them to find an optimal sampling of structures. The etch kernels evaluated on these structures were combined with experimental etch bias derived from scanning electron microscope contours to train artificial neural networks to predict etch bias. The method applied to contact and line/space layers shows an improvement in etch model prediction accuracy over standard etch model. This work emphasizes the importance of the etch kernel definition to characterize and predict complex etch effects.

  7. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (pspiral magnesium and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia

  8. Effects of surface hydrophilicity and microtopography on early stages of soft and hard tissue integration at non-submerged titanium implants: an immunohistochemical study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Ferrari, Daniel; Herten, Monika; Mihatovic, Ilja; Wieland, Marco; Sager, Martin; Becker, Jürgen

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of surface hydrophilicity and microtopography on soft and hard tissue integration at non-submerged titanium implants. Implantation of conventional sand-blasted large grit and acid-etched (SLA) and chemically modified SLA (modSLA) titanium implants with differently structured transmucosal surfaces (SLA implants: machined [M-SLA] or SLA [SLA-SLA]; modSLA implants: mod acid-etched [modA] [modA-modSLA] or modSLA [modSLA-modSLA]) was performed bilaterally in the upper and lower jaws of 15 beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 4, 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue reactions were assessed histomorphometrically and immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies to transglutaminase II (angiogenesis) and osteocalcin. Although the junctional epithelium commonly was separated from M-SLA and SLA-SLA implants by a gap, the epithelial cells appeared to be in close contact with modA-modSLA surfaces after 14 days of healing. Moreover, modA-modSLA and modSLA-modSLA groups showed a well-vascularized subepithelial connective tissue exhibiting collagen fibers that started to extend and attach partially perpendicular to the implant surface. The highest and statistically significant mean bone-to-implant contact areas were observed in the modA-modSLA and modSLA-modSLA groups at days 7, 14, and 28. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that soft and hard tissue integration was influenced mainly by surface hydrophilicity rather than by microtopography.

  9. Neutron dosimetry using electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.J.; Stillwagon, G.B.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1977-01-01

    Registration of α-tracks and fast-neutron-induced recoils tracks by the electrochemical etching technique as applied to sensitive polymer foils (e.g., polycarbonate) provides a simple, sensitive and inexpensive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry as well as a valuable research tool for microdosimetry. When tracks were amplified by our electrochemical technique and the etching results compared with conventional etching technique a striking difference was noted. The electrochemically etched tracks were of much larger diameter (approx. 100 μm) and gave superior contrast. Two optical devices--the transparency projector and microfiche reader--were adapted to facilitate counting of the tracks appearing on our polycarbonate foils. The projector produced a magnification of 14X for a screen to projector distance of 5.0 meter and read's magnification was 50X. A Poisson distribution was determined for the number of tracks located in a particular area of the foil and experimentally verified by random counting of quarter sections of the microfiche reader screen. Finally, in an effort to determine dose equivalent (rem), a conversion factor is being determined by finding the sensitivity response (tracks/neutron) of recoil particle induced tracks as a function of monoenergetic fast neutrons and comparing results with those obtained by others

  10. Effect of nanotechnology in self-etch bonding systems on the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Shaza M.; El-Wassefy, Noha; Maher, Ahmed; Fawakerji, Shafik M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of silica dioxide (SiO2) nanofillers in different bonding systems on shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of orthodontic brackets at two experimental times. Methods: Ninety-six intact premolars were divided into four groups: A) Conventional acid-etch and primer Transbond XT; B) Transbond Plus self-etch primer; and two self-etch bonding systems reinforced with silica dioxide nanofiller at different concentrations: C) Futurabond DC at 1%; D...

  11. The effect of a single infusion of zoledronic acid on early implant migration in total hip arthroplasty. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Stihsen, Christoph; Rehak, Peter; Aigner, Reingard; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most frequent cause of implant failure in total hip arthroplasty. While a direct link between aseptic loosening and periprosthetic bone loss remains elusive, there is plentiful evidence for a close association with early implant migration. The present trial was primarily designed to evaluate whether a single infusion of 4 mg of zoledronic acid prevented early implant migration in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Fifty patients were consecutively enrolled to receive either zoledronic acid or saline solution after cementless total hip arthroplasty. Radiographs, biochemical parameters of bone turnover, and the Harris hip-rating score were determined preoperatively and at each follow-up examination at seven weeks, six months, one year, and yearly thereafter. The median follow-up period was 2.8 years. We found a significant subsidence of the stem of up to a mean (and standard deviation) of -1.2 +/- 0.6 mm at two years within the control group, and the cups had a mean medialization of 0.6 +/- 1.0 mm and a mean cranialization of 0.6 +/- 0.8 mm (p < 0.001). Treatment with zoledronic acid effectively minimized the migration of the cups in both the transverse and the vertical direction (mean, 0.15 +/- 0.6 mm and 0.06 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively; p < 0.05), while only a trend to decreased subsidence of the stem was detected. Finally, the Harris hip score rapidly increased over time in both treatment groups, although this increase was significantly more pronounced in the zoledronate-treated group than in the control group (analysis of variance, p = 0.008). A single infusion of zoledronic acid shows promise in improving initial fixation of a cementless implant, which may improve the clinical outcome of total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  12. [Influence of implants prepared by selective laser melting on early bone healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Chen, F; Ge, Y J; Wei, L; Pan, S X; Feng, H L

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the influence of the rough surface of dental implants prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) on early bone healing around titanium implants. A total of sixteen titanium implants were involved in our research, of which eight implants were prepared by SLM (TIXOS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3.3 mm×10 mm, internal hex) and the other eight were sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) implants (IMPLUS Cylindrical, Leader-Novaxa, Milan, Italy; 3.3 mm×10 mm, internal hex). All of the dental implants were inserted into the healed extraction sockets of the mandible of two adult male Beagle dogs. Half of the dental implants were designed to be healed beneath the mucosa and the other half were intended to be healed transgingivally and were immediately loaded by acrylic resin bridge restoration. Three types of tetracycline fluorescent labels, namely calcein blue, alizarin complexone and calcein, were administered into the veins of the Beagle dogs 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implant placement respectively for fluorescent evaluation of newly formed bone peri-implant. Both Beagle dogs were euthanized 12 weeks after implant insertion and the mandible block specimens containing the titanium implants and surrounding bone and soft tissue of each dog were carefully sectioned and dissected. A total of 16 hard tissue slices were obtained and stained with toluidine blue for microscopic examination and histomorphometric measurements. Histological observation was made for each slice under light microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Comparison on new bone formation around titanium implants of each group was made and mineral apposition rate (MAR) was calculated for each group. Dental implants prepared by selective laser melting had achieved satisfying osseointegration to surrounding bone tissue after the healing period of 12 weeks. Newly formed bone tissue was observed creeping on the highly porous surface of the SLM implant and growing

  13. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Claudia; Degoutin, Stephanie; Chai, Feng; Raoul, Gwenael; Hornez, Jean-Chritophe; Martel, Bernard; Siepmann, Juergen; Ferri, Joel; Blanchemain, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the macroporosity

  14. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Claudia [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Degoutin, Stephanie [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chai, Feng [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Raoul, Gwenael [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Hornez, Jean-Chritophe [Laboratoire des Matériaux Céramiques et Procédés Associés (LMCPA), Université de Valenciennes, 59300 Valenciennes (France); Martel, Bernard [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Siepmann, Juergen [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Ferri, Joel [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Blanchemain, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.blanchemain@univ-lille2.fr [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the

  15. Enamel resistance to demineralization following Er:YAG laser etching for bonding orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Poosti, Maryam; Motahari, Pourya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that laser-etching of enamel for bonding orthodontic brackets could be an appropriate alternative for acid conditioning, since a potential advantage of laser could or might be caries prevention. This study compared enamel resistance to demineralization following etching with acid phosphoric or Er:YAG laser for bonding orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound human premolars were divided into two equal groups. In the first group, enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. In the second group, Er:YAG laser (wavelength, 2 940 nm; 300 mJ/pulse, 10 pulses per second, 10 seconds) was used for tooth conditioning. The teeth were subjected to 4-day PH-cycling process to induce caries-like lesions. The teeth were then sectioned and the surface area of the lesion was calculated in each microphotographs and expressed in pixel. The total surface of each specimen was 196 608 pixels. Results: Mean lesion areas were 7 171 and 7532 pixels for Laser-etched and Acid-etched groups, respectively. The two sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference in lesion area between the two groups (P = 0.914). Conclusion: Although Er:YAG laser seems promising for etching enamel before bonding orthodontic brackets, it does not reduce enamel demineralization when exposed to acid challenge. PMID:23162591

  16. Reactive-ion etching of nylon fabric meshes using oxygen plasma for creating surface nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salapare, Hernando S.; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics to achieve surface texturing and improved wettability. • FTIR spectra of the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of amide and carboxylic acid groups due to etching. • Etching is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments and for samples with larger mesh sizes. • Decreased crystallinity was achieved after plasma treatment. • Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that favored anisotropic and aggressive etching. - Abstract: A facile one-step oxygen plasma irradiation in reactive ion etching (RIE) configuration is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics with different mesh sizes to achieve surface nanostructures and improved wettability for textile and filtration applications. To observe the effects of power and irradiation time on the samples, the experiments were performed using constant irradiation time in varying power and using constant power in varying irradiation times. Results showed improved wettability after the plasma treatment. The FTIR spectra of all the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of the amide and carboxylic acid groups due to surface etching. The changes in the surface chemistry are supported by the SEM data wherein etching and surface nanostructures were observed for the plasma-treated samples. The etching of the surfaces is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments. The thermal analysis showed that the plasma treatment resulted in decreased crystallinity. Surface chemistry showed that the effects of the plasma treatment on the samples have no significant difference for all the mesh sizes. However, surface morphology showed that the sizes of the surface cracks are the same for all the mesh sizes but samples with larger mesh sizes exhibited enhanced etching as compared to the samples with smaller mesh sizes. Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that

  17. Characterization of deep wet etching of fused silica glass for single cell and optical sensor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haixin; Holl, Mark; Ray, Tathagata; Bhushan, Shivani; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-01-01

    The development of a high-throughput single-cell metabolic rate monitoring system relies on the use of transparent substrate material for a single cell-trapping platform. The high optical transparency, high chemical resistance, improved surface quality and compatibility with the silicon micromachining process of fused silica make it very attractive and desirable for this application. In this paper, we report the results from the development and characterization of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based deep wet-etch process on fused silica. The pin holes and notching defects of various single-coated masking layers during the etching are characterized and the most suitable masking materials are identified for different etch depths. The dependence of the average etch rate and surface roughness on the etch depth, impurity concentration and HF composition are also examined. The resulting undercut from the deep HF etch using various masking materials is also investigated. The developed and characterized process techniques have been successfully implemented in the fabrication of micro-well arrays for single cell trapping and sensor deposition. Up to 60 µm deep micro-wells have been etched in a fused silica substrate with over 90% process yield and repeatability. To our knowledge, such etch depth has never been achieved in a fused silica substrate by using a non-diluted HF etchant and a single-coated masking layer at room temperature

  18. Effects of polymer corrosion inhibitor on widening etch tunnels of aluminum foil for capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Chaolei; He, Yedong; Shao, Xin; Wang, Zhishen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •With PSSA, the exterior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is suppressed. •With PSSA, the interior surface dissolution of etched Al foil is facilitated. •With PSSA, the tunnels are widened along the entire length. •With PSSA, the area and capacitance of etched Al foil are significantly improved. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of polymeric corrosion inhibitor polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) additive to 3% HNO 3 solution on widening tunnels of pre-etched aluminum foil by electrochemical DC etching for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, using scanning electron microscopy and polarization curves. With trace PSSA, the dissolution of exterior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is suppressed and the dissolution of interior surface of etch tunnels of Al foil is facilitated, respectively. The tunnels transform from circular cone to circular column in shape and pits-merging on the surface is weakened, leading to significant increase in the surface area and specific capacitance of the Al foil. The amounts of reduced thickness and weight of Al foil during the widening process of etch tunnels can be decreased if PSSA is employed

  19. The effect of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation via the round window approach: A guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mun Young; Gwon, Tae Mok; Lee, Ho Sun; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Sung June; Park, Min-Hyun

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation. Twelve Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the lipoic acid group. Animals in the lipoic acid group received lipoic acid intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. A sterilised silicone electrode-dummy was inserted through the round window to a depth of approximately 5 mm. The hearing level was measured using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) prior to electrode-dummy insertion, and at 4 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. The threshold shift was defined as the difference between the pre-operative threshold and each of the post-operative thresholds. The cochleae were examined histologically 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. Threshold shifts changed with frequency but not time. At 2kHz, ABR threshold shifts were statistically significantly lower in the lipoic acid group than the control group. At 8, 16 and 32kHz, there was no significant difference in the ABR threshold shift between the two groups. Histologic review revealed less intracochlear fibrosis along the electrode-dummy insertion site in the lipoic acid group than in the control group. The spiral ganglion cell densities of the basal, middle and apical turns were significantly higher in the lipoic acid group compared with the control group. Therefore, systemic lipoic acid administration appears to effectively preserve hearing at low frequencies in patients undergoing cochlear implantation. These effects may be attributed to the protection of spiral ganglion cells and prevention of intracochlear fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest –ICUB, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Alexandra Elena [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Rădulescu, Marius [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HAp/PLGA thin coatings by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonization. • Coatings with potential applications in implant osseointegration. - Abstract: In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  1. Methods of etching a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmo, J J; Gambino, R J; Harper, J M.E.

    1979-05-16

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail.

  2. Methods of etching a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail. (U.K.)

  3. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  4. Thermal history-based etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.

    2017-11-28

    A method for adjusting an etchability of a first borosilicate glass by heating the first borosilicate glass; combining the first borosilicate glass with a second borosilicate glass to form a composite; and etching the composite with an etchant. A material having a protrusive phase and a recessive phase, where the protrusive phase protrudes from the recessive phase to form a plurality of nanoscale surface features, and where the protrusive phase and the recessive phase have the same composition.

  5. Study of Thermal Electrical Modified Etching for Glass and Its Application in Structure Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Zhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an accelerating etching method for glass named thermal electrical modified etching (TEM etching is investigated. Based on the identification of the effect in anodic bonding, a novel method for glass structure micromachining is proposed using TEM etching. To validate the method, TEM-etched glasses are prepared and their morphology is tested, revealing the feasibility of the new method for micro/nano structure micromachining. Furthermore, two kinds of edge effect in the TEM and etching processes are analyzed. Additionally, a parameter study of TEM etching involving transferred charge, applied pressure, and etching roughness is conducted to evaluate this method. The study shows that TEM etching is a promising manufacture method for glass with low process temperature, three-dimensional self-control ability, and low equipment requirement.

  6. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  7. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1 dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured and (2 micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface. L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α=0.05 evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal, individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO. Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants.

  8. Performance of a new one-step multi-mode adhesive on etched vs non-etched enamel on bond strength and interfacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goes, Mario Fernando; Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; Freitas, Marcela Santiago

    2014-06-01

    To compare microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and interfacial morphology of a new one-step multimode adhesive with a two-step self-etching adhesive and two etch-and-rinse adhesives systems on enamel. Thirty human third molars were sectioned to obtain two enamel fragments. For μTBS, 48 enamel surfaces were ground using 600-grit SiC paper and randomly assigned into 6 groups (n = 8): nonetched Scotchbond Universal [SBU]; etched SBU [SBU-et]; non-etched Clearfil SE Bond [CSE]; etched CSE [CSE-et]; Scotchbond Multi-PURPOSE [SBMP]; Excite [EX]. The etched specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, each adhesive system was applied according to manufacturers' instructions, and composite resin blocks (Filtek Supreme Plus, 3M ESPE) were incrementally built up. Specimens were sectioned into beams with a cross-sectional area of 0.8-mm2 and tested under tension (1 mm/min). The data were analyzed with oneway ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD (α = 0.05). For interface analysis, two samples from each group were embedded in epoxy resin, polished, and then observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The μTBS values (in MPa) and the standard deviations were: SBU = 27.4 (8.5); SBU-et = 33.6 (9.3); CSE = 28.5 (8.3); CSE-et = 34.2 (9.0); SBMP = 30.4 (11.0); EX = 23.3 (8.2). CSE-et and SBU-et presented the highest bond strength values, followed by SBMP, CSE, and SBU which did not differ significantly from each other. EX showed the statistically significantly lowest bond strength values. SEM images of interfaces from etched samples showed long adhesive-resin tags penetrating into demineralized enamel. Preliminary etching of enamel significantly increased bond strength for the new one-step multimode adhesive SBU and two-step self-etching adhesive CSE.

  9. More-reliable SOS ion implantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Conducting layer prevents static charges from accumulating during implantation of silicon-on-sapphire MOS structures. Either thick conducting film or thinner film transparent to ions is deposited prior to implantation, and gaps are etched in regions to be doped. Grounding path eliminates charge flow that damages film or cracks sapphire wafer. Prevention of charge buildup by simultaneously exposing structure to opposite charges requires equipment modifications less practical and more expensive than deposition of conducting layer.

  10. The etching behaviour of silicon carbide compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepps, N.W.; Page, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of microstructural investigations has been undertaken in order to explore the reliability of particular etches in revealing microstructural detail in silicon carbide compacts. A series of specimens has been etched and examined following complete prior microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry techniques. In particular, the sensitivity of both a molten salt (KOH/KNO 3 ) etch and a commonly-used oxidizing electrolytic 'colour' etch to crystal purity, crystallographic orientation and polytypic structure has been established. The molten salt etch was found to be sensitive to grain boundaries and stacking disorder while the electrolytic etch was found to be primarily sensitive to local purity and crystallographic orientation. Neither etch appeared intrinsically polytype sensitive. Specifically, for the 'colour' etch, the p- or n-type character of impure regions appears critical in controlling etching behaviour; p-type impurities inhibiting, and n-type impurities enhancing, oxidation. The need to interpret etching behaviour in a manner consistent with the results obtained by a variety of other microstructural techniques will be emphasized. (author)

  11. High-density plasma etching of III-nitrides: Process development, device applications and damage remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajwinder

    Plasma-assisted etching is a key technology for III-nitride device fabrication. The inevitable etch damage resulting from energetic pattern transfer is a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to optimize device performance and reliability. This dissertation focuses on the development of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etch process for III-nitrides, the demonstration of its applicability to practical device fabrication using a custom built ICP reactor, and development of techniques for remediation of etch damage. A chlorine-based standard dry etch process has been developed and utilized in fabrication of a number of electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride devices. Annealing studies carried out at 700°C have yielded the important insight that the annealing time necessary for making good-quality metal contacts to etch processed n-GaN is very short (water, prior to metallization, removes some of the etch damage and is helpful in recovering contact quality. In-situ treatment consisting of a slow ramp-down of rf bias at the end of the etch is found to achieve the same effect as the ex-situ treatment. This insitu technique is significantly advantageous in a large-scale production environment because it eliminates a process step, particularly one involving treatment in hydrochloric acid. ICP equipment customization for scaling up the process to full 2-inch wafer size is described. Results on etching of state of the art 256 x 256 AlGaN focal plane arrays of ultraviolet photodetectors are reported, with excellent etch uniformity over the wafer area.

  12. Survival rates and bone loss after immediate loading of implants in fresh extraction sockets (single gaps). A clinical prospective study with 4 year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtovicz, Eduardo; España-Lopez, Antonio; Jimenez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; Ortiz-Garcia, Ivan; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective study was to report the outcome of treatment with implants inserted after tooth extraction and immediately loaded. Material and Methods Fifty-six patients with single tooth loss were treated with 116 IPX Galimplant® implants with internal connections and a sandblasted, acid-etched surface. All implants were placed after tooth extraction using a flapless approach without bone regeneration, and they were then immediately loaded with cemented acrylic prostheses. After a period of three months, definitive cemented ceramic prostheses were placed. Patients were examined throughout a total of 4 years of follow-up. Marginal bone loss and survival rates were evaluated using digital periapical radiographs, taking into account clinical variables such as age, gender, smoking, history of periodontitis, etiology of extraction, placement site, diameter, and implant length. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests were used to compare differences between subgroups created based on the different clinical variables identified. Results Clinical results indicate an implant survival and success rate of 97.4%. Three implants were lost. Of the 116 immediate acrylic single crowns initially placed, 113 were replaced with definitive ceramic crowns after 3 months. A total of 77.8% of implants were inserted in the maxilla, while 22.2% were inserted in the mandible. No further complications were reported after the follow-up period (4 years). The mean marginal bone loss was 0.67 mm ± 0.40 mm. No differences were found among the subgroups of study patients. Conclusions This study indicates that dental implants that are inserted after tooth extraction and immediately loaded may constitute a successful and predictable alternative implant treatment. Key words:Dental implants, post-extraction implants, fresh sockets, immediate loading, immediate prostheses, implant dentistry. PMID:29476669

  13. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  14. In vivo evaluation of biofunctionalized implant surfaces with a synthetic peptide (P-15) and its impact on osseointegration. A preclinical animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christian M; Koepple, Markus; Moest, Tobias; Neumann, Konrad; Weisel, Tamara; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate a biofunctionalized implant surface with electrochemically deposition of hydroxyapatite and the synthetic peptide (P-15) and its effect on osseointegration. Three modified implant types of ANKYLOS ® C/X implants were used; (1) machined implants used as negative control (M, n = 20), (2) implants with the FRIADENT ® plus surface (grit blasted and acid-etched) used as positive control (P, n = 20), and (3) implants with a biomimetic surface consisting of hydroxyapatite and the synthetic 15 aminoacids containing peptide P-15 (BP, n = 40). The implants were randomly inserted in the mandibles of 10 beagle dogs following 4 months after tooth extraction (P1-P4). Three animals were sacrificed 2 and 7 days after implant insertion, respectively, and four animals were sacrificed 6 months post implant insertion. Bone-to-implant contacts (BICs) were analyzed via histomorphometrical analyses at five different region of interests (ROIs); two at the middle part on either side of the implant (ROI 1/4), two at the apical part of the implant at each side (ROI 2/3), and one at the tip of the implant (ROI 5). All implant surfaces showed a high level of osseointegration and osteoconductivity. The cumulative implant survival rate (CSR) was 93.8%, 100% in the M, 85% in the P, and 95% in the BP group. No statistical difference in BICs at ROI 1/4, 2/3, and 5 could be shown between implant types following 2 and 7 days of healing. BIC values increased in all groups over time. After 6 months of healing the BP group showed superiority in BIC in ROI 2/3 (73.2 ± 15.6%) compared to the P (48.3 ± 10.6%) and M group (66.3 ± 30.2%) with a significant difference between BP and P (P = 0.002). It is hypothesized, that the surface biofunctionalization improves peri-implant bone formation and remodeling, leading to an increased bone-to implant contact. However, within the limitations of the study set-up no benefit in the early phase of

  15. AFM and SEM study of the effects of etching on IPS-Empress 2 TM dental ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.-P.; Silikas, N.; Allaf, M.; Wilson, N. H. F.; Watts, D. C.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing etching time on the surface of the new dental material, IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic. Twenty one IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic samples were made from IPS-Empress 2 TM ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology. All samples were highly polished and cleaned ultrasonically for 5 min in acetone before and after etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel. The etching times were 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 s respectively. Microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface roughness and topography. Observations with SEM showed that etching with hydrofluoric acid resulted in preferential dissolution of glass matrix, and that partially supported crystals within the glass matrix were lost with increasing etching time. AFM measurements indicated that etching increased the surface roughness of the glass-ceramic. A simple least-squares linear regression was used to establish a relationship between surface roughness parameters ( Ra, RMS), and etching time, for which r2>0.94. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining two microscopic methods for a better understanding of the surface. SEM showed the mode of action of hydrofluoric acid on the ceramic and AFM provided valuable data regarding the extent of surface degradation relative to etching time.

  16. Stereo imaging and cytocompatibility of a model dental implant surface formed by direct laser fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Raspanti, Mario; Traini, Tonino; Piattelli, Adriano; Sammons, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by sintering metal powder particles in a focused laser beam. In this study, 10 Ti6Al4V alloy model dental root implants were obtained by DLF, and surface characterization was carried out using stereo scanning electron microscopy to produce 3D reconstructions. The surfaces were extremely irregular, with approximately 100 microm deep, narrow intercommunicating crevices, shallow depressions and deep, rounded pits of widely variable shape and size, showing ample scope for interlocking with the host bone. Roughness parameters were as follows: R(t), 360.8 microm; R(z), 358.4 microm; R(a), 67.4 microm; and R(q), 78.0 microm. Disc specimens produced by DLF with an identically prepared surface were used for biocompatibility studies with rat calvarial osteoblasts: After 9 days, cells had attached and spread on the DLF surface, spanning across the crevices, and voids. Cell density was similar to that on a commercial rough microtextured surface but lower than on commercial smooth machined and smooth-textured grit-blasted, acid-etched surfaces. Human fibrin clot extension on the DLF surface was slightly improved by inorganic acid etching to increase the microroughness. With further refinements, DLF could be an economical means of manufacturing implants from titanium alloys. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective photochemical dry etching of compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.

    1988-01-01

    When laser-driven etching of a semiconductor requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers, the etching quantum yield will be sensitive to the electronic properties of a specific semiconductor material. The band-gap energy of the semiconductor determines the minimum photon energy needed for carrier-driven etching since sub-gap photons do not generate free carriers. However, only those free carriers that reach the reacting surface contribute to etching and the ultimate carrier flux to the surface is controlled by more subtle electronic properties than the lowest-energy band gap. For example, the initial depth of carrier generation and the probability of carrier recombination between the point of generation and the surface profoundly influence the etching quantum yield. Appropriate manipulation of process parameters can provide additional reaction control based on such secondary electronic properties. Applications to selective dry etching of GaAs and related materials are discussed

  18. Plasma etching of electrospun polymeric nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, Patrick [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: verdonck@imec.be; Braga Caliope, Priscila [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moral Hernandez, Emilio del [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Ana Neilde R. da [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); FATEC-SP, Pca Fernando Prestes, 30 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-25

    Electrospun polymeric nanofibres have several applications because of their high surface area to volume and high length to diameter ratios. This paper investigates the influence of plasma etching on these fibres and the etching mechanisms. For the characterization, SEM analysis was performed to determine the forms and shapes of the fibres and SEM photos were analysed by the technique of mathematical morphology, in order to determine the area on the sample occupied by the fibres and the frequency distribution of the nanofibre diameters. The results showed that the oxygen plasma etches the nanofibres much faster when ion bombardment is present. The form of the fibres is not altered by the etching, indicating the possibility of transport of oxygen atoms over the fibre surface. The most frequent diameter, somewhat surprisingly, is not significantly dependent on the etching process, and remains of the order of 80 nm, indicating that fibres with smaller diameters are etched at high rates.

  19. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  20. Etching conditions and shape of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Shuichi

    1979-01-01

    The etching effect of hydrogen fluoride (HF) solution of 5%, 10%, 20% and 46% was investigated, using the perlite dug out at Wada-toge, Japan. They were studied by the progressive etching at 30 deg C, after the perlite was subjected to thermal neutron irradiation for 8 hours in the research reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy of St. Paul (Rikkyo) University. Observation was performed mainly by replica, and false tracks, which are difficult to be judged whether they are the tracks or not, didn't appear as far as this experiment was concerned. Measurements of etch-pits and track density were carried out. The results of these investigations were considered and analyzed to describe them in five sections. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Regarding the ease of etch-pit observation and the adjustment of etching time, etching with 5% HF solution is most advantageous among four solutions of 5, 10, 20 and 46% HF. (2) The measurement of track density is more affected by the difference in counting criteria than the difference in etching conditions. The data on the size of etch-pits are required to discuss the problems of track density and counting efficiency. (3) If linear tracks are to be observed using hydrogen fluoride, it is necessary to investigate the etching characteristics with the solution of lower concentration. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Dry etching technologies for reflective multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Kase, Yoshihisa; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio; Iwami, Munenori

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a highly integrated methodology for patterning Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) mask, which has been highlighted for the lithography technique at the 14nm half-pitch generation and beyond. The EUV mask is characterized as a reflective-type mask which is completely different compared with conventional transparent-type of photo mask. And it requires not only patterning of absorber layer without damaging the underlying multi reflective layers (40 Si/Mo layers) but also etching multi reflective layers. In this case, the dry etch process has generally faced technical challenges such as the difficulties in CD control, etch damage to quartz substrate and low selectivity to the mask resist. Shibaura Mechatronics ARESTM mask etch system and its optimized etch process has already achieved the maximal etch performance at patterning two-layered absorber. And in this study, our process technologies of multi reflective layers will be evaluated by means of optimal combination of process gases and our optimized plasma produced by certain source power and bias power. When our ARES™ is used for multilayer etching, the user can choose to etch the absorber layer at the same time or etch only the multilayer.

  2. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  3. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  4. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Huang Yuhong; Butz, Frank; Ogawa, Takahiro; Lin, Audrey; Wang, Chiachien Jake

    2007-01-01

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO 2 . The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths

  5. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ichiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Yuhong [Chemat Technology, Incorporated, Northridge, CA (United States); Butz, Frank [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, Takahiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, Audrey [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Chiachien Jake [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-06-20

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO{sub 2}. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  6. Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    4 - 0 2- G xC 0 .- 04.410Zt .0 f.-C 13-a U Z W:; LU OU SS 0 L = 0 . 6c C! tun a.- I- -. 4 *CZ=U K 0 2N 0 (3 A LWE’-0 Z W Z4 £C 0.C ?A C. V;, 4US CI US...z Q. cm -2 C’S *-D WX 4 an 0 N 4 W 0(A1 -O 0-C -C ZaW U. aNi x 400 C O CD0 0 00Ix - WA - C 0 0 C A. J -4 * 0-4 w~ aT L C M 0n N U- X ZOWO 2 %-0 IM

  7. The Effect of Hierarchical Micro/Nanotextured Titanium Implants on Osseointegration Immediately After Tooth Extraction in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian; Bellare, Anuj; Cui, Yajun; Cheng, Bingkun; Xu, Shanshan; Kong, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Owing to simplify the operation and shorten the overall duration of treatment, immediate implantation earned much satisfactory from patients and dentists. The results of immediate implantation determined by osseointegration, we fabricated a micro/nanotextured titanium implants to improve osseointegration immediately after tooth extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hierarchical micro/nanotextured titanium implant on osseointegration immediately after tooth extraction. The micro/nanotextured titanium implants were fabricated by etching with 0.5 wt% hydrofluoric (HF) acid followed by anodization in HF electrolytes. Implants with a machined surface as well as implants a microtextured surface prepared by 0.5 wt% HF etching served as control groups. The machined, microtextured, and micro/nanotextured implants were inserted into fresh sockets immediately after tooth extraction in beagle dogs. Twelve weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The micro-CT imaging revealed that the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the micro/nanotextured group was significantly higher than that in the machined group and microtextured group, and the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in the micro/nanotextured group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. For the histological analysis, the bone-to-implant contact in the machined, micro and micro/nanotextured groups were 47.13 ± 6.2%, 54.29 ± 4.18%, and 63.38 ± 7.63%, respectively, and the differences significant. The maximum pull-out force in the machined, micro, and micro/nanotextured groups were 216.58 ± 38.71 N, 259.42 ± 28.93 N, and 284.73 ± 47.09 N, respectively. The results indicated that implants with a hierarchical micro/nanotextured can promote osseointegration immediately after tooth extraction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of a new implant design supporting immediately loaded full arch rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Alessandro; Sinjari, Bruna; Gherlone, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic appearance of a new implant design, with particular emphasis given to the type of prosthesis connection. Two dental implants of the same type (Torque Type(®), WinSix(®), BioSAFin. S.r.l. - Ancona, Italy), with sandblasted and acid etched surfaces (Micro Rough Surface(®)), but differing from each other for the prosthesis connection system, were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis at different magnifications: TTI implant, with a hexagonal internal connection, and TTX implant, with a hexagonal external connection. SEM analysis showed that the Torque Type(®) implant is characterized by a truncated cone shape with tapered tips. The implant body showed a double loop thread and double pitch with blunt tips. For both types of connection, the implant neck was 0.7 mm in height with a 3% taper. This implant design may be able to guarantee osteotomic properties at the time of insertion in a surgical site suitably prepared, a facilitated screwing, thanks to the thread pitch and to the broad and deep draining grooves, thereby ensuring a good primary stability. The different connection design appears defined and precise, in order to ensure a good interface between the fixture and the prosthetic components. Therefore, this design appears to be particularly suitable in cases where a good primary stability is necessary and a precise coupling between endosseous and prosthetic components, as it allows an easy insertion of the fixture even in conditions of reduced bone availability, and in cases of immediately loaded full-arch rehabilitations.

  9. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  10. An experimental test of stroke recovery by implanting a hyaluronic acid hydrogel carrying a Nogo receptor antibody in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Tian Weiming; Hou Shaoping; Xu Qunyuan; Spector, Myron; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a hyaluronic-acid-based (HA-based) hydrogel implant, carrying a polyclonal antibody to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), on adult rats that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral tests of a forelimb-reaching task suggested that the disabled function of the impaired forelimb in this stroke model was ameliorated by the implant to a certain extent. These behavioral findings were correlated with immunohistochemical results of investigating the distribution of NgR antibody, neurofilaments (NF) and neuron-specific class III β-tubulin (TuJ1) in the brain sections. The porous hydrogel functioned as a scaffold to deliver the NgR antibody, support cell migration and development. In addition, it was found NF-positive and TuJ1-positive expressions were distributed in the implanted hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrate the promise of the HA hydrogel as a scaffold material and the delivery vehicle of the NgR antibody for the repair of defects and the support of neural regeneration in the brain

  11. An experimental test of stroke recovery by implanting a hyaluronic acid hydrogel carrying a Nogo receptor antibody in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jun [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian Weiming [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hou Shaoping [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Xu Qunyuan [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a hyaluronic-acid-based (HA-based) hydrogel implant, carrying a polyclonal antibody to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), on adult rats that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral tests of a forelimb-reaching task suggested that the disabled function of the impaired forelimb in this stroke model was ameliorated by the implant to a certain extent. These behavioral findings were correlated with immunohistochemical results of investigating the distribution of NgR antibody, neurofilaments (NF) and neuron-specific class III {beta}-tubulin (TuJ1) in the brain sections. The porous hydrogel functioned as a scaffold to deliver the NgR antibody, support cell migration and development. In addition, it was found NF-positive and TuJ1-positive expressions were distributed in the implanted hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrate the promise of the HA hydrogel as a scaffold material and the delivery vehicle of the NgR antibody for the repair of defects and the support of neural regeneration in the brain.

  12. Innovative micro-textured hydroxyapatite and poly(l-lactic)-acid polymer composite film as a flexible, corrosion resistant, biocompatible, and bioactive coating for Mg implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Mi; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lim, Ho-Kyung; Byun, Soo-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung-Mi

    2017-12-01

    The utility of a novel ceramic/polymer-composite coating with a micro-textured microstructure that would significantly enhance the functions of biodegradable Mg implants is demonstrated here. To accomplish this, bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) micro-dots can be created by immersing a Mg implant with a micro-patterned photoresist surface in an aqueous solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. The HA micro-dots can then be surrounded by a flexible poly(l-lactic)-acid (PLLA) polymer using spin coating to form a HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer. The HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer showed an excellent corrosion resistance when it was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and good biocompatibility, which was assessed by in vitro cell tests. In addition, the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer had high deformation ability, where no apparent changes in the coating layer were observed even after a 5% elongation, which would be unobtainable using HA and PLLA coating layers; furthermore, this allowed the mechanically-strained Mg implant with the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer to preserve its excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua [Alliance Global Technology Co., Ltd., Kaohsiung Medical Device Special Zone in Southern Taiwan Science Park, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6 μm to 18.3 μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. - Highlights: • TTCP (tetracalcium phosphate) as a physical anchorage on implant is characterized. • Theoretical values of anchored thickness and capping areas were estimated. • TTCP anchored by sandblasting can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. • TTCP anchored on SLA (sandblasting and acid etching) surface is a promising method.

  14. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6 μm to 18.3 μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. - Highlights: • TTCP (tetracalcium phosphate) as a physical anchorage on implant is characterized. • Theoretical values of anchored thickness and capping areas were estimated. • TTCP anchored by sandblasting can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. • TTCP anchored on SLA (sandblasting and acid etching) surface is a promising method

  15. Selective etching characteristics of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in laser thermal lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Geng, Yongyou; Wu, Yiqun

    2012-01-01

    In the current work, the etching selectivity of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in laser thermal lithography is reported for the first time. Film phase change induced by laser irradiation and etching selectivity to crystalline and amorphous states in different etchants, including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, ammonium sulfide and ammonium hydroxide, are investigated. The results indicated that ammonium sulfide solvent (2.5 mol/L) had excellent etching selectivity to crystalline and amorphous states of the AgInSbTe film, and the etching characteristics were strongly influenced by the laser power density and laser irradiation time. The etching rate of the crystalline state of the AgInSbTe film was 40.4 nm/min, 20 times higher than that of the amorphous state under optimized irradiation conditions (power density: 6.63 mW/μm 2 and irradiation time: 330 ns), with ammonium sulfide solvent (2.5 mol/L) as etchant. The step profile produced in the selective etching was clear, and smooth surfaces remained both on the step-up and step-down with a roughness of less than 4 nm (10 x 10 μm). The excellent performance of the AgInSbTe phase-change film in selective etching is significant for fabrication of nanostructures with super-resolution in laser thermal lithography. (orig.)

  16. The effect of SF6 addition in a Cl2/Ar inductively coupled plasma for deep titanium etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudrel, E.; Tillocher, T.; Meric, Y.; Lefaucheux, P.; Boutaud, B.; Dussart, R.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium is a material of interest for the biomedical field and more particularly for body implantable devices. Titanium deep etching by plasma was carried out in an inductively coupled plasma with a chlorine-based chemistry for the fabrication of titanium-based microdevices. Bulk titanium etch rate was first studied in Cl2/Ar plasma mixture versus the source power and the self-bias voltage. The plasma was characterized by Langmuir probe and by optical emission spectroscopy. The addition of SF6 in the plasma mixture was investigated. Titanium etch rate was optimized and reached a value of 2.4 µm · min-1. The nickel hard mask selectivity was also enhanced. The etched titanium surface roughness was reduced significantly.

  17. Silver ion mediated shape control of platinum nanoparticles: Removal of silver by selective etching leads to increased catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Michael E.; Yue, Yao; Habas, Susan E.; Rioux, Robert M.; Teall, Chelsea I.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-01-09

    A procedure has been developed for the selective etching of Ag from Pt nanoparticles of well-defined shape, resulting in the formation of elementally-pure Pt cubes, cuboctahedra, or octahedra, with a largest vertex-to-vertex distance of {approx}9.5 nm from Ag-modified Pt nanoparticles. A nitric acid etching process was applied Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica, as well as nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous solution. The characterization of the silica-supported particles by XRD, TEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements demonstrated that the structure of the nanoparticles and the mesoporous support remained conserved during etching in concentrated nitric acid. Both elemental analysis and ethylene hydrogenation indicated etching of Ag is only effective when [HNO{sub 3}] {ge} 7 M; below this concentration, the removal of Ag is only {approx}10%. Ethylene hydrogenation activity increased by four orders of magnitude after the etching of Pt octahedra that contained the highest fraction of silver. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the unsupported particles after etching demonstrated that etching does not alter the surface structure of the Pt nanoparticles. High [HNO{sub 3}] led to the decomposition of the capping agent, polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP); infrared spectroscopy confirmed that many decomposition products were present on the surface during etching, including carbon monoxide.

  18. Influence of laser etching on enamel and dentin bond strength of Silorane System Adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunkol, Ildem; Yazici, A Ruya; Gorucu, Jale; Dayangac, Berrin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of Silorane System Adhesive to enamel and dentin surfaces that had been etched with different procedures. Ninety freshly extracted human third molars were used for the study. After the teeth were embedded with buccal surfaces facing up, they were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, specimens were polished with a 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper to obtain flat exposed enamel. In group II, the overlying enamel layer was removed and exposed dentin surfaces were polished with a 600-grit SiC paper. Then, the teeth in each group were randomly divided into three subgroups according to etching procedures: etched with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser (a), etched with 35% phosphoric acid (b), and non-etched (c, control). Silorane System Adhesive was used to bond silorane restorative to both enamel and dentin. After 24-h storage in distilled water at room temperature, a SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (p enamel and dentin (p > 0.05). The SBS of self-etch adhesive to dentin was not statistically different from enamel (p > 0.05). Phosphoric acid treatment seems the most promising surface treatment for increasing the enamel and dentin bond strength of Silorane System Adhesive.

  19. Dependence of wet etch rate on deposition, annealing conditions and etchants for PECVD silicon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Longjuan; Zhu Yinfang; Yang Jinling; Li Yan; Zhou Wei; Xie Jing; Liu Yunfei; Yang Fuhua

    2009-01-01

    The influence of deposition, annealing conditions, and etchants on the wet etch rate of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride thin film is studied. The deposition source gas flow rate and annealing temperature were varied to decrease the etch rate of SiN x :H by HF solution. A low etch rate was achieved by increasing the SiH 4 gas flow rate or annealing temperature, or decreasing the NH 3 and N2 gas flow rate. Concentrated, buffered, and dilute hydrofluoric acid were utilized as etchants for SiO 2 and SiN x :H. A high etching selectivity of SiO 2 over SiN x :H was obtained using highly concentrated buffered HF.

  20. Bend measurement using an etched fiber incorporating a fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang; Jiang, Yajun; Jiang, Wei

    2013-01-15

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based bend measurement method using an etched fiber is proposed that utilizes the coupling of the core mode to the cladding and radiation modes at the bending region. An etching region of 99 µm diameter that serves as bend sensing head is achieved at 10 mm upstream the FBG through processing in 40% hydrofluoric acid, while the FBG acts as a narrowband reflector to enhance the sensitivity. The power variation curves are obtained for a wide range of bend angles, but the performance is limited due to the presence of the loss peaks. The sensing response is improved by immersing the etching region in a refractive index matching gel. The results are analyzed by using curve fitting formulas and are in good agreement. A large dynamic range of -27° to +27° and sensitivity of 0.43 dBm/deg is achieved, which can be enhanced by reducing the etched diameter.

  1. Long-term ultrasound appearance of concomitant autologous blood and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implants: is it associated with successful correction of vesicoureteral reflux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Tourchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Houman

    2013-02-01

    To find the association between mound appearance on ultrasound imaging and successful correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) results of patients who underwent dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection via the hydrodistention injection technique (HIT) or HIT with concomitant autologous blood injection (HABIT) for 5 years postoperatively. VUR resolution at postoperative VCUG was considered as a success. Retained volumes of implants were measured and compared between HABIT and HIT and successful and failed treatments. Presence of mound on ultrasound imaging was also evaluated as a predictor of VUR resolution on VCUG. Measured mound volume was significantly higher in treatments that were successful than in those that were failures (P <.05). During 5-year follow-up, measured mound volumes in the HABIT group were significantly higher than in the HIT group (P <.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of mound visualization on the first-month sonography to predict success were 97.7%, 21.5%, 89.6%, and 60%, respectively. These results were dramatically changed for the 50 patients with further VCUG after 1 year of follow-up, with 95.7% sensitivity, 37.0% specificity, 54.0% positive predictive value, and 90.9% negative predictive value. Reduction or absence of the mound after implantation is more frequent among failed treatments in which visualization of the mound on postoperative sonography can predict VUR resolution. Autologous blood injection concomitant with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid implantation results in better immediate and long-term mound preservation, which could possibly be the reason for the higher success rate in HABIT group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of poly-d,l-lactic acid- and hyaluronic acid-coated bone substitutes on implant fixation in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Andreasen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HA/βTCP granules coated with PDLLA and HyA have similar bone ingrowth and implant fixation as those with allograft, and with mechanical properties resembling those of allograft in advance, they may be considered as alternative substitute materials for bone formation in sheep.

  3. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru

    2018-02-01

    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  4. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  5. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C

    2015-02-01

    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio implants showed a micro

  6. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  7. Obtaining porous silicon suitable for sensor technology using MacEtch nonelectrolytic etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsunskyi I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests to use the etching method MacEtch (metal-assisted chemical etching for production of micro- and nanostructures of porous silicon. The paper presents research results on the morphology structures obtained at different parameters of deposition and etching processes. The research has shown that, depending on the parameters of deposition of silver particles and silicon wafers etching, the obtained surface morphology may be different. There may be both individual crater-like pores and developed porous or macroporous surface. These results indicate that the MacEtch etching is a promising method for obtaining micro-porous silicon nanostructures suitable for effective use in gas sensors and biological object sensors.

  8. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for selectively photochemically etching a semiconductor material. It comprises introducing at least one impurity into at least one selected region of a semiconductor material to be etched to increase a local impurity concentration in the at least one selected region relative to an impurity concentration in regions of the semiconductor material adjacent thereto, for reducing minority carrier lifetimes within the at least one selected region relative to the adjacent regions for thereby providing a photochemical etch-inhibiting mask at the at least one selected region; and etching the semiconductor material by subjecting the surface of the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction for selectively etching the regions of the semiconductor material adjacent the at least one selected region having the increase impurity concentration; wherein the step of introducing at least one impurity is performed so as not to produce damage to the at least one selected region before any etching is performed

  9. Sputter etching of polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Hill, A.E.; Nobes, M.J.; Jeffries, R.; Simmens, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fibres of polyamide, polyester and an aromatic polyamide (Kevlar) have been subjected to Ar + ion bombardment erosion in an ion accelerator or an rf discharge system. In the case of the former two polymers, cones are observed to develop upon the fibre surface and these are associated with etch protection resulting from the presence of particles of titanium dioxide pigment. This effect is absent in the third, unpigmented, fibre. In all cases ripple structures with a habit transverse to the fibre axes and of wavelength of approximately 1000 Angstrom are gradually developed during ion bombardment. It is suggested that this morphology results from an underlying periodicity of the fibre structure either inherent in the fibre structure or induced by the irradiation. (author)

  10. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets using Laser Etching and Two Conventional Etching Techniques: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Chawla Jamenis

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : These results indicate that the shear bond strength of all the three groups was clinically acceptable with no significant difference between them but more adhesive was left on enamel treated with acid and laser as compared to self-etch primer treated enamel.

  12. Relevant insight of surface characterization techniques to study covalent grafting of a biopolymer to titanium implant and its acidic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Mélanie; Amalric, Julien; Brunon, Céline; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Toury, Bérangère

    2015-02-01

    Peri-implant bacterial infections are the main cause of complications in dentistry. Our group has previously proposed the attachment of chitosan on titanium implants via a covalent bond to improve its antibacterial properties while maintaining its biocompatibility. A better knowledge of the coating preparation process allows a better understanding of the bioactive coating in biological conditions. In this work, several relevant characterization techniques were used to assess an implant device during its production phase and its resistance in natural media at different pH. The titanium surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by grafting of an organic coupling agent; succinic anhydride, able to form two covalent links, with the substrate through a Ti-O-Si bond and the biopolymer through a peptide bond. Each step of the coating synthesis as well as the presence confirmation of the biopolymer on titanium after saliva immersion was followed by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, 3D profilometry, XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses. Results allowed to highlight the efficiency of each step of the process, and to propose a mechanism occurring during the chitosan coating degradation in saliva media at pH 5 and at pH 3.

  13. Wet etching rates of InGaZnO for the fabrication of transparent thin-film transistors on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Chienliu; Shih, Wen-Pin; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The wet etch process for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO or a-InGaZnO) by using various etchants is reported. The etch rates of a-IGZO, compared to another indium-based oxides including indium gallium oxide (IGO), indium zinc oxide (IZO), and indium tin oxide (ITO), are measured by using acetic acid, citric acid, hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid, and aqua ammonia as etchants, respectively. In our experimental results, the etch rate of the transparent oxide semiconductor (TOS) films by using acid solutions ranked accordingly from high to low are IZO, IGZO, IGO and ITO. Comparatively, the etch rate of the TOS films by using alkaline ammonia solution ranked from high to low are IGZO, IZO, IGO and ITO, in that order. Using the proposed wet etching process with high etch selectivity, bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a-IGZO channels and Y 2 O 3 gate-insulators were fabricated by radio-frequency sputtering on plastic substrates. The wet etch processed TFT with 30 μm gate length and 120 μm gate width exhibits a saturation mobility of 46.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , a threshold voltage of 1.3 V, a drain current on-off ratio > 10 6 , and subthreshold gate voltage swing of 0.29 V decade -1 . The performance of the TFTs ensures the applicability of the wet etching process for IGZO to electronic devices on organic polymer substrates.

  14. Optimization of HNA etching parameters to produce high aspect ratio solid silicon microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A A; Yeop Majlis, B; Yunas, J; Dee, C F; Abd Aziz, N; Bais, B

    2012-01-01

    High aspect ratio solid silicon microneedles with a concave conic shape were fabricated. Hydrofluoric acid–nitric acid–acetic acid (HNA) etching parameters were characterized and optimized to produce microneedles that have long and narrow bodies with smooth surfaces, suitable for transdermal drug delivery applications. The etching parameters were characterized by varying the HNA composition, the optical mask's window size, the etching temperature and bath agitation. An L9 orthogonal Taguchi experiment with three factors, each having three levels, was utilized to determine the optimal fabrication parameters. Isoetch contours for HNA composition with 0% and 10% acetic acid concentrations were presented and a high nitric acid region was identified to produce microneedles with smooth surfaces. It is observed that an increase in window size indiscriminately increases the etch rate in both the vertical and lateral directions, while an increase in etching temperature beyond 35 °C causes the etching to become rapid and uncontrollable. Bath agitation and sample placement could be manipulated to achieve a higher vertical etch rate compared to its lateral counterpart in order to construct high aspect ratio microneedles. The Taguchi experiment performed suggests that a HNA composition of 2:7:1 (HF:HNO 3 :CH 3 COOH), window size of 500 µm and agitation rate of 450 RPM are optimal. Solid silicon microneedles with an average height of 159.4 µm, an average base width of 110.9 µm, an aspect ratio of 1.44, and a tip angle and diameter of 19.2° and 0.38 µm respectively were successfully fabricated. (paper)

  15. Etch Defect Characterization and Reduction in Hard-Mask-Based Al Interconnect Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Hung, C.L.; Leng, C.H.; Lian, N.T.; Young, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the defect adders, for example, post hard-mask etch residue, post metal etch residue, and blocked etch metal island and investigates the removal characteristics of these defects within the oxide-masked Al etching process sequence. Post hard-mask etch residue containing C atom is related to the hardening of photoresist after the conventional post-RIE ashing at 275 degree C. An in situ O 2 -based plasma ashing on RIE etcher was developed to prevent the photoresist hardening from the high-ashing temperature; followed wet stripping could successfully eliminate such hardened polymeric residue. Post metal etch residue was caused from the attack of the Al sidewall by Cl atoms, and too much CHF 3 addition in the Al main etch step passivated the surface of Al resulting in poor capability to remove the Al-containing residue. The lower addition of CHF 3 in the Al main etch step would benefit from the residue removal. One possibility of blocked etch metal island creating was due to the micro masking formed on the opening of Ti N during the hard-mask patterning. We report that an additional Ti N surface pretreatment with the Ar/CHF 3 /N 2 plasmas could reduce the impact of the micro masking residues on blocked metal etch.

  16. Effects of potassium oxalate on knoop hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M A; Malacarne-Zanon, J; Carvalho, R M; Alves, M C; De Goes, M F; Anido-Anido, A; Carrilho, M R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives may be affected by the pretreatment of acid-etched dentin with potassium oxalate desensitizer. Unerupted human third molars were cut into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The pulp chamber of these crown segments was connected to a syringe barrel filled with phosphate-buffered saline so that the moisture of dentin was maintained during the bonding procedures. Three etch-and-rinse adhesives-two two-step systems (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], One-Step [OS]) and one three-step system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [MP])-were applied to acid-etched dentin that had been treated (experimental groups) or not (control groups) with potassium oxalate (BisBlock). The Knoop hardness (KHN) of adhesives was taken at different sites of the outer surface of the adhesive-bonded dentin. The KHN of the three tested adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin treated with potassium oxalate was significantly lower than that exhibited by the respective controls (not treated with oxalate; padhesive, the treatment with potassium oxalate reduced the adhesives' KHN (psystem exhibiting the lowest KHN compared with the MP and SB systems.

  17. Effect of surface etching on condensing heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Sung Chul; Park, Jae Won; Jung, Jiyeon; Choi, Chonggun; Choi, Gyu Hong; Hwang, Seung Sik; Chung, Tae Yong; Shin, Donghoon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Jun [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study conducted experiments on humid air condensation during heat transfer in an air preheating exchanger attached to a home condensing boiler to improve thermal efficiency. An etchant composed of sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate was used to create roughness on the heat exchanger surface made from STS430J1L. A counter flow heat exchanger was fabricated to test the performance of heat transfer. Results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficients of all specimens treated with etchant improved with respect to the original specimens (not treated with etchant), and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the 60 s etching specimen increased by up to 15%. However, the increasing rate of the heat transfer coefficient was disproportional to the etching time. When the etching time specifically increased above 60 s, the heat transfer coefficient decreased. This effect was assumed to be caused by surface characteristics such as contact angle. Furthermore, a smaller contact angle or higher hydrophilicity leads to higher heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  19. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic 'lotus leaf' hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7-9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured 'over growth' oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from -1.521 V of the bare magnesium to -1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the other metal materials.

  20. Etching patterns on the micro‐ and nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Herstrøm, Berit; Stöhr, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    ‐ray beam down to a spot size of some 100 nm, the sidewalls of the cavities etched down to 300 μm into a silicon wafer must be perfectly straight and normal to the surface and have minimum roughness.The range of possible applications of the silicon etches is greatly extended if combined with electroplating...... and polymer injection molding. High precision patterns of, for instance microfluidic devices, are etched intosilicon which is then electroplated with nickel that will serve as a stamp in the polymer injection molding tool where thousands of devices may be replicated. In addition to silicon and its derived...

  1. Characterization of poly (L-co-D,L Lactic Acid and a study of polymer-tissue interaction in subcutaneous implants in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Serafino Ciambelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid (PLDLA is an important biomaterial because of its biocompatibility properties that promote cellular regeneration and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymer-tissue interaction of PLDLA implants in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats at various intervals (2, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. Physical properties such as the glass transition point (Tg, degradation behavior and other mechanical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tension tests. Analysis of the degradation of PLDLA membranes in vitro showed that the polymer became crystalline as a function of the degradation time. Mechanical tension tests showed that the polymer behaved like a ductile material: when subjected to constant tension it initially suffered deformation, then elongation and finally ruptured. TGA/MEV provided evidence of PLDLA membrane degradation. For histological analysis, samples from each group were processed in xylol/paraffin, except for the 60 - and 90 - day samples. Each of the latter samples was divided in two: one half was treated with xylol/paraffin and the other with historesin. Light microscopy showed the adhesion of cells to the biomaterial, the formation of a conjunctive capsule around the implant, the presence of epithelioid cells, the formation of foreign body giant cells and angiogenesis. During degradation, the polymer showed a 'lace' - like appearance when processed in xylol/paraffin compared to the formation of "centripetal cracks in the form of glove fingers" when embedded in historesin.

  2. Intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid increases the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated in a large osteochondral defect by implantation of a double-network gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takaaki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Yokota, Masashi; Kondo, Eiji; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-04-01

    Implantation of PAMPS/PDMAAm double-network (DN) gel can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in the osteochondral defect. However, it is a problem that the volume of the regenerated cartilage tissue is gradually reduced at 12 weeks. This study investigated whether intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) increases the volume of the cartilage regenerated with the DN gel at 12 weeks. A total of 48 rabbits were used in this study. A cylindrical osteochondral defect created in the bilateral femoral trochlea was treated with DN gel (Group DN) or left without any implantation (Group C). In both Groups, we injected 1.0 mL of HA in the left knee, and 1.0 mL of saline solution in the right knee. Quantitative histological evaluations were performed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks, and PCR analysis was performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. In Group DN, the proteoglycan-rich area was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 12 weeks (P = 0.0247), and expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 mRNAs was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 2 weeks (P = 0.0475, P = 0.0257, P = 0.0222, respectively). The intra-articular administration of HA significantly enhanced these gene expression at 2 weeks and significantly increased the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated by implantation of a DN gel at 12 weeks. This information is important to develop an additional method to increase the volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue in a potential cartilage regeneration strategy using the DN gel.

  3. Prevention of sidewall redeposition of etched byproducts in the dry Au etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A; Akin, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new technique of etching thin Au film in a dual frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system on Si substrate to prevent the redeposition of etched Au particles over the sidewall of the masking material known as veils. First, the effect of the lithography step was investigated. Then the effects of etch chemistry and the process parameters on the redeposition of etched Au particles on the sidewall of the masking material were investigated. The redeposition effect was examined by depositing a thin Ti film over the masking material acting as a hard mask. The results showed that depositing a thin Ti film over the masking material prevents the formation of veils after etching Au in plasma environments for submicron size structures. Based on the results of this study, we propose a new technique that completely eliminates formation of veils after etching Au in plasma environments for submicron size structures. (paper)

  4. A dual-task design of corrosion-controlling and osteo-compatible hexamethylenediaminetetrakis- (methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMPA) coating on magnesium for biodegradable bone implants application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheng; Chen, Yingqi; Liu, Bo; Chen, Meiyun; Mao, Jinlong; He, Hairuo; Zhao, Yuancong; Huang, Nan; Wan, Guojiang

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium as well as its alloys appears increasingly as a revolutionary bio-metal for biodegradable implants application but the biggest challenges exist in its too fast bio-corrosion/degradation. Both corrosion-controllable and bio-compatible Mg-based bio-metal is highly desirable in clinic. In present work, hexamethylenediaminetetrakis (methylenephosphonic acid) [HDTMPA, (H2 O3 P-CH2 )2 -N-(CH2 )6 -N-(CH2 -PO3 H2 )2 ], as a natural and bioactive organic substance, was covalently immobilized and chelating-deposited onto Mg surface by means of chemical conversion process and dip-coating method, to fullfill dual-task performance of corrosion-protective and osteo-compatible functionalities. The chemical grafting of HDTMPA molecules, by participation of functional groups on pretreated Mg surface, ensured a firmly anchored base layer, and then sub-sequential chelating reactions of HDTMPA molecules guaranteed a homogenous and dense HDTMPA coating deposition on Mg substrate. Electrochemical corrosion and immersion degradation results reveal that the HDTMPA coated Mg provides a significantly better controlled bio-corrosion/degradation behavior in phosphate buffer saline solution as compared with untreated Mg from perspective of clinic requirement. Moreover, the HDTMPA coated Mg exhibits osteo-compatible in that it induces not only bioactivity of bone-like apatite precipitation but also promotes osteoblast cells adhesion and proliferation. Our well-controlled biodegradable and biocompatible HDTMPA modified Mg might bode well for next generation bone implant application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells grown on two different titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengyue; Zhao Baohong; Ai Hongjun; Wang Yiwei

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown on sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the SLA (HA/SLA) surface of titanium dental implants. The HA/SLA surfaces of titanium dental implants were formed by the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. Rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro were seeded onto the surface of SLA and HA/SLA; the growth states of MSCs on the two samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope; the proliferation index, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) content of MSCs and mRNA relative expression level of osteopontin (opn) were compared between two groups. MSCs were found to be easier to adhere to the HA/SLA surface compared to the SLA surface. At the same time, the ALP activity and the OCN content of MSCs grown on the HA/SLA surface were obviously higher, and the relative expression level of opn mRNA was 4.78 times higher than that on the SLA surface. The HA coating formed by the IBAD method on the SLA surface of titanium dental implants significantly improves proliferation and well-differentiated osteoblastic phenotype of MSCs, which indicates a promising method for the surface modification of titanium dental implants

  6. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukfeh, M I; Storm, K; Hansen, A; Thelander, C; Hinze, P; Beyer, A; Weimann, T; Samuelson, L; Tornow, M

    2014-11-21

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor-liquid-solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10-60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap.

  7. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukfeh, M I; Hansen, A; Tornow, M; Storm, K; Thelander, C; Samuelson, L; Hinze, P; Weimann, T; Beyer, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor–liquid–solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10–60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap. (paper)

  8. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  9. Transport through track etched polymeric blend membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India. MS received 10 June 2005 ... Both the track and bulk etching takes place in the irradiated membrane. ... using rotating flywheel attachment, the details having been given ...

  10. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  11. Directional Etching of Silicon by Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-02-01

    We report directional etching of nanostructures (nanochannels and nanotrenches) into the Si(100) substrates in aqueous HF and H2O2 solution by lithographically defined Ag patterns (nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanorings). The Effect of Ag/Si interface oxide on the directional etching has been studied by etching Ag/SiOx/Si samples of known interface oxide thickness. Based on high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging and TEM-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the Ag/Si interfaces, we propose that maintenance of the sub-nanometer oxide at the Ag/Si interfaces and Ag-Si interaction are the key factors which regulate the directional etching of Si.

  12. Dry etching of thin chalcogenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Kiril [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Gergo; Vassilev, Venceslav, E-mail: kpetkov@clf.bas.b [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon plasmas (pure and mixtures with Ar) were used to investigate the changes in the etching rate depending on the chalcogenide glasses composition and light exposure. The experiments were performed on modified commercial HZM-4 vacuum equipment in a diode electrode configuration. The surface microstructure of thin chalcogenide layers and its change after etching in CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasmas were studied by SEM. The dependence of the composition of As-S-Ge, As-Se and multicomponent Ge-Se-Sb-Ag-I layers on the etching rate was discussed. The selective etching of some glasses observed after light exposure opens opportunities for deep structure processing applications.

  13. Etching characteristics of a CR-39 track detector at room temperature in different etching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to discover how the etching characteristics of CR-39 detectors change with varying conditions of the etching process. Measurements were made at room temperature in pure NaOH and KOH solutions; in different alcoholic KOH solutions (PEW solution, i.e. potassium hydroxide, ethyl alcohol, water); and in NaOH and KOH solutions containing different additives. The bulk etching rate of the detector (V B ) and the V (= V T /V B ) function, i.e. track to bulk etch rates ratio, for 6.1 MeV α-particles, were measured systematically. (author)

  14. Determination of Mycophenolic acid in the vitreous humor using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method: application of intraocular pharmacokinetics study in rabbit eyes with ophthalmic implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Duarte Byrro, Ricardo; de Oliveira Fulgêncio, Gustavo; Rocha Chellini, Paula; da Silva Cunha, Armando; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2013-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive agent widely used in the treatment of solid organ transplant rejection. The success of MPA in the treatment of inflammatory intraocular diseases has been reported in recent literature. The treatment of inflammatory eye diseases in the posterior chamber is a challenge due to the anatomy of the eye, which presents certain barriers to drug access. Thus, the bioavailability of drugs in the eye is quite low, and successful drug delivery may well represent a key limiting factor to attaining a successful therapeutic strategy. Ophthalmic controlled drug delivery offers the potential to enhance the efficacy of treatment for pathological conditions. Thus, a novel delivery system based on a biodegradable polymeric device, which can be implanted inside the eye and deliver MPA directly to the target, is being developed. Specific analytical methods to determine the use of effective drugs within the eye are needed to characterize this device. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitation of MPA in the vitreous humor of rabbits was developed and validated. The vitreous was collected from rabbits, extracted by a protein precipitation extraction procedure and then separated on a C18 column with a mobile phase comprised of 0.15% aqueous acetic acid and methanol (60:40, v/v). The calibration curve was constructed within the range of 3-10,000 ng/mL for MPA. The mean R.S.D. values for the intra-run and inter-run precision were 5.15% and 4.35%. The mean accuracy value was 100.16%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the MPA concentration in the vitreous humor of rabbits treated with an ocular implantable device. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  16. Enamel and dentin bond strengths of a new self-etch adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ricardo; Swift, Edward J; Boushell, Lee W; Braswell, Krista

    2011-12-01

    statement of problem:  Self-etch adhesives typically are mildly acidic and therefore less effective than etch-and-rinse adhesives for bonding to enamel.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel and dentin shear bond strengths of a new two-step self-etch adhesive system, OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA, USA).   The labial surfaces of 80 bovine teeth were ground to create flat, 600-grit enamel or dentin surfaces. Composite was bonded to enamel or dentin using the new two-step self-etch system or a three-step etch-and-rinse (OptiBond FL, Kerr), two-step self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray America, Houston, TX, USA), or one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno IV, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA). Following storage in water for 24 hours, shear bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. The enamel and dentin data sets were subjected to separate analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effects of each system on enamel.   Mean shear bond strengths to enamel ranged from 18.1 MPa for Xeno IV to 41.0 MPa for OptiBond FL. On dentin, the means ranged from 33.3 MPa for OptiBond FL to 47.1 MPa for Clearfil SE Bond. OptiBond XTR performed as well as Clearfil SE Bond on dentin and as well as OptiBond FL on enamel. Field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that OptiBond XTR produced an enamel etch pattern that was less defined than that of OptiBond FL (37.5% phosphoric acid) but more defined than that of Clearfil SE Bond or Xeno IV.   The new two-step self-etch adhesive system formed excellent bonds to enamel and dentin in vitro. OptiBond XTR, a new two-step self-etch adhesive system, is a promising material for bonding to enamel as well as to dentin. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Kornblit, Avinoam [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The field of plasma etching is reviewed. Plasma etching, a revolutionary extension of the technique of physical sputtering, was introduced to integrated circuit manufacturing as early as the mid 1960s and more widely in the early 1970s, in an effort to reduce liquid waste disposal in manufacturing and achieve selectivities that were difficult to obtain with wet chemistry. Quickly, the ability to anisotropically etch silicon, aluminum, and silicon dioxide in plasmas became the breakthrough that allowed the features in integrated circuits to continue to shrink over the next 40 years. Some of this early history is reviewed, and a discussion of the evolution in plasma reactor design is included. Some basic principles related to plasma etching such as evaporation rates and Langmuir–Hinshelwood adsorption are introduced. Etching mechanisms of selected materials, silicon, silicon dioxide, and low dielectric-constant materials are discussed in detail. A detailed treatment is presented of applications in current silicon integrated circuit fabrication. Finally, some predictions are offered for future needs and advances in plasma etching for silicon and nonsilicon-based devices.

  18. Plasma etching: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Kornblit, Avinoam

    2013-01-01

    The field of plasma etching is reviewed. Plasma etching, a revolutionary extension of the technique of physical sputtering, was introduced to integrated circuit manufacturing as early as the mid 1960s and more widely in the early 1970s, in an effort to reduce liquid waste disposal in manufacturing and achieve selectivities that were difficult to obtain with wet chemistry. Quickly, the ability to anisotropically etch silicon, aluminum, and silicon dioxide in plasmas became the breakthrough that allowed the features in integrated circuits to continue to shrink over the next 40 years. Some of this early history is reviewed, and a discussion of the evolution in plasma reactor design is included. Some basic principles related to plasma etching such as evaporation rates and Langmuir–Hinshelwood adsorption are introduced. Etching mechanisms of selected materials, silicon, silicon dioxide, and low dielectric-constant materials are discussed in detail. A detailed treatment is presented of applications in current silicon integrated circuit fabrication. Finally, some predictions are offered for future needs and advances in plasma etching for silicon and nonsilicon-based devices

  19. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... implant, including: • How long a person has been deaf, •The number of surviving auditory nerve fibers, and • ... Implant, Severe Sensoryneurial Hearing Loss Get Involved Professional Development Practice Management ENT Careers Marketplace Privacy Policy Terms ...

  20. Towards retrievable vascularized bioartificial pancreas: induction and long-lasting stability of polymeric mesh implant vascularized with the help of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and hydrogel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, A; Kozlov, E; Nun Non, S; Dikov, M M; Sephel, G C; Whitsitt, J S; Davidson, J M

    2001-01-01

    We seek to improve existing methodologies for allogenic grafting of pancreatic islets. The lack of success of encapsulated transplanted islets inside the peritoneal cavity is presently attributed to poor vascularization of the implant. A thick, fibrotic capsule often surrounds the graft, limiting survival. We have tested the hypothesis that neovascularization of the graft material can be induced by the addition of proper angiogenic factors embedded within a polymeric coat. Biocompatible and nonresorbable meshes coated with hydrophilic polymers were implanted in rats and harvested after 1-, 6-, and 12-week intervals. The implant response was assessed by histological observations on the degree of vascularity, fibrosis, and inflammation. Macrostructural geometry of meshes was conducive to tissue ingrowth into the interstitial space between the mesh filaments. Hydrogel coating with incorporated acidic or basic FGF in an electrostatic complex with polyelectrolytes and/or with heparin provided a sustained slow release of the angiogenic growth factor. Anti-factor VIII and anti-collagen type IV antibodies and a GSL I-B4 lectin were used to measure the extent of vascularization. Vigorous and persistent vascularization radiated several hundred microns from the implant. The level of vascularization should provide a sufficient diffusion of nutrients and oxygen to implanted islets. Based on our observations, stable vascularization may require a sustained angiogenic signal to allow for the development of a permanent implant structure.

  1. Cell behavior related to implant surfaces with different microstructure and chemical composition: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserva, Enrico; Lanuti, Anna; Menini, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in vitro comparison of osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation related to two different surface treatments applied to the same implant design to determine whether the interaction between cells and implants is influenced by surface structure and chemical composition of the implants. Thirty-nine implants with a sandblasted (SB) surface and 39 implants with a grit-blasted and high-temperature acid-etched (GBAE) surface were used. The implant macrostructures and microstructures were analyzed by high- and low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by stereo-SEM. The surface chemical composition was investigated by energy dispersive analysis and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. SaOS-2 osteoblasts and human MSCs were used for the evaluation of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity in contact with the two surfaces. The GBAE surface showed fewer contaminants and a very high percentage of titanium (19.7%) compared to the SB surface (14.2%). The two surfaces showed similar mean roughness (Ra), but the depth (Rz) and density (RSm) of the porosity were significantly increased in the GBAE surface. The GBAE surface presented more osteoblast and MSC proliferation than the SB surface. No statistically significant differences in alkaline phosphatase activity were found between surfaces for either cellular line. The GBAE surface showed less surface contaminants and a higher percentage of titanium (19.7%) than the SB surface. The macro/micropore structured design and chemical composition of the GBAE surface allowed greater cell adhesion and proliferation and an earlier cell spreading but did not play an obvious role in in vitro cellular differentiation.

  2. Effects of different hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructure surfaces on implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingkun; Niu, Qiang; Cui, Yajun; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Yunzhuan; Kong, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructure implant surfaces are considered to better mimic the hierarchical structure of bone and the nanostructures substantively influence osseointegration through managing cell behaviors. To enhance implant osseointegration for further clinical application, we evaluated the material properties and osseointegration effects of hierarchical surfaces with different nano-morphologies, using a rat model. Two representative surface fabrication methods, hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching combined with anodization (HF + AN) or magnetron sputtering (HF + MS), were selected. Sample material properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and epoxy resin docking tensile test. Implants with different surfaces were inserted into the distal femurs of rats. After 12 weeks, osseointegration was examined by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histological, and biomechanical tests. Tensile testing demonstrated high bonding strength at coating/implant in the HF + MS group. Micro-CT revealed increased bone volume/total volume and significantly reduced trabecular separation in HF + MS versus other groups. Histological analysis showed significantly higher HF + MS bone-to-implant contact (74.78 ± 4.40%) versus HF + AN (65.11 ± 5.10%) and machined samples (56.03 ± 3.23%). The maximal HF + MS pull-out force increased by 33.7% versus HF + AN. These results indicated that HF + MS surfaces exhibited superior material property in terms of bonding strength and favorable implant osseointegration compared to other groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  4. Plasma etching of niobium-SiO/sub x/ layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelle, D.; Tiller, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    CF 4 -plasma etching of niobium and SiO/sub x/ layers has been investigated in a r.f. diode reactor. Etch rates increase linearly with increasing power density and also increase with pressure. The etch rate ratio can be changed using different etch gases or operating in different plasma modes (PE or IEPE). Changing from the ion enhanced plasma etching mode (IEPE) to plasma etching mode (PE) the etch rate ratio is changing by a factor of ten. On the basis of etch rate dependences on process parametes and thermodynamic data it has been suggested the generation of fluorine radicals as the rate limiting step. A general etching model has been proposed, which explains qualitatively and quantitatively (on account of data from literature) the measured results. (author)

  5. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  6. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao SC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shichong Qiao,1,* Huiliang Cao,2,* Xu Zhao,1,* Hueiwen Lo,1 Longfei Zhuang,1 Yingxin Gu,1 Junyu Shi,1 Xuanyong Liu,2 Hongchang Lai1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Implantology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters, were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability

  7. Reactive ion etching of microphotonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Vanajek, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Fabrication of microphotonic structures such as planar waveguides and other periodic structures based on silicon technology has become increasingly important due to the potential for integration of planar optical devices. We have fabricated various periodic microstructures on silicon wafers using standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). For optical applications the surface roughness and the sidewall angle or steepness of microstructures are the most critical factors. In particular, sidewall roughness of the etched waveguide core accounts for most of the optical propagation loss. We show that by varying the main RIE parameters such as gas pressure, RF power and CF 4 /Ar/O 2 gas composition it is possible to produce microstructures with near-vertical sidewalls and very smooth surfaces. In addition to plasma etching conditions, poor edge quality of the mask often causes sidewall roughness. We employed Ni/Cr metal masks in these experiments for deep etching, and used Ar + ion milling instead of wet chemical etching to open the mask. This improves the edge quality of the mask and ultimately results in smooth sidewalls

  8. Plasma etching a ceramic composite. [evaluating microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David R.; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma etching is found to be a superior metallographic technique for evaluating the microstructure of a ceramic matrix composite. The ceramic composite studied is composed of silicon carbide whiskers (SiC(sub W)) in a matrix of silicon nitride (Si3N4), glass, and pores. All four constituents are important in evaluating the microstructure of the composite. Conventionally prepared samples, both as-polished or polished and etched with molten salt, do not allow all four constituents to be observed in one specimen. As-polished specimens allow examination of the glass phase and porosity, while molten salt etching reveals the Si3N4 grain size by removing the glass phase. However, the latter obscures the porosity. Neither technique allows the SiC(sub W) to be distinguished from the Si3N4. Plasma etching with CF4 + 4 percent O2 selectively attacks the Si3N4 grains, leaving SiC(sub W) and glass in relief, while not disturbing the pores. An artifact of the plasma etching reaction is the deposition of a thin layer of carbon on Si3N4, allowing Si3N4 grains to be distinguished from SiC(sub W) by back scattered electron imaging.

  9. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  11. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  12. Chemically etched fiber tips for near-field optical microscopy: a process for smoother tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambelet, P; Sayah, A; Pfeffer, M; Philipona, C; Marquis-Weible, F

    1998-11-01

    An improved method for producing fiber tips for scanning near-field optical microscopy is presented. The improvement consists of chemically etching quartz optical fibers through their acrylate jacket. This new method is compared with the previous one in which bare fibers were etched. With the new process the meniscus formed by the acid along the fiber does not move during etching, leading to a much smoother surface of the tip cone. Subsequent metallization is thus improved, resulting in better coverage of the tip with an aluminum opaque layer. Our results show that leakage can be avoided along the cone, and light transmission through the tip is spatially limited to an optical aperture of a 100-nm dimension.

  13. Etching twin core fiber for the temperature-independent refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanbiao; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jingjing; Gao, Xuekai; Lin, Heng; Pei, Li

    2018-04-01

    We proposed an ultra-compact chemically etched twin core fiber (TCF) based optic refractive index (RI) sensor, in which the etched fiber was fabricated by immersing in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to etch the cladding. Due to the multipath evolutions of light during the TCF, the mode induced interference pattern can be used for measurement. Numerical simulations were performed, demonstrating that only the cladding mode strongly interacts with the surrounding media, and the higher cladding modes will be more sensitive to external medium. In the experiment demonstration, the RI response characteristics of the sensor were investigated, which shows a relatively high RI sensitivity and a much low temperature cross-sensitivity with about 1.06 × 10-6 RIU °C-1. Due to low cost and easy fabrication, the sensor can be a suitable candidate in the biochemical field.

  14. Model calculations for electrochemically etched neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, E.; Scharmann, A.; Werner, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrochemical etching has been established as a common method for visualisation of nuclear tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors. Usually the Mason equation, which describes the amplification of the electrical field strength at the track tip, is used to explain the treeing effect of electrochemical etching. The yield of neutron-induced tracks from electrochemically etched CR-39 track detectors was investigated with respect to the electrical parameters. A linear dependence on the response from the macroscopic field strength was measured which could not be explained by the Mason equation. It was found that the reality of a recoil proton track in the detector does not fit the boundary conditions which are necessary when the Mason equation is used. An alternative model was introduced to describe the track and detector geometry in the case of a neutron track detector. The field strength at the track tip was estimated with this model and compared with the experimental data, yielding good agreement. (author)

  15. Pattern transfer with stabilized nanoparticle etch masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Charles R; Majetich, Sara A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Narasimhan, Amrit; Bain, James A

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticle monolayer arrays are used as an etch mask for pattern transfer into Si and SiO x substrates. Crack formation within the array is prevented by electron beam curing to fix the nanoparticles to the substrate, followed by a brief oxygen plasma to remove excess carbon. This leaves a dot array of nanoparticle cores with a minimum gap of 2 nm. Deposition and liftoff can transform the dot array mask into an antidot mask, where the gap is determined by the nanoparticle core diameter. Reactive ion etching is used to transfer the dot and antidot patterns into the substrate. The effect of the gap size on the etching rate is modeled and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  16. Plasma etching to enhance the surface insulating stability of alumina for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the surface electrical conductivity of alumina, considered one of the most promising insulating materials for numerous applications in fusion devices, has been observed during ion bombardment in vacuum due to oxygen loss by preferential sputtering. Although this is expected to cause serious limitations to insulating components functionality, recent studies showed it is possible to restore the damaged lattice by oxygen reincorporation during thermal treatments in air. These studies also revealed a correlation between conductivity and ion beam induced luminescence, which is being used to monitor surface electrical conductivity degradation and help qualify the post irradiation recovery. Work now carried out for Wesgo alumina considers oxygen implantation and plasma etching as additional methods to improve recovered layer depth and quality. Both conductivity and luminescence results indicate the potential use of plasma etching not only for damage recovery, but also as a pre-treatment to enhance material stability during irradiation.

  17. Effects of a hybrid micro/nanorod topography-modified titanium implant on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Zihui; Huang, Qingfeng; Xu, Ling; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Yuqin; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2013-01-01

    Various methods have been used to modify titanium implant surfaces with the aim of achieving better osseointegration. In this study, we fabricated a clustered nanorod structure on an acid-etched, microstructured titanium plate surface using hydrogen peroxide. We also evaluated biofunctionalization of the hybrid micro/nanorod topography on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate the surface topography and phase composition of the modified titanium plate. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and seeded on the plate. The adhesion ability of the cells was then assayed by cell counting at one, 4, and 24 hours after cell seeding, and expression of adhesion-related protein integrin β1 was detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction assay, alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red S staining assays, and osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation behavior of the cells. The hybrid micro/nanoscale texture formed on the titanium surface enhanced the initial adhesion activity of the rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the hierarchical structure promoted osteogenic differentiation of these cells. This study suggests that a hybrid micro/nanorod topography on a titanium surface fabricated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide followed by acid etching might facilitate osseointegration of a titanium implant in vivo.

  18. Comprehensive Study of SF_6/O_2 Plasma Etching for Mc-Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao; Zhou Chun-Lan; Wang Wen-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The mask-free SF_6/O_2 plasma etching technique is used to produce surface texturization of mc-silicon solar cells for efficient light trapping in this work. The SEM images and mc-silicon etching rate show the influence of plasma power, SF_6/O_2 flow ratios and etching time on textured surface. With the acidic-texturing samples as a reference, the reflection and IQE spectra are obtained under different experimental conditions. The IQE spectrum measurement shows an evident increase in the visible and infrared responses. By using the optimized plasma power, SF_6/O_2 flow ratios and etching time, the optimal efficiency of 15.7% on 50 × 50 mm"2 reactive ion etching textured mc-silicon silicon solar cells is achieved, mostly due to the improvement in the short-circuit current density. The corresponding open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and fill factor are 611 mV, 33.6 mA/cm"2, 76.5%, respectively. It is believed that such a low-cost and high-performance texturization process is promising for large-scale industrial silicon solar cell manufacturing. (paper)

  19. Reduced amino acids in the bovine uterine lumen of cloned versus in vitro fertilized pregnancies prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Anna E; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Bauersachs, Stefan; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Daniel, Hannelore; Büttner, Mathias; Reichenbach, Horst D; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Wolf, Eckhard; Ulbrich, Susanne E

    2011-10-01

    Fetal overgrowth and placental abnormalities frequently occur in pregnancies following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). An optimal intrauterine supply of amino acids (AA) is of specific importance for the development of the bovine preimplantation embryo, and a defective regulation of AA supply might contribute to pregnancy failures. Thus, we analyzed 41 AA and derivatives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in uterine flushings of day 18 pregnant heifers carrying in vitro fertilized (IVF) or SCNT embryos, which were cultured under identical conditions until transfer to recipients. The concentrations of several AA were reduced in samples from SCNT pregnancies: L-leucine (1.8-fold), L-valine (1.6-fold), L-isoleucine (1.9-fold), L-phenylalanine (1.5-fold), L-glutamic acid (3.9-fold), L-aspartic acid (4.0-fold), L-proline (2.6-fold), L-alanine (2.0-fold), L-arginine (2.5-fold), and L-lysine (1.9-fold). The endometrial transcript abundance for the AA transporter solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter, L-type), member 8 (SLC7A8) was also 2.4-fold lower in SCNT pregnancies. O-phosphoethanolamine (PetN) was 11-fold (p=0.0001) reduced in the uterine fluid of animals carrying an SCNT conceptus, pointing toward changes of the phospholipid metabolism. We provide evidence for disturbed embryo-maternal interactions in the preimplantation period after transfer of SCNT embryos, which may contribute to developmental abnormalities. These are unlikely related to the major embryonic pregnancy recognition signal interferon-tau, because similar activities were detected in uterine flushings of the SCNT and IVF groups.

  20. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Cs., E-mail: vasscsaba@physx.u-szeged.hu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ{sub FWHM} = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm{sup 2}, while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  1. Etching of fused silica fiber by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Cs.; Kiss, B.; Kopniczky, J.; Hopp, B.

    2013-01-01

    The tip of multimode fused silica fiber (core diameter: 550 μm) was etched by metallic laser-induced backside wet etching (M-LIBWE) method. Frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm; τ FWHM = 8 ns) was used as laser source. The laser beam was coupled into the fiber by a fused silica lens with a focal length of 1500 mm. The other tip of the fiber was dipped into liquid gallium metallic absorber. The etching threshold fluence was measured to be 475 mJ/cm 2 , while the highest fluence, which resulted etching without breaking the fiber, was 1060 mJ/cm 2 . The progress of etching was followed by optical microscopy, and the etch rate was measured to be between 20 and 37 nm/pulse depending on the applied laser energy. The surface morphologies of the etched tips were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A possible application of the structured fibers was also tested.

  2. In vivo effect of a self-etching primer on dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, E; Lallai, M R; García-Godoy, F

    1999-08-01

    To determine the ultrastructural aspects of the dentin collagen area in the cavity preparation floor produced in vivo after phosphoric acid acid-etching or after using Clearfil Liner Bond 2 self-etching primer (LB2 Primer). Twenty-four non-carious third molars scheduled for extraction from young adult patients (16-30 years old) were used. Conventional Class I cavities (+/- 2 mm deep) were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of all teeth using a cylindrical diamond bur on a high-speed handpiece with copious water spray. To avoid dehydration of the dentin, the smear layer-covered dentin was briefly air-dried for 2 seconds. Cavities were assigned at random to the following groups: Group A: Dentin etched for 15 seconds with 34% phosphoric acid, rinsed for 20 seconds and then briefly air-dried for 2 seconds with oil-free compressed air leaving the surfaces slightly moist. Group B: LB2 Primer was applied to the cavity surfaces for 30 seconds and then briefly air-dried to remove the solvent. Group C: The untreated dentin smear layer was used as a control. In all three groups, the cavities were filled incrementally with a resin-based composite (APX), light curing every increment for 40 seconds. After 30 minutes, the teeth were extracted atraumatically and the samples immediately prepared for evaluation with the transmission electron microscope. The use of a self-etching primer did not produce significant morphological changes in the moist dentin substrate. Adverse morphological conditions where observed when there was an excess water on the dentin surface. Phosphoric acid altered the collagen more severely than the self-etching primer.

  3. Early Healing Events around Titanium Implant Devices with Different Surface Microtopography: A Pilot Study in an In Vivo Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Orsini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, the authors morphologically investigated sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces (SLA at very early experimental times. The tested devices were titanium plate-like implants with flattened wide lateral sides and jagged narrow sides. Because of these implant shape and placement site, the device gained a firm mechanical stability but the largest portion of the implant surface lacked direct contact with host bone and faced a wide peri-implant space rich in marrow tissue, intentionally created in order to study the interfacial interaction between metal surface and biological microenvironment. The insertion of titanium devices into the proximal tibia elicited a sequence of healing events. Newly formed bone proceeded through an early distance osteogenesis, common to both surfaces, and a delayed contact osteogenesis which seemed to follow different patterns at the two surfaces. In fact, SLA devices showed a more osteoconductive behavior retaining a less dense blood clot, which might be earlier and more easily replaced, and leading to a surface-conditioning layer which promotes osteogenic cell differentiation and appositional new bone deposition at the titanium surface. This model system is expected to provide a starting point for further investigations which clarify the early cellular and biomolecular events occurring at the metal surface.

  4. Selective laser-induced photochemical dry etching of semiconductors controlled by ion-bombardment-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    When a photochemical dry etching process requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers in the chemical reaction, it is sensitive to the electronic properties of the semiconductor. For such solid-excitation-based dry etching processes, the balance between reaction and carrier recombination rates determines the practical utility of a particular reaction for device fabrication. The distance from the surface at which the photocarriers are generated by light adsorption is determined by the absorption coefficient. In the absence of an external bias potential, only those carriers formed within a diffusion length of the surface space-charge region will have an opportunity to drive the dry etching reaction. When the absorption coefficient is high, most of the photons generate carriers within a diffusion length from the surface space-charge region, and the etching rate is largely determined by the balance between the rate of the carrier-driven reaction and the surface recombination velocity. When the recombination rate of free carriers in the bulk of the semiconductor is high, the effective diffusion length is reduced and fewer of the carriers generated in the subsurface region ever reach the surface. An important effect of ion bombardment is the creation of many lattice defects that increase the rate of recombination of electrons and holes. When a sufficient number of defects, which act as recombination sites, are formed during ion implantation, the recombination of photogenerated carriers at these defects in the subsurface region can greatly reduce the number of carriers which can reach the surface and drive a photochemical etching reaction

  5. DURIP 99 - Instrumentation for Deposition and Etching of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kummel, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    .... Since silver is much more difficult to etch than iron due to the lack of volatile silver halides, this spontaneous coating of Fe by Ag explains the difficulty in etching Fe particles deposited on Ag substrates. (b...

  6. Osseointegration of implants with dendrimers surface characteristics installed conventionally or with Piezosurgery®. A comparative study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengazi, Franco; Lang, Niklaus P; Canciani, Elena; Viganò, Paolo; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Botticelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of the present experiment was to compare bone healing at implants installed in recipient sites prepared with conventional drills or a piezoelectric device. The second aim was to compare implant osseointegration onto surfaces with and without dendrimers coatings. Six Beagles dogs were used in this study. Five implants with two different surfaces, three with a ZirTi(®) surface (zirconia sand blasted, acid etched), and two with a ZirTi(®)-modified surface with dendrimers of phosphoserine and polylysine were installed in the right side of the mandible. In the most anterior region (P2, P3), two recipient sites were prepared with drills, and one implant ZirTi(®) surface and one coated with dendrimers implants were installed at random. In the posterior region (P4 and M1), three recipient sites were randomly prepared: two sites with a Piezosurgery(®) instrument and one site with drill and two ZirTi(®) surface and one coated with dendrimers implants installed. Three months after the surgery, the animals were sacrificed for histological analysis. No complications occurred during the healing period. Three implants were found not integrated and were excluded from analysis. However, n = 6 was obtained. The distance IS-B at the buccal aspect was 2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.8 ± 0.5 mm, while IS-C was 1.5 ± 0.9 and 1.4 ± 0.6 mm at the Piezosurgery(®) and drill groups, respectively. Similar values were obtained between the dendrimers-coated and ZirTi(®) surface implants. The BIC% values were higher at the drill (72%) compared to the Piezosurgery(®) (67%) sites. The BIC% were also found to be higher at the ZirTi(®) (74%) compared to the dendrimers-coated (65%) implants, the difference being statistically significant. This study has revealed that oral implants may osseointegrate equally well irrespective of whether their bed was prepared utilizing conventional drills with abundant cooling or Piezosurgery(®). Moreover, the surface coating of implants with dendrimers

  7. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  8. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface dam...

  9. Special equipment for etching nitrocellulose film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrocellulose film and converter screens used for neutron radiography are described. Difficulties in visualization of radiographs on those films are mentioned. Because there is no equipment for etching nitrocellulose film available on the market Risoe has designed and produced such equipment at an estimated cost of Dkr. 15,000. Design criteria for this equipment are given and its performance described

  10. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  11. Current problems in chemical track etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A schematic survey is given on the current relevant problems of the etching (or revelation) of multi-track and single-track events in dielectric solids. Some aspects of the research trends and possible new applications of the effects observable here, are also considered. (author)

  12. More vertical etch profile using a Faraday cage in plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Ok; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Ryu, Jung-Hyun; Moon, Sang Heup

    1999-05-01

    Scanning electron microscope images of sidewalls obtained by plasma etching of an SiO2 film with and without a Faraday cage have been compared. When the substrate film is etched in the Faraday cage, faceting is effectively suppressed and the etch profile becomes more vertical regardless of the process conditions. This is because the electric potential in the cage is nearly uniform and therefore distortion of the electric field at the convex corner of a microfeature is prevented. The most vertical etch profile is obtained when the cage is used in fluorocarbon plasmas, where faceting is further suppressed due to the decrease in the chemical sputtering yield and the increase in the radical/ion flux on the substrate.

  13. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  14. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  15. Method of plastic track detector electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The review of studies dealing with the development of the method for the electro-chemical etching (ECE) of the plastic track detectors on the base of polyethy-leneterephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) is given. Physical essence of the method, basic parameters of the processes, applied equipment and methods of measurement automation are considered. The advantages of the method over the traditional chemical etching are pointed out. Recommendations on the detector operation modes when detecting fission fragments, α-particles and fast neutrons are given. The ECE method is based on the condition that during chemical etching the high-voltage sound frequency alternating electric field is applied to the detector. In this case the detector serves as an isolating layer betWeen two vessels with etching solution in which high-voltage electrode are submerged. At a fixed electric field potential higher (over than the threshold value) at the end of the etching track cone atree-like discharge spot arises. It is shown that when PET is used for fast neutron detection it is advisable to apply for ECE the PEW solution (15g KOH+40 g C 2 H 2 OH + 45g H 2 O) the field potential should constitute 30 kVxcm -1 at the freqUency of 9 kHz. In the case of fission fragment detection Using ECE and PC the following ECE conditions are recommended: 30% KOH etcher, field potential of 10 kVxcm -1 , 2-4 kHz frequency. It is concluded that the ECE method permits considerably eXtend the sphere of plastic track detector application for detecting ionizing particles,

  16. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~300 to 400nm and a width of ~60 to 70nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma etching of III-V antimonides in BCl3/SiCl4 etch chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Janardhanan, P.E.; Sulima, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma etching of GaSb using BCl 3 /SiCl 4 etch chemistry has been investigated. The etch rates were studied as a function of bias power, inductively coupled plasma source power, plasma chemistry and chamber pressure. The etched surfaces remain smooth and stoichiometric over the entire range of plasma conditions investigated. The knowledge gained in etching GaSb was applied to etching AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb in order to fabricate heterojunction phototransistors. As expected, InGaAsSb etch rate was much lower compared to the corresponding value for GaSb, mainly due to the relatively low volatility of indium chlorides. For a wide range of plasma conditions, the selectivity between GaSb and AlGaAsSb was close to unity, which is desirable for fabricating etched mirrors and gratings for Sb-based mid-infrared laser diodes. The surface roughness and the etch profile were examined for the etched GaSb, AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb samples using scanning electron microscope. The high etch rates achieved (∼ 4 μm/min) facilitated deep etching of GaSb. A single layer, soft mask (AZ-4903 photoresist) was used to etch GaSb, with etch depth ∼ 90 μm. The deep dry etching of GaSb has many important applications including etching substrate windows for backside-illuminated photodetectors for the mid-infrared wavelength range

  18. Four-year water degradation of a total-etch and two self-etching adhesives bonded to dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, A.I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate effect of direct and indirect water storage on the microtensile dentin bond strength of one total-etch and two self-etching adhesives. Methods: The adhesive materials were: one total-etch adhesive; ‘Admira Bond’ and two selfetch adhesives; ‘Clearfil SE Bond’ and ‘Hybrid

  19. Characterization of stain etched p-type silicon in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogoda, A.S., E-mail: awad_mogoda@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmad, Y.H.; Badawy, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Stain etching of p-Si in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4} was investigated. {yields} The electrical conductivity of the etched Si surfaces was measured using impedance technique. {yields} Scanning electron microscope and energy disperse X-ray were used to analyze the etched surfaces. {yields} Etching in aqueous HF solution containing HNO{sub 3} led to formation of a porous silicon layer. {yields} The formation of the porous silicon layer in HF/KMnO{sub 4} was accompanied by deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} on the pores surfaces. - Abstract: Stain etching of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid solutions containing nitric acid or potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent has been examined. The effects of etching time, oxidizing agent and HF concentrations on the electrochemical behavior of etched silicon surfaces have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An electrical equivalent circuit was used for fitting the impedance data. The morphology and the chemical composition of the etched Si surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, respectively. A porous silicon layer was formed on Si etched in HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3}, while etching in HF solutions containing KMnO{sub 4} led to the formation of a porous layer and simultaneous deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} inside the pores. The thickness of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} layer increases with increasing the KMnO{sub 4} concentration and decreases as the concentration of HF increases.

  20. SU-8 etching in inductively coupled oxygen plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jensen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Structuring or removal of the epoxy based, photo sensitive polymer SU-8 by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was investigated as a function of plasma chemistry, bias power, temperature, and pressure. In a pure oxygen plasma, surface accumulation of antimony from the photo......-initiator introduced severe roughness and reduced etch rate significantly. Addition of SF6 to the plasma chemistry reduced the antimony surface concentration with lower roughness and higher etch rate as an outcome. Furthermore the etch anisotropy could be tuned by controlling the bias power. Etch rates up to 800 nm...

  1. Investigation of surface roughness on etched glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, Z.; Budai, J.; Farkas, B.; Toth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roughening the surface of solar cells is a common practice within the photovoltaic industry as it reduces reflectance, and thus enhances the performance of devices. In this work the relationship between reflectance characterized by the haze parameter, surface roughness and optical properties was investigated. To achieve this goal, model samples were prepared by hydrofluoric acid etching of glass for various times and measured by optical microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Our investigation showed that the surface reflectance was decreased not only by the roughening of the surface but also by the modification of the depth profile and lowering of the refractive index of the surface domain of the samples.

  2. Porous siliconformation and etching process for use in silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Martin, Jr., Samuel B.; Stevenson, Joel O.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A reproducible process for uniformly etching silicon from a series of micromechanical structures used in electrical devices and the like includes providing a micromechanical structure having a silicon layer with defined areas for removal thereon and an electrochemical cell containing an aqueous hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. The micromechanical structure is submerged in the electrochemical cell and the defined areas of the silicon layer thereon are anodically biased by passing a current through the electrochemical cell for a time period sufficient to cause the defined areas of the silicon layer to become porous. The formation of the depth of the porous silicon is regulated by controlling the amount of current passing through the electrochemical cell. The micromechanical structure is then removed from the electrochemical cell and submerged in a hydroxide solution to remove the porous silicon. The process is subsequently repeated for each of the series of micromechanical structures to achieve a reproducibility better than 0.3%.

  3. Effect of a functional monomer (MDP) on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsubota, Keishi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Berry, Thomas P; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of the functional monomer, 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives through integrating fatigue testing and long-term water storage. An MDP-containing self-etch adhesive, Clearfil Bond SE ONE (SE), and an experimental adhesive, MDP-free (MF), which comprised the same ingredients as SE apart from MDP, were used. Shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) were measured with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr. Although similar SBS and SFS values were obtained for SE with pre-etching and for MF after 24 h of storage in distilled water, SE with pre-etching showed higher SBS and SFS values than MF after storage in water for 6 months or 1 yr. Regardless of the pre-etching procedure, SE showed higher SBS and SFS values after 6 months of storage in distilled water than after 24 h or 1 yr. To conclude, MDP might play an important role in enhancing not only bond strength but also bond durability with respect to repeated subcritical loading after long-term water storage. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Comparative study of resist stabilization techniques for metal etch processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerry; Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates resist stabilization techniques as they are applied to a metal etch application. The techniques that are compared are conventional deep-UV/thermal stabilization, or UV bake, and electron beam stabilization. The electron beam tool use din this study, an ElectronCure system from AlliedSignal Inc., ELectron Vision Group, utilizes a flood electron source and a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are compared with respect to a metal etch process. In this study, two types of resist are considered for stabilization and etch: a g/i-line resist, Shipley SPR-3012, and an advanced i-line, Shipley SPR 955- Cm. For each of these resist the effects of stabilization on resist features are evaluated by post-stabilization SEM analysis. Etch selectivity in all cases is evaluated by using a timed metal etch, and measuring resists remaining relative to total metal thickness etched. Etch selectivity is presented as a function of stabilization condition. Analyses of the effects of the type of stabilization on this method of selectivity measurement are also presented. SEM analysis was also performed on the features after a compete etch process, and is detailed as a function of stabilization condition. Post-etch cleaning is also an important factor impacted by pre-etch resist stabilization. Results of post- etch cleaning are presented for both stabilization methods. SEM inspection is also detailed for the metal features after resist removal processing.

  5. Influence factors on etching rate of PET nuclear pore membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhenzhong; Wu Zhendong; Liang Haiying; Ju Wei; Chen Dongfeng; Fu Yuanyong; Qu Guopu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nuclear pore membrane is a kind of liquid filtration material manufactured by irradiation and chemical etching. Various conditions in etch process have a great influence on etch rate. Purpose: The influence factors of concentration and temperature of etch solution and the irradiation energy of heavy ions on etch rate was studied. Methods: Four layers of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films were stacked together and were irradiated with 140-MeV 32 S ions at room temperature under vacuum conditions. Utilizing conductivity measurement technique, the electrical current changes through the u:radiated PET film were monitored during etching, from which the breakthrough time and therefore the track etching rate was calculated. Results: The results show that there is an exponential correlation between etch rate and temperature, and a linear correlation between etch rate and concentration. The track etching rate increases linearly with energy loss rate. Empirical formula for the bulk etching rate as a function of etchant concentration and temperature was also established via fitting of measurements. Conclusion: It is concluded that by using 1.6-MeV·u -1 32 S ions, PET nuclear pore membrane with cylindrical pore shape can be prepared at 85℃ with etchant concentration of l mol·L -1 . (authors)

  6. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Etched Nanostructured Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2012-05-01

    Silicon is an essential element in today’s modern world. Nanostructured Si is a more recently studied variant, which has currently garnered much attention. When its spatial dimensions are confined below a certain limit, its optical properties change dramatically. It transforms from an indirect bandgap material that does not absorb or emit light efficiently into one which can emit visible light at room temperatures. Although much work has been conducted in understanding the properties of nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si surfaces, a clear understanding of the origin of photoluminescence has not yet been produced. Typical synthesis approaches used to produce nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si and nanocrystalline Si have involved complex preparations used at high temperatures, pressures, or currents. The purpose of this thesis is to develop an easier synthesis approach to produce nanostructured Si as well as arrive at a clearer understanding of the origin of photoluminescence in these systems. We used a simple chemical etching technique followed by sonication to produce nanostructured Si suspensions. The etching process involved producing pores on the surface of a Si substrate in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid and an oxidant. Nanocrystalline Si as well as nanoscale amorphous porous Si suspensions were successfully synthesized using this process. We probed into the phase, composition, and origin of photoluminescence in these materials, through the use of several characterization techniques. TEM and SEM were used to determine morphology and phase. FT-IR and XPS were employed to study chemical compositions, and steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy techniques were applied to resolve their photoluminescent properties. Our work has revealed that the type of oxidant utilized during etching had a significant impact on the final product. When using nitric acid as the oxidant, we formed nanocrystalline Si suspensions composed of

  8. Evaluation of biofouling in stainless microfluidic channels for implantable multilayered dialysis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takashi; To, Naoya; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    An implantable artificial kidney can markedly improve the quality of life of renal disease patients. Our group has developed an implantable multilayered dialysis system consisting of microfluidic channels and dialysis membranes. Long-term evaluation is necessary for implant devices where biofouling is a critical factor, culminating in the deterioration of dialysis performance. Our previous work revealed that surface conditions, which depend on the manufacturing process, determine the amount of biofouling, and that electrolytic etching is the most suitable technique for forming a channel wall free of biofouling. In this study, we investigated the electrolytic etching conditions in detail. We conducted in vitro experiments for 7 d and evaluated the adhesion of biomaterials by scanning electron microscopy. The experiments revealed that a surface mirror-finished by electrolytic etching effectively prevents biofouling.

  9. Patterned microstructures formed with MeV Au implantation in Si(1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Greco, Richard R.; Zachry, Daniel P.; Dymnikov, Alexander D.; Glass, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Energetic (MeV) Au implantation in Si(1 0 0) (n-type) through masked micropatterns has been used to create layers resistant to KOH wet etching. Microscale patterns were produced in PMMA and SU(8) resist coatings on the silicon substrates using P-beam writing and developed. The silicon substrates were subsequently exposed using 1.5 MeV Au 3+ ions with fluences as high as 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 and additional patterns were exposed using copper scanning electron microscope calibration grids as masks on the silicon substrates. When wet etched with KOH microstructures were created in the silicon due to the resistance to KOH etching cause by the Au implantation. The process of combining the fabrication of masked patterns with P-beam writing with broad beam Au implantation through the masks can be a promising, cost-effective process for nanostructure engineering with Si

  10. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  11. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  12. Wet chemical etching of Al-doped ZnO film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method on textured glass substrate for energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ki Hwan; Nam, Sang Hun; Jung, Won Suk; Lee, Yong Min; Yang, Hee Su; Boo, Jin Hyo [Dept. of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The etching of glasses in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions is applied in many technological fields. Particularly, the textured transparent conductive oxide materials on the glass substrate etched by HF were used to improve the current density of solar cells. In this study, the textured glass substrate has been etched by solution and the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been prepared on this textured glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. After the AZO film deposition, the surface of AZO has been etched by hydrochloric acid with different concentration and etching time. Etched AZO thin films had higher haze ratio and sheet resistance than bare AZO glass. Increases in the root-mean-square surface roughness of AZO films enhanced from 53.78 to 84.46 nm the haze ratio in above 700 nm wavelength. Our process could be applicable in texturing glass and etching AZO surface to fabricate solar cell in industrial scale. We also carried out fabricating an organic solar-cell device. Energy conversion efficiency improvement of 123% was obtained with textured AZO-based solar-cell device compared with that of nontextured solar-cell device.

  13. Etching of glass microchips with supercritical water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Grym, Jakub; Roth, Michal; Planeta, Josef; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 311-318 ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : glass microchips * channel etching * supercritical water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.586, year: 2015

  14. Carmustine Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving carmustine implant, call your doctor. Carmustine may harm the fetus.

  15. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCD A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense ... Hearing Aids Retinitis Pigmentosa - National Eye Institute Telecommunications Relay Services Usher Syndrome Your Baby's Hearing Screening News ...

  16. Predicting synergy in atomic layer etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Tan, Samantha [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yang, Wenbing [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kim, Taeseung [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Lill, Thorsten [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Kabansky, Alexander [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Ohba, Tomihito [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Nojiri, Kazuo [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Yu, Jengyi [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Wise, Rich [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Berry, Ivan L. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Pan, Yang [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Marks, Jeffrey [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States); Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a multistep process used today in manufacturing for removing ultrathin layers of material. In this article, the authors report on ALE of Si, Ge, C, W, GaN, and SiO2 using a directional (anisotropic) plasma-enhanced approach. The authors analyze these systems by defining an “ALE synergy” parameter which quantifies the degree to which a process approaches the ideal ALE regime. This parameter is inspired by the ion-neutral synergy concept introduced in the 1979 paper by Coburn and Winters. ALE synergy is related to the energetics of underlying surface interactions and is understood in terms of energy criteria for the energy barriers involved in the reactions. Synergistic behavior is observed for all of the systems studied, with each exhibiting behavior unique to the reactant–material combination. By systematically studying atomic layer etching of a group of materials, the authors show that ALE synergy scales with the surface binding energy of the bulk material. This insight explains why some materials are more or less amenable to the directional ALE approach. Furthermore, they conclude that ALE is both simpler to understand than conventional plasma etch processing and is applicable to metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics.

  17. Overview Of Dry-Etch Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, John M.

    1986-08-01

    With pattern dimensions shrinking, dry methods of etching providing controllable degrees of anisotropy become a necessity. A number of different configurations of equipment - inline, hex, planar, barrel - have been offered, and within each type, there are numerous significant variations. Further, each specific type of machine must be perfected over a complex, interactive parameter space to achieve suitable removal of various materials. Among the most critical system parameters are the choice of cathode or anode to hold the wafers, the chamber pressure, the plasma excitation frequency, and the electrode and magnetron structures. Recent trends include the use of vacuum load locks, multiple chambers, multiple electrodes, downstream etching or stripping, and multistep processes. A major percentage of etches in production handle the three materials: polysilicon, oxide and aluminum. Recent process developments have targeted refractory metals, their silicides, and with increasing emphasis, silicon trenching. Indeed, with new VLSI structures, silicon trenching has become the process of greatest interest. For stripping, dry processes provide advantages other than anisotropy. Here, too, new configurations and methods have been introduced recently. While wet processes are less than desirable from a number of viewpoints (handling, safety, disposal, venting, classes of clean room, automatability), dry methods are still being perfected as a direct, universal replacement. The paper will give an overview of these machine structures and process solutions, together with examples of interest. These findings and the trends discussed are based on semiannual survey of manufacturers and users of the various types of equipment.

  18. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  19. Shapes of agglomerates in plasma etching reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.Y.; Kushner, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Dust particle contamination of wafers in reactive ion etching (RIE) plasma tools is a continuing concern in the microelectronics industry. It is common to find that particles collected on surfaces or downstream of the etch chamber are agglomerates of smaller monodisperse spherical particles. The shapes of the agglomerates vary from compact, high fractal dimension structures to filamentary, low fractal dimension structures. These shapes are important with respect to the transport of particles in RIE tools under the influence electrostatic and ion drag forces, and the possible generation of polarization forces. A molecular dynamics simulation has been developed to investigate the shapes of agglomerates in plasma etching reactors. We find that filamentary, low fractal dimension structures are generally produced by smaller (<100s nm) particles in low powered plasmas where the kinetic energy of primary particles is insufficient to overcome the larger Coulomb repulsion of a compact agglomerate. This is analogous to the diffusive regime in neutral agglomeration. Large particles in high powered plasmas generally produce compact agglomerates of high fractal dimension, analogous to ballistic agglomeration of neutrals. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Lindhard, Jonas Michael; Hirsch, Jens; Lausch, Dominik; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Stamate, Eugen; Hansen, Ole

    2017-10-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface damage that causes significant recombination. Here, we present a process optimization strategy for bSi, where surface damage is reduced and surface passivation is improved while excellent light trapping and low reflectance are maintained. We demonstrate that reduction of the capacitively coupled plasma power, during reactive ion etching at non-cryogenic temperature (-20 °C), preserves the reflectivity below 1% and improves the effective minority carrier lifetime due to reduced ion energy. We investigate the effect of the etching process on the surface morphology, light trapping, reflectance, transmittance, and effective lifetime of bSi. Additional surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 significantly improves the effective lifetime. For n-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 12 ms for polished and 7.5 ms for bSi surfaces. For p-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 800 μs for both polished and bSi surfaces.

  1. Wet etching and chemical polishing of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghi, R; Cervera, C; Aït-Kaci, H; Grech, P; Rodriguez, J B; Christol, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we studied wet chemical etching fabrication of the InAs/GaSb superlattice mesa photodiode for the mid-infrared region. The details of the wet chemical etchants used for the device process are presented. The etching solution is based on orthophosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) and H 2 O 2 , followed by chemical polishing with the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution and protection with photoresist polymerized. The photodiode performance is evaluated by current–voltage measurements. The zero-bias resistance area product R 0 A above 4 × 10 5 Ω cm 2 at 77 K is reported. The device did not show dark current degradation at 77 K after exposition during 3 weeks to the ambient air

  2. Enzyme-enhanced fluorescence detection of DNA on etched optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-yan; Li, Quan-yi; Ren, Rui; Zhang, Shu-sheng

    2009-05-15

    A novel DNA biosensor based on enzyme-enhanced fluorescence detection on etched optical fibers was developed. The hybridization complex of DNA probe and biotinylated target was formed on the etched optical fiber, and was then bound with streptavidin labeled horseradish peroxidase (streptavidin-HRP). The target DNA was quantified through the fluorescent detection of bi-p,p'-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DBDA) generated from the substrate 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPA) under the catalysis of HRP, with a detection limit of 1 pM and a linear range from 1.69 pM to 169 pM. It is facile to regenerate this sensor through surface treatment with concentrated urea solution. It was discovered that the sensor can retain 70% of its original activity after three detection-regeneration cycles.

  3. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xin, Haitao, E-mail: xhthmj@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Shannxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo, Yazhou [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B{sub C} route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies of ultrafine-grain Ti as dental implant material processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Baili; Li, Zhirui; Diao, Xiaoou; Xin, Haitao; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Xiaorui; Wu, Yulu; Li, Kai; Guo, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characterization of ultrafine-grain pure titanium (UFG-Ti) after sandblasting and acid-etching (SLA) and to evaluate its biocompatibility as dental implant material in vitro and in vivo. UFG-Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Microstructure and yield strength were investigated. The morphology, wettability and roughness of the specimens were analyzed after they were modified by SLA. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were seeded onto the specimens to evaluate its biocompatibility in vitro. For the in vivo study, UFG-Ti implants after SLA were embedded into the femurs of New Zealand rabbits. Osseointegration was investigated though micro-CT analysis, histological assessment and pull-out test. The control group was CP-Ti. UFG-Ti with enhanced mechanical properties was produced by four passes of ECAP in B_C route at room temperature. After SLA modification, the hierarchical porous structure on its surface exhibited excellent wettability. The adhesion, proliferation and viability of cells cultured on the UFG-Ti were superior to that of CP-Ti. In the in vivo study, favorable osseointegration occurred between the implant and bone in CP and UFG-Ti groups. The combination intensity of UF- Ti with bone was higher according to the pull-out test. This study supports the claim that UFG-Ti has grain refinement with outstanding mechanical properties and, with its excellent biocompatibility, has potential for use as dental implant material. - Highlights: • Yield strength and Vickers hardness of Ti are improved significantly after it is grain-refined by ECAP process. • The hierarchical micro-porous structure with superior wettability could be formed on the surface of ECAP Ti after SLA. • The results in vitro exhibited excellent cell biocompatibility of UFG-Ti after sandblasting and acid-etching. • The osseointegration between UFG-Ti implant and surrounding bone could be

  5. Growth, etching, and stability of sputtered ZnO:Al for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jorj Ian

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) can fulfill many requirements in thin-film solar cells, acting as (1) a transparent contact through which the incident light is transmitted, (2) part of the back reflector, and (3) a source of light scattering. Magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al thin-films are highly transparent, conductive, and are typically texturized by post-deposition etching in a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to achieve light scattering. The ZnO:Al thin-film electronic and optical properties, as well as the surface texture after etching, depend on the deposition conditions and the post-deposition treatments. Despite having been used in thin-film solar cells for more than a decade, many aspects regarding the growth, effects of heat treatments, environmental stability, and etching of sputtered ZnO:Al are not fully understood. This work endeavors to further the understanding of ZnO:Al for the purpose improving silicon thin-film solar cell efficiency and reducing ZnO:Al production costs. With regard to the growth of ZnO:Al, the influence of various deposition conditions on the resultant electrical and structural properties and their evolution with film thickness were studied. The surface electrical properties extracted from a multilayer model show that while carrier concentration of the surface layer saturates already at film thickness of 100 nm, the surface mobility continues to increases with film thickness, and it is concluded that electronic transport across grain boundaries limits mobility in ZnO:Al thin films. ZnO:Al deposited onto a previously etched ZnO:Al surface grows epitaxially, preserving both the original orientation and grain structure. Further, it is determined that a typical ZnO:Al used in thin-film silicon solar cells grows Zn-terminated on glass substrates. Concerning the affects of heat treatments and stability, it is demonstrated that a layer of amorphous silicon can protect ZnO:Al from degradation during annealing, and the mobility of Zn

  6. Comparison Of Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Molar Tubes Using Different Enamel Etching Techniques And Their Effect On Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd el Rahman, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In fixed orthodontic treatment, brackets and tubes are used for transferring orthodontic forces to the teeth. Those attachments were welded to cemented bands. Fifty years ago, direct bonding of brackets and other attachments has become a common technique in fixed orthodontic treatment. Orthodontists used to band teeth, especially molars and second premolars, to avoid the need for re bonding accessories in these regions of heavy masticatory forces. However, it is a known fact that direct bonding saves chair time as it does not require prior band selection and fitting, has the ability to maintain good oral hygiene, improve esthetics and make easier attachment to crowded and partially erupted teeth. Moreover, when the banding procedure is not performed with utmost care it can damage periodontal and/or dental tissues. Molar tubes bonding decreases the chance of decalcification caused by leakage beneath the bands. Since molar teeth are subjected to higher masticatory impact, especially lower molars, it would be convenient to devise methods capable of increasing the efficiency of their traditional bonding. These methods may include variation in bond able molar tube material, design, bonding materials and etching techniques. For achieving successful bonding, the bonding agent must penetrate the enamel surface; have easy clinical use, dimensional stability and enough bond strength. Different etching techniques were introduced in literature to increase the bond strength which includes: conventional acid etching, sandblasting and laser etching techniques. The process of conventional acid etching technique was invented In (1955) as the surface of enamel has great potential for bonding by micromechanical retention, to form ‘the mechanical lock‘. The primary effect of enamel etching is to increase the surface area. However, this roughens the enamel microscopically and results in a greater surface area on which to bond. By dissolving minerals in enamel, etchants remove the

  7. Bio-inspired silicon nanospikes fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching for antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huan; Siu, Vince S.; Gifford, Stacey M.; Kim, Sungcheol; Lu, Minhua; Meyer, Pablo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A.

    2017-12-01

    The recently discovered bactericidal properties of nanostructures on wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have inspired the development of similar nanostructured surfaces for antibacterial applications. Since most antibacterial applications require nanostructures covering a considerable amount of area, a practical fabrication method needs to be cost-effective and scalable. However, most reported nanofabrication methods require either expensive equipment or a high temperature process, limiting cost efficiency and scalability. Here, we report a simple, fast, low-cost, and scalable antibacterial surface nanofabrication methodology. Our method is based on metal-assisted chemical etching that only requires etching a single crystal silicon substrate in a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid for several minutes. We experimentally studied the effects of etching time on the morphology of the silicon nanospikes and the bactericidal properties of the resulting surface. We discovered that 6 minutes of etching results in a surface containing silicon nanospikes with optimal geometry. The bactericidal properties of the silicon nanospikes were supported by bacterial plating results, fluorescence images, and scanning electron microscopy images.

  8. The difference of tensile bond strength between total and self etch adhesive systems in dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selly Yusalina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Total etch adhesive system has been widely used in teeth conservation area as an adhesive agent before implicating composite resin restoration agent. The aim of this research is to prove the difference of tensile bond strength between total etch (Single Bond and self etch adhesive system (Adper prompt L-Pop on dentin surface in vitro. The extracted and non carries maxillary premolar teeth were used in this research and were divided into 2 groups. The first group comprised 15 specimen teeth etched in phosphoric acid and was applicated with the Single Bond adhesive agent. The second group comprised 15 specimen teeth, applicated with the Adper Prompt-L-Pop. The composite resin (Z 350, 3M was applied incrementally and each of the layers was rayed for 20 seconds. The specimens were stored in physiologic solution before they were tested. Tensile bond strength was measured by LRX Plus Lloyd Instrument, with 1 N load and 1 mm/minute speed, and the measurement result was in Mpa unit. The result was evaluated statistically by the Student t-test with α = 0.05. Single Bond (the 5th generation showed a better bond strength compared to the Adper Prompt-L-Pop (the 6th generation.

  9. Influence of microhybrid resin and etching times on bleached enamel for the bonding of ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Macedo Firoozmand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of polycrystalline ceramic brackets (PCB bonded after bleaching treatment using different composite resins and enamel etching times. A total of 144 bovine incisors were randomly divided into two study groups (n = 72, each as follows: G1, enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide, and G2 (control group, enamel unbleached. After the bleaching treatment, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. These groups were further divided into two subgroups (n = 36, each as follows: GA, brackets bonded with Transbond XT (3M and GB, brackets bonded with Filtek Z250 (3M. For each resin used, three different etching times with 37% phosphoric acid (15, 30 and 60 seconds were tested. SBS tests were performed using a universal testing machine (EMIC, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI score was verified. Significant differences among the three experimental conditions and interactions between the groups were observed. The type of composite resin accounted for 24% of the influence on the bond strength, whereas the etching time and bleaching treatment accounted for 14.5% and 10% of the influence on bond strength, respectively. The ARI revealed that the most common area of adhesion failure was at the composite resin-bracket interface. The type of composite resin, etching time and external bleaching significantly influenced the SBS of PCB on enamel, even after 14 days of saliva storage.

  10. Is laser conditioning a valid alternative to conventional etching for aesthetic brackets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, M F; Calderoni, G; Vitale, M C; Gandini, P; Scribante, A

    2018-03-01

    ER:Yag lasers have been described as a more conservative alternative to conventional acid-etching enamel conditioning technique, when bonding conventional metallic orthodontic brackets. Since the use of aesthetic orthodontic brackets is constantly increasing, the purpose of the present report has been to test laser conditioning with different aesthetic brackets. Study Design: Five different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were tested for shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index scores using two different enamel conditioning techniques (acid etching and ER:Yag laser application). Two hundred bovine incisors were extracted, cleaned and embedded in resin. Specimens were then divided into 10 groups with random tables. Half of the specimens were conditioned with conventional orthophosphoric acid gel, the other half with ER:Yag laser. Different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were then bonded to the teeth. Subsequently all groups were tested in shear mode with a Universal Testing Machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive remnant index scores were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. When considering conventional acid etching technique, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets exhibited the highest SBS values. Lowest values were reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber appliances. A significant decrease in SBS values after laser conditioning was reported for sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets, whereas no significant difference was reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber brackets. Significant differences in ARI scores were also reported. Laser etching can significantly reduce bonding efficacy of sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets.

  11. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment of surfaces are described. These are: collision, thermal, electronic and photon-induced sputtering. 135 refs.; 36 figs.; 9 tabs

  12. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunfeng [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yaming, E-mail: wangyaming@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Hao [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO{sub 3} aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO{sub 3} and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily

  13. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO_3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO_3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the

  14. Determination of etching parameters for pulsed XeF2 etching of silicon using chamber pressure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipta; Baboly, M. G.; Elahi, M. M.; Abbas, K.; Butner, J.; Piñon, D.; Ward, T. L.; Hieber, Tyler; Schuberth, Austin; Leseman, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    A technique is presented for determination of the depletion of the etchant, etched depth, and instantaneous etch rate for Si etching with XeF2 in a pulsed etching system in real time. The only experimental data required is the pressure data collected temporally. Coupling the pressure data with the knowledge of the chemical reactions allows for the determination of the etching parameters of interest. Using this technique, it is revealed that pulsed etching processes are nonlinear, with the initial etch rate being the highest and monotonically decreasing as the etchant is depleted. With the pulsed etching system introduced in this paper, the highest instantaneous etch rate of silicon was recorded to be 19.5 µm min-1 for an initial pressure of 1.2 Torr for XeF2. Additionally, the same data is used to determine the rate constant for the reaction of XeF2 with Si; the reaction is determined to be second order in nature. The effect of varying the exposed surface area of Si as well as the effect that pressure has on the instantaneous etch rate as a function of time is shown applying the same technique. As a proof of concept, an AlN resonator is released using XeF2 pulses to remove a sacrificial poly-Si layer.

  15. Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1.5 years of functional loading without oral hygiene: a preliminary study in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzak, Georg; Zechner, Werner; Tangl, Stefan; Vasak, Christoph; Donath, Karl; Watzek, Georg

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension (PSD) and peri-implant bone level (BL) of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures. After 1.5 years of functional loading and plaque accumulation, all implants showed severe peri-implant mucositis and comparatively high BL. A histomorphometric evaluation of the sulcus depth (SD), the dimension of the junctional epithelium (JE) and the connective tissue contact (CTC) resulted in no significant differences between the three implant designs, neither in the maxilla nor in the mandible (P>0.05). The sum of SD, JE and CTC forming the PSD was nearly the same in the maxilla (commercially pure titanium, CpTi: 3.5 mm 2.9/4.1 confidence interval (CI); titanium plasma sprayed (TPS): 3.5 mm 2.9/4.2 CI; sand blasted acid-etched (GBAE): 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI) and in the mandible (CpTi: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; TPS: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; GBAE: 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI; P>0.05). There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs (maxilla: CpTi: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; TPS: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.5CI; GBAE: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; mandible: CpTi: 0.8 mm 0.5/1.2 CI; TPS: 0.6 mm 0.4/0.9 CI; GBAE: 0.7 mm 0.5/1.1 CI; P>0.05). Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1.5 years of functional loading was not influenced by implant design and surface modifications in baboons.

  16. Osteogenetic property of a biodegradable three-dimensional macroporous hydrogel coating on titanium implants fabricated via EPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kena; Cai, Xinjie; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The potential for a successful integration of implants with surrounding tissue may be jeopardized in a number of compromised conditions. Biochemical surface modification is one of the choices to extend the spectrum of indications. We have previously successfully fabricated chitosan–gelatin (CS/G) coatings on a titanium surface via electrophoretic deposition, which may be promising candidates for further loading of functional agents. In this study, we have identified the microstructure, physicochemical properties and biological performance of CS/G coatings in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro degradation test indicated that CS/G coatings in the presence of lysozyme showed a significant weight loss after 28 days. The results of the cell culture exhibited that CS/G coatings could sustain MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation and migration. In vivo osteogenetic behavior evaluated by Micro-CT and histomorphometrical analysis revealed significant new bone formation around CS/G implants at 8 and 12 weeks, compared to sandblasted/acid-etched implants. Moreover, histological evaluation suggested the majority of CS/G coatings were degraded at 12 weeks. Therefore, we have concluded that the three-dimensional porous structure of scaffold-like CS/G coatings may facilitate osteogenesis and that such coatings can be biodegraded in the early bone healing process. (paper)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO 2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces. (paper)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  20. Hip Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants Hip Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hip implants are medical devices intended to restore mobility ...

  1. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  2. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  3. Study on the etched carnelian beads unearthed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Etched carnelian beads originated in the Indus Civilization;this kind of ornaments and its manufacturing techniques were spread to the whole Eurasia Continent.The etched carnelian beads unearthed in China can be classified into four types,the comparisons of which to their foreign counterparts may reveal their different sources and diffusion routes.The etched carnelian beads and their glass imitations unearthed in China had influences to the making of the glass "eye beads" in

  4. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kamal P.; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  5. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  6. Hierarchical micro/nanostructured titanium with balanced actions to bacterial and mammalian cells for dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhu,1,* Huiliang Cao,2,* Shichong Qiao,1,* Manle Wang,2,3 Yingxin Gu,1 Huiwen Luo,1 Fanhao Meng,2 Xuanyong Liu,2 Hongchang Lai1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Implantology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A versatile strategy to endow dental implants with long-term antibacterial ability without compromising the cytocompatibility is highly desirable to combat implant-related infection. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs have been utilized as a highly effective and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for surface modification of biomedical devices. However, the high mobility and subsequent hazardous effects of the particles on mammalian cells may limit its practical applications. Thus, Ag NPs were immobilized on the surface of sand-blasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA titanium by manipulating the atomic-scale heating effect of silver plasma immersion ion implantation. The silver plasma immersion ion implantation-treated SLA surface gave rise to both good antibacterial activity and excellent compatibility with mammalian cells. The antibacterial activity rendered by the immobilized Ag NPs was assessed using Fusobacterium nucleatum and Staphylococcus aureus, commonly suspected pathogens for peri-implant disease. The immobilized Ag NPs offered a good defense against multiple cycles of bacteria attack in both F. nucleatum and S. aureus, and the mechanism was independent of silver release. F. nucleatum showed a higher susceptibility to Ag NPs than S. aureus, which might be explained by the presence of different wall structures. Moreover, the

  7. Influence of Etching Protocol and Silane Treatment with a Universal Adhesive on Lithium Disilicate Bond Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavacharla, V K; Lawson, N C; Ramp, L C; Burgess, J O

    2015-01-01

    To measure the effects of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching and silane prior to the application of a universal adhesive on the bond strength between lithium disilicate and a resin. Sixty blocks of lithium disilicate (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were sectioned into coupons and polished. Specimens were divided into six groups (n=10) based on surface pretreatments, as follows: 1) no treatment (control); 2) 5% HF etch for 20 seconds (5HF); 3) 9.5% HF etch for 60 seconds (9.5HF); 4) silane with no HF (S); 5) 5% HF for 20 seconds + silane (5HFS); and 6) 9.5% HF for 60 seconds + silane (9.5HFS). All etching was followed by rinsing, and all silane was applied in one coat for 20 seconds and then dried. The universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) was applied onto the pretreated ceramic surface, air thinned, and light cured for 10 seconds. A 1.5-mm-diameter plastic tube filled with Z100 composite (3M ESPE) was applied over the bonded ceramic surface and light cured for 20 seconds on all four sides. The specimens were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles (5°C-50°C/15 s dwell time). Specimens were loaded until failure using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The peak failure load was used to calculate the shear bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken of representative e.max specimens from each group. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that there were significant differences between HF etching, silane treatment, and the interaction between HF and silane treatment (puniversal adhesive.

  8. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with different self-etching adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scougall Vilchis, Rogelio José; Yamamoto, Seigo; Kitai, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with 4 self-etching adhesives. A total of 175 extracted premolars were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 35). Group I was the control, in which the enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid, and stainless steel brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In the remaining 4 groups, the enamel was conditioned with the following self-etching primers and adhesives: group II, Transbond Plus and Transbond XT (3M Unitek); group III, Clearfil Mega Bond FA and Kurasper F (Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan); group IV, Primers A and B, and BeautyOrtho Bond (Shofu, Kyoto, Japan); and group V, AdheSE and Heliosit Orthodontic (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein). The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and debonded with a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) including enamel fracture score was also evaluated. Additionally, the conditioned enamel surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The SBS values of groups I (19.0 +/- 6.7 MPa) and II (16.6 +/- 7.3 MPa) were significantly higher than those of groups III (11.0 +/- 3.9 MPa), IV (10.1 +/- 3.7 MPa), and V (11.8 +/- 3.5 MPa). Fluoride-releasing adhesives (Kurasper F and BeautyOrtho Bond) showed clinically acceptable SBS values. Significant differences were found in the ARI and enamel fracture scores between groups I and II. The 4 self-etching adhesives yielded SBS values higher than the bond strength (5.9 to 7.8 MPa) suggested for routine clinical treatment, indicating that orthodontic brackets can be successfully bonded with any of these self-etching adhesives.

  9. Implant stability and marginal bone level of microgrooved zirconia dental implants: A 3-month experimental study on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Ruíz Rafael Arcesio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The modification of implant surfaces could affect mechanical implant stability as well as dynamics and quality of peri-implant bone healing. The aim of this 3-month experimental study in dogs was to investigate implant stability, marginal bone levels and bone tissue response to zirconia dental implants with two laser-micro-grooved intraosseous surfaces in comparison with nongrooved sandblasted zirconia and sandblasted, high-temperature etched titanium implants. Methods. Implant surface characterization was performed using optical interferometric profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A total of 96 implants (4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were inserted randomly in both sides of the lower jaw of 12 Fox Hound dogs divided into groups of 24 each: the control (titanium, the group A (sandblasted zirconia, the group B (sandblasted zirconia plus microgrooved neck and the group C (sandblasted zirconia plus all microgrooved. All the implants were immediately loaded. Insertion torque, periotest values, radiographic crestal bone level and removal torque were recorded during the 3-month follow-up. Qualitative scanning electon micro-scope (SEM analysis of the bone-implant interfaces of each group was performed. Results. Insertion torque values were higher in the group C and control implants (p the control > the group B > the group A (p the control > the group B > the group A (p < 0.05. SEM showed that implant surfaces of the groups B and C had an extra bone growth inside the microgrooves that corresponded to the shape and direction of the microgrooves. Conclusion. The addition of micro-grooves to the entire intraosseous surface of zirconia dental implants enhances primary and secondary implant stability, promotes bone tissue ingrowth and preserves crestal bone levels.

  10. Optimization of some electrochemical etching parameters for cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Annis; Gammage, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical etching of fast neutron induced recoil particle tracks in cellulose derivatives and other polymers provides an inexpensive and sensitive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry. A study of the shape, clarity, and size of the tracks in Transilwrap polycarbonate indicated that the optimum normality of the potassium hydroxide etching solution is 9 N. Optimizations have also been attempted for cellulose nitrate, triacetate, and acetobutyrate with respect to such electrochemical etching parameters as frequency, voltage gradient, and concentration of the etching solution. The measurement of differential leakage currents between the undamaged and the neutron damaged foils aided in the selection of optimum frequencies. (author)

  11. 3D memory: etch is the new litho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses the process challenges and limitations for 3D NAND processes, focusing on vertical 3D architectures. The effect of deep memory hole etches on die cost is calculated, with die cost showing a minimum at a given number of layers because of aspect-ratio dependent etch effects. Techniques to mitigate these etch effects are summarized, as are other etch issues, such as bowing and twisting. Metal replacement gate processes and their challenges are also described. Lastly, future directions of vertical 3D NAND technologies are explored.

  12. Advanced dry etching studies for micro- and nano-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted

    and even contaminate the surface with metal flakes after resist removal. Ion beam etching has also been used for etching of steel without any problems with redeposition. For steel the etch rate was low which reduced the selectivity to the photo resist. Sapphire, a crystal of aluminum oxide, has a very low....... However, just generating an oxygen plasma does not result in a controllable etch and may give rise to a poor surface for later use. It may be necessary to introduce other gases such as SF6 to reduce surface roughness. Roughness can also be introduced by the mask in the form of redeposition of material...

  13. Preparation of Track Etch Membrane Filters Using Polystyrene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewsaenee, Jerawut; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Supaphol, Pitt; Visal-athaphand, Pinpan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Polystyrene nuclear track etch membrane filters was prepared by exposed 13 .m thin film polystyrene with fission fragment. Nuclear latent track was enlarged to through hole on the film by etching with 80 o C 40% H 2 SO 4 with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution for 6-10 hour. The hole size was depend on concentration of etching solution and etching time with 1.3-3.4 .m hole diameter. The flow rate test of water was 0.79-1.56 mm cm-2 min-1 at 109.8-113.7 kPa pressure

  14. Ion-beam etching of ramps in thin film heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P. B.; Mozhaeva, Ju. E.; Komissinskii, P. V.

    2002-01-01

    Ion-beam patterning of thin films and heterostructures is one of the most common processes of fabrication of thin film devices and structures. 'Directed' nature of ion-beam etching provides a possibility to form certain profiles on the films surface, like shallow ramps, when etching is performed at some inclination angle. A simple geometrical model is presented, describing the formation of a ramp as a shadow of the mask on the film surface. Good agreement with the experiment can be obtained if the mask etching is taken into account. The etching at the opposite direction ('high-angle etching') also can be satisfactory described by the model. The profile of the slope - positive or negative curvature, pits near the end of the ramp - is discussed as a function of the etch rate dependence on the incidence angle. Such etch rate dependences for some often used materials were measured. An area of instability of the resulting ramp shape is found for the 'high-angle etching'. The model is compared with the experimental data reported by other groups. Finally ion-beam etching of a rotating sample at non-normal incidence is discussed, the results are compared with experimental data. (Authors)

  15. Chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Y.; Tsujimura, S.; Seguchi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer was studied. Etched holes 3000 to 4000 A in diameter were recognized by electron microscopy for a film bombarded by fission fragments in oxygen and etched in a 12N sodium hydroxide solution at 125 0 C. The radial etching rate at 125 0 C was 6 to 8 A/hr, which is less than 17 A/hr for polyvinylidene fluoride in the same sodium hydroxide concentration at 85 0 C. The smaller rate is a reflection of the larger chemical resistivity of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer than polyvinylidene fluoride. (author)

  16. Modeling of the angular dependence of plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the angular dependence of etching yield is essential to investigate the origins of sidewall roughness during plasma etching. In this article the angular dependence of polysilicon etching in Cl 2 plasma was modeled as a combination of individual angular-dependent etching yields for ion-initiated processes including physical sputtering, ion-induced etching, vacancy generation, and removal. The modeled etching yield exhibited a maximum at ∼60 degree sign off-normal ion angle at low flux ratio, indicative of physical sputtering. It transformed to the angular dependence of ion-induced etching with the increase in the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiments was achieved for various flux ratios and ion energies. The variation of etching yield in response to the ion angle was incorporated in the three-dimensional profile simulation and qualitative agreement was obtained. The surface composition was calculated and compared to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The modeling indicated a Cl areal density of 3x10 15 atoms/cm 2 on the surface that is close to the value determined by the XPS analysis. The response of Cl fraction to ion energy and flux ratio was modeled and correlated with the etching yields. The complete mixing-layer kinetics model with the angular dependence effect will be used for quantitative surface roughening analysis using a profile simulator in future work.

  17. Early implant-associated osteomyelitis results in a peri-implanted bacterial reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Koch, Janne; Aalbæk, Bent

    2017-01-01

    weight of Staphylococcus aureus or saline was inserted into the right tibial bone of 12 pigs. The animals were consecutively killed on day 2, 4 and 6 following implantation. Bone tissue around the implant was histologically evaluated. Identification of S. aureus was performed immunohistochemically...... on tissue section and with scanning electron microscopy and peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization on implants. The distance of the peri-implanted pathological bone area (PIBA), measured perpendicular to the implant, was significantly larger in infected animals compared to controls (p = 0...

  18. Symphony and cacophony in ion track etching: how to control etching results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Kiv, A.; Cruz, S. A.; Munoz, G. H.; Vacík, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 7 (2012), s. 527-540 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200480702 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion track s * polymers * etching * diodes * resistances Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2012

  19. Study on morphology of high-aspect-ratio grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Pan, An; Li, Cunxia; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied morphologies of silicon grooves fabricated by laser irradiation and wet etching. • We found nano-ripple structures formed on the groove sidewall. • Formations of nano-ripples were due to the formation of standing wave and nanoplanes. • Remaining debris on the groove bottom was removed by KOH etching. - Abstract: Morphologies of high-aspect-ratio silicon grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and selective chemical etching of hydrofluoric acid (HF) were studied. Oxygen was deeply doped into silicon under femtosecond laser irradiation in air, and then the oxygen-doped regions were removed by HF etching to form high-aspect-ratio grooves. After HF etching, periodic nano-ripples which were induced in silicon by femtosecond laser were observed on the groove sidewalls. The ripple orientation was perpendicular or parallel to the laser propagation direction (z direction), which depended on the relative direction between the laser polarization direction and the scanning direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations perpendicular to z direction could be attributed to the standing wave generated by the interference of the incident light and the reflected light in z direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations parallel to z direction could be attributed to the formation of self-organized periodic nanoplanes (bulk nanogratings) induced by femtosecond laser inside silicon. Materials in the tail portion of laser-induced oxygen doping (LIOD) regions were difficult to be etched by HF solution due to low oxygen concentration. The specimen was etched further in KOH solution to remove remaining materials in LIOD regions and all-silicon grooves were fabricated

  20. Effect of Deproteinization Before and after Acid Etching on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Objective: .... resin in artificial enamel carious lesions was evaluated after using ... glass ionomer cement concluded that 10% papain gel.

  1. UV-assisted selective chemical etching of relief gratings in Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, C; Pissadakis, S [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Vasilika Vouton, PO Box 1527, Heraklion 71 110, GREECE (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The patterning of sub-micron periodicity Bragg reflectors in Er/Yb-codoped IOG1, phosphate glass is demonstrated. A high yield patterning technique is presented, wherein high volume damage is induced into the glass matrix by exposure to intense UV radiation, and subsequently a chemical development in a strong acid selectively etches the exposed areas. The grating reflectors were fabricated by employing an elliptical Talbot interferometer and the output of a 213nm, 150ps frequency quintupled Nd:YAG laser. The grating depth of the etched relief pattern in time was measured at fixed time intervals and the dependence is presented in upon the etching time and exposure conditions. The gratings fabricated are examined by atomic and scanning electron microscopy for revealing the topology of the relief structure. Gratings with period of the order of 500nm were fabricated, having a maximum depth of 60nm.

  2. Structural and optical properties of vapor-etched porous GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smida, A.; Laatar, F. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M., E-mail: mhdhassen@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-08-15

    This paper consists to present first results concerning the structure of porous GaAs layer (por-GaAs-L) prepared by using HF/HNO{sub 3} as acidic solution in vapor etching (VE) method. In order to clarify this method, we detail here its principle and explain how por-GaAs-Ls are formed, taking into account the influencing of the exposure time of the GaAs substrate to the acid vapor. The etched GaAs layers have been investigated by UV–visible and PL analysis. One porous layer was performed to be characterised by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The porous structure was constituted by a nanocrystals with an average size about 6 nm. These nanocrystals were calculated from XRD peak using Scherrer's formula, AFM imaging, and also by using effective mass approximation model from effective band gap. - Highlights: • Porous GaAs layer was prepared by using Vapor etching (VE) method. • Effect of VE duration on the microstructural optical properties of the GaAs substrate • Porous structure of GaAs layer was demonstrated by using SEM and AFM microscopy.

  3. Structural and optical properties of vapor-etched porous GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smida, A.; Laatar, F.; Hassen, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper consists to present first results concerning the structure of porous GaAs layer (por-GaAs-L) prepared by using HF/HNO 3 as acidic solution in vapor etching (VE) method. In order to clarify this method, we detail here its principle and explain how por-GaAs-Ls are formed, taking into account the influencing of the exposure time of the GaAs substrate to the acid vapor. The etched GaAs layers have been investigated by UV–visible and PL analysis. One porous layer was performed to be characterised by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The porous structure was constituted by a nanocrystals with an average size about 6 nm. These nanocrystals were calculated from XRD peak using Scherrer's formula, AFM imaging, and also by using effective mass approximation model from effective band gap. - Highlights: • Porous GaAs layer was prepared by using Vapor etching (VE) method. • Effect of VE duration on the microstructural optical properties of the GaAs substrate • Porous structure of GaAs layer was demonstrated by using SEM and AFM microscopy.

  4. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  5. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik, E-mail: cgamja@snu.ac.kr

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~ 300 to 400 nm and a width of ~ 60 to 70 nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. - Highlights: • A micro-nano-hierarchical (MNH) surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI was fabricated via TIPS

  6. Hierarchical micro-nano structured Ti6Al4V surface topography via two-step etching process for enhanced hydrophilicity and osteoblastic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong-Seok; Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Tae-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical micro-nano (HMN) surface structuring of dental implants is a fascinating strategy for achieving fast and mechanically stable fixation due to the synergetic effect of micro- and nano-scale surface roughness with surrounding tissues. However, the introduction of a well-defined nanostructure on a microstructure having complex surface geometry is still challenging. As a means of fabricating HMN surface on Ti6Al4V-ELI, target-ion induced plasma sputtering (TIPS) was used onto a sand-blasted, large-grit and acid-etched substrate. The HMN surface topography was simply controlled by adjusting the tantalum (Ta) target power of the TIPS technique, which is directly related to the Ta ion flux and the surface chemical composition of the substrate. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) verified that well-defined nano-patterned surface structures with a depth of ~ 300 to 400 nm and a width of ~ 60 to 70 nm were uniformly distributed and followed the complex micron-sized surface geometry. In vitro cellular responses of pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were assessed by attachment and proliferation of cells on flat, nano-roughened, micro-roughened, and an HMN surface structure of Ti6Al4V-ELI. Moreover, an in vivo dog mandible defect model study was used to investigate the biological effect of the HMN surface structure compared with the micro-roughened surface. The results showed that the surface nanostructure significantly increased the cellular activities of flat and micro-roughened Ti, and the bone-to-implant contact area and new bone volume were significantly improved on the HMN surface structured Ti. These results support the idea that an HMN surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy has great potential for enhancing the biological performance of dental implants. - Highlights: • A micro-nano-hierarchical (MNH) surface structure on Ti6Al4V-ELI was fabricated via TIPS

  7. Radiation resistance of track etched membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczkowski, M.; Sartowska, B.; Wawszczak, D.; Starosta, W.

    2001-01-01

    Track etched membranes (TEMs) obtained by irradiation of polymer films with heavy ions and subsequent etching of latent tracks can be applied in many fields and among others in biomedicine as well. It is important to know radiation resistance of TEMs because of wide use of radiation sterilization in the case of biomedical devices. Tensile properties of TEMs made of PET and PC films with the thickness of 10 μm after electron irradiation at different doses are known from literature. Nowadays TEMs are being manufactured from thicker (20 μm) PET and PC films as well as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films are proposed for TEMs. It seems to be important to get data about radiation resistance of new kinds of TEMs. Samples of polymer films made of PET and PEN with the thickness of 19-25 μm and TEMs made of such materials have been irradiated using 10 MeV electron beam with doses up to 990 kGy. Tensile properties and SEM photographs of the samples after irradiation are given in the paper

  8. Influence of the surgical technique and surface roughness on the primary stability of an implant in artificial bone with a density equivalent to maxillary bone: a laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the effect of surgical technique and surface roughness on primary implant stability in low-density bone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty screw-shaped (Biocomp) implants with machined or etched surface topography were inserted into a

  9. Influence of surgical technique and surface roughness on the primary stability of an implant in artificial bone with different cortical thickness: a laboratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabassum, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the interrelated effect of both surface roughness and surgical technique on the primary stability of dental implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the experiment, 160 screw-designed implants (Biocomp), with either a machined or an etched

  10. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  11. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm 2 ) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm 2 ), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm 2 ). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  12. A New Approach to Amino Acid Racemization in Enamel: Testing of a Less Destructive Sampling Methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, R.C.; Moody, H.; Penkman, K.E.H.; Fagan, M.J.; Curtis, N.; Collins, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aspartic acid racemization has been found to be an accurate measure of age at death for recent forensic material. This paper examines the practicality of using acid etching of the tooth surface to extract amino acids from the enamel for racemization analysis. By serial etching of the tooth and

  13. Formation of Micro- and Nanostructures on the Nanotitanium Surface by Chemical Etching and Deposition of Titania Films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Nazarov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated approach was used for the preparation of a nanotitanium-based bioactive material. The integrated approach included three methods: severe plastic deformation (SPD, chemical etching and atomic layer deposition (ALD. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the nature of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions and the etching time have a significant qualitative impact on the nanotitanium surface structure both at the nano- and microscale. The etched samples were coated with crystalline biocompatible TiO2 films with a thickness of 20 nm by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. Comparative study of the adhesive and spreading properties of human osteoblasts MG-63 has demonstrated that presence of nano- and microscale structures and crystalline titanium oxide on the surface of nanotitanium improve bioactive properties of the material.

  14. High definition surface micromachining of LiNbO 3 by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, M.; Bentini, G. G.; Bianconi, M.; De Nicola, P.

    2010-10-01

    High Energy Ion Implantation (HEII) of both medium and light mass ions has been successfully applied for the surface micromachining of single crystal LiNbO 3 (LN) substrates. It has been demonstrated that the ion implantation process generates high differential etch rates in the LN implanted areas, when suitable implantation parameters, such as ion species, fluence and energy, are chosen. In particular, when traditional LN etching solutions are applied to suitably ion implanted regions, etch rates values up to three orders of magnitude higher than the typical etching rates of the virgin material, are registered. Further, the enhancement in the etching rate has been observed on x, y and z-cut single crystalline material, and, due to the physical nature of the implantation process, it is expected that it can be equivalently applied also to substrates with different crystallographic orientations. This technique, associated with standard photolithographic technologies, allows to generate in a fast and accurate way very high aspect ratio relief micrometric structures on LN single crystal surface. In this work a description of the developed technology is reported together with some examples of produced micromachined structures: in particular very precisely defined self sustaining suspended structures, such as beams and membranes, generated on LN substrates, are presented. The developed technology opens the way to actual three dimensional micromachining of LN single crystals substrates and, due to the peculiar properties characterising this material, (pyroelectric, electro-optic, acousto-optic, etc.), it allows the design and the production of complex integrated elements, characterised by micrometric features and suitable for the generation of advanced Micro Electro Optical Systems (MEOS).

  15. Smear layer-deproteinizing improves bonding of one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thittaweerat, Suppason; Foxton, Richard M; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji; Hosaka, Keiichi; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF). Flat human dentin surfaces with standardized smear layer were prepared. Smear layer deproteinizing was carried out by the application of 50ppm hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on dentin surface for 15s followed by Accel ® (p-toluenesulfinic acid salt) for 5s prior to adhesive application. No surface pretreatment was used as control. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage under TEM observation were investigated. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and t-test at the significant level of 0.05. Smear layer deproteinizing significantly improved μTBS of SE, SU, and BB (player observed in control groups of SE, BB, and BF, and reticular nanoleakage presented throughout the hybridized complex in control groups of BB and BF were eliminated upon the smear layer deproteinizing. Smear layer deproteinizing by HOCl and Accel ® application could enhance the quality of dentin for bonding to one-step self-etch adhesives, resulting in the improving μTBS, eliminating hybridized smear layer and preventing reticular nanoleakage formation in resin-dentin bonding interface. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of beta-PVDF membranes by track etching and specific functionalization of nano-pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuscito, O.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)(β-PVDF) nano-porous membranes were made by chemical revealing of tracks induced from swift heavy ions irradiation. Pore opening and radii can be varied in a controllable manner with the etching time. nano-pores size in nano-meter scale (from 12 nm to 50 nm) appears to be linearly dependent to the etching time. It was then necessary to adapt the characterization tools to these membranes. Consequently, we resorted to the use of structural analysis methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Small Angle Neutron Scattering) and developed evaluation methods of the membranes transport properties like gas permeation and ionic diffusion. Results obtained confirm the pores opening (break through) and the hydrophobicity of material, which we have modified with hydrophilic molecules. In this precise case, the grafting of acrylic acid was initiated by the radicals still remains after track-etching (called radio-grafting). This key result was obtained by a study of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The labelling of introduced chemical functionalities with fluorescent probes was a very effective mean to visualize very few amounts of molecules by confocal microscopy. The radio-grafting was found specifically localized inside etched tracks. The protocol offers the possibility to create a double functionality, the one localized inside the nano-pores and the other on the surface of membranes. The modification of radio-grafting parameters (the acrylic acid concentration, solvent nature, use of transfer agent) and the chemical properties of the nano-pore walls have a direct incidence on the transport properties. (author) [fr

  17. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.; Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can

  18. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  19. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  20. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  1. Physical chemistry of wet chemical anisotropic etching of silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we explain a view to understand the anisotropy of the etching of silicon in certain wet chemical agents (such as KOH). The starting point is the assumption that the [Left angle bracket]111[Right Angle Bracket] face of silicon is a flat face, the etch rate of which is then governed by a

  2. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-powered implantable electronic-skin for in situ analysis of urea/uric-acid in body fluids and the potential applications in real-time kidney-disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Han, Wuxiao; Gao, Huiling; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-01-25

    As the concentration of different biomarkers in human body fluids are an important parameter of chronic disease, wearable biosensors for in situ analysis of body fluids with high sensitivity, real-time detection, flexibility and biocompatibility have significant potential therapeutic applications. In this paper, a flexible self-powered implantable electronic-skin (e-skin) for in situ body fluids analysis (urea/uric-acid) as a real-time kidney-disease diagnoser has been proposed based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling process of ZnO nanowire arrays. It can convert the mechanical energy of body movements into a piezoelectric impulse, and the outputting piezoelectric signal contains the urea/uric-acid concentration information in body fluids. This piezoelectric-biosensing process does not need an external electricity supply or battery. The e-skin was implanted under the abdominal skin of a mouse and provided in situ analysis of the kidney-disease parameters. These results provide a new approach for developing a self-powered in situ body fluids-analysis technique for chronic-disease diagnosis.

  4. The chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, E.

    1997-06-01

    The success of silicon IC technology in producing a wide variety of microstructures relies heavily on the orientation dependant etching observed for silicon in alkaline media. Despite the rapid growth of this industry, the chemical and electrochemical mechanisms by which anisotropic etching occurs remain poorly understood. The most common etchant systems in use are ethylenediamine-pyrocatechol-water (EPW) and potassium hydroxide-isopropanol-water (KOH-IPA), and whilst these systems are highly plane selective they each have distinct disadvantages. The occurrence of inhomogeneities such as micropyramids and pits on the surface of etched substrates is a particularly disadvantageous characteristic of many alkaline etching systems. A complete understanding of the chemical and electrochemical anisotropic etching mechanisms is essential in order to obtain more reproducible etching, improved etch rate ratios and the development of more reliable etching baths. Wet chemical etching experiments to evaluate the etching rates for the different alkali metal cations have shown that similar etch rates are observed for LiOH, NaOH and KOH but those of RbOH and CsOH are significantly lower. The presence of impurities was shown to worsen the etched wafer's surface finish obtained in these etching baths. Additives have been shown to dramatically improve the surface finish with the presence of IPA in conjunction with etchant oxygenation virtually eliminating all surface defects. Electrochemical experiments were used to assess the electrochemical behaviour of Si p-(100) in of a wide variety of etchants and variations were seen according to the etchant used. A.C impedance spectroscopy showed a variation in the flat-band potential (V FB ) according to alkali metal hydroxide etchant used. These trends were similarly observed in the presence of isopropanol. Oxygenation was observed to reproducibly alter the flat-band potentials. A.c impedance spectroscopic studies additionally confirmed the

  5. Etched ion track polymer membranes for sustained drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vijayalakshmi; Amar, J.V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Narayana Charyulu, R.

    2003-01-01

    The method of track etching has been successfully used for the production of polymer membranes with capillary pores. In the present paper, micropore membranes have been prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC). PC films were irradiated with ions of gold, silicon and oxygen of varying energies and fluence. The ion tracks thus obtained were etched chemically for various time intervals to get pores and these etched films were used as membranes for the drug release. Ciprofloxacine hydrochloride was used as model drug for the release studies. The drug content was estimated spectrophotometrically. Pore size and thus the drug release is dependent on the etching conditions, ions used, their energy and fluence. Sustained drug release has been observed in these membranes. The films can be selected for practical utilization by optimizing the irradiation and etching conditions. These films can be used as transdermal patches after medical treatment

  6. Features of copper etching in chlorine-argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.M.; Svettsov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine mixtures with inert gases including argon exhibit promise as plasma feed gases for etching metals and semiconductors in the microelectronics industry. It was shown that even strong dilution of reactive gas with an inert gas (up to 80-90% of the latter) has virtually no effect in decreasing the rate of plasma etching of materials such as silicon and gallium arsenide, compared to etching in pure chlorine. The principal reactive species responsible for etching these substrates are chlorine atoms therefore, a possible explanation of the effect is an increase in the rate of bulk generation of chlorine atoms in the presence of argon. In this work the authors studied the influence of argon on the rate of copper etching in chlorine, because copper, unlike the above substrates, reacts effectively not only with the atoms but with the ground-state molecules of chlorine

  7. Future developments in etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many laboratories engaged in the field of personal neutron dosimetry are interested in developing better etching processes and improving the CR-39 detecting materials. To know how much effort must still be devoted to the development of etch track dosimetry, it is necessary to understand the advantages. limitations and degree of exploitation of the currently available techniques. So much has been learned about the chemical and electrochemical etching processes that an optimised combination of etching processes could make possible the elimination of many of the existing shortcomings. Limitations of etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry arise mainly because the registration occurs only on the detector surface. These damage type detectors are based on radiation induced chain scission processes in polymers, which result in hole-type tracks in solids. The converse approach, yet to be discovered, would be the development of cure-track detectors, where radiation induced cross linking between organic polymer chains could result in solid tracks in liquids. (author)

  8. Optimization of permanganic etching of polyethylenes for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, K.L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The permanganic etching technique has been studied as a function of time, temperature, and concentration for a series of polyethylenes. Kinetic studies show that a film of reaction products builds up on the surface, impeding further etching, an effect which is greatest for the lowest-crystallinity polymers. SEM studies combined with EDS show that the film contains sulfur, potassium and some manganese. An artifact is produced by the etching process which is impossible to remove by washing procedures if certain limits of time, temperature, and concentration are exceeded. For lower-crystallinity polyethylenes multiple etching and washing steps were required for optimal resolution. Plastic deformation during specimen preparation, whether from scratches or freeze fracturing, enhances artifact formation. When appropriate procedures are used, virtually artifact-free surfaces can be produced allowing a combination of permanganic etching and scanning electron microscopy to give a rapid method for detailed morphological characterization of bulk specimens

  9. Etch characteristics of BCB film using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Pil Seung; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il; Kim, Sang Gi

    2003-01-01

    The etching characteristics and mechanism of BCB thin films were investigated as a function of CF 4 /O 2 mixing ratio in ICP system. Maximum etch rate of 830 nm/min is obtained at the mixture of O 2 /CF 4 (=80%/20%). OES actinometry results showed that volume density of oxygen atoms fallows the same extreme behavior with the BCB etch rate, while the density of fluorine atoms changes monotonously. Therefore chemical destruction of BCB by oxygen atoms was proposed as the dominant etch mechanism. XPS analysis showed that the addition of CF 4 to O 2 helps to volatilize silicon atoms containing in BCB but leads to the formation of F-containing polymer layer. The profile of etched BCB film was close to 90 .deg. and the surface was clean

  10. Effects of mask imperfections on InP etching profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, D.T.C.; Yan, M.F.; Wynn, J.D.; Wilt, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the quality of etch masks has a significant effect on the InP etching profiles. In particular, the authors have shown that mask imperfections can cause defective etching profiles, such as vertical sidewalls and extra mask undercutting in InP. The authors also discovered that the geometry of these defective profiles is determined by the orientation of the substrate relative to the direction of the mask imperfections. Along a left-angle 110 right-angle line mask defect, the downward etching process changes the left-angle 110 right-angle v-grooves to vertical sidewalls without extra undercutting. For v-grooves aligned along the left-angle 110 right-angle direction, defects on the mask give a significant extra undercutting without changing the etching profile

  11. Optical-fiber strain sensors with asymmetric etched structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, M; Chen, C L

    1993-11-01

    Optical-fiber strain gauges with asymmetric etched structures have been analyzed, fabricated, and tested. These sensors are very sensitive with a gauge factor as high as 170 and a flat frequency response to at least 2.7 kHz. The gauge factor depends on the asymmetry of the etched structures and the number of etched sections. To understand the physical principles involved, researchers have used structural analysis programs based on a finite-element method to analyze fibers with asymmetric etched structures under tensile stress. The results show that lateral bends are induced on the etched fibers when they are stretched axially. To relate the lateral bending to the optical attenuation, we have also employed a ray-tracing technique to investigate the dependence of the attenuation on the structural deformation. Based on the structural analysis and the ray-tracing study parameters affecting the sensitivity have been studied. These results agree with the results of experimental investigations.

  12. Photonic jet μ-etching: from static to dynamic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrochman, A.; Lecler, S.; Zelgowski, J.; Mermet, F.; Fontaine, J.; Tumbelaka, B. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Photonic jet etching is a direct-laser etching method applying photonic jet phenomenon to concentrate the laser beam onto the proceeded material. We call photonic jet the phenomenon of the localized sub-wavelength propagative beam generated at the shadow-side surfaces of micro-scale dielectric cylinders or spheres, when they are illuminated by an electromagnetic plane-wave or laser beam. This concentration has made possible the laser to yield sub-μ etching marks, despite the laser was a near-infrared with nano-second pulses sources. We will present these achievements from the beginning when some spherical glasses were used for static etching to dynamic etching using an optical fiber with a semi-elliptical tip.

  13. The fabrication of metal silicide nanodot arrays using localized ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin; Kim, Tae-Gon; Min, Byung-Kwon; Lee, Sang Jo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a process for fabricating nanodot arrays with a pitch size of less than 25 nm. The process consists of localized ion implantation in a metal thin film on a Si wafer using a focused ion beam (FIB), followed by chemical etching. This process utilizes the etching resistivity changes of the ion beam irradiated region that result from metal silicide formation by ion implantation. To control the nanodot diameter, a threshold ion dose model is proposed using the Gaussian distribution of the ion beam intensities. The process is verified by fabricating nanodots with various diameters. The mechanism of etching resistivity is investigated via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).

  14. Electrochemical properties of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham minh Tan.

    1979-11-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of ion implanted silicon in contact with hydrofluoric acid solution was investigated. It was shown that the implanted layer on silicon changes profoundly its electrochemical properties (photopotential, interface impedance, rest potential, corrosion, current-potential behaviour, anodic dissolution of silicon, redox reaction). These changes depend strongly on the implantation parameters such as ion dose, ion energy, thermal treatment and ion mass and are weakly dependent on the chemical nature of the implantation ion. The experimental results were evaluated and interpreted in terms of the semiconductor electrochemical concepts taking into account the interaction of energetic ions with the solid surface. The observed effects are thus attributed to the implantation induced damage of silicon lattice and can be used for profiling of the implanted layer and the electrochemical treatment of the silicon surface. (author)

  15. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported

  16. Characterization of silicon isotropic etch by inductively coupled plasma etcher for microneedle array fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J; Tay, F E H; Miao Jianmin; Sun Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions

  17. Characterization of silicon isotropic etch by inductively coupled plasma etcher for microneedle array fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, J [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, F E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun Jianbo [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions.

  18. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  19. Prediction of plasma-induced damage distribution during silicon nitride etching using advanced three-dimensional voxel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: Nobuyuki.Kuboi@jp.sony.com; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Shigetoshi, Takushi; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Komachi, Jun; Ansai, Hisahiro [Device and Material Research Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    showed that the Si fin (source/drain region) was directly damaged by high energy hydrogen and had local variations in the damage distribution, which may lead to a shift in the threshold voltage and the off-state leakage current. Therefore, side-wall etching and ion implantation processes must be carefully designed by considering the Si damage distribution to achieve low damage and high transistor performance for complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor devices.

  20. [Evaluation of the effect of one-step self etching adhesives applied in pit and fissure sealing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hong-Ru; Xu, Pei-Cheng; Qian, Wen-Hao

    2016-06-01

    To observe the effect of three one-step self etching adhesive systems used in fit and fissure sealant and explore the feasibility of application in caries prevention in school. Seven hundred and twenty completely erupted mandibular first molars in 360 children aged 7 to 9 years old were chosen. The split-mouth design was used to select one side as the experimental group, divided into A1(Easy One Adper), B1(Adper Easy One), and C1(iBond SE).The contra lateral teeth served as A2,B2 and C2 groups (phosphoric acid). The retention and caries status were regularly reviewed .The clinical effect of the two groups was compared using SPSS19.0 software package for Chi - square test. At 3 and 6 months, pit and fissure sealant retention rate in A1 and A2, B1 and B2,C1 and C2 group had no significant difference. At 12 months, sealant retention in A1 and B1 group was significantly lower than A2 and B2 group (P0.05). At 24 months, sealant retention rate in A1, B1 and C1 group was significantly lower than A2, B2 and C2 group (P0.05). The clinical anticariogenic effect of three kinds of one-step etching adhesives and phosphoric acid etching sealant was similar .One-step self etching adhesive system was recommended for pit and fissure sealant to improve the students' oral health. The long-term retention rate of one-step self etching adhesive system was lower than the phosphoric acid method to long term observation is needed.

  1. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  2. Comparison of shear bond strength of universal adhesives on etched and nonetched enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Allegretti, Jessica; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-04-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface pretreatment with 37% phosphoric acid on the enamel bond strength of different universal adhesives. One hundred and sixty bovine permanent mandibular incisors freshly extracted were used as a substitute for human teeth. The materials tested in this study included 6 universal adhesives, and 2 self-etch adhesives as control. The teeth were assigned into 2 groups: In the first group, etching was performed using 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. In the second group, no pretreatment agent was applied. After adhesive application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the enamel surface by packing the material into cylindrical-shaped plastic matrices. After storing, the specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The normality of the data was calculated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether significant differences in debond strength values existed among the various groups. Groups with phosphoric acid pretreatment showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than groups with no enamel pretreatment (p<0.001). No significant variation in shear strength values was detected when comparing the different adhesive systems applied onto enamel after orthophosphoric acid application (p>0.05). All adhesives provide similar bond strength values when enamel pretreatment is applied even if compositions are different. Bond strength values are lower than promised by manufacturers.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  4. Interrelated temperature dependence of bulk etch rate and track length saturation time in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azooz, A.A.; Al-Jubbori, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New empirical parameterization of CR-39 bulk etch rate. • Bulk etch rates measurements using two different methods give consistent results. • Temperature independence of track saturation length. • Two empirical relation between bulk etch rate and temperature are suggested. • Simple inverse relation between bulk etch rate and track saturation time. -- Abstract: Experimental measurements of the etching solution temperature dependence of bulk etch rate using two independent methods revealed a few interesting properties. It is found that while the track saturation length is independent of etching temperature, the etching time needed to reach saturation is strongly temperature-dependent. It is demonstrated that there is systematic simple inverse relation between track saturation time, and etching solution temperature. In addition, and although, the relation between the bulk etch rate and etching solution temperature can be reasonably described by a modified form of the Arrhenius equation, better fits can be obtained by another equation suggested in this work

  5. Defect sensitive etching of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. H.; Liu, S.; Hoffman, T.; Zhang, Yichao; Twigg, M. E.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Liang, Shenglong; Khan, Neelam

    2017-12-01

    Defect sensitive etching (DSE) was developed to estimate the density of non-basal plane dislocations in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) single crystals. The crystals employed in this study were precipitated by slowly cooling (2-4 °C/h) a nickel-chromium flux saturated with hBN from 1500 °C under 1 bar of flowing nitrogen. On the (0001) planes, hexagonal-shaped etch pits were formed by etching the crystals in a eutectic mixture of NaOH and KOH between 450 °C and 525 °C for 1-2 min. There were three types of pits: pointed bottom, flat bottom, and mixed shape pits. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pointed bottom etch pits examined were associated with threading dislocations. All of these dislocations had an a-type burgers vector (i.e., they were edge dislocations, since the line direction is perpendicular to the [ 2 11 ¯ 0 ]-type direction). The pit widths were much wider than the pit depths as measured by atomic force microscopy, indicating the lateral etch rate was much faster than the vertical etch rate. From an Arrhenius plot of the log of the etch rate versus the inverse temperature, the activation energy was approximately 60 kJ/mol. This work demonstrates that DSE is an effective method for locating threading dislocations in hBN and estimating their densities.

  6. Dry etching technologies for the advanced binary film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Azumano, Hidehito; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    ABF (Advanced Binary Film) developed by Hoya as a photomask for 32 (nm) and larger specifications provides excellent resistance to both mask cleaning and 193 (nm) excimer laser and thereby helps extend the lifetime of the mask itself compared to conventional photomasks and consequently reduces the semiconductor manufacturing cost [1,2,3]. Because ABF uses Ta-based films, which are different from Cr film or MoSi films commonly used for photomask, a new process is required for its etching technology. A patterning technology for ABF was established to perform the dry etching process for Ta-based films by using the knowledge gained from absorption layer etching for EUV mask that required the same Ta-film etching process [4]. Using the mask etching system ARES, which is manufactured by Shibaura Mechatronics, and its optimized etching process, a favorable CD (Critical Dimension) uniformity, a CD linearity and other etching characteristics were obtained in ABF patterning. Those results are reported here.

  7. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h-1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h-1).

  8. Feedback control of chlorine inductively coupled plasma etch processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chaung; Leou, K.-C.; Shiao, K.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control has been applied to poly-Si etch processing using a chlorine inductively coupled plasma. Since the positive ion flux and ion energy incident upon the wafer surface are the key factors that influence the etch rate, the ion current and the root mean square (rms) rf voltage on the wafer stage, which are measured using an impedance meter connected to the wafer stage, are adopted as the controlled variables to enhance etch rate. The actuators are two 13.56 MHz rf power generators, which adjust ion density and ion energy, respectively. The results of closed-loop control show that the advantages of feedback control can be achieved. For example, with feedback control, etch rate variation under the transient chamber wall condition is reduced roughly by a factor of 2 as compared to the open-loop case. In addition, the capability of the disturbance rejection was also investigated. For a gas pressure variation of 20%, the largest etch rate variation is about 2.4% with closed-loop control as compared with as large as about 6% variation using open-loop control. Also the effect of ion current and rms rf voltage on etch rate was studied using 2 2 factorial design whose results were used to derive a model equation. The obtained formula was used to adjust the set point of ion current and rf voltage so that the desired etch rate was obtained

  9. Solvent composition of one-step self-etch adhesives and dentine wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Dabsie, Firas; Dieng-Sarr, Farimata; Akon, Bernadette; Sharrock, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the wettability of dentine by four commercial self-etch adhesives and evaluate their spreading rate on the dentine surface. Any correlation with chemical composition was sought, particularly with the amount of solvent or HEMA present in the adhesive. The adhesives used were AdheSE One, Optibond All.In.One, Adper Easy Bond and XenoV. Chemical compositions were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the adhesives dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. Apparent contact angles for sessile drops of adhesives were measured on dentine slices as a function of time for up to 180s. The water contact angles were determined for fully polymerised adhesives. All adhesives were water-based with total solvent contents ranging from 27% to 73% for HEMA-free adhesives, and averaging 45% for HEMA containing adhesives. The contents in hydrophobic groups decreased as water contents increased. No differences were found in the adhesive contact angles after 180s even though the spreading rates were different for the products tested. Water contact angles differed significantly but were not correlated with HEMA or solvent presence. Manufacturers use different approaches to stabilise acid co-monomer ingredients in self-etch adhesives. Co-solvents, HEMA, or acrylamides without co-solvents are used to simultaneously etch and infiltrate dentine. A large proportion of water is necessary for decalcification action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation) is presented. The as-fabricated Si NW arrays were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a linear dependency of nanowire length to both temperature and time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of Si NWs at increased etching durations was shown. Furthermore, the effects of EE parameters on the optical reflectivity of the Si NWs were investigated in this study. Reflectivity measurements show that the 42.8% reflectivity of the starting silicon wafer drops to 1.3%, recorded for 10 μm long Si NW arrays. The remarkable decrease in optical reflectivity indicates that Si NWs have a great potential to be utilized in radial or coaxial p-n heterojunction solar cells that could provide orthogonal photon absorption and enhanced carrier collection.

  11. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2011-04-15

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation) is presented. The as-fabricated Si NW arrays were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a linear dependency of nanowire length to both temperature and time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of Si NWs at increased etching durations was shown. Furthermore, the effects of EE parameters on the optical reflectivity of the Si NWs were investigated in this study. Reflectivity measurements show that the 42.8% reflectivity of the starting silicon wafer drops to 1.3%, recorded for 10 µm long Si NW arrays. The remarkable decrease in optical reflectivity indicates that Si NWs have a great potential to be utilized in radial or coaxial p-n heterojunction solar cells that could provide orthogonal photon absorption and enhanced carrier collection.

  12. Effect of electroless etching parameters on the growth and reflection properties of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Baris; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Emrah Unalan, Husnu

    2011-04-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays have been fabricated over large areas using an electroless etching (EE) method, which involves etching of silicon wafers in a silver nitrate and hydrofluoric acid based solution. A detailed parametric study determining the relationship between nanowire morphology and time, temperature, solution concentration and starting wafer characteristics (doping type, resistivity, crystallographic orientation)