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Sample records for acid eicosapentaenoic acid

  1. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  2. Effect of baseline plasma fatty acids on eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid.

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    DeFilippis, Andrew P; Harper, Charles R; Cotsonis, George A; Jacobson, Terry A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a >50% increase in mean plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels in a general medicine clinic population after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the current analysis, we evaluate the variability of changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid and evaluated the impact of baseline plasma fatty acids levels on changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in these individuals. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid ranged from a 55% decrease to a 967% increase. Baseline plasma fatty acids had no statistically significant effect on changes in eicosapentaenoic levels acid after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels varied considerably in a general internal medicine clinic population supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. Factors that may impact changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation warrant further study.

  3. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  4. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

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    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  6. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Fraser D.; Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S.

    2012-01-01

    Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) are recommended for management of patients with wide-ranging chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and depression. Increased consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended by many health authorities to prevent (up to 0.5 g/day) or treat chronic disease (1.0 g/day for coronary heart disease; 1.2–4 g/day for elevated triglyceride levels). Recommendations for dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFAs are often provided for α-linolenic acid, and for the combination of EPA and DHA. However, many studies have also reported differential effects of EPA, DHA and their metabolites in the clinic and at the laboratory bench. The aim of this article is to review studies that have identified divergent responses to EPA and DHA, and to explore reasons for these differences. In particular, we review potential contributing factors such as differential membrane incorporation, modulation of gene expression, activation of signaling pathways and metabolite formation. We suggest that there may be future opportunity to refine recommendations for intake of individual LC n-3 PUFAs. PMID:23203276

  8. Simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood using ultrasonic cell crusher extraction combined with gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Ren, Yan; Yu, Chen; Chen, Xiangming; Shi, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    An effective method for the simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood by gas chromatography was developed and validated. Total docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were extracted from seafood by ultrasonic cell crusher assisted extraction and methyl esterified for gas chromatography analysis in the presence of the internal standard. The linearity was good (r > 0.999) in 9.59 ∼ 479.5 μg/mL for docosahexaenoic acid and 9.56 ∼ 477.8 μg/mL for eicosapentaenoic acid. The intrarun and interrun precisions were both within 4.8 and 6.1% for the two analytes, while the accuracy was less than 5.8%. The developed method was applied for determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in six kinds of seafood. The result showed the content of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was all higher than 1 mg/g in yellow croaker, hairtail, venerupis philippinarum, mussel, and oyster. Our work may be helpful for dietary optimization and production of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

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    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-02-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with /sup 14/C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid or /sup 14/C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes.

  10. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  11. Potential benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid on atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J R; Wani, O; May, H T; Budoff, M

    2017-04-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in some patients despite optimized statin therapy and may necessitate add-on therapy to reduce this risk. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, lowers plasma triglyceride levels without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and has potential beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. Animal studies have shown that EPA reduces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In clinical trials utilizing a wide spectrum of plaque imaging modalities, EPA has shown beneficial effects on plaque characteristics. Studies of patients with coronary artery disease receiving statin therapy suggest that EPA may decrease plaque vulnerability and prevent plaque progression. EPA also decreased pentraxin-3 and macrophage accumulation. A large, randomized, Japanese study reported that EPA plus a statin resulted in a 19% relative reduction in major coronary events at 5years versus a statin alone in patients with hypercholesterolemia (P=0.011). Icosapent ethyl, a high-purity prescription form of EPA ethyl ester, has been shown to reduce triglyceride levels and markers of atherosclerotic inflammation. Results of an ongoing CV outcomes study will further define the potential clinical benefits of icosapent ethyl in reducing CV risk in high-risk patients receiving statin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Divergent shifts in lipid mediator profile following supplementation with n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.

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    Markworth, James F; Kaur, Gunveen; Miller, Eliza G; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-11-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized effects of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), little is known about the metabolic fate of the intermediary long-chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). In this double blind crossover study, shifts in circulating levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived bioactive lipid mediators were quantified by an unbiased liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry lipidomic approach. Plasma was obtained from human subjects before and after 7 d of supplementation with pure n-3 DPA, n-3 EPA or placebo (olive oil). DPA supplementation increased the SPM resolvin D5 n -3DPA (RvD5 n -3DPA ) and maresin (MaR)-1, the DHA vicinal diol 19,20-dihydroxy-DPA and n-6 PUFA derived 15-keto-PG E 2 (15-keto-PGE 2 ). EPA supplementation had no effect on any plasma DPA or DHA derived mediators, but markedly elevated monohydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs), including the e-series resolvin (RvE) precursor 18-HEPE; effects not observed with DPA supplementation. These data show that dietary n-3 DPA and EPA have highly divergent effects on human lipid mediator profile, with no overlap in PUFA metabolites formed. The recently uncovered biologic activity of n-3 DPA docosanoids and their marked modulation by dietary DPA intake reveals a unique and specific role of n-3 DPA in human physiology.-Markworth, J. F., Kaur, G., Miller, E. G., Larsen, A. E., Sinclair, A. J., Maddipati, K. R., Cameron-Smith, D. Divergent shifts in lipid mediator profile following supplementation with n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. © FASEB.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents arterial calcification in klotho mutant mice.

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    Nakamura, Kazufumi; Miura, Daiji; Saito, Yukihiro; Yunoki, Kei; Koyama, Yasushi; Satoh, Minoru; Kondo, Megumi; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Hatipoglu, Omer F; Miyoshi, Toru; Yoshida, Masashi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The klotho gene was identified as an "aging-suppressor" gene that accelerates arterial calcification when disrupted. Serum and vascular klotho levels are reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease, and the reduced levels are associated with arterial calcification. Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 fatty acid, reduces the risk of fatal coronary artery disease. However, the effects of EPA on arterial calcification have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EPA on arterial calcification in klotho mutant mice. Four-week-old klotho mutant mice and wild-type (WT) mice were given a diet containing 5% EPA (EPA food, klotho and WT: n = 12, each) or not containing EPA (control food, klotho and WT: n = 12, each) for 4 weeks. Calcium volume scores of thoracic and abdominal aortas assessed by computed tomography were significantly elevated in klotho mice after 4 weeks of control food, but they were not elevated in klotho mice after EPA food or in WT mice. Serum levels of EPA and resolvin E1, an active metabolite of EPA, in EPA food-fed mice were significantly increased compared to those in control food-fed mice. An oxidative stress PCR array followed by quantitative PCR revealed that NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4), an enzyme that generates superoxide, gene expression was up-regulated in arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of klotho mice. Activity of NOX was also significantly higher in SMCs of klotho mice than in those of WT mice. EPA decreased expression levels of the NOX4 gene and NOX activity. GPR120, a receptor of n-3 fatty acids, gene knockdown by siRNA canceled effects of EPA on NOX4 gene expression and NOX activity in arterial SMCs of klotho mice. EPA prevents arterial calcification together with reduction of NOX gene expression and activity via GPR120 in klotho mutant mice.

  14. Metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid relative to arachidonic acid in the phospholipids of human platelets

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    Weaver, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The platelet phospholipids of human subjects consuming fish or fish oil contain decreased levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and increased levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Furthermore, the ratio of AA/EPA in phosphatidylcholine (PC) is much lower than that in phosphatidylinositol (PI). This thesis examines the metabolic and remodeling pathways for fatty acid selectivity which might account for the decrease in arachidonate and the differences in AA/EPA ratios among the individual phospholipids PC, PI, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS). The incorporation of AA and EPA into the phospholipids of washed human platelets and human platelet microsomes was studied using radiolabeled fatty acids ((/sup 14/C)AA alone or (/sup 3/H)AA plus (/sup 14/C)EPA).

  15. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability.

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    Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, William D; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride.

  16. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

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    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Tanabe, Yoko; Arita, Makoto; Shido, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  17. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress.

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    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rotstein, Nora P

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here, we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in retina photoreceptors, and its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have multiple beneficial effects. Here, we show that retina neurons in vitro express the desaturase FADS2 and can synthesize DHA from EPA. Moreover, addition of EPA to these cultures protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress and promotes their differentiation through its metabolization to DHA. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in obese schoolchildren with and without insulin resistance.

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    Sánchez Meza, Karmina; Tene Pérez, Carlos Enrique; Sánchez Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Muñiz Valencia, Roberto; Del Toro Equihua, Mario

    2014-09-12

    Obesity in children is now an increasing health risk worldwide in which the insulin-resistance can be present. Studies have linked a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids with a lower prevalence of insulin-resistance. To compare the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid among obese children with and without insulin-resistance. In 56 randomly school-age children with obesity, insulin-resistance was determined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin-resistance index and the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were determined by gas chromatography. Insulin-resistance was established when the index was >6.0, non- insulin- resistance when that index was within the range of 1.4-5.9. The serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, as needed. No differences in age or sex were identified among the groups studied. The anthropometric parameters were significantly higher in the group of children with insulin-resistance than in the other two groups. The children with insulin- resistance had significantly lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid than the non- insulin-resistance group [12.4% area under the curve vs. 37.4%, p = 0.031], respectively. Obese primary school-aged children with insulin-resistance had lower plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augood, Cristina; Chakravarthy, Usha; Young, Ian; Vioque, Jesus; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Bentham, Graham; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2008-01-01

    Fish intake, the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated the association of oily fish and dietary DHA and EPA with neovascular AMD (NV-AMD). Participants aged >/=65 y in the

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulation of muscle lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega 3 fatty acids exerts potent anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic effects. We previously reported that mice fed high fat diets supplemented with EPA (HF-EPA) were resistant to diet-induced obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we further investigate b...

  1. Implications for eicosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins as therapeutics for arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patricia R; Norling, Lucy V

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for health and are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties, improving cardiovascular health as well as benefiting inflammatory diseases. Indeed, dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has proved efficacious in reducing joint pain, morning stiffness and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the mechanisms by which omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their beneficial effects have not been fully explored. Seminal discoveries by Serhan and colleagues have unveiled a novel class of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically biosynthesized in vivo from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), termed resolvins, protectins and maresins. These bioactive pro-resolving lipid mediators provide further rationale for the beneficial effects of fish-oil enriched diets. These endogenous lipid mediators are spatiotemporally biosynthesized to actively regulate resolution by acting on specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals that terminate inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of actions of these molecules, including their analgesic and bone-sparing properties making them ideal therapeutic agonists for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on ouabain toxicity in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes

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    Hallaq, H.; Leaf, A. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sellmayer, A. (Univ. Munchen, (Germany)); Smith, T.W. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Isolated neonatal cardiac myocytes have been utilized as a model for the study of cardiac arrhythmogenic factors. The myocytes respond to the toxic effects of a potent cardiac glycoside, ouabain at 0.1 mM, by an increase in their spontaneous beating rate and a reduction in amplitude of contractions resulting within minutes in a lethal state of contracture. Incubating the isolated myocytes for 3{endash}5 days in culture medium enriched with 5 {mu}M arachidonic acid had no effect on the development of lethal contracture after subsequent exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain. By contrast, incubating the myocytes for 3{endash}5 days with 5 {mu}M eicosapentaenoic acid completely prevented the toxic effects of ouabain at 0.1 mM. No differences in bumetanide-inhibitable {sup 86}Rb flux were observed between the three preparations. However, measurements with fura-2 of cytosolic free calcium levels indicated that control and arachidonic acid-enriched myocytes developed toxic cytosolic calcium concentrations of 845 {plus minus} 29 and 757 {plus minus} 64 nM, respectively, on exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain, whereas in eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched myocytes, physiologic calcium levels were preserved. Incubating the myocytes with eicosapentaenoic acid for 3{endash}5 days resulted in a small reduction of arachidonic acid and a small but significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in membrane phospolipids of the myocytes.

  3. Protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on ouabain toxicity in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaq, H.; Leaf, A.; Sellmayer, A.; Smith, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated neonatal cardiac myocytes have been utilized as a model for the study of cardiac arrhythmogenic factors. The myocytes respond to the toxic effects of a potent cardiac glycoside, ouabain at 0.1 mM, by an increase in their spontaneous beating rate and a reduction in amplitude of contractions resulting within minutes in a lethal state of contracture. Incubating the isolated myocytes for 3 endash 5 days in culture medium enriched with 5 μM arachidonic acid had no effect on the development of lethal contracture after subsequent exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain. By contrast, incubating the myocytes for 3 endash 5 days with 5 μM eicosapentaenoic acid completely prevented the toxic effects of ouabain at 0.1 mM. No differences in bumetanide-inhibitable 86 Rb flux were observed between the three preparations. However, measurements with fura-2 of cytosolic free calcium levels indicated that control and arachidonic acid-enriched myocytes developed toxic cytosolic calcium concentrations of 845 ± 29 and 757 ± 64 nM, respectively, on exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain, whereas in eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched myocytes, physiologic calcium levels were preserved. Incubating the myocytes with eicosapentaenoic acid for 3 endash 5 days resulted in a small reduction of arachidonic acid and a small but significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in membrane phospolipids of the myocytes

  4. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  5. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid as free fatty acids strongly suppresses polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Lucia; Piazzi, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Daoud, Yahya; Belluzzi, Andrea; Munarini, Alessandra; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Selgrad, Michael; Garcia, Melissa; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Genta, Robert M; Boland, C Richard; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Although cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors could represent the most effective chemopreventive tool against colorectal cancer (CRC), their use in clinical practice is hampered by cardiovascular side effects. Consumption of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs) is associated with a reduced risk of CRC. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel 99% pure preparation of ω-3-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid as free fatty acids (EPA-FFA) on polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Apc(Min/+) and corresponding wild-type mice were fed control diet (Ctrl) or diets containing either EPA-FFA 2.5% or 5%, for 12 weeks while monitoring food intake and body weight. We found that both EPA-FFA diets protected from the cachexia observed among Apc(Min/+) animals fed Ctrl diet (P acid was replaced by EPA (P < 0.0001), leading to a significant reduction in COX-2 expression and β-catenin nuclear translocation. Moreover, in the EPA-FFA arms, we found a significant decrease in proliferation throughout the intestine together with an increase in apoptosis. Our data make 99% pure EPA-FFA an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention. ©2010 AACR.

  6. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine species of fish from brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    VISENTAINER, Jesuí Vergilio; CARVALHO, Patrícia de Oliveira; IKEGAKI, Masaharu; PARK, Yong Kum

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative compositions of two unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were examined in fish oil from orbital cavity and fillets of fishes which captured from Brazilian coast. The experimental results demonstrated that quantities of DHA were extremely higher in oil from orbital cavity of Atum and Bonito as compared with fillet oil, whereas orbital cavity oil from Olho de Boi, Cavalinha, Sardinha, and Serra contained slightly higher DHA than...

  7. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  8. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline K. Innes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies.

  10. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth-retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulstra-Ramakers, M. T. E. W.; Huisjes, H. J.; Visser, G. H. A.

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or

  11. Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess different dietary ratios of omega-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and infl...

  12. A Palmitic Acid Elongase Affects Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Plastidial Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Levels in Nannochloropsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Lina-Juana; Rak, Camille; Broughton, Richard; Leterrier, Marina; Tellier, Frédérique; Faure, Jean-Denis; Falconet, Denis; Jouhet, Juliette

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids, including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process. We identified seven elongases and five desaturases possibly involved in EPA production in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Among the six heterokont-specific saturated FA elongases possibly acting upstream in this pathway, we characterized the highly expressed isoform Δ0-ELO1. Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that NgΔ0-ELO1 could elongate palmitic acid. Nannochloropsis Δ0-elo1 mutants exhibited a reduced EPA level and a specific decrease in MGDG. In NgΔ0-elo1 lines, the impairment of photosynthesis is consistent with a role of EPA-rich MGDG in nonphotochemical quenching control, possibly providing an appropriate MGDG platform for the xanthophyll cycle. Concomitantly with MGDG decrease, the level of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing medium chain FAs increased. In Nannochloropsis, part of EPA used for MGDG production is therefore biosynthesized by a channeled process initiated at the elongation step of palmitic acid by Δ0-ELO1, thus acting as a committing enzyme for galactolipid production. Based on the MGDG/TAG balance controlled by Δ0-ELO1, this study also provides novel prospects for the engineering of oleaginous microalgae for biotechnological applications. PMID:27895203

  13. A Palmitic Acid Elongase Affects Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Plastidial Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Levels in Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Lina-Juana; Rak, Camille; Perin, Giorgio; Tourcier, Guillaume; Broughton, Richard; Leterrier, Marina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Tellier, Frédérique; Faure, Jean-Denis; Falconet, Denis; Jouhet, Juliette; Sayanova, Olga; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Maréchal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids, including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process. We identified seven elongases and five desaturases possibly involved in EPA production in Nannochloropsis gaditana Among the six heterokont-specific saturated FA elongases possibly acting upstream in this pathway, we characterized the highly expressed isoform Δ0-ELO1 Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that NgΔ0-ELO1 could elongate palmitic acid. Nannochloropsis Δ0-elo1 mutants exhibited a reduced EPA level and a specific decrease in MGDG In NgΔ0-elo1 lines, the impairment of photosynthesis is consistent with a role of EPA-rich MGDG in nonphotochemical quenching control, possibly providing an appropriate MGDG platform for the xanthophyll cycle. Concomitantly with MGDG decrease, the level of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing medium chain FAs increased. In Nannochloropsis, part of EPA used for MGDG production is therefore biosynthesized by a channeled process initiated at the elongation step of palmitic acid by Δ0-ELO1, thus acting as a committing enzyme for galactolipid production. Based on the MGDG/TAG balance controlled by Δ0-ELO1, this study also provides novel prospects for the engineering of oleaginous microalgae for biotechnological applications. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  15. Diffusion of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid; (2) carbon dioxide

  16. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations With Eicosapentaenoic Acid to Arachidonic Acid Ratio and Mortality in Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Kanno, Yuki; Takiguchi, Mai; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Sato, Akihiko; Miura, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Takeshi; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Sakamoto, Nobuo; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-12-01

    Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) lowers the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, particularly ischemic heart disease. In addition, the ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-3 PUFA) to arachidonic acid (AA; n-6 PUFA) has recently been recognized as a risk marker of cardiovascular disease. In contrast, the prognostic impact of the EPA/AA ratio on patients with heart failure (HF) remains unclear. A total of 577 consecutive patients admitted for HF were divided into 2 groups based on median of the EPA/AA ratio: low EPA/AA (EPA/AA <0.32 mg/dl, n = 291) and high EPA/AA (EPA/AA ≥0.32, n = 286) groups. We compared laboratory data and echocardiographic findings and followed cardiac mortality. Although body mass index, blood pressure, B-type natriuretic peptide, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total protein, albumin, sodium, C-reactive protein, and left ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between the 2 groups, cardiac mortality was significantly higher in the low EPA/AA group than in the high EPA/AA group (12.7 vs 5.9%, log-rank P = .004). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that the EPA/AA ratio was an independent predictor of cardiac mortality (hazard ratio 0.677, 95% confidence interval 0.453-0.983, P = .041) in patients with HF. The EPA/AA ratio was an independent predictor of cardiac mortality in patients with HF; therefore, the prognosis of patients with HF may be improved by taking appropriate management to control the EPA/AA balance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential relevance of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid to the etiopathogenesis of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesei, Alessandra; Crippa, Alessandro; Ceccarelli, Silvia Busti; Mauri, Maddalena; Molteni, Massimo; Agostoni, Carlo; Nobile, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 15 years, considerable interest has been given to the potential role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for understanding pathogenesis and treatment of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to systematically investigate the scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis on the omega-3 PUFAs deficit as a risk factor shared by different pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Medline PubMed database was searched for studies examining blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Forty-one published manuscripts were compatible with the search criteria. The majority of studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism found a significant decrease in DHA levels in patients versus healthy controls. For the other conditions examined-depression, juvenile bipolar disorder, intellectual disabilities, learning difficulties, and eating disorders (EDs)-the literature was too limited to draw any stable conclusions. However, except EDs, findings in these conditions were in line with results from ADHD and autism studies. Results about EPA levels were too inconsistent to conclude that EPA could be associated with any of the conditions examined. Finally, correlational data provided, on one hand, evidence for a negative association between DHA and symptomatology, whereas on the other hand, evidence for a positive association between EPA and emotional well-being. Although the present review underlines the potential involvement of omega-3 PUFAs in the predisposition to childhood neuropsychiatric disorders, more observational and intervention studies across different diagnoses are needed, which should integrate the collection of baseline PUFA levels with their potential genetic and environmental influencing factors.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid as Options for Vascular Risk Prevention: A Fish Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Arora, Rohit R; Singh, Mukesh; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a key component involved in the process of arthrosclerosis, which in turn increases the risk for cardiovascular injury. In the last 10 years, there have been many trials that looked at omega-3 fatty acids as a way to reduce cardiovascular risk. These trials observed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the traditional lipid panel and found that both EPA and DHA reduce triglyceride (TG) level and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but also increase the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In the 2 more recent trials, the MARINE and ANCHOR, EPA was given as an adjunct therapy to high-risk patients and not only was the traditional lipids measured but also examined the vascular inflammatory biomarkers. The results of these 2 trials not only showed reduction in cardiovascular risk because of reduction in vascular inflammation and reduction in the lipid panel but also showed that one of the MARINE-derived omega-3 fatty acid is superior to the other. Data search for omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk was performed, and articles were selected for review from 2006 to date. The research studies were all double-blind randomized trials except for one, which was a single-blind and focused on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the entire lipid panel. The participants received DHA/EPA and compared with a placebo group on the effect seen in the lipid panel. The first 7 studies looked at the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C; of the 7, 1 directly compared DHA and EPA, 2 focused on EPA, and 4 were directed towards DHA alone. The MARINE and ANCHOR trials were more recent and also looked at the same parameter but also monitored vascular inflammatory biomarkers and how they were affected by omega-3 fatty acids. A second data search was performed for vascular biomarkers and cardiovascular risk, and articles that focused on high-sensitivity C

  20. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Richardson, Kris; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Subjects were sampled at baseline and six weeks after receiving either: olive oil 6.0 g/day (n = 16), EPA 1.8 g/day (n = 16), or DHA 1.8 g/day (n = 18). PBMC were subjected to gene expression analysis by microarray with key findings confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Plasma phospholipid EPA increased 3 fold in the EPA group, and DHA increased 63% in the DHA group (both p < 0.01), while no effects were observed in the olive oil group. Microarray analysis indicated that EPA but not DHA or olive oil significantly affected the gene expression in the following pathways: 1) interferon signaling, 2) receptor recognition of bacteria and viruses, 3) G protein signaling, glycolysis and glycolytic shunting, 4) S-adenosyl-l-methionine biosynthesis, and 5) cAMP-mediated signaling including cAMP responsive element protein 1 (CREB1), as well as many other individual genes including hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A). The findings for CREB1 and HIF1A were confirmed by Q-PCR analysis. Our data indicate that EPA supplementation was associated with significant effects on gene expression involving the interferon pathway as well as down-regulation of CREB1 and HIF1A, which may relate to its beneficial effect on CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ENHANCES HEATSTROKE-IMPAIRED INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL BARRIER FUNCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Yuan, Fangfang; Geng, Yan; Qiu, Xiaowen; Liu, Zhifeng; Lu, Jiefu; Tang, Liqun; Zhang, Yali; Su, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier plays an important role in the pathological process of heatstroke. Omega-3 (or n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), help protect the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study assessed if pretreating rats with EPA or DHA could alleviate heat stress-induced damage to the intestinal barrier caused by experimental heatstroke. Male Wistar rats were pregavaged with either EPA, DHA, corn oil, or normal saline (all 1 g/kg) for 21 days before the heatstroke experiment (control rats were not exposed to heat). Experimental rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 37°C and 60% humidity to induce heatstroke, and then they were allowed to recover at room temperature after rapid cooling. Survival time of rats was monitored after heatstroke. Horseradish peroxidase flux from the gut lumen and the level of plasma D-lactate were measured to analyze intestinal permeability at 6 h after heatstroke. Plasma endotoxin levels were determined using a limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Expressions of the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Tight junction protein morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acids of ileal mucosa were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detector. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly increased survival time after heatstroke. Eicosapentaenoic acid significantly decreased intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels. Eicosapentaenoic acid effectively attenuated the heatstroke-induced disruption of the intestinal structure and improved the histology score, whereas DHA was less effective, and corn oil was ineffective. Pretreatment with EPA also increased expression of occludin and ZO-1 to effectively prevent TJ disruption. Eicosapentaenoic acid pretreatment enriched itself in the membrane of intestinal cells. Our results

  3. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  4. Comparative study of eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism by human platelets in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Schacky, C.; Siess, W.; Fischer, S.; Weber, P.C.

    1985-04-01

    During long-term dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is not incorporated into phosphatidylinositol or -serine of human platelets in vivo and is not detectable in phosphatidic acid upon stimulation with thrombin. However, EPA is released from platelet phospholipids and metabolized to thromboxane B3 (TXB3). In contrast, in vitro, platelets incorporate (/sup 14/C)EPA into phosphatidylinositol, whether they contain endogenous EPA in their cellular lipids or not. Following platelet stimulation, (/sup 14/C)EPA appears in phosphatidic acid, as free fatty acid, and is transformed to TXB3. The authors conclude that the fatty acid compositions of platelet phospholipid subclasses are regulated with a high degree of specificity in vivo. Qualitative differences exist between in vivo and in vitro uptake of EPA into platelet phospholipid subclasses. After in vivo incorporation, EPA is released by action of a phospholipase A2.

  5. β-oxidation and rapid metabolism, but not uptake regulate brain eicosapentaenoic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, with high levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are several orders of magnitude lower. As evidence accumulated that fatty acid entry into the brain was not selective and, in fact, that DHA and EPA enter the brain at similar rates, new mechanisms were required to explain their large concentration differences in the brain. Here we summarize recent research demonstrating that EPA is rapidly and extensively β-oxidized upon entry into the brain. Although the ATP generated from the β-oxidation of EPA is low compared to the use of glucose, fatty acid β-oxidation may serve to regulate brain fatty acid levels in the absence of selective transportation. Furthermore, when β-oxidation of EPA is blocked, desaturation of EPA increases and Land׳s recycling decreases to maintain low EPA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against periodontopathic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Zhou, Zichao; Dong, Jiachen; Zhang, Jichun; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are two major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we evaluated the potential antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of DHA and EPA against two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum). MTT assay showed that DHA and EPA still exhibited no cytotoxicity to human oral tissue cells when the concentration came to 100 μM and 200 μM, respectively. Against P. gingivalis, DHA and EPA showed the same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μM, and a respective minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5 μM and 25 μM. However, the MIC and MBC values of DHA or EPA against F. nucleatum were both greater than 100 μM. For early-stage bacteria, DHA or EPA displayed complete inhibition on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis from the lowest concentration of 12.5 μM. And the planktonic growth of F. nucleatum was slightly but not completely inhibited by DHA or EPA even at the concentration of 100 μM, however, the biofilm formation of F. nucleatum at 24 h was significantly restrained by 100 μM EPA. For exponential-phase bacteria, 100 μM DHA or EPA completely killed P. gingivalis and significantly decreased the viable counts of F. nucleatum. Meanwhile, the morphology of P. gingivalis was apparently damaged, and the virulence factor gene expression of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum was strongly downregulated. Besides, the viability and the thickness of mature P. gingivalis biofilm, together with the viability of mature F. nucleatum biofilm were both significantly decreased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. In conclusion, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm forms of periodontal pathogens, which suggested that DHA and EPA might be potentially supplementary therapeutic agents for prevention

  7. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Functional Assessment of a Novel Fatty Acid Probe, ω-Ethynyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Analog, to Analyze the in Vivo Behavior of Eicosapentaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Bunta; Sato, Sho; Kawamoto, Jun; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2017-08-16

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that plays various beneficial roles in organisms from bacteria to humans. Although its beneficial physiological functions are well-recognized, a molecular probe that enables the monitoring of its in vivo behavior without abolishing its native functions has not yet been developed. Here, we designed and synthesized an ω-ethynyl EPA analog (eEPA) as a tool for analyzing the in vivo behavior and function of EPA. eEPA has an ω-ethynyl group tag in place of the ω-methyl group of EPA. An ethynyl group has a characteristic Raman signal and can be visualized by Raman scattering microscopy. Moreover, this group can specifically react in situ with azide compounds, such as those with fluorescent group, via click chemistry. In this study, we first synthesized eEPA efficiently based on the following well-known strategies. To introduce four C-C double bonds, a coupling reaction between terminal acetylene and propargylic halide or tosylate was employed, and then, by simultaneous and stereoselective partial hydrogenation with P-2 nickel, the triple bonds were converted to cis double bonds. One double bond and an ω-terminal C-C triple bond were introduced by Wittig reaction with a phosphonium salt harboring an ethynyl group. Then, we evaluated the in vivo function of the resulting probe by using an EPA-producing bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10. This cold-adapted bacterium inducibly produces EPA at low temperatures, and the EPA-deficient mutant (ΔEPA) shows growth retardation and abnormal morphology at low temperatures. When eEPA was exogenously supplemented to ΔEPA, eEPA was incorporated into the membrane phospholipids as an acyl chain, and the amount of eEPA was about 5% of the total fatty acids in the membrane, which is comparable to the amount of EPA in the membrane of the parent strain. Notably, by supplementation with eEPA, the growth retardation and abnormal morphology of ΔEPA were almost

  9. Secular trend of serum docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid concentrations among Japanese-a 4- and 13-year descriptive epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown age-related increases in blood docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreases in arachidonic acid. We describe serum docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acid concentrations over 13 years (1997-2012) across four study waves and serum fatty acid composition over 4 years (2006-2012) between two study waves according to age groups by sex in the same subjects. We included 443 men and 435 women aged 40-79 years at baseline. Serum arachidonic acid concentrations increased in all sex and age groups over 13 years, and eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations increased in males and females who were younger and middle-aged at baseline. Only serum arachidonic acid composition increased over 4 years in men and women who were 40-69 years at baseline, even after adjustment for arachidonic acid intake. These findings suggest a secular increase trend in serum arachidonic acid levels over 13 years among randomly selected community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of high density lipoprotein particles in a manner distinct from docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-02-05

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces oxidation of ApoB-containing particles in vitro and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. EPA may produce these effects through a potent antioxidant mechanism, which may facilitate LDL clearance and slow plaque progression. We hypothesize that EPA antioxidant effects may extend to ApoA-containing particles like HDL, potentially preserving certain atheroprotective functions. HDL was isolated from human plasma and incubated at 37 °C in the absence (vehicle) or presence of EPA and/or DHA; 5.0 or 10.0 μM each. Samples were then subjected to copper-induced oxidation (10 μM). HDL oxidation was inhibited similarly by EPA and DHA up to 1 h. EPA (10 μM) maintained significant HDL oxidation inhibition of 89% (0.622 ± 0.066 μM MDA; p < .001) at 4 h, with continued inhibition of 64% at 14 h, vs. vehicle (5.65 ± 0.06 to 2.01 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001). Conversely, DHA (10 μM) antioxidant benefit was lost by 4 h. At a lower concentration (5 μM), EPA antioxidant activity remained at 81% (5.53 ± 0.15 to 1.03 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001) at 6 h, while DHA lost all antioxidant activity by 4 h. The antioxidant activity of EPA was preserved when combined with an equimolar concentration of DHA (5 μM each). EPA pretreatment prevented HDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner that was preserved over time. These results suggest unique lipophilic and electron stabilization properties for EPA as compared to DHA with respect to inhibition of HDL oxidation. These antioxidant effects of EPA may enhance certain atheroprotective functions for HDL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ., Botha, A., and Van Zyl, W. H. (2009). “The production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella grown on brewers’ spent grain,” Biologia 64(5), 871-876. Jang, H.-D., Lin, Y.-Y., and Yang, S.-S. (2000). “Polyunsaturated fatty.... Champaign, Illinois, USA: AOCS Press, 1-20. Sakuradani, E., Takeno, S., Abe, T., and Shimizu, S. (2005). “Arachidonic acid- producing Mortierella alpina: Creation of mutants and molecular breeding,” In: Cohen Z. & Ratledge C. (ed.), Single Cell Oils...

  12. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of /sup 14/C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three /sup 14/C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin.

  13. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three 14 C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin

  14. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ω-3 fatty acids extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans fatty acids: chemical synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid isomers and detection in rats fed a deodorized fish oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Carla; Grabovskiy, Stanislav A; Aoun, Manar; Melchiorre, Michele; Kabal'nova, Natalia; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Coudray, Charles; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos

    2012-03-19

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oils used for omega-3 enriched diets. The natural cis double bond geometry can be transformed to the trans configuration during the deodorization process utilized in the food industry. The analytical discrimination of the possible five monotrans regioisomers represents a limiting step for the recognition and structure-activity relationship in connection with the harmful effects of trans fatty acids in health. We carried out a dual synthetic strategy, providing new access to monotrans EPA isomers and valuable information on GC and NMR characteristics for further applications in metabolomics and lipidomics. This small library was used as an analytical reference for isomer determination in deodorized fish oils and the follow-up of rats fed fish oil diets, evidencing for the first time that monotrans EPA isomers are incorporated in liver mitochondrial membranes after dietary intake. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella on brewers’ spent grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Jacobs_D_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31273 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Jacobs_D_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Biologia 64/5: 1—, 2009 Section... Cellular and Molecular Biology DOI: 10.2478/s11756-009-0152-1 The production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella grown on brewers’ spent grain Annali Jacobs1, Alf Botha2 & Willem H. Van Zyl2 1CSIR Biosciences, P O Box...

  18. The Pharmacokinetic Profile of a New Gastroresistant Capsule Preparation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as the Free Fatty Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Munarini, Alessandra; Hull, Mark A.; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study we analyzed the pharmacokinetic profile of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), as the free fatty acid (FFA), in an enteric-coated preparation, in 10 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 10 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Subjects received 2 g daily of EPA-FFA for 8 weeks. Plasma phospholipid and red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid content were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. There was a rapid incorporation of EPA into plasma phospholipids by 2 weeks and a slower, but highly consistent, incorporation into RBC membranes (4% total fatty acid content; coefficient of variation 10–16%). There was a concomitant reduction in relative n-6 PUFA content. Elongation and desaturation of EPA into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were apparent and DHA content also increased in membranes. EPA-FFA is well tolerated and no difference in the pharmacokinetic profile of n-3 PUFA incorporation was detected between IBD patients and HV. Our data support the concept that EPA can be considered the “universal donor” with respect to key n-3 PUFAs and that this enteric-coated formulation allows long term treatment with a high level of compliance. PMID:26339608

  19. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in bovine neutrophils and platelets: effect of calcium ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.M.; Laegreid, W.W.; Heidel, J.R.; Straub, K.M.; Liggitt, H.D.; Silflow, R.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Leid, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    Substitution of dietary fatty acids has potential for altering the inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to define the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) secreted by bovine peripheral blood neutrophils and platelets. High performance liquid chromatography was used to characterize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites secreted in response to the calcium ionophore A23187. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA prior to challenge with the calcium ionophore. Bovine neutrophils secreted leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) as the major metabolites of AA, as well as the corresponding leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) metabolites of EPA. Peptidoleukotrienes derived from /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA were not detected under these conditions. The major tritiated metabolites secreted from bovine platelets were: thromboxane A2, measured as the stable metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2); hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-HETE derived from /sup 3/H-AA; and the omega-3 analogs TXB3 and 12-HEPE, derived from /sup 3/H-EPA. Preferred substrate specificities existed amongst the AA- and EPA-derived metabolites for the intermediary enzymes involved in the arachidonic acid cascade. These findings support the hypothesis that substitution of membrane-bound AA by EPA has potential for modulation of the host inflammatory response following cellular phospholipid mobilization.

  20. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid concentration as a possible risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Yoshimori; Fukuyama, Naoto; Mori, Hidezo

    2015-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevent ischemic stroke. The preventive effect has been attributed to an antithrombic effect induced by elevated EPA and reduced arachidonic acid (AA) levels. However, the relationship between intracranial hemorrhage and N-3 fatty acids has not yet been elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we compared common clinical and lifestyle parameters between 70 patients with intracranial hemorrhages and 66 control subjects. The parameters included blood chemistry data, smoking, alcohol intake, fish consumption, and the incidences of underlying diseases. The comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Nonparametric tests revealed that the 70 patients with intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressures and alcohol intakes and lower body mass indices, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, EPA concentrations, EPA/AA ratios, and vegetable consumption compared with the 66 control subjects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher diastolic blood pressure and alcohol intake and lower body mass index, HDL cholesterol, EPA/AA ratio, and vegetable consumption were relative risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage. High HDL cholesterol was a common risk factor in both of the sex-segregated subgroups and the Eicosapentaenoic acid was relative risk factor only in the ≥65-year-old subgroup. Rather than higher EPA levels, lower EPA concentrations and EPA/AA ratios were found to be risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in addition to previously known risk factors such as blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paradigm shift - Metabolic transformation of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids to bioactives exemplify the promise of fatty acid drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halade, Ganesh V; Black, Laurence M; Verma, Mahendra Kumar

    2018-02-28

    Fatty acid drug discovery (FADD) is defined as the identification of novel, specialized bioactive mediators that are derived from fatty acids and have precise pharmacological/therapeutic potential. A number of reports indicate that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and limited intake of omega-6 promotes overall health benefits. In 1929, Burr and Burr indicated the significant role of essential fatty acids for survival and functional health of many organs. In reference to specific dietary benefits of differential omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA and EPA) are transformed to monohydroxy, dihydroxy, trihydroxy, and other complex mediators during infection, injury, and exercise to resolve inflammation. The presented FADD approach describes the metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA in response to injury, infection, and exercise to govern uncontrolled inflammation. Metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA into a number of pro-resolving molecules exemplifies a novel, inexpensive approach compared to traditional, expensive drug discovery. DHA and EPA have been recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease since 1970. Therefore, the FADD approach is relevant to cardiovascular disease and resolution of inflammation in many injury models. Future research demands identification of novel action targets, receptors for biomolecules, mechanism(s), and drug-interactions with resolvins in order to maintain homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (pacids appears to require translation by categorization rather than by translation as continuous data. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Shah, Freny; Bharadwaj, S V Vamsi; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid rich marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis oceanica was grown in wastewaters sampled from four different industries (i.e. pesticides industry, pharmaceutical industry, activated sludge treatment plant of municipality sewage and petroleum (oil) industry). Under the wastewater based growth conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 21.78±0.87 to 27.78±0.22mgL(-1)d(-1) in relation to freeze dried biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 5.59±0.02 and 6.81±0.04mgL(-1)d(-1). Although comparatively higher biomass, lipid and EPA productivity was observed in Conway medium, the %EPA content was similarly observed in pesticides industry and municipal effluents. The results highlight the possibility of selectively using wastewater as a growth medium, demonstrating the elevated eicosapentaenoic acid content and biodiesel properties, that complies with the European standards for biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical implications of eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA) in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Inai, Kei; Shinohara, Tokuko; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies showed that a low ratio between the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and those of arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease and poor prognosis of heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac sudden death. However, the clinical implications of EPA/AA in adult patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of EPA/AA regarding cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease. We measured the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in 130 adult patients (median age, 31 years) stratified into two groups according to their EPA/AA (low, ≤0.22; high, >0.22). We prospectively analyzed the association between EPA/AA and incidence of cardiac events during a mean observation period of 15 months, expressed in terms of hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In the subgroup of patients with biventricular circulation (2VC) (n = 76), we analyzed the same clinical endpoints. In our study population, EPA/AA was not associated with the incidence of arrhythmic events (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.82-2.85; p = 0.19), but low EPA/AA was a predictor of heart failure hospitalization (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.35-6.30; p heart failure hospitalization (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 1.78-18.1; p congenital heart disease.

  5. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun; Baum, Jamie I; Huang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA). After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed ( P ≤ 0.05) compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower ( P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher ( P ≤ 0.05) expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower ( P ≤ 0.05) gene expression and lower ( P ≤ 0.05) mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher ( P ≤ 0.05) in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced ( P ≤ 0.05) oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak) and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  6. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  7. Production of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids by the marine oomycete Halophytophthora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ka-Lai; Lin, Han-Jia; Lin, Hung-Yun; Huang, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with more than one double bond in the chemical structure. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 (n-6)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22:5 (n-3)) are common PUFAs with beneficial health effects. Marine fish and meat are the main sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in human's diet, respectively. In particular, there is a general decline in fish catch, implicating the need for an alternative source of omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies have examined the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids including ARA and EPA by various microorganisms, including microalgae, fungi, and thraustochytrids. In this study, the production of ARA and EPA by 10 isolates of four estuarine Halophytophthora species (Halophytophthora avicenniae, Halophytophthora polymorphica, Halophytophthora vesicula, and Halophytophthora spinosa var. spinosa) cultured from fallen mangrove leaves in Taiwan was examined. The yield of ARA ranged from 0.004 to 0.052 g/L with the highest yield of ARA obtained from H. spinosa var. spinosa IMB162, but no or a very low level of EPA was produced by IMB162. For EPA production by Halophytophthora spp., the yield ranged from 0 to 0.047 g/L. Percentage of ARA in total fatty acid ranged between 7.16 and 25.02%. One-way ANOVA analysis using Tukey Test (p ≥ 0.05) suggested that there is significant difference in the percentage of EPA in total fatty acid produced by the isolates, which ranged from 0.01 to 18.42%. BODIPY 505/515 fluorescent staining suggests that lipid bodies were evenly distributed in the mycelia of Halophytophthora species.

  8. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-09-03

    Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikul K. Soni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM. Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (HFD-ED, a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4 protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  10. Relative turnover of [3H]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with [ 3 H]AA and [ 14 C]EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The [ 3 H]AA/[ 14 C]EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The [ 3 H]/[ 14 C] ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA

  11. Relative turnover of (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-03-05

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)AA and (/sup 14/C)EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The (/sup 3/H)AA/(/sup 14/C)EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The (/sup 3/H)/(/sup 14/C) ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic and dihomo gamma linolenic acid metabolism by cultured rat mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharschmidt, L.A.; Gibbons, N.B.; Neuwirth, R.

    1989-01-01

    To better understand the effects of dietary fatty acid manipulations on glomerular function, we compared mesangial incorporation, release, and metabolism of arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and dihomo gamma linolenic (DHG) acids. We found marked differences in mesangial handling of these fatty acids. AA was incorporated into lipids of mesangial cells much more rapidly than EPA or DHG. Ionophore-induced stimulation of fatty acid release from mesangial cells prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)AA, (/sup 14/C)EPA, or (/sup 14/C)DHG caused a release of labeled AA greater than DHG much less than EPA, respectively. Preloading mesangial cells with DHG or EPA for 24 h reduced subsequent basal, ionophore-, and hormone-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Finally, unlike AA, neither EPA nor DHG was converted to a significant extent by mesangial cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase. Thus the mesangial metabolism of DHG and EPA differs both quantitatively and qualitatively from that of AA. Furthermore, EPA and DHG inhibit metabolism of AA at the level of mesangial cyclooxygenase.

  13. Combining eicosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, using a fully crossed design, affect gene expression and eicosanoid secretion in salmon head kidney cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Espe, Marit; Chen, Liqiou; Araujo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Future feed for farmed fish are based on untraditional feed ingredients, which will change nutrient profiles compared to traditional feed based on marine ingredients. To understand the impact of oils from different sources on fish health, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were added to salmon head kidney cells, in a fully crossed design, to monitor their individual and combined effects on gene expression. Exposing salmon head kidney cells to single fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) or decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resulted in down-regulation of cell signaling pathway genes and specific fatty acid metabolism genes as well as reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had no impact on gene transcription in this study, but reduced the cell secretion of PGE2. The combined effect of AA + EPA resulted in up-regulation of eicosanoid pathway genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bclx (an inducer of apoptosis) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) as well as increased cell secretion of PGE2 into the media. Adding single fatty acids to salmon head kidney cells decreased inflammation markers in this model. The combination AA + EPA acted differently than the rest of the fatty acid combinations by increasing the inflammation markers in these cells. The concentration of fatty acid used in this experiment did not induce any lipid peroxidation responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  15. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis for eicosapentaenoic acid production in wastewaters of pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Anna; Valev, Dimitar; Tarvainen, Marko; Mishra, Sujata; Kinnunen, Viljami; Antal, Taras; Yang, Baoru; Rintala, Jukka; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2015-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) containing marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an effluent from anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant serving a combination of a pulp and a paper mill and a municipality (digester effluent, DE), mixed with the effluent of the same wastewater treatment plant. The maximum specific growth rate and photosynthesis of N. oculata were similar in the DE medium and in artificial sea water medium (ASW) but after 7 days, algae grown in the DE medium contained seven times more triacylglycerols (TAGs) per cell than cells grown in ASW, indicating mild stress in the DE medium. However, the volumetric rate of EPA production was similar in the ASW and DE media. The results suggest that N. oculata could be used to produce EPA, utilizing the nutrients available after anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge of a pulp and paper mill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by eicosapentaenoic acid in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, N.; Sugiyama, E.; Hamazaki, T.; Yano, S.

    1988-01-15

    To examine the effects of in vivo eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on natural killer (NK) cell activity, C3H/He mice each received a single intraperitoneal bolus of an emulsion of trieicosapentaenoyl-glycerol (EPA-TG). Spleen cells were tested for NK activity using /sup 51/Chromium-release assays against YAC-1 target cells. Forty eight hours after injection, NK activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. EPA-TG emulsion also inhibited the NK activity of NK-enriched effector cells. Decreased cytotoxicity was first noted 24 hr after injection; it resumed the baseline by 7 days. The addition of EPA-TG emulsion to a cytotoxicity assay system resulted in moderate depression of NK activity. These results demonstrate that EPA has significant immunomodulatory effects on NK activity.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by altering adipose tissue glycolytic and inflammatory function

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In this study, we dissected mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenic actions of EPA, using histology/ immunohistochemistry, transcriptomi...

  18. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for determination of salivary eicosapentaenoic acid concentration to arachidonic acid concentration ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Tomaru, Koki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Watanabe, Shui; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration to arachidonic acid (AA) concentration ratio in human saliva has been developed. The EPA/AA ratio in serum or plasma is widely recognized as a useful indicator in identifying the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. The salivary EPA/AA ratio is expected to be a convenient alternative to the serum or plasma EPA/AA ratio, because saliva offers the advantages of easy and noninvasive sampling. The saliva was deproteinized with acetonitrile, purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge, and derivatized with 1-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)carbonyl]piperazine (DAPPZ). The derivatized EPA and AA were subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the EPA/AA ratio was determined using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The DAPPZ-derivatization increased the ESI sensitivity by 100- and 300-fold for EPA and AA, respectively, and enabled the detection of trace fatty acids in saliva using a 200 μL sample. The assay reproducibility was satisfactory (relative standard deviation, <5.0%). The method was successfully applied to the measurement of the salivary EPA/AA ratios of healthy Japanese subjects and their changes owing to the supplementation of EPA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase the degradation of amyloid-β by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Haupenthal, Viola J; Blümel, Tamara; Stötzel, Hannah; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed to be highly beneficial in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology is closely linked to an overproduction and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides as extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Total Aβ levels are not only dependent on its production by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but also on Aβ-clearance mechanisms, including Aβ-degrading enzymes. Here we show that the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increase Aβ-degradation by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), the major Aβ-degrading enzyme secreted into the extracellular space of neuronal and microglial cells. The identification of the molecular mechanisms revealed that EPA directly increases IDE enzyme activity and elevates gene expression of IDE. DHA also directly stimulates IDE enzyme activity and affects IDE sorting by increasing exosome release of IDE, resulting in enhanced Aβ-degradation in the extracellular milieu. Apart from the known positive effect of DHA in reducing Aβ production, EPA and DHA might ameliorate AD pathology by increasing Aβ turnover.

  20. Potential of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric analysis for rapid measurement of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in algal oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Developing rapid methods for measuring long-chain ω-3 (n-3) poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents has been a crucial request from the algal oil industry. In this study, four spectroscopy techniques, namely visible and short-wave near infra-red (Vis-SNIR), long-wave near infra-red (LNIR), mid-infra-red (MIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were exploited for determining the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents in algal oil. The best prediction for both DHA and EPA were achieved by NMR spectroscopy, in which the determination coefficients of cross-validation (rCV(2)) values were 0.963 and 0.967 for two LCPUFAs. The performances of Vis-SNIR and LNIR spectroscopy were also accepted. The variable selection was proved as an efficient and necessary step for the spectral analysis in this study. The results were promising and implied that spectroscopy techniques have a great potential for assessment of DHA and EPA in algal oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo clearance of chylomicron triglycerides containing w-3 eicosapentaenoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.S.; Satchithanandum, S.; Cassidy, M.M.; Sheppard, A.J.; Vahouny, G.V.

    1986-03-01

    The in vivo clearance of chylomicron triglycerides (TG) enriched in either oleic acid (OA) or w-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was compared. Chylomicrons were obtained from the mesenteric lymph (0-6 h) of rats, administered either 0.3 mM (1-/sup 14/C) OA or (1-/sup 14/C) EPA as an intraduodenal aqueous emulsion. The chylomicrons enriched with (1-/sup 14/C) OA or (1-/sup 14/C) EPA were isolated and purified by ultracentrifugation, and were injected into the jugular vein of recipient anesthetized rats. There was no significant difference between the two groups when total serum radioactivity was compared at 2, 5, and 10 min. However, at 25, 60, and 90 min, the clearance of EPA-enriched chylomicrons was significantly slower (P < 0.05). At each time analyzed the distribution of (/sup 14/C) oleic acid and of EPA among serum lipoproteins was comparable. After 5 min of chylomicron infusion the d < 1.006 g/ml lipoproteins contained almost 90% of the injected chylomicron radioactivity, while by 240 min, this fraction retained 42% of the remaining isotope. These and earlier studies suggested that the absorption and chylomicron transport of EPA in the intestine is not unusual, and that clearance of EPA-enriched chylomicrons may be only slightly slower than those enriched with oleate.

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Higurashi Takuma; Hosono Kunihiro; Endo Hiroki; Takahashi Hirokazu; Iida Hiroshi; Uchiyama Takashi; Ezuka Akiko; Uchiyama Shiori; Yamada Eiji; Ohkubo Hidenori; Sakai Eiji; Maeda Shin; Morita Satoshi; Natsumeda Yutaka; Nagase Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemopreve...

  3. Biotransformation of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) into lipoxins and lipoxenes by porcine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.Y.K.; Spur, B.; Hirai, A.; Yoshida, S.; Tamura, Y.; Lam, B.K.

    1986-03-05

    Lipoxins and lipoxenes have been reported to be formed after incubation of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15-hydroperoxyeicosapentaenoic acid with human leukocytes and porcine leukocytes, respectively. The authors examined the ability of porcine leukocytes to metabolize (/sup 14/C)-AA and (/sup 14/C)-EPA (100 ..mu..M) to lipoxins and lipoxenes. Incubation products were separated by RP-HPLC and identified by U.V. spectrum and GC/MS. Porcine leukocytes metabolized both AA and EPA to form lipoxins and lipoxenes in addition to mono- and di-hydroxyl fatty acids. Quantitative analysis from U.V. absorbance after RP-HPLC revealed that about 0.05% of AA was converted to lipoxins A and B and 0.1% of EPA was converted to lipoxenes A and B. In addition, treatment of leukotriene A/sub 4/ and leukotriene A/sub 5/ with 15-lipoxygenase also gave rise to several isomers of lipoxin and lipoxene. Thus, lipoxins and lipoxenes would have been derived from AA and EPA after dioxygenation by 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. When tested for biological activity, lipoxene A (2 ..mu..M), like lipoxin A, induced superoxide anion generation in canine neutrophils but had no effect on lysosomal enzyme release on neutrophil aggregation.

  4. Methylmercury Increases and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases the Relative Amounts of Arachidonic Acid-Containing Phospholipids in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Mjøs, Svein Are; Grung, Bjørn; Midtbø, Lisa K

    2016-01-01

    The membrane phospholipid composition in mammalian brain can be modified either by nutrients such as dietary fatty acids, or by certain toxic substances such as methylmercury (MeHg), leading to various biological and toxic effects. The present study evaluated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and MeHg on the composition of the two most abundant membrane phospholipid classes, i.e., phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PtdEtn), in mouse brain by using a two-level factorial design. The intact membrane PtdCho and PtdEtn species were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of EPA and MeHg on the PtdCho and PtdEtn composition were evaluated by principal component analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that EPA and MeHg had different effects on the composition of membrane PtdCho and PtdEtn species in brain, where EPA showed strongest impact. EPA led to large reductions in the levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing PtdCho and PtdEtn species in brain, while MeHg tended to elevate the levels of ARA-containing PtdCho and PtdEtn species. EPA also significantly increased the levels of PtdCho and PtdEtn species with n-3 fatty acids. Our results indicate that EPA may to some degree counteract the alterations of the PtdCho and PtdEtn pattern induced by MeHg, and thus alleviate the MeHg neurotoxicity in mouse brain through the inhibition of ARA-derived pro-inflammatory factors. These results may assist in the understanding of the interaction between MeHg, EPA and phospholipids, as well as the risk and benefits of a fish diet.

  5. In vitro effects of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid on human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Ulrike; Krüger, Magret; Kunnen, Carolina; Garreis, Fabian; Willcox, Mark; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs, cell line) in vitro. HMGECs were stimulated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or combinations with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and acetyl sialic acid (ASA). Sudan III fat staining, viability and proliferation assays, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, real-time PCR for gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and 15-lipoxygenase and ELISAs for resolvin D1 (RvD1), IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 were applied. Lipid droplet accumulation and viability was increased by 100 μM DHA in the presence or absence of EPA in serum cultured HMGECs. In contrast, HMGECs cultured with DHA and EPA under serum-free conditions showed minimal lipid accumulation, decreased proliferation and viability. Normalized impedance was significantly reduced in serum-free cultured HMGECs when stimulated with DHA and EPA. HMGECs cultured in serum containing medium showed increased normalized impedance under DHA and EPA stimulation compared to DHA or EPA alone or controls. IL-6 and IFNγ were downregulated in HMGECs treated for 72 h with DHA and EPA. In general, TNFα, IFNγ and IL-6 levels were decreased after 72 h compared to 24 h in serum containing medium with or without DHA or EPA. The concentration of RvD1 was elevated 2-fold after DHA treatment. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression decreased compared to controls during DHA stimulation after 72 h. Treatment with DHA and ASA revealed a decreased 15-lipoxygenase gene expression which was reduced after three days of DHA incubation. DHA and EPA supplementation affected HMGECs in vitro and supported anti-inflammatory effects by influencing cytokine levels, decreasing COX-2 expression and increasing the production of RvD1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved eicosapentaenoic acid production in Pythium splendens RBB-5 based on metabolic regulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liang; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Zhang, Ruijiao; Yu, Longjiang

    2017-05-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid for human beings. At present, the production of commercially available long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly from wild-caught ocean fish, is struggling to meet the increasing demand for EPA. Production of EPA by microorganisms may be an alternative, effective and economical method. The oleaginous fungus Pythium splendens RBB-5 is a potential source of EPA, and thanks to the simple culture conditions required, high yields can be achieved in a facile manner. In the study, lipid metabolomics was performed in an attempt to enhance EPA biosynthesis in Pythium splendens. Synthetic, metabolic regulation and gene expression analyses were conducted to clarify the mechanism of EPA biosynthesis, and guide optimization of EPA production. The results showed that the Δ 6 desaturase pathway is the main EPA biosynthetic route in this organism, and ∆ 6 , ∆ 12 and Δ 17 desaturases are the rate-limiting enzymes. All the three desaturase genes were separately introduced into the parent strain to increase the flow of fatty acids into the Δ 6 desaturase pathway. Enhanced expression of these key enzymes, in combination with improved regulation of metabolism, resulted in a maximum yield of 1.43 g/L in the D12 transgenic strain, which represents a tenfold increase over the parent strain before optimization. This is the higher EPA production yield yet reported for a microbial system. Our findings may allow the production of EPA at an industrial scale, and the strategy employed could be used to increase the production of EPA or other lipids in oleaginous microorganisms.

  7. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  8. Novel Eicosapentaenoic Acid-derived F3-isoprostanes as Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Paschos, Georgios; Fries, Susanne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Yu, Ying; Rokach, Joshua; Chang, Chih-Tsung; Patel, Pranav; Lawson, John A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2009-01-01

    Isoprostanes (iPs) are prostaglandin (PG) isomers generated by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Urinary F2-iPs, PGF2α isomers derived from arachidonic acid (AA) are used as indices of lipid peroxidation in vivo. We now report the characterization of two major F3-iPs, 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI, derived from the ω-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Although the potential therapeutic benefits of EPA receive much attention, a shift toward a diet rich in ω-3 PUFAs may also predispose to enhanced lipid peroxidation. Urinary 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI are highly correlated and unaltered by cyclooxygenase inhibition in humans. Fish oil dose-dependently elevates urinary F3-iPs in mice and a shift in dietary ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs is reflected by an increasing slope [m] of the line relating urinary 8, 12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide evokes a reversible increase in both urinary 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI in humans on an ad lib diet. However, while excretion of the iPs is highly correlated (R2 median = 0.8), [m] varies by an order of magnitude, reflecting marked inter-individual variability in the relative peroxidation of ω-3 versus ω-6 substrates. Clustered analysis of F2- and F3-iPs refines assessment of the oxidant stress response to an inflammatory stimulus in vivo by integrating variability in dietary intake of ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs. PMID:19520854

  9. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative incorporation of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids into human platelet phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1985-11-01

    The incorporation of arachidonic acid (AA) as compared to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) into human platelet phospholipids was tested by incubating washed platelets with a known mixture of (3H)AA and (14C)EPA. Following incubation, the platelet lipids were extracted, the individual phospholipids--phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)- were separated by thin layer chromatography, and their corresponding (3H)/(14C) ratios were determined. Based on a (3H)/(14C) ratio of unity for the substrate mixture, the PC, PS, PI and PE exhibited ratios of 0.55, 0.93, 1.12 and 0.74, respectively, which were significantly different from 1.00 in all instances except in the case of PS. These results indicate that PC and PE selectively incorporated EPA, while PI showed preference toward AA. These selectivities may account partly for the differing AA/EPA mass ratios that have been observed among the individual phospholipids of human subjects consuming fish oils.

  11. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and matrix loss of chondrocytes is inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shuhei; Hayashi, Shinya; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kawakita, Kohei; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Shingo; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Chinzei, Nobuaki; Kihara, Shinsuke; Haneda, Masahiko; Ueha, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takayuki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an antioxidant and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the role of EPA in chondrocyte apoptosis and degeneration. Normal human chondrocytes were treated with EPA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and that of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Chondrocyte apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. C57BL/6J mice were used for the detection of MMP expression by immunohistochemistry and for investigation of chondrocyte apoptosis. EPA inhibited SNP-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p53, and expression of MMP3 and MMP13. Intra-articular injection of EPA prevented the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibiting MMP13 expression and chondrocyte apoptosis. EPA treatment can control oxidative stress-induced OA progression, and thus may be a new approach for OA therapy. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid resources on egg quality and n-3 fatty acid profile

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    Pingping Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA resources (flax, perilla, and Eucommia ulmoides [E. ulmoides] seeds and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA resources (Schizochytrium sp. on egg quality and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA profile. Methods Dietary treatments were as follows: i diet C (control diet; ii diet F (diet C+10% flaxseeds; iii diet P, (diet C+10% perilla seeds; iv diet E (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds; v diet A (diet C+1.5% microalage; vi diet AF (diet C+10% flaxseeds+1.5% microalage; vii diet AP (diet C+10% perilla seeds+1.5% microalgae; viii diet AE (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds+ 1.5% microalage. Results Egg weight, yolk weight and production ratio were not significantly affected by either algae or in combination with seeds (p>0.05. No significant difference was observed in ALA and DHA concentration in eggs between flaxseed, perila, and E. ulmodies seeds supplementation alone (p>0.05. N-3 PUFA in eggs was slightly improved by microalgae supplementation. The best supplementation, a combination of microalgae and perilla seeds, elevated (p<0.05 ALA from 19.7 to 202.5 mg/egg and EPA+DHA from 27.5 to 159.7 mg/egg. Highest n-3 PUFA enrichment (379.6 mg/yolk was observed with supplementation of a combination of perilla seed and microalgae (362.2 mg/yolk, followed by a combination of flaxseed and microalgae (348.4 mg/yolk. The ALA, EPA, and DHA content obtained with a combination of microalgae and seeds surpassed the total sum of that obtained with microalgae or ALA-seeds alone. Conclusion It is feasible to enrich eggs with n-3 PUFAs by perilla or E. ulmodies seeds instead of flaxseeds. Simultaneous supplementation of microalgae and seeds helped improve the transfer from EPA and docosapentaenoic acid into DHA.

  13. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Total Marine Fatty Acids, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, With Aortic Stiffness in Koreans, Whites, and Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few previous studies have reported the association of aortic stiffness with marine n-3 fatty acids (Fas) in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the combined and independent associations of 2 major marine n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with aortic stiffness evaluated using carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in Korean, white, and Japanese American men. METHODS A population-based sample of 851 middle-aged men (299 Koreans, 266 whites, and 286 Japanese Americans) was examined for cfPWV during 2002–2006. Serum FAs, including EPA and DHA, were measured as a percentage of total FAs using gas chromatography. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of EPA and DHA with cfPWV after adjusting for blood pressure and other confounders. RESULTS Mean EPA and DHA levels were 1.9 (SD = 1.0) and 4.8 (SD = 1.4) for Koreans, 0.8 (SD = 0.6) and 2.4 (SD = 1.2) for whites, and 1.0 (SD = 1.0) and 3.2 (SD = 1.4) for Japanese Americans. Both EPA and DHA were significantly higher in Koreans than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses in Koreans showed that cfPWV had a significant inverse association with total marine n-3 FAs and with EPA alone after adjusting for blood pressure and other potential confounders. In contrast, there was no significant association of cfPWV with DHA. Whites and Japanese Americans did not show any significant associations of cfPWV with total marine n-3 FAs, EPA, or DHA. CONCLUSIONS High levels of EPA observed in Koreans have an inverse association with aortic stiffness. PMID:23820020

  15. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion induced by tumor-associated macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chung Li

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil that decrease the risk of prostate cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are the main leukocytes of intratumoral infiltration, and increased TAMs correlates with poor prostate cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism of n-3 PUFAs on prostate cancer cell progression induced by TAMs is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of EPA and DHA on modulating of migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells induced by TAMs-like M2-type macrophages. PC-3 prostate cancer cells were pretreated with EPA, DHA, or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, before exposure to conditioned medium (CM. CM was derived from M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages. The migratory and invasive abilities of PC-3 cells were evaluated using a coculture system of M2-type macrophages and PC-3 cells. EPA/DHA administration decreased migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. The PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity and cytosolic inhibitory factor κBα (IκBα protein expression increased while the nuclear factor (NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein level decreased in PC-3 cells incubated with CM in the presence of EPA/DHA. Further, EPA/DHA downregulated mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Pretreatment with GW9662 abolished the favorable effects of EPA/DHA on PC-3 cells. These results indicate that EPA/DHA administration reduced migration, invasion and macrophage chemotaxis of PC-3 cells induced by TAM-like M2-type macrophages, which may partly be explained by activation of PPAR-γ and decreased NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity.

  16. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  17. Effects of nutritional factors on the growth and heterotrophic eicosapentaenoic acid production of diatom Nitzschia laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohong; Li, Songyao; Wang, Chunling; Lu, Meifang

    2008-08-01

    The effects of several nutritional factors on the growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production of diatom Nitzschia laevis were studied. 4 LDM (quadrupled concentration of the nutrient salt) was the optimal concentration of nutrient salt for the growth and EPA production of N. laevis. The growth of N. laevis was inhibited when the glucose concentration was either lower than 10 gL-1 or higher than 15 gL-1. Both sodium nitrate and urea were good nitrogen sources for the growth and EPA production, while ammonium chloride seriously decreased the dry cell weight (DW) and the EPA content. Silicate seriously influenced the growth of N. laevis. The maximum DW of 2.34 gL-1 was obtained in the presence of 150 mgL-1 Na2SiO3·9H2O. The EPA content remained almost the same when the silicate concentration was lower than 150 mgL-1; however, higher silicate concentrations resulted in a steady decrease of EPA content. Low medium salinity (⩽29) did not seem to influence the DW of N. laevis, and high salinity resulted in a decrease of DW. The highest EPA content (4.08%) and yield (110 mgL-1) were observed at the salinity of 36 and 29, respectively.

  18. Icosapent ethyl: Eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and triglyceride-lowering effects across clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Philip, Sephy

    2016-09-01

    Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at a dose of 4g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. This post-hoc exploratory analysis examined the relationship of icosapent ethyl dose with EPA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) across 3 clinical studies-a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study in healthy adult volunteers and 2 pivotal phase 3 studies (MARINE and ANCHOR) in adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia-and examined the relationship between EPA levels and TG-lowering effects in MARINE and ANCHOR. In all 3 studies, icosapent ethyl produced dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of EPA in plasma and RBCs. In both MARINE and ANCHOR, these dose-dependent EPA increases correlated with the degree of TG level lowering (all P170μg/mL and>70μg/mL, respectively. These studies support icosapent ethyl as producing predictable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, with TG level lowering dependent upon icosapent ethyl dose and EPA concentrations in plasma and RBCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Application of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Monoacylglyceride in the Management of Colorectal Cancer

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    Caroline Morin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that marine omega-3 oils are involved in the reduction of cancer risk and progression. However, the anticancer effect of omega-3 monoglyceride on colorectal cancer has yet to be assessed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Methods: The effect of MAG-EPA was evaluated in vitro on HCT116 cells and in vivo on mouse model of HCT116 xenograft. Results: Our data reveal that MAG-EPA decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, daily per os administration of MAG-EPA reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, MAG-EPA treatments decreased EGFR, VEGFR, and AKT activation pathways and reduced VEGF and HIF1α expression levels in tumors. Conclusion: MAG-EPA may promote apoptosis and inhibit growth of tumors by suppressing EGFR and VEGFR activation pathways. Altogether, these data provide new evidence regarding the mode of action of MAG-EPA in colorectal cancer cells.

  20. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by Nannochloropsis oculata: Effects of carbon dioxide and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shene, Carolina; Chisti, Yusuf; Vergara, Daniela; Burgos-Díaz, César; Rubilar, Mónica; Bustamante, Mariela

    2016-12-10

    The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO 2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO 2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO 2 . Consumption of glycerol was small, but its effects were significant. Glycerol enhanced the lipid content of the biomass but reduced the chlorophyll a content. Mixotrophic cultivation favored the production of lipids with a high percentage of saturated fatty acids that are generally desired in oils for making biodiesel. EPA concentration (5.3±0.6 to 27.5±1.6mg EPA/L) in N. oculata cultures depended strongly on growth conditions. The highest EPA concentration occurred in non-aerated mixotrophic culture with intermittent CO 2 supply without pH control. This EPA concentration (=27.5±1.6mg/L) was comparable to that obtained in semi-continuous culture without glycerol and pH control, and aerated with CO 2 enriched air during the light period (=23.6±1.1mg/L). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can pleiotropic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) impact residual cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John R; True, Wayne S; Le, Viet; Mason, R Preston

    2017-11-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself. Clinical imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that EPA decreases plaque vulnerability and prevents plaque progression. The evidence therefore points to a potential role for EPA to reduce residual CV risk. A large randomized study of statin-treated Japanese patients demonstrated that EPA ethyl ester reduced major coronary events by 19% (P = 0.011). However, while there has been significant benefit demonstrated in this and another Japanese CV outcomes study, the question as to whether EPA can play a role in reducing residual CV risk remains to be addressed in broader populations. The large, global, ongoing, randomized, placebo-controlled REDUCE-IT study of high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia is currently underway to investigate the potential of icosapent ethyl (high-purity prescription EPA ethyl ester) as an add-on therapy to reduce residual CV risk.

  3. Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Kabuto, Hideaki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on normal cardiac function (part 1) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (part 2) through electrocardiogram analysis and determination of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in rat hearts. In part 2, pathologic assessments were also performed. For part 1 of this study, 4-wk-old male rats were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups. The rats daily were orally administered (1 g/kg body weight) saline, EPA-ethyl ester (EPA-Et; E group), or DHA-ethyl ester (DHA-Et; D group), respectively, for 28 d. ECGs revealed that QT intervals were significantly shorter for groups E and D compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the control group, the concentration of EPA was higher in the E group and concentrations of EPA and DHA were higher in the D group, although AA concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05). In part 2, CHF was produced by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline into 5-wk-old rats. At 3 d before monocrotaline injection, rats were administered either saline, EPA-Et, or DHA-Et as mentioned above and then killed at 21 d. The study groups were as follows: normal + saline (control), CHF + saline (H group), CHF + EPA-Et (HE group), and CHF + DHA-Et (HD group). QT intervals were significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.05) in the control and HD groups compared with the H and HE groups. Relative to the H group, concentrations of EPA were higher in the HE group and those of DHA were higher in the control and HD groups (P ≤ 0.05). There was less mononuclear cell infiltration in the myocytes of the HD group than in the H group (P = 0.06). The right ventricles in the H, HE, and HD groups showed significantly increased weights (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. The administration of EPA-Et or DHA-Et may affect cardiac function by modification of heart fatty acid composition, and the administration of DHA-Et may ameliorate CHF.

  4. Associations of dietary intake and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid with prenatal depressive symptoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Murayama, Ryoko; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-06-01

    The association between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, continues to gain focus. In this study, we examined whether dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Healthy Japanese women with singleton pregnancies were recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo between 2010 and 2012. The depressive-symptom group included participants with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores greater than eight. Of the 329 participants, 19 (5.8%) had depressive symptoms. Lower plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration was significantly associated with prenatal depressive symptoms. Women with depressive symptoms had a higher rate of pregnancy-associated nausea than those with non-depressive symptoms (52.6% vs 28.7%, respectively). Although we adjusted for the presence of pregnancy-associated nausea, dietary fatty acid intake was not associated with depressive symptoms in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Further large studies would be required to examine any preventive effect of dietary fatty acid intake on depressive symptoms among pregnant women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Metabolism of uniformly labeled13C-eicosapentaenoic acid and13C-arachidonic acid in young and old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Pauline; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Windust, Anthony; Lawrence, Peter; Cunnane, Stephen C; Brenna, J Thomas; Plourde, Mélanie

    2017-08-01

    Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 ( 13 C) fatty acids. Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participant consumed a single oral dose of 35 mg 13 C-EPA and its metabolism was followed in the course of 14 d in the plasma and 28 d in the breath. After the washout period of ≥28 d, the same participants consumed a single oral dose of 50 mg 13 C-AA and its metabolism was followed for 28 d in plasma and breath. Results: There was a time × age interaction for 13 C-EPA ( P time × age = 0.008), and the shape of the postprandial curves was different between young and old men. The 13 C-EPA plasma half-life was ∼2 d for both young and old men ( P = 0.485). The percentage dose recovered of 13 C-EPA per hour as 13 CO 2 and the cumulative β-oxidation of 13 C-EPA did not differ between young and old men. At 7 d, however, old men had a >2.2-fold higher plasma 13 C-DHA concentration synthesized from 13 C-EPA compared with young men ( P age = 0.03). 13 C-AA metabolism was not different between young and old men. The 13 C-AA plasma half-life was ∼4.4 d in both young and old participants ( P = 0.589). Conclusions: The metabolism of 13 C-AA was not modified by age, whereas 13 C-EPA metabolism was slightly but significantly different in old compared with young men. The higher plasma 13 C-DHA seen in old men may be a result of slower plasma DHA clearance with age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02957188. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bays, Harold E.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Kastelein, John J.; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L.; Braeckman, Rene A.; Soni, Paresh N.

    2011-01-01

    AMR101 is an omega-3 fatty acid agent containing ≥96% eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and no docosahexaenoic acid. Previous smaller studies suggested that highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid lowered triglyceride (TG) levels without increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.

  7. Circulating CD36+ microparticles are not altered by docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, M; Thorne, R F; Alkhatatbeh, M J; Garg, M L; Lincz, L F

    2016-03-01

    Circulating microparticles (MP) are the source of a plasma derived form of the scavenger receptor CD36, termed soluble (s)CD36, the levels of which correlate with markers of atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular disease. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have cardioprotective effects that we have previously reported to be gender specific. The aim of this study was to determine if dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation affect circulating CD36 + MP levels, and if this occurs differentially in healthy men and women. Participants (43M, 51F) aged 39.6 ± 1.7 years received 4 weeks of daily supplementation with DHA rich (200 mg EPA; 1000 mg DHA), EPA rich (1000 mg EPA; 200 mg DHA), or placebo (sunola) oil in a double-blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Plasma CD36 + MP were enumerated by flow cytometry and differences between genders and treatments were evaluated by Student's or paired t-test and one way ANOVA. Males and females had similar levels of CD36 + MP at baseline (mean = 1018 ± 325 vs 980 ± 318; p = 0.577) and these were not significantly changed after DHA (M, p = 0.571; F, p = 0.444) or EPA (M, p = 0.361; F, p = 0.901) supplementation. Likewise, the overall percent change in these levels were not different between supplemented cohorts compared to placebo when all participants were combined (% change in CD36 + MP: DHA = 5.7 ± 37.5, EPA = -3.4 ± 35.4, placebo = -11.5 ± 32.9; p = 0.158) or stratified by gender (M, DHA = -2.6 ± 30.6, EPA = -15.1 ± 20.1, placebo = -21.4 ± 28.7, p = 0.187; F, DHA = 11.7 ± 41.5, EPA = 6.8 ± 42.9, placebo = -2.8 ± 34.7, p = 0.552). The cardioprotective effects of DHA and EPA do not act through a CD36 + MP mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by

  8. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  9. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne; Myers, Stephen P; Meyer, Barbara; Brooks, Lyndon; Peake, Jonathan; Sinclair, Andrew J; Stough, Con

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) from seafood have been observed. Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and chronic psychological stress. Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022). The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA), or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding). The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males) reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia. Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) was 5.2% in both groups ( SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group). After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% ( SD = 1.6%) for the control group but increased to 8.9% ( SD = 1.5%) for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention ( b = 1.21, p = 0.30) after adjusting for sex ( b = 2.36, p = 0.079), baseline PSS ( b = 0.42, p = 0.001) and baseline logEPA [ b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F (3, 86) = 8.47, p stress. Limitations included an imbalance of gender in groups after randomization (68% of the males were in the placebo group). While we found no significant

  10. Triploidy does not decrease contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in filets of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Artamonova, Valentina S; Makhrov, Alexander A; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-02-01

    Triploid fish has become an important item of commercial aquaculture, but data on its fatty acid (FA) composition are still controversial, especially regarding essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). We studied FA composition and content of diploid and triploid pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, reared in aquaculture in a bay of the White Sea (Russia). FA composition, measured as percentages of total FA of triploids and immature diploid females significantly differed from that of mature diploid fish. Specifically, mature diploids had higher percentage of EPA and DHA in their muscle tissue (filets) compared to that of triploids and immature diploid females. Nevertheless, the contents of EPA and DHA per mass of the filets in diploid and triploid specimens were similar. Thus, no special efforts are needed to improve EPA and DHA contents in filets of triploids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Harris, William S; Vors, Cécile; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, Pacid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537). The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates to long-term cardiovascular risk needs to be investigated in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation on motor nerve function after eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Eisuke; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of supplementation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the M-wave latency of biceps brachii and muscle damage after a single session of maximal elbow flexor eccentric contractions (ECC). Twenty-one men were completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the fish oil group ( n  = 10) or control group ( n  = 11). The fish oil group consumed eight 300-mg EPA-rich fish oil softgel capsules (containing, in total, 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA) per day for 8 weeks before the exercise, and continued this for a further 5 days. The control group consumed an equivalent number of placebo capsules. The subjects performed six sets of ten eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors using a dumbbell set at 40% of their one repetition maximum. M-wave latency was assessed as the time taken from electrical stimulation applied to Erb's point to the onset of M-wave of the biceps brachii. This was measured before and immediately after exercise, and then after 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at the same time points. Compared with the control group, M-wave latency was significantly shorter in the fish oil group immediately after exercise ( p  = 0.040), MVC torque was significantly higher at 1 day after exercise ( p  = 0.049), ROM was significantly greater at post and 2 days after exercise (post; p  = 0.006, day 2; p  = 0.014), and there was significantly less delayed onset muscle soreness at 1 and 2 days after exercise (day 1; p  = 0.049, day 2; p  = 0.023). Eight weeks of EPA and DHA supplementation may play a protective role against motor nerve function and may attenuate muscle damage after eccentric contractions. This trial was registered on July 14th

  13. Effects of temperature, salinity, light intensity, and pH on the eicosapentaenoic acid production of Pinguiococcus pyrenoidosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Min; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jianhui; Zhang, Chengwu; Li, Aifen

    2012-06-01

    The effects of temperature, light intensity, salinity, and initial pH on the growth and fatty acid composition of Pinguiococcus pyrenoidosus 2078 were studied for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production potential. The fatty acid composition was assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicated that the main fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0 and EPA. The highest EPA percentage 20.83% of total fatty acids was obtained at 20°C with the temperature being set at 20, 24, and 28°C. Under different salinities and light intensities, the highest percentages of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and EPA were 17.82% and 31.37% of total fatty acids, respectively, which were achieved at salinity 30 and 100 μmol photon m-2s-1 illumination. The highest percentages of total PUFAs and EPA were 38.75% and 23.13% of total fatty acids, respectively, which were reached at an initial pH of 6 with the test range being from 5.0 to 9.0.

  14. A Novel ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulation Incorporating Advanced Lipid TechnologiesTM(ALT®) Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Bioavailability Compared with Lovaza®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Toledano, Miguel A; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed; Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved several highly purified ω-3 fatty acid prescription drugs for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia. These differ in the amounts and forms of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This study compared the bioavailability of SC401 (1530 mg EPA-ethyl esters [EEs] and DHA-EEs plus Advanced Lipid Technologies ⁎ [ALT † ], a proprietary lipid-delivery platform to improve absorption), with. Lovaza ‡ (3600 mg ω-3, primarily EPA-EEs and DHA-EEs) under low-fat feeding conditions. This was a Phase I, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-way crossover study in healthy participants housed from day -3 to day 2 in each treatment period. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic measurements were collected before and after dosing, and safety profile and tolerability were assessed. In unadjusted analyses, SC401 had 5% lower C max and approximately the same AUC 0-last of EPA + DHA total lipids compared with Lovaza. When adjusted for baseline, SC401 had ~6% higher C max and 18% higher AUC 0-last for EPA + DHA total lipids, and dose- and baseline-adjusted analyses found that SC401 had ~149% higher C max and 178% higher AUC 0-last than Lovaza for EPA + DHA total lipids. The T max was also substantially longer with Lovaza (~10 hours) than with SC401 (~6 hours). These results indicate that SC401, an ω-3 acid EE formulation containing ALT † achieved high bioavailability of EPA and DHA, at a lower dose (1530 mg) than Lovaza (3600 mg), under low-fat feeding conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by downregulation of lipid transporter expression via PPAR-α dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kondaiah, Palsa; Palika, Ravindranadh; Ghosh, Sudip; Nair, Madhavan K; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2016-01-15

    The involvement of lipid transporters, the scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) in carotenoid absorption is demonstrated in intestinal cells and animal models. Dietary ω-3 fatty acids are known to possess antilipidemic properties, which could be mediated by activation of PPAR family transcription factors. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on intestinal β-carotene absorption. β-carotene uptake in Caco-2/TC7 cells was inhibited by EPA (p intestinal β-carotene absorption by down regulation of SR B1 expression via PPARα dependent mechanism and provide an evidence for dietary modulation of intestinal β-carotene absorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transport of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE₃, PGF(3α, and TXB₃ by ABCC4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandin (PG E3, PGF(3α, and thromboxane (TX B3 are bioactive lipid mediators which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. To exert their effects, PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 must be released to the extracellular space from cells, but the release mechanism has been unclear. We therefore investigated the contribution of ATP-binding cassette transporter C4 (ABCC4, which has been known as a prostanoids efflux transporter, to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3.ATP-dependent transport of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 via ABCC4 was investigated by using inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from ABCC4-overexpressing HEK293 cells. To evaluate the contribution of ABCC4 to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3, we measured the extracellular and intracellular levels of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 in A549 cells when we used ABCC4 inhibitors (dipyridamole, MK571, and probenecid or ABCC4 siRNAs. The quantification of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 was performed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The apparent Km values for ABCC4-mediated transport were 2.9±0.1 µM for PGE3, 12.1±1.3 µM for PGF(3α, and 11.9±1.4 µM for TXB3 and the ATP-dependent accumulation of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 into vesicles was decreased by using typical substrates and inhibitors of ABCC4. ABCC4 inhibitors and ABCC4 knockdown showed the reduction of extracellular/intracellular ratio of PGE3 (40-60% of control and PGF(3α (60-80% of control in A549 cells.Our results suggest that PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 are substrates of ABCC4 and ABCC4 partially contributes to the release of PGE3 and PGF(3α.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL-EFFECTS OF EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ON GLYCEROLIPID AND APOLIPOPROTEIN-B METABOLISM IN PRIMARY HUMAN HEPATOCYTES COMPARED TO HEPG2 CELLS AND PRIMARY RAT HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIN, YG; SMIT, MJ; HAVINGA, R; VERKADE, HJ; VONK, RJ; KUIPERS, F

    1995-01-01

    We compared the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and oleic acid (OA) on glycerolipid and apolipoprotein B (apoB) metabolism in primary human hepatocytes, HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes. Cells were incubated for 1 to 5 h with 0.25 mM bovine serum albumin in the absence (control) or

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester (AMR101) Therapy in Statin-Treated Patients With Persistent High Triglycerides (from the ANCHOR Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballantyne, Christie M.; Bays, Harold E.; Kastelein, John J.; Stein, Evan; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L.; Braeckman, Rene A.; Soni, Paresh N.

    2012-01-01

    AMR101 is an omega-3 fatty acid agent containing >= 96% pure icosapent-ethyl, the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid. The efficacy and safety of AMR101 were evaluated in this phase 3, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, 12-week clinical trial (ANCHOR) in high-risk

  19. The induction of apoptosis in pre-malignant keratinocytes by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is inhibited by albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Zacharoula; Shaikh, Mushfiq Hassan; Dehlawi, Hebah; Michael-Titus, Adina Teodora; Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2013-04-12

    The long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert anti-cancer effects. At this study we tested the effect of the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on pre-malignant keratinocytes growth in the well-characterised human pre-malignant epidermal cell line, HaCaT and attempted to identify a PUFA serum antagonist. Both EPA and DHA inhibited HaCaT growth and induced apoptosis. At the 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum (FBS) medium, limited growth inhibition (3-20% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and negligible apoptosis were observed with PUFA use. However, at 3% (v/v) FBS medium, 30-50μM of PUFA caused impressive levels of growth inhibition (82-83% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and increase of apoptosis (8-19% increase in 72h). None of the numerous serum growth factors present in FBS or the antioxidant n-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone could inhibit the PUFA-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, bovine and human albumin (0.1-0.3%, w/v) significantly antagonized the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of PUFA. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that omega-3 PUFA inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of pre-malignant keratinocytes and identified albumin as a major antagonistic factor in serum that could limit their effectiveness at pharmacologically-achievable doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a Novel Nutritional Formula Enriched With Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Specially Developed for Tube-Fed Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Shinga; Iwahori, Motokazu-Tohru; Takagi, Yuri; Wada, Toshikazu; Morita, Shunsuke; Sonoki, Hirofumi; Nakao, Toshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a nutritional formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm study. Koyukai Memorial Hospital, Orimoto Hospital, and Chofu Hospital, Japan. Eleven tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. Patients were fed a nutritional formula enriched with EPA and DHA for 12 weeks. Body weight; body mass index (BMI); serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein (CRP); serum fatty acid composition. Body weight; BMI; and serum levels of total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP at 12 weeks were not significantly different from baseline levels. Serum prealbumin, EPA, and DHA levels significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment. A nutritional formula enriched with EPA and DHA may be beneficial for nutritional management in tube-fed bedridden hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Integrated process of two stage cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. for nutraceutically valuable eicosapentaenoic acid along with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis is one of the potential producers of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a valued nutraceutical. Nannochloropsis sp. was cultivated under photoautotrophic condition utilizing CO2 in a two phase cultivation process in order to enhance the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) productivity. It was cultivated in a photobioreactor up to late log phase for cell growth (phase I). Then, the culture was harvested and confronted to relatively low temperature (10 °C) and low light (30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in both photobioreactor and Erlenmeyer flask (phase II), thus augmenting EPA% by 3.4 fold. Lower temperature with low light favored the synthesis of EPA although, biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity were slightly decreased relative to phase I. The total lipids extracted from Nannochloropsis sp. fractionated into neutral lipids (NLs), glycolipids (GLs) and phospholipids (PLs) and a major proportion of EPA was found in phospholipids. Results suggested that low temperature and low light may ameliorate partitioning towards EPA in phospholipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and their mechanisms of action on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Jan; Hurt-Camejo, Eva

    2017-08-10

    Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that elevated triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein levels in the circulation increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Prescription formulations of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma TG levels and are approved for the treatment of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Many preclinical studies have investigated the TG-lowering mechanisms of action of OM3FAs, but less is known from clinical studies. We conducted a review, using systematic methodology, of studies in humans assessing the mechanisms of action of EPA and DHA on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, including TG-rich lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). A systematic search of PubMed retrieved 55 articles, of which 30 were used in the review; 35 additional arrticles were also included. In humans, dietary DHA is retroconverted to EPA, while production of DHA from EPA is not observed. Dietary DHA is preferentially esterified into TGs, while EPA is more evenly esterified into TGs, cholesterol esters and phospholipids. The preferential esterification of DHA into TGs likely explains the higher turnover of DHA than EPA in plasma. The main effects of both EPA and DHA are decreased fasting and postprandial serum TG levels, through reduction of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG production. The exact mechanism for reduced VLDL production is not clear but does not include retention of lipids in the liver; rather, increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation is likely. The postprandial reduction in TG levels is caused by increased lipoprotein lipase activity and reduced serum VLDL-TG concentrations, resulting in enhanced chylomicron clearance. Overall, no clear differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on TG levels, or on turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins, have been observed. Effects on LDL are complex and may be influenced by genetics, such as APOE genotype. EPA and

  4. Enhanced eicosapentaenoic acid production by a new deep-sea marine bacterium Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26%) of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass) of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature. At higher growth temperatures these values decreased greatly. The amount of EPA produced was affected by the carbon source, which also influenced fatty acid composition. This strain required Na+ for growth and EPA synthesis and cells harvested at late exponential or early stationary phase had a higher EPA content. Both the highest amounts (20 mg g-1) and highest percent EPA content (18%) occurred with growth on L-proline and (NH4)2SO4. The addition of cerulenin further enhanced EPA production to 30 mg g-1. Chemical mutagenesis using NTG allowed the isolation of mutants with improved levels of EPA content (from 9.7 to 15.8 mg g-1) when grown at 15°C. Thus, the yields of EPA could be substantially enhanced without the need for recombinant DNA technology, often a commercial requirement for food supplement manufacture. PMID:29176835

  5. Enhanced eicosapentaenoic acid production by a new deep-sea marine bacterium Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3 by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26% of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature. At higher growth temperatures these values decreased greatly. The amount of EPA produced was affected by the carbon source, which also influenced fatty acid composition. This strain required Na+ for growth and EPA synthesis and cells harvested at late exponential or early stationary phase had a higher EPA content. Both the highest amounts (20 mg g-1 and highest percent EPA content (18% occurred with growth on L-proline and (NH42SO4. The addition of cerulenin further enhanced EPA production to 30 mg g-1. Chemical mutagenesis using NTG allowed the isolation of mutants with improved levels of EPA content (from 9.7 to 15.8 mg g-1 when grown at 15°C. Thus, the yields of EPA could be substantially enhanced without the need for recombinant DNA technology, often a commercial requirement for food supplement manufacture.

  6. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  7. Whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics from plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in the free-living rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Whole body docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is considered to be very low, however, the daily synthesis-secretion of DHA may be sufficient to supply the adult brain. The current study aims to assess whether whole body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics are different when comparing plasma ALA versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as the precursor. Male Long Evans rats (n=6) were fed a 2% ALA in total fat diet for eight weeks, followed by surgery to implant a catheter into each of the jugular vein and carotid artery and 3h of steady-state infusion with a known amount of (2)H-ALA and (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Blood samples were collected at thirty-minute intervals and plasma enrichment of (2)H- and (13)C EPA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA were determined for assessment of synthesis-secretion kinetic parameters. Results indicate a 13-fold higher synthesis-secretion coefficient for DHA from EPA as compared to ALA. However, after correcting for the 6.6 fold higher endogenous plasma ALA concentration, no significant differences in daily synthesis-secretion (nmol/day) of DHA (97.6±28.2 and 172±62), DPAn-3 (853±279 and 1139±484) or EPA (1587±592 and 1628±366) were observed from plasma unesterified ALA and EPA sources, respectively. These results suggest that typical diets which are significantly higher in ALA compared to EPA yield similar daily DHA synthesis-secretion despite a significantly higher synthesis-secretion coefficient from EPA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Moradi Sarabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, accounting for about half of the attributed deaths. Cholesterol homeostasis is one of the most important factors in atherosclerosis. ATP-Binding cassette transporters cholesterol. Omega (ω 3 fatty acids are important ligands for regulation of ABC transporters such as ABCG1. Concern has been raised that the low absolute intakes of EPA and high ratios of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFA to EPA may predispose some individuals to CVD. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is the most abundant ω3 fatty acid in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of EPA on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells. In this study, THP-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, THP-1 monocytes were then differentiated to macrophages with PMA (phorbol myristic acid and stimulated with 50, 75 and 100 μM of EPA for 24 h at 37°C. We examined the effects of EPA treatment on the expression of ABCG1 gene using Quantitative Real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Our results, indicate that ABCG1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 50, 75 and 100 μM EPA fatty acid treatments as compared to the control cells (р = 0.009, р < 0.001 and р = 0.002, respectively. These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as EPA have an effect on the cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages, and they can change the expression of ABCG1 gene. It seems that EPA has different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism.

  9. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Van Elswyk, Mary; Alexander, Dominik D

    2014-07-01

    Although a large body of literature has been devoted to examining the relationship between eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and blood pressure, past systematic reviews have been hampered by narrow inclusion criteria and a limited scope of analytical subgroups. In addition, no meta-analysis to date has captured the substantial volume of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 2 years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of EPA+DHA, without upper dose limits and including food sources, on blood pressure in RCTs. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate weighted group mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the EPA+DHA group and the placebo group. Analyses were conducted for subgroups defined by key subject or study characteristics. Seventy RCTs were included. Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA provision reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.52 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.25 to -0.79) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.99 mm Hg; 95% CI = -1.54 to -0.44) in the meta-analyses of all studies combined. The strongest effects of EPA+DHA were observed among untreated hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure = -4.51 mm Hg, 95% CI = -6.12 to -2.83; diastolic blood pressure = -3.05 mm Hg, 95% CI = -4.35 to - 1.74), although blood pressure also was lowered among normotensive subjects (systolic blood pressure = -1.25 mm Hg, 95% CI = -2.05 to -0.46; diastolic blood pressure = -0.62 mm Hg, 95% CI = -1.22 to -0.02). Overall, available evidence from RCTs indicates that provision of EPA+DHA reduces systolic blood pressure, while provision of ≥2 grams reduces diastolic blood pressure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Journal of Hypertension.

  10. Determination of the Relative Efficacy of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid for Anti-Cancer Effects in Human Breast Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurak, Vera C.; Damaraju, Sambasivarao

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated high fish oil consumption with decreased risk of breast cancer (BC). n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish and fish oils exert anti-cancer effects. However, few studies have examined the relative efficacy of EPA and DHA alone and in mixtures on BC subtypes. This was the objective of the present review, as this research is a necessity for the translation of findings to human health and disease. The literature suggests that DHA has a greater anti-cancer effect in triple negative BC (TNBC). In estrogen positive (ER+) BC, DHA has a greater effect on cell viability, while both fatty acids have similar effects on apoptosis and proliferation. These effects are associated with preferential uptake of DHA into TNBC lipid rafts and EPA in ER+ BC. EPA:DHA mixtures have anti-cancer activity; however, the ratio of EPA:DHA does not predict the relative incorporation of these two fatty acids into membrane lipids as EPA appears to be preferentially incorporated. In summary, DHA and EPA should be considered separately in the context of BC prevention. The elucidation of optimal EPA:DHA ratios will be important for designing targeted n-3 LCPUFA treatments. PMID:29207553

  11. Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months. Fifty-three children completed the treatment. Outcome measures showed no significant differences between the three treatments. However, in children with blood samples (n = 76-46), increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA was associated with improved spelling (r = .365, p < .001) and attention (r = -.540, p < .001) and reduced oppositional behavior (r = -.301, p < .003), hyperactivity (r = -.310, p < .001), cognitive problems (r = -.326, p < .001), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) hyperactivity (r = -.270, p = .002) and DSM-IV inattention (r = -.343, p < .001). Increasing erythrocyte DHA and EPA via dietary supplementation may improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 532) and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are “omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (GLA)”, “gamma-linolenic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid (GLA+EPA)”, and “evening primrose oil...... and fish oil”. From the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituents that are the subject of the claims are the n-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in evening primrose oil and the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA...

  13. Synergistic Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Antiproliferative Action of Anticancer Drugs in a Cancer Cell Line Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Ayako; Miyake, Sachi; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Hideo; Teramoto, Fusako; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    It has been found experimentally and clinically that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts an anticancer effect and that it has a minimal adverse event profile relative to other anticancer drugs. Any synergy between EPA and other anticancer drugs could be of therapeutic relevance, especially in elderly or high-risk patients. Therefore, we investigated the synergism between anticancer drugs and EPA experimentally. EPA was coadministered in vitro with various anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil and cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum[II]) to TE-1 cells, which were derived from human esophageal cancer tumors. Cell proliferation was measured by the water soluble tetrazolium-1 method. Sub-threshold concentrations of EPA, which alone produced no anticancer effect, caused a synergistic suppressive effect on TE-1 cell proliferation when combined with other anticancer agents. Coadministration of EPA with other anticancer drugs may represent a new therapeutic paradigm offering a reduced side effect profile. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; pacids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-08

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed.

  16. The eicosapentaenoic to docosahexaenoic acid ratio of diets affects the pathogenesis of arthritis in Lew/SSN rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, D H; FitzGerald, P E; Garg, M L

    2000-03-01

    Dietary-induced changes in tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids modify inflammatory reactions through changes in the synthesis of lipid and peptide mediators of inflammation. Four semipurified 20% fat diets, based on beef tallow (BT), safflower oil (SFO), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were provided. The DHA and EPA ratios of the (n-3) fatty acid-based diets were 1.1 and 3.4, respectively. The effect of prefeeding diets differing in EPA to DHA ratios prior to the induction of streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis in female Lew/SSN rats was examined. Weanling rats were fed diets for 5 wk before arthritis induction and 5 wk post-arthritis induction. Footpad thickness, hock circumference, plasma and macrophage fatty acids and histological assessment were compared. There were no differences in food intake and final body weights among the groups. Footpad inflammation, reported as percentage change (adjusted for growth) was greatest for rats fed the BT-based diet, intermediate in those fed the SFO-based diet and least for the rats fed the EPA- and DHA-based diets (P < 0.05). Macrophage phospholipids revealed cellular incorporation of EPA and DHA from the fish-oil based diets which modified lipid and peptide mediators of inflammation. Histological sections of rat hocks ranked by severity of arthritis-related changes suggested that the SFO- and EPA-based diets were more successful in ameliorating the destructive arthritic phase in hock joints than the BT- and DHA-based diets (P = 0.09) in this model of arthritis. The course of SCW-induced arthritis can be altered by diet-induced changes in macrophage fatty acid composition. The EPA-based diet is more effective in suppression of inflammation than the DHA-based diet.

  17. Biological Effects of Add-On Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus and Co-Morbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocking, Roel J. T.; Assies, Johanna; Bot, Mariska; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Schene, Aart H.; Pouwer, François

    2012-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may reduce increased risks for (cardiovascular) morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and comorbid major depressive depression (MDD). Yet, effects of EPA-supplementation on biological risk factors for adverse outcomes have not been

  18. A High-Fat, High-Oleic Diet, But Not a High-Fat, Saturated Diet, Reduces Hepatic α-Linolenic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Content in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, Matthew J; Murphy, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6) as a competitive inhibitor of α-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that a high SFA diet, compared to a high MUFA (oleic acid 18:1n-9) diet, reduces ALA conversion to long chain n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed for 12 weeks on three diets: (1) a control, 16 % fat energy diet consisting of similar levels of SFA and MUFA (2) a 50 % fat energy high MUFA energy diet (35 % MUFA and 7 % SFA) or (3) a 50 % fat energy, high SFA energy diet (34 % SFA, 8 % MUFA). ALA and LNA content remained constant. Analysis of hepatic lipids demonstrated a selective reduction (40 %) in ALA but not LNA and a 35 % reduction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in the high MUFA mice compared to the other groups. Lower content of ALA was reflected in the neutral lipid fraction, while smaller levels of phospholipid esterified EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) were evident. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) content was elevated by the high SFA diet. Expression of Fads1 (Δ5 desaturase) and Fads2 (Δ6 desaturase) was elevated by the high MUFA and reduced by the high SFA diet. These data indicate that a high MUFA diet, but not a high SFA diet, reduces ALA metabolism and point to selective hepatic disposition of ALA versus LNA.

  19. Oil and eicosapentaenoic acid production by the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultivated outdoors in Green Wall Panel (GWP®) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfi, Liliana; Biondi, Natascia; Guccione, Alessia; Bassi, Niccolò; D'Ottavio, Massimo; Arganaraz, Gimena; Tredici, Mario R

    2017-10-01

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a widely studied diatom and has been proposed as a source of oil and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recent studies indicate that lipid accumulation occurs under nutritional stress. Aim of this research was to determine how changes in nitrogen availability affect productivity, oil yield, and fatty acid (FA) composition of P. tricornutum UTEX 640. After preliminary laboratory trials, outdoor experiments were carried out in 40-L GWP® reactors under different nitrogen regimes in batch. Nitrogen replete cultures achieved the highest productivity of biomass (about 18 g m -2  d -1 ) and EPA (about 0.35 g m -2  d -1 ), whereas nitrogen-starved cultures achieved the highest FA productivity (about 2.6 g m -2  d -1 ). The annual potential yield of P. tricornutum grown outdoors in GWP® reactors is 730 kg of EPA per hectare under nutrient-replete conditions and 5,800 kg of FA per hectare under nitrogen starvation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2204-2210. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Minimal food effect for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bioavailability from omega-3-acid ethyl esters with an Advanced Lipid TechnologiesTM(ALT®)-based formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Toledano, Miguel A; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed A; Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption. The aim of the article was to assess the effect of food on the bioavailability of DHA and EPA after a single oral dose of 1530 mg omega-3 fatty acids EE (SC401) in 24 healthy subjects under fasted and low-fat (9% of total calories from fat) and high-fat (50% of total calories from fat) meal conditions. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were taken at predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours postdose. To assess the safety of the intervention, active monitoring of adverse events, physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory assessments (chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis), and 12-lead electrocardiograms were conducted. SC401 showed high bioavailability of both EPA and DHA in fasted, low-fat meal, and high-fat meal conditions. No differences were found in SC401 DHA AUC 0-t (t = 24 hours) among the 3 conditions (91.69% high-fat/fasted, 97.12% low-fat/fasted, and 105.92% low-fat/high-fat; P > .05 in all cases). In contrast, SC401 EPA AUC 0-t was affected by food intake (179.06% high-fat/fasted, P < .0001; 150.05% low-fat/fasted, P < .0001) and the amount of fat taken with SC401 (83.80% low-fat/high-fat; P = .0009). SC401 was safe and well tolerated. A single dose of SC401 resulted in high levels of EPA and DHA total lipids in plasma

  1. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Nikul K; Ross, Alastair B; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2017-01-10

    Dietary n -3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n -3 fatty acids.

  2. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Wu, Yi-Shyuan; Kalueff, Allan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies. As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA:DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear. It is also unknown whether EPA, as a DHA precursor, acts directly or via DHA. Here, we discuss recent evidence of EPA and DHA effects in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease, as well as their potential synergistic action on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neurotrophic processes in the brain. We further analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which EPA, DHA or their combination may benefit these diseases. We also outline the limitations of current studies and suggest new genetic models and novel approaches to overcome these limitations. Finally, we summarize future strategies for translational research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, R; Bhatt, Anant N; Dwarakanath, B S; Das, Undurti N

    2016-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus: Killing Kinetics, Selection for Resistance, and Potential Cellular Target

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    Phuc Nguyen Thien Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3, are attracting interest as possible new topical antibacterial agents, particularly due to their potency and perceived safety. However, relatively little is known of the underlying mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA or whether bacteria can develop resistance quickly against this or similar compounds. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to determine the mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA and investigate whether bacteria could develop reduced susceptibility to this fatty acid upon repeated exposure. Against two common Gram-positive human pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, EPA inhibited bacterial growth with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 64 mg/L, while minimum bactericidal concentrations were 64 mg/L and 128 mg/L for B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. Both species were killed completely in EPA at 128 mg/L within 15 min at 37 °C, while reduced bacterial viability was associated with increased release of 260-nm-absorbing material from the bacterial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that EPA likely kills B. cereus and S. aureus by disrupting the cell membrane, ultimately leading to cell lysis. Serial passage of the strains in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of EPA did not lead to the emergence or selection of strains with reduced susceptibility to EPA during 13 passages. This present study provides data that may support the development of EPA and other fatty acids as antibacterial agents for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Kinetics of eicosapentaenoic acid in brain, heart and liver of conscious rats fed a high n-3 PUFA containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miki; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), a precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may benefit cardiovascular and brain health. Quantifying EPA's in vivo kinetics might elucidate these effects. [1-(14)C]EPA was infused i.v. for 5min in unanesthetized male rats fed a standard EPA-DHA diet. Plasma and microwaved tissue were analyzed. Kinetic parameters were calculated using our compartmental model. At 5min, 31-48% of labeled EPA in brain and heart was oxidized, 7% in liver. EPA incorporation rates from brain and liver precursor EPA-CoA pools into lipids, mainly phospholipids, were 36 and 2529nmol/s/g×10(-4), insignificant for heart. Deacylation-reacylation half-lives were 22h and 38-128min. Conversion rates to DHA equaled 0.65 and 25.1nmol/s/g×10(-4), respectively. The low brain concentration and incorporation rate and high oxidation of EPA suggest that, if EPA has a beneficial effect in brain, it might result from its suppression of peripheral inflammation and hepatic conversion to bioactive DHA. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

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    Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  7. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-02-01

    Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil-containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P diets (P Fads1) expression (P Fads2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor α (Lxra) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c) was evident. Oil from transgenic Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

  8. Usefulness of Icosapent Ethyl (Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester) in Women to Lower Triglyceride Levels (Results from the MARINE and ANCHOR Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Lori; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy and safety of triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents in women. We conducted subgroup analyses of the effects of icosapent ethyl (a high-purity prescription form of the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on TG levels (primary efficacy variable) and other atherogenic and inflammatory parameters in a total of 215 women with a broad range of TG levels (200-2000 mg/dl) enrolled in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials: MARINE (n = 18; placebo, n = 18) and ANCHOR (n = 91; placebo, n = 88). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels from baseline to week 12 versus placebo in both MARINE (-22.7%; p = 0.0327) and ANCHOR (-21.5%; p 500% in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in plasma and red blood cells (all p <0.001). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated, with adverse-event profiles comparable with findings in the overall studies. In conclusion, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels and other atherogenic parameters in women without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with placebo; the clinical implications of these findings are being evaluated in the REDUCtion of Cardiovascular Events With Eicosapentaenoic Acid [EPA]-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular outcomes study. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A toolkit for Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779 enables gene stacking and genetic engineering of the eicosapentaenoic acid pathway for enhanced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

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    Poliner, Eric; Pulman, Jane A; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Childs, Kevin; Benning, Christoph; Farré, Eva M

    2018-01-01

    Nannochloropsis oceanica is an oleaginous microalga rich in ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) content, in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We identified the enzymes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in N. oceanica CCMP1779 and generated multigene expression vectors aiming at increasing LC-PUFA content in vivo. We isolated the cDNAs encoding four fatty acid desaturases (FAD) and determined their function by heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae. To increase the expression of multiple fatty acid desaturases in N. oceanica CCMP1779, we developed a genetic engineering toolkit that includes an endogenous bidirectional promoter and optimized peptide bond skipping 2A peptides. The toolkit also includes multiple epitopes for tagged fusion protein production and two antibiotic resistance genes. We applied this toolkit, towards building a gene stacking system for N. oceanica that consists of two vector series, pNOC-OX and pNOC-stacked. These tools for genetic engineering were employed to test the effects of the overproduction of one, two or three desaturase-encoding cDNAs in N. oceanica CCMP1779 and prove the feasibility of gene stacking in this genetically tractable oleaginous microalga. All FAD overexpressing lines had considerable increases in the proportion of LC-PUFAs, with the overexpression of Δ12 and Δ5 FAD encoding sequences leading to an increase in the final ω3 product, EPA. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  11. A Study of the Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Gene Expression Profiles of Stimulated Thp-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Barbier, Olivier; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-04-25

    Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 ( n -3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h. Total mRNA was extracted and gene expression examined by microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 expression beadchips (Illumina). Results: Pathway analysis revealed that EPA and DHA regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation, oxidative stress and cancer pathways in a differential and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: EPA and DHA appear to exert differential effects on gene expression in THP-1 macrophages. Specific effects of n -3 FAs on gene expression levels are also dose-dependent.

  12. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

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    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  13. Enhancing the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 using innovative photobioreactors with optimal light source arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Hsiao-Chen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-09-01

    Binary combinations of LEDs with four different colors were used as light sources to identify the effects of multiple wavelengths on the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by an isolated microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2. Combining LED-Blue and LED-Red could give the highest EPA productivity of 13.24 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was further enhanced to 14.4 mg L(-1) d(-1) when using semi-batch operations at a 40% medium replacement ratio. A novel photobioreactor with additional immersed light sources improved light penetration efficiency and led to an 38% (0.170-0.235 g L(-1) d(-1)) increase in the microalgae biomass productivity and a 9% decrease in electricity consumption yield of EPA (10.15-9.33 kW-h (g EPA)(-1)) when compared with the control (i.e., without immersed light sources). Operating the immersed LEDs at a flashing-frequency of 9 Hz further lowered the energy consumption yield to 8.87 kW-h (g EPA)(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid production from Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 using deep sea water in outdoor plastic-bag type photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Cheah, Wai Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 was grown in deep-sea water (DSW)-based medium in 5-L plastic bag-type photobioreactors (PBRs) for the autotrophic production of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). EPA production of N. oceanica CY2 was stimulated when it was grown in 100% DSW amended with 1.5 g L -1 NaNO 3 , achieving a EPA content of 3.1% and a biomass concentration of 3.3 g L -1 . An outdoor-simulated microalgae cultivation system was also conducted to validate the feasibility of outdoor cultivation of the CY2 strain in plastic bag-type PBRs. Using an inoculum size of 0.6 g/L, the biomass concentration in the PBR culture was 3.5 g L -1 , while the EPA content and productivity reached a maximal level of 4.12% and 7.49 mg L -1  d -1 , respectively. When the PBRs were operated on semi-batch mode, the EPA productivity could further increase to 9.9 mg L -1  d -1 with a stable EPA content of 4.1%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases CD133 Colon Cancer Stem-Like Cell Marker Expression While Increasing Sensitivity to Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Flavia; Witte, Theodore R.; Hardman, W. Elaine; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can attenuate the proliferation of cancer cells, including colon cancer, and increase the efficacy of various anticancer drugs. However, these studies address the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the bulk of the tumor cells and not on the undifferentiated colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that are responsible for tumor formation and maintenance. CSLCs have also been linked to the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance and to tumor relapse. Colon CSLCs have been immunophenotyped using several antibodies against cellular markers including CD133, CD44, EpCAM, and ALDH. Anti-CD133 has been used to isolate a population of colon cancer cells that retains stem cells properties (CSLCs) from both established cell lines and primary cell cultures. We demonstrated that the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was actively incorporated into the membrane lipids of COLO 320 DM cells. 25 uM EPA decreased the cell number of the overall population of cancer cells, but not of the CD133 (+) CSLCs. Also, we observed that EPA induced down-regulation of CD133 expression and up-regulation of colonic epithelium differentiation markers, Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and Mucin 2 (MUC2). Finally, we demonstrated that EPA increased the sensitivity of COLO 320 DM cells (total population) to both standard-of-care chemotherapies (5-Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), whereas EPA increased the sensitivity of the CD133 (+) CSLCs to only 5-Fluorouracil. PMID:23874993

  16. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates cardiac injury and adipose tissue inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Sano, Y.; Nagasawa, K.; Matsuura, N.; Yamada, Y.; Uchinaka, A.; Murohara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction n‐3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z‐Lepr fa/Lepr fa (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt‐sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. Materials and methods DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg−1 d−1, per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks. Homozygous lean (DahlS.Z‐Lepr +/Lepr +, or DS/lean) littermates were studied as controls. Results Whereas EPA had no effect on body weight, food intake or systolic blood pressure in DS/obese rats, it attenuated cardiac fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation in these animals. In addition, EPA did not affect insulin resistance but reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in visceral fat of DS/obese rats. Moreover, EPA increased circulating levels of adiponectin as well as attenuated both the down‐regulation of AMP‐activated protein kinase phosphorylation and the up‐regulation of phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor‐kB in the heart of DS/obese rats. Conclusions Treatment of DS/obese rats with EPA did not affect hypertension but reduced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, with the latter effects being accompanied by AMP‐activated protein kinase activation and inactivation of nuclear factor‐kB signalling in the heart, possibly as a result of an increase in adiponectin secretion. EPA may be suitable for the treatment of cardiac injury associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27708849

  17. Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with a low risk for cardiovascular disease. Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC cine CMR) can assess coronary flow reserve (CFR). The present study investigates the relationship between CFR evaluated by PC cine CMR and the serum EPA. Methods We studied 127 patients (male, 116 (91%); mean age, 72.2 ± 7.4 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). X-ray coronary angiography revealed no significant coronary arterial stenoses (defined as luminal diameter reduction ≥50% on quantitative coronary angiogram (QCA) analysis) in all study participants. Breath-hold PC cine CMR images of the coronary sinus (CS) were acquired to assess blood flow of the CS both at rest and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion. We calculated CFR as CS blood flow during ATP infusion divided by that at rest. Patients were allocated to groups according to whether they had high (n = 64, EPA ≥ 75.8 μg/mL) or low (n = 63, EPA  2.5, which is the previously reported lower limit of normal flow reserve without obstructive CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that EPA is an independent predictor of CFR > 2.5 (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 – 1.02, p = 0.008). Conclusions The serum EPA is significantly correlated with CFR in CAD patients without significant coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24359564

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Kuniha; Itoh, Michiko; Suganami, Takayoshi; Kanai, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Sakai, Takeru; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS), where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniha Konuma

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS, where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  20. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elajami, Tarec K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Lakshminarayan, Dharshan; Soliman, Michael; Chandnani, Madhuri; Welty, Francine K

    2017-07-14

    Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. Two-hundred sixty-two subjects with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to either Lovaza (1.86 g of EPA and 1.5 g of DHA daily) or no Lovaza (control) for 1 year. Percent change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was compared. Mean (SD) age was 63.3 (7.6) years; 17% were women and 30% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic subjects, no change in urine ACR occurred in either the Lovaza or control groups. In contrast, ACR increased 72.3% ( P diabetic subjects not receiving Lovaza, whereas those receiving Lovaza had no change. In diabetic subjects on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, those receiving Lovaza had no change in urine ACR, whereas those not receiving Lovaza had a 64.2% increase ( P type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Prepartum fatty acid supplementation in sheep I. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation do not modify ewe and lamb metabolic status and performance through weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D N; Rivera-Acevedo, K C; Relling, A E

    2018-02-15

    Fatty acids are involved in the regulation of many physiological pathways, including those involved in gene expression and energy metabolism. Through effects on these pathways, fatty acids may have lifelong impacts on offspring development and metabolism via maternal supplementation. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the impact of supplementing a source of omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during late gestation on productive and metabolic responses of ewes and their offspring. Eighty-four gestating ewes (28 pens) were blocked and randomly assigned to a diet with 0.39% added fat during the last 50 d of gestation (d -0). The fat sources were Ca salts of a palmitic fatty acid distillate (PFAD) or EPA + DHA. After lambing (d 1), all ewes and lambs were placed on the same pasture. The ewes were weighed and BCS was measured on d -50, -20, 30, and 60 (weaning) of the experiment. Blood samples were taken from the ewes on d -50, -20, 1 (lambing), 30, and 60. Milk yield and composition were measured at 30 d postpartum. Lambs were weighed and bled at d 1, 30, and 60, and ADG was calculated. All plasma samples were analyzed for glucose and NEFA. Ghrelin, prostaglandin E metabolites (PGEM), and the prostaglandin D2 metabolite 11β-PGF2α were measured in d -20 ewe samples. Insulin and adropin were measured in lamb samples at d 60. There was no difference on ewe BW (P = 0.48) or BCS (P = 0.55), or plasma concentrations of glucose (P = 0.57), NEFA (P = 0.44), ghrelin (P = 0.36), PGEM (P = 0.32), and 11β-PGF2α (P = 0.86) between ewes supplemented with PFAD or EPA + DHA. Neither milk yield nor its composition was different (P > 0.10) among treatments. Lambs born from ewes supplemented with PFAD or EPA + DHA did not have different BW (P = 0.22), ADG (P = 0.21) or plasma NEFA (P = 0.52), glucose (P = 0.50), insulin (P = 0.59), and adropin (P = 0.72) concentrations. These results suggest that supplementation of EPA and DHA

  2. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker discovery and association analysis with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content in Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species. 69,845 high quality SNP markers that evenly distributed along genome were detected in at least 80% of 500 individuals. Nearly 95% randomly selected genotypes were successfully validated by Sequenom MassARRAY assay. The association studies with the muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content discovered 39 significant SNP markers, contributing as high up to ∼63% genetic variance that explained by all markers. Functional genes that involved in fat digestion and absorption pathway were identified, such as APOB, CRAT and OSBPL10. Notably, PPT2 Gene, previously identified in the association study of the plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid level in human, was re-discovered in large yellow croaker. Our study verified that EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS could produce quality SNP markers in a cost-efficient manner in teleost genome. The developed SNP markers and the EPA and DHA associated SNP loci provided invaluable resources for the population structure, conservation genetics and genomic selection of large yellow croaker and other fish organisms.

  3. Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13 C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13 C-enrichment. Isotopic signatures (per mil, ‰) for liver EPA were not different ( p  > 0.05) between the ALA only diet (-25.89 ± 0.39 ‰, mean ± SEM) and the DHA + ALA diet (-26.26 ± 0.40 ‰), suggesting the relative contribution from dietary ALA and DHA to liver EPA did not change. However, with DHA feeding estimates of absolute EPA contribution from ALA increased 4.4-fold (147 ± 22 to 788 ± 153 nmol/g) compared to 3.2-fold from DHA (91 ± 14 to 382 ± 13 nmol/g), respectively. In conclusion, CSIA of liver EPA in rats following 12-weeks of dietary DHA suggests that retroconversion of DHA to EPA is a relatively small contributor to increases in EPA, and that this increase in EPA is largely coming from elongation/desaturation of ALA.

  4. Adolescents with or at ultra-high risk for bipolar disorder exhibit erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid deficits: a candidate prodromal risk biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; DelBello, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Mood disorders are associated with low levels of the long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus in youth with or at varying risk for developing mania to assess its utility as a prodromal risk biomarker. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was determined in healthy adolescents (n = 28, HC), asymptomatic adolescents with a biological parent with bipolar I disorder (n = 30; 'high risk', HR), adolescents with a biological parent with bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n = 36; 'ultra-high risk', UHR), and first-episode adolescent bipolar manic patients (n = 35, BP). Group differences were observed for DHA (P ≤ 0.0001) and EPA (P = 0.03). Compared with HC, erythrocyte EPA + DHA ('omega-3 index') was significantly lower in BP (-24%, P ≤ 0.0001) and UHR (-19%, P = 0.0006) groups, and there was a trend in the HR group (-11%, P = 0.06). Compared with HC (61%), a greater percentage of HR (77%, P = 0.02), UHR (80%, P = 0.005) and BP (97%, P = 0.001) subjects exhibited EPA + DHA levels of ≤4.0%. Among all subjects (n = 130), EPA + DHA was inversely correlated with manic (r = -0.29, P = 0.0008) and depressive (r = -0.28, P = 0.003) symptom severity. The AA/EPA + DHA ratio was significantly greater in BP (+22%, P = 0.0002) and UHR (+16%, P = 0.001) groups. Low EPA + DHA levels coincide with the initial onset of mania, and increasing risk for developing bipolar disorder is associated with graded erythrocyte EPA + DHA deficits. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA biostatus may represent a promising prodromal risk biomarker warranting additional evaluation in future prospective studies. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA.

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    Dolores Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a

  6. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dolores; Martín, Sara; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria; Filice, Marco; Guisán, José Manuel; Ventosa, Antonio; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a lipolytic enzyme from a halophilic bacterium M. lipolyticus

  7. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA...... and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1...... inhibition of AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis and COX-2 expression by EPA. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that l-carnitine affects competition between AA and EPA in PG synthesis in liver cells by enhancing oxidation of EPA in HPCs. This implies that the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA, especially...

  8. Discovery and preclinical development of a novel prodrug conjugate of mesalamine with eicosapentaenoic acid and caprylic acid for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Mahesh; Sunil Kumar, K B; Palanichamy, Sivanesan; Rampal, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    Mesalamine (5-ASA) is one of the drugs indicated as first line therapy in ulcerative colitis for induction and maintenance of remission. Sulfasalazine and formulations of 5-ASA (pH-dependent and controlled release formulations) were developed to minimize the systemic absorption and maximize the delivery of the mesalamine to colon. Although, its efficacy and safety is well documented there are approximately 30% nonresponders to 5-ASA therapy. This necessitates the need for novel therapeutic options to improve the efficacy and safety of the currently available 5-ASA therapy. CLX-103 is a novel, patented prodrug molecular conjugate of mesalamine, eicosapentaenoic acid and caprylic acid designed to offer incremental benefits over the currently approved 5-ASA formulations. Results of in vitro and in vivo studies showed that CLX-103, was stable in simulated gastric fluid, but undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis in the small/large intestines to release the active moiety. Our data also showed that the active moiety is retained in the targeted intestinal tissues (ileum and colon) over a longer period of time in relation to sulfasalazine. The in vitro data supports the observed in vivo plasma kinetics of 5-ASA characterized by longer T max , low C max after the oral administration of CLX-103. Efficacy study of CLX-103 in acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse colitis model showed improved potency measured as Disease Activity Index (DAI) and histological scores in the colon as compared to sulfasalazine. These findings indicate that CLX-103 could offer a differentiated drug product which is more efficacious and safer than the currently approved 5-ASA formulations in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2012-09-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higurashi Takuma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF, defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. Methods This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio as an associated factor of high risk plaque on coronary computed tomography in patients without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yasuomi; Motoyama, Sadako; Sarai, Masayoshi; Ito, Hajime; Kawai, Hideki; Takakuwa, Yoko; Miyagi, Meiko; Shibata, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Junichi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2016-07-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-verified high risk plaque (HRP) characteristics including positive remodeling and low attenuation plaque have been associated with acute coronary syndromes. Several studies reported that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio and CCTA-verified HRP in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. We aimed at investigating the relation between EPA/AA and CCTA-verified HRP in patients without known CAD. We included 193 patients undergoing CCTA without known CAD (65.5 ± 12.0 years, 55.0% male). No patient has been treated with EPA. The relation of coronary risk factors, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcification score (CACS), number of vessel disease, plaque burden, and EPA/AA with the presence of HRP was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Incremental value of EPA/AA to predict HRP was also analyzed by C-index, NRI, and IDI. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the time to cardiovascular event. HRP was observed in 37 (19%) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking (OR 2.58; p=0.046), number of vessel disease (OR 1.87; p=0.031), and EPA/AA ratio (OR 0.65; p=0.0006) were independent associated factors of HRP on CCTA. Although the addition of EPA/AA to the baseline model did not significantly improve C-index, both NRI (0.60, p=0.0049) and IDI (0.054, p=0.0072) were significantly improved. Patients with HRP had significantly higher rate of events compared with patients without HRP (14% vs. 3%, Logrank p=0.0004). On multivariable Cox hazard analysis, baseline EPA/AA ratio was an independent predictor (HR 0.57, p=0.047). Low EPA/AA was an associated factor of HRP on CCTA in patients without CAD. In addition to conventional coronary risk factors and CACS, EPA

  13. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid and (/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.; Sajiki, J.; Kondo, S.; Ozawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tamura, Y.; Kumagai, A.

    1982-11-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of (/sup 1 -14/C)arachidonic acid and ((U)-/sup 14/C)eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced (/sup 14/C)thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of (/sup 14/C)TXB3 from (/sup 14/C)EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous (/sup 14/C)EPA to (/sup 14/C)TXB3 was lower than that of (/sup 14/C)AA to (/sup 14/C)TXB2. The release of (/sup 14/C)AA from (/sup 14/C)AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets.

  14. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): Effects on remnant-like particle cholesterol from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Braeckman, Rene A; Stirtan, William G; Soni, Paresh N; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) is atherogenic and may increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (approved as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride [TG] levels in adult patients with TGs ≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L] at 4 g/day). In the MARINE and ANCHOR studies, icosapent ethyl reduced TG and other atherogenic lipid parameter levels without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This exploratory analysis evaluated the effects of icosapent ethyl on calculated and directly measured RLP-C. MARINE (TGs ≥500 and ≤2000 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L and ≤22.6 mmol/L]) and ANCHOR (TGs ≥200 and <500 mg/dL [≥2.26 and <5.65 mmol/L] despite statin-controlled LDL-C) were phase 3, 12-week, double-blind studies that randomized adult patients to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day, 2 g/day, or placebo. This analysis assessed median percent change from baseline to study end in directly measured (immunoseparation assay) RLP-C levels (MARINE, n = 218; ANCHOR, n = 252) and calculated RLP-C levels in the full populations. Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced directly measured RLP-C levels -29.8% (p = 0.004) in MARINE and -25.8% (p = 0.0001) in ANCHOR versus placebo, and also reduced directly measured RLP-C levels to a greater extent in subgroups with higher versus lower baseline TG levels, in patients receiving statins versus no statins (MARINE), and in patients receiving medium/higher-intensity versus lower-intensity statins (ANCHOR). Strong correlations were found between calculated and directly measured RLP-C for baseline, end-of-treatment, and percent change values in ANCHOR and MARINE (0.73-0.92; p < 0.0001 for all). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced calculated and directly measured RLP-C levels versus placebo in patients with elevated TG levels from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  15. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on interleukin-6 (IL-6 mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10 or EPA (N = 7. Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects, iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects, and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects. Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020. We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; Assies, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus....... METHODS: In the VU University Medical Center, we conducted a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group intervention study of E-EPA (1g/day) versus placebo in 25 diabetes patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, who were already using antidepressant medication...

  17. A prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the clinical signs and erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Stephen J; May, Lauren R; King, Crystal; Harris, William S; Shah, Zubin

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs is a prevalent and serious condition. The most common treatment for the clinical signs of OA in dogs is the administration of nonsteroidal antiiflammatory pharmaceuticals. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have been shown to reduce the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. The primary goals of this study were 1) to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the clinical signs of OA in dogs, 2) to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the arachadonic acid (ARA)/ (EPA+DHA) algorithm and 3) to correlate alterations in the ARA/(EPA+DHA) with changes in the clinical signs of canine OA. Seventy-eight client owned dogs were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to placebo oil or triglyceride n-3 oil (providing an average dose of 69mg EPA+DHA/kg/day). Orthopedic examinations and blood analyses were performed at baseline, day 42, and day 84. A single investigator confirmed a diagnosis of OA of the coxofemoral joints and/or stifle joints in all dogs. Seventy-four dogs completed the trial. All clinical outcomes for measuring discomfort, lameness, and joint severity at day 84 and all blood metrics at day 42 and day 84 significantly (pacid concentrations correlating to relief of clinical signs associated with OA in dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    on Artemia enriched with 10 formulated emulsions, differing in inclusions of ARA, EPA, and DHA. The specific growth rate of the sole larvae until late metamorphosis, 21 days after hatching (dah) was 20 to 27% d(-1). Even though the relative tissue essential fatty acid (EFA) concentrations significantly...... resulted in a lower growth rate, which suggests that visual aberrations affected prey capture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  20. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Added to Statin Therapy on Coronary Artery Plaque in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K; Ashfaque, Hasan; Saleh, Mohamad; Bistrian, Bruce R; Welty, Francine K

    2017-12-15

    Although statins reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains. Therefore, additional modalities are needed to reduce risk. We evaluated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in pharmacologic doses added to statin treatment on coronary artery plaque volume. A total of 285 subjects with stable coronary artery disease on statins were randomized to omega-3 ethyl-ester (1.86 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily) or no omega-3 (control) for 30 months. Coronary plaque volume was assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography. Mean (SD) age was 63.0 (7.7) years; mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤80 mg/dL. In the intention-to-treat analysis, our primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque volume, was not different between groups ( P =0.14) but approached significance in the per protocol analysis ( P =0.07). When stratified by age in the intention-to-treat analysis, younger omega-3 subjects had significantly less progression of the primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque ( P =0.013), and fibrous, calcified and total plaque. In plaque subtype analysis, controls had significant progression of fibrous plaque compared to no change in the omega-3 ethyl-ester group (median % change [interquartile range], 5.0% [-5.7, 20.0] versus -0.1% [-12.3, 14.5], respectively; P =0.018). Among those on low-intensity statins, omega-3 ethyl-ester subjects had attenuation of fibrous plaque progression compared to controls (median % change [interquartile range], 0.3% [-12.8, 9.0] versus 4.8% [-5.1, 19.0], respectively; P =0.032). In contrast, those on high-intensity statins had no difference in plaque change in either treatment arm. High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid provided additional benefit to statins in preventing progression of fibrous coronary plaque in subjects adherent to therapy with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The benefit on low-intensity statin, but not high

  1. Inhibition of triacylglycerol and apoprotein B secretion and of low density lipoprotein binding in Hep G2 cells by eicosapentaenoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.H.; Nestel, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of fish oils leads to profound lowering of plasma triacylglyercol (TAG) but not of plasma cholesterol. Reasons for this were investigated with the human hepatoma cell line, the Hep G2 cell. Incubations with oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and the characteristic marine fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched cellular TAG mass, though least with EPA. However, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG and apoprotein B (apo B), measured from [ 3 H]-glycerol and [ 3 H]-leucine was markedly inhibited by EPA. Preincubation with LA reduced VLDL-TAG but not apo B secretion in comparison with OA which stimulated both. A possible effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) removal was studied by measuring [ 125 I]-LDL binding. Preincubation with either EPA or LA inhibited the saturable binding of LDL, observed with OA and control incubations. The binding of lipoproteins containing chylomicron remnants was not affected by any of the fatty acids

  2. Inhibition of triacylglycerol and apoprotein B secretion and of low density lipoprotein binding in Hep G2 cells by eicosapentaenoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.H.; Nestel, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of fish oils leads to profound lowering of plasma triacylglyercol (TAG) but not of plasma cholesterol. Reasons for this were investigated with the human hepatoma cell line, the Hep G2 cell. Incubations with oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and the characteristic marine fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched cellular TAG mass, though least with EPA. However, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG and apoprotein B (apo B), measured from (/sup 3/H)-glycerol and (/sup 3/H)-leucine was markedly inhibited by EPA. Preincubation with LA reduced VLDL-TAG but not apo B secretion in comparison with OA which stimulated both. A possible effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) removal was studied by measuring (/sup 125/I)-LDL binding. Preincubation with either EPA or LA inhibited the saturable binding of LDL, observed with OA and control incubations. The binding of lipoproteins containing chylomicron remnants was not affected by any of the fatty acids.

  3. Non-enzymatic cyclic oxygenated metabolites of adrenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and α-linolenic acids; bioactivities and potential use as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galano, Jean-Marie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Gladine, Cecile; Comte, Blandine; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Cyclic oxygenated metabolites are formed in vivo through non-enzymatic free radical reaction of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic (ARA C20:4 n-6), adrenic (AdA 22:4 n-6), α-linolenic (ALA 18:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA 22:6 n-3) acids. These cyclic compounds are known as isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, dihomo-isoprostanes and phytoprostanes. Evidence has emerged for their use as biomarkers of oxidative stress and, more recently, the n-3PUFA-derived compounds have been shown to mediate bioactivities as secondary messengers. Accordingly, this review will focus on the cyclic oxygenated metabolites generated from AdA, ALA, EPA and DHA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients......, in addition to ongoing antidepressant therapy. At baseline and 12-week follow-up, we determined serum BDNF levels and depression severity, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found no effect of E-EPA on BDNF levels (t = -0.144, p = 0.887), and changes in BDNF levels and depression...... with major depression, we tested whether (a) omega- 3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) leads to increased serum BDNF levels and (b) whether changes in BDNF levels are associated with corresponding changes in depression. METHODS: Patients received 1 g/day E-EPA (n = 13) or placebo (n = 12) for 12 weeks...

  5. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is negatively associated with all-cause mortality among men and women in a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus Pj; Green, Adèle C

    2016-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties, whereas omega-6 PUFAs appear to have proinflammatory properties. We aimed to assess plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status in relation to all-cause mortality in an Australian community-based study. We hypothesized that omega-3 PUFA would be inversely associated, and omega-6 PUFA positively associated with all-cause mortality. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], docosahexaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, and total) and omega-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total) were measured among 1008 adults (44% men) in 1996. Plasma PUFA composition was quantified using gas chromatography. During 17-year follow-up, 98 men and 81 women died. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, plasma EPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality overall (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increase, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.95), in men (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98), and in women (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), separately. Inverse associations with mortality among men were also seen for DPA (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97) and α-linolenic acid (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94). No omega-6 PUFAs were significantly associated with mortality. Our findings of reduced all-cause mortality in men and women who have high EPA in plasma, and in men with high plasma DPA and α-linolenic acid, partially support our hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs help reduce mortality but provide no evidence that omega-6 PUFAs may increase mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low unesterified:esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plasma concentration ratio is associated with bipolar disorder episodes, and omega-3 plasma concentrations are altered by treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Erika Fh; Reider, Aubrey; Singh, Gagan; Gelenberg, Alan J; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2015-11-01

    Omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are molecular modulators of neurotransmission and inflammation. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFAs would be lower and those of n-6 PUFAs higher in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs), and would correlate with symptom severity in subjects with BD, and that effective treatment would correlate with increased n-3 but lower n-6 PUFA levels. Additionally, we explored clinical correlations and group differences in plasma levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. This observational, parallel group study compared biomarkers between HCs (n = 31) and symptomatic subjects with BD (n = 27) when ill and after symptomatic recovery (follow-up). Plasma concentrations of five PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)], two saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and two monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid and oleic acid) were measured in esterified (E) and unesterified (UE) forms. Calculated ratios included UE:E for the five PUFAs, ratios of n-3 PUFAs (DHA:ALA, EPA:ALA and EPA:DHA), and the ratio of n-6:n-3 AA:EPA. Comparisons of plasma fatty acid levels and ratios between BD and HC groups were made with Student t-tests, and between the BD group at baseline and follow-up using paired t-tests. Comparison of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. Pearson's r was used for bivariate correlations with clinical variables, including depressive and manic symptoms, current panic attacks, and psychosis. UE EPA was lower in subjects with BD than in HCs, with a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.86, p acid level or ratio correlated with self-reported n-3 PUFA intake or use of medication by class. A large effect size of reduced UE EPA, and a lower plasma UE:E concentration ratio of EPA in the symptomatic BD state may be important factors

  7. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  8. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research centers upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of a-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesi...

  9. A randomized clinical trial of high eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in the treatment of pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V; Chan, James; Tarko, Laura; Hernandez, Mariely; Davis, Jacqueline; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Biederman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in children with bipolar spectrum disorders. Participants were children 5-12 years of age meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I or II disorder or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified [NOS]) and displaying mixed, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. Subjects with severe illness were excluded. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms: inositol plus placebo, omega-3 fatty acids plus placebo, and the combined active treatment of omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol. Data were collected from February 2012 to November 2013. Twenty-four subjects were exposed to treatment (≥ 1 week of study completed) (inositol [n = 7], omega-3 fatty acids [n = 7], and omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol [n =10]). Fifty-four percent of the subjects completed the study. Subjects randomized to the omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol arm had the largest score decrease comparing improvement from baseline to end point with respect to the Young Mania Rating Scale (P inositol reduced symptoms of mania and depression in prepubertal children with mild to moderate bipolar spectrum disorders. Results should be interpreted in light of limitations, which include exclusion of severely ill subjects, 54% completion rate, and small sample size. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01396486. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2012-10-01

    Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). A dose response (P 12 mo (adipose tissue). Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake.

  11. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kuba, Motoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Han, Song-Iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Isaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.

  12. Change in blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and posttraumatic stress symptom: A secondary analysis of data from a placebo-controlled trial of omega3 supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yutaka J; Hamazaki, Kei; Nishi, Daisuke; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-11-15

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is suggested to be protective against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from two observational studies. We previously conducted a randomized controlled trial and found no effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for prevention of PTSD. This secondary analysis aimed to determine whether change in blood levels of EPA is associated with PTSD symptoms. The percentages of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) were measured in erythrocyte membranes at baseline and posttreatment in 110 participants with severe physical injury who were randomly assigned to receive either a daily dose of 1,470mg DHA and 147mg EPA or of placebo for 12 weeks. Associations between change in erythrocyte fatty acid levels during the trial controlling for each baseline level and PTSD severity at 12 weeks were analyzed by treatment arm. In the omega3 supplements arm, changes in EPA+DHA (p=.023) and EPA (p=.001) as well as the EPA:AA ratio (p=.000) and EPA: DHA ratio (p=.013) were inversely correlated with PTSD severity. Change in AA was positively correlated with PTSD severity (p=.001). This trial was conducted at a single-center in Japan and PTSD symptoms in most participants were not serious. Increased erythrocyte level of EPA during the trial was associated with low severity of PTSD symptoms in patients receiving omega3 supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolite 15-Deoxy-δ12,14-Prostaglandin J3 Increases Adiponectin Secretion by Adipocytes Partly via a PPARγ-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefils-Lacourtablaise, Jennifer; Socorro, Mairobys; Géloën, Alain; Daira, Patricia; Debard, Cyrille; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Guichardant, Michel; Dominguez, Zury; Vidal, Hubert; Lagarde, Michel; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish meat and oil, has been shown to exert many beneficial effects. The mechanisms behind those effects are numerous, including interference with the arachidonic acid cascade that produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, formation of novel bioactive lipid mediators, and change in the pattern of secreted adipocytokines. In our study, we show that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increases secreted adiponectin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in plasma of mice as early as 4 days after initiation of an EPA-rich diet. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we report for the first time that 15-deoxy-δ12,14-PGJ3 (15d-PGJ3), a product of EPA, also increases the secretion of adiponectin. We demonstrate that the increased adiponectin secretion induced by 15d-PGJ3 is partially peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)-mediated. Finally, we show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can synthesize 15d-PGJ3 from EPA. 15d-PGJ3 was also detected in adipose tissue from EPA-fed mice. Thus, these studies provide a novel mechanism(s) for the therapeutic benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids dietary supplementation. PMID:23734181

  14. Eicosapentaenoic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Approach to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M.; Mason, R. Preston; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis have excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden with substantially increased CV event rates compared with the general population. Summary Traditional interventions that, according to standard clinical guidelines, reduce CV risk such as antihypertensive therapy, diet, exercise, and statins are not similarly effective in the hemodialysis population. This raises the question of whether additional risk factors, such as enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, may drive the increased CVD burden in hemodialysis patients. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into the atherosclerotic plaque as well as membrane phospholipid bilayers and produces beneficial effects on inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. EPA levels and the ratio of EPA to the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) are reduced in hemodialysis patients. Serum EPA levels have been inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines, and the EPA/AA ratio has been inversely associated with CV events in hemodialysis cohorts. Three recent studies involving over 800 hemodialysis patients and follow-up of 2–3 years suggest that EPA therapy may improve clinical outcomes in this patient population as evidenced by significant reductions in cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and/or CV events. Key Messages Further studies with high-purity EPA are warranted in patients on hemodialysis, especially given the fact that other interventions including antihypertensives, diet, exercise, and statins have not provided meaningful benefit. PMID:29344023

  15. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Suzuki-Kemuriyama

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.

  16. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Uzi; Neta, Noam; Zeron, Yoel; Zachut, Maya; Roth, Zvi

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation rates of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from different sources into bull plasma and sperm and the effects on physiological characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were determined. Fifteen fertile bulls were assigned to three treatment groups and supplemented for 13 weeks with encapsulated fat: (1) SFA-360 g/d per bull saturated FA; (2) FLX-450 g/d per bull providing 84.2 g/d C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid) from flaxseed oil; and (3) FO-450 g/d per bull providing 8.7 g/d C20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 6.5 g/d C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) from fish oil. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and semen was collected weekly. With respect to the FA supplements, the proportion of α-linolenic acid in plasma increased in the FLX bulls, whereas that of DHA was increased in the FO bulls, within 2 weeks. However, changes in the sperm FA fraction were first expressed in the sixth week of supplementation: in the FO and FLX bulls the DHA proportion increased (P acid [DPA] n-6) decreased (P < 0.001). Sperm motility and progressive motility in fresh semen were higher (P < 0.05), and the fading rate tended to be lower in the FLX than in FO bulls (P < 0.06). Furthermore, sperm motility, progressive motility, and velocity in frozen-thawed semen were higher in FLX than in the other groups (P < 0.008). These findings indicate that the proportion of DHA in sperm can be increased at the expense of DPAn-6 by either FO or FLX supplementation, indicating de novo elongation and desaturation of short- into longer-chain n-3 FAs in testes. Furthermore, the moderate exchange of DHA and DPAn-6 in the FLX group's sperm was associated with changes in the characteristics of both fresh and frozen-thawed semen, suggesting the importance of the ratio between these two FAs for sperm structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  18. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioanalytical method for quantification of ethyl esters of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sekarbabu; Verma, P R P; Ganesan, Muniyandithevar; Manivannan, Jeganathan

    2017-07-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development. Here, we have developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring method along with optimized parameters for quantification of EPA and DHA as ethyl esters. Additionally, we attempted to validate the bio-analytical method by conducting the sensitivity, selectivity, precision accuracy batch, carryover test and matrix stability experiments. Furthermore, we also implemented our validated method for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of omega fatty acid ethyl ester formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Levels of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Are Associated with Anti-TNF Responsiveness in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inhibit the Etanercept-driven Rise in Th17 Cell Differentiationin Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Louisa; Fisk, Helena L; Calder, Philip C; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Buckley, Christopher D; McInnes, Iain; Taylor, Peter C; Fisher, Benjamin A

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with response to antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and whether this putative effect may have its basis in altering anti-TNF-driven Th17 cell differentiation. Plasma was collected at baseline and after 3 months of anti-TNF treatment in 22 patients with established RA, and fatty acid composition of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) component was measured. CD4+CD25- T cells and monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy donors and cocultured in the presence of anti-CD3, with or without etanercept (ETN), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or the control fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA). Expression of interleukin 17 and interferon-γ was measured by intracellular staining and flow cytometry. Plasma PC EPA levels and the EPA/arachidonic acid ratio correlated inversely with change in the Disease Activity Score at 28 joints (DAS28) at 3 months (-0.51, p = 0.007 and -0.48, p = 0.01, respectively), indicating that higher plasma EPA was associated with a greater reduction in DAS28. Plasma PC EPA was positively associated with European League Against Rheumatism response (p = 0.02). An increase in Th17 cells post-therapy has been associated with nonresponse to anti-TNF. ETN increased Th17 frequencies in vitro . Physiological concentrations of EPA, but not LA, prevented this. EPA status was associated with clinical improvements to anti-TNF therapy in vivo and prevented the effect of ETN on Th17 cells in vitro . EPA supplementation might be a simple way to improve anti-TNF outcomes in patients with RA by suppressing Th17 frequencies.

  20. Correlates of electroencephalographic resting states and erythrocyte membrane docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Suzie; Whitford, Thomas J; Benninger, Franz; Feucht, Martha; Kim, Sung-Wan; Klier, Claudia M; McNamara, Robert K; Rice, Simon; Schäfer, Miriam R; Amminger, G Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid levels and resting-state brain activity occurring in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis. The association between erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and resting-state brain activity and its value in predicting psychosis was examined in 72 UHR individuals. In the frontal area, the activity in the fast frequency band Beta2 was positively associated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (R = 0.321, P = 0.017), and in the fronto-central area, Beta2 activity showed a positive correlation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (R = 0.305, P = 0.009), regardless of psychosis transition status. Conversely, the slow frequency band Theta was significantly negatively associated with EPA levels in the parieto-occipital region (R = -0.251, P = 0.033. Results also showed that Alpha power was negatively correlated with DHA levels in UHR individuals who did not transition to psychosis, while this correlation was not present in individuals who later transitioned. Our results suggest that individuals at UHR for psychosis who have higher basal omega-3 fatty acids levels present with resting EEG features associated with better states of alertness and vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in the Alpha synchrony observed along with increased DHA levels in participants who did not transition to psychosis is disturbed in those who did transition. However, these interesting results are limited by the small sample size and low statistical power of the study. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Diamant, M.; Snoek, F. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus. In the VU

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus : A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Diamant, M.; Snoek, F. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic acid membrane incorporation impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux via a protein kinase A signaling pathway in primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Natalie; Tardivel, Sylviane; Benoist, Jean-François; Vedie, Benoît; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Nowak, Maxime; Allaoui, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    A diet rich in n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is cardioprotective. Dietary PUFAs affect the cellular phospholipids composition, which may influence the function of membrane proteins. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of several PUFAs on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, a key antiatherogenic pathway. Arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3) decreased or increased cholesterol efflux from J774 mouse macrophages, respectively, whereas they had no effect on efflux from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Importantly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) induced a dose-dependent reduction of ABCA1 functionality in both cellular models (-28% for 70μM of EPA in HMDM), without any alterations in ABCA1 expression. These results show that PUFA membrane incorporation does not have the same consequences on cholesterol efflux from mouse and human macrophages. The EPA-treated HMDM exhibited strong phospholipid composition changes, with high levels of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5 n-3), which is associated with a decreased level of AA. In HMDM, EPA reduced the ATPase activity of the membrane transporter. Moreover, the activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine restored ABCA1 cholesterol efflux in EPA-treated human macrophages. In conclusion, EPA membrane incorporation reduces ABCA1 functionality in mouse macrophages as well as in primary human macrophages and this effect seems to be PKA-dependent in human macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  6. Evaluation of the hepatic bioconversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rats fed with oils from chia (Salvia hispánica or rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia O., G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids generates health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other chronic diseases. The consumption of fish, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, is low in Latin America and it is necessary to seek other alternatives, such as chia oil (CO or rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, which are rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of the n -3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This study evaluates the hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA and the damage to the liver (histology and transaminase in Sprague- Dawley rats fed different vegetable oils. Four experimental groups (n = 9 animals each group were fed the following dietary supplements for 21 days: a sunflower oil (SFO, b RMO, c CO d olive oil with fish oil added (EPA and DHA (OO/FO. RMO and CO increased the hepatic levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p El elevado aporte en la dieta de ácidos grasos omega- 6, en relación a los ácidos grasos omega-3, genera alteraciones de la salud cardiovascular, inflamación y otras patologías crónicas no transmisibles. Por otro lado, el pescado rico en ácidos grasos omega-3 es de bajo consumo en Latinoamérica, siendo necesario buscar otras alternativas de aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3, como lo son el aceite de chía (CO o el de rosa mosqueta (RMO, ricos en ácido α-linolénico (ALA, que es el precursor de los ácidos grasos omega-3, eicosapentaenoico (EPA y docosahexaenoico (DHA. Este trabajo evaluó en forma preliminar la bioconversión hepática del ALA en EPA y DHA y el daño hepático (histología y transaminasas en ratas Sprague-Dawley alimentadas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales (n = 9 animales por grupo que recibieron durante 21 días: a aceite de girasol (SFO; b RMO, c CO y d aceite de oliva adicionado de aceite de pescado (EPA

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar in overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a double-blind randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbolouki, Shokouh; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Zareei, Mahnaz; Hashemi, Seyed Behnam; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in humans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids have beneficial effects on diabetes mellitus, previous data regarding the possible positive effects of n-3 fatty acids on glycaemic indices were inconclusive. We conducted a double-blind randomised clinical trial to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial was conducted on a total of 67 overweight patients with T2DM for a duration of three months. Of these 67 patients, 32 received 2 g purified EPA daily, while 35 received a placebo of 2 g corn oil daily. The patients' fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin sensitivity indices were assessed. After three months of EPA supplementation, the group that received EPA showed significant decreases in FPG (p < 0.001), HbA1c (p = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.032), when compared to the placebo group. EPA supplementation resulted in decreased serum insulin levels, with the levels between the EPA and placebo groups showing a significant difference (p = 0.004). The results of our study indicate that EPA supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity. It was able to decrease serum insulin, FPG, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. EPA could have beneficial effects on glycaemic indices in patients with T2DM.

  8. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Bargalló

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38, with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65, and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79. The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31 or presence (n = 27 of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques.

  9. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargalló, Núria; Gilabert, Rosa; Romero-Mamani, Edwin-Saúl; Calder, Philip C.; Fitó, Montserrat; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2017-01-01

    Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79). The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31) or presence (n = 27) of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC) proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake) at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques. PMID:28930197

  10. Prescription n-3 fatty acids, but not eicosapentaenoic acid alone, improve reference memory-related learning ability by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Hossain, Shahdat; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is implicated in the decline of cognitive ability. We investigated whether the prescription n-3 fatty acid administration improves cognitive learning ability in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHR-cp) rats, a metabolic syndrome model, in comparison with administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) alone. Administration of TAK-085 [highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation containing EPA ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ethyl ester] at 300 mg/kg body weight per day for 13 weeks reduced the number of reference memory-related errors in SHR-cp rats, but EPA alone had no effect, suggesting that long-term TAK-085 administration improves cognitive learning ability in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. However, the working memory-related errors were not affected in either of the rat groups. TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels of SHR-cp rats, associating with an increase in EPA and DHA in the cerebral cortex. The TAK-085 administration decreased the lipid peroxide levels and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-cp rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. Its administration also increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues of TAK-085-administered rats. The present study suggests that long-term TAK-085 administration is a possible therapeutic strategy for protecting against metabolic syndrome-induced learning decline.

  11. Biological effects of add-on eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Assies, Johanna; Bot, Mariska

    2012-01-01

    studied in DM-patients with MDD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind trial (n = 25) comparing add-on ethyl-EPA-supplementation to placebo on (I) oxidative stress, (II) inflammatory, (III) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, (IV) one-carbon-cycle, (V) fatty acid metabolism and (VI.......008]. CONCLUSION: Overall, add-on EPA-supplementation had limited effects on biological risk factors for adverse outcome in this sample of DM-patients with comorbid MDD. Besides increases in concentrations of supplemented α-tocopherol and EPA, AA decreased, and inconclusive effects on HPA-axis (re...

  12. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation in high-fat fed mice on lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ system in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Bertrand

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA in high-fat diet (HFD (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate were studied in mice with focus on muscle lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ expression. Compared with HFD mice, HFD+EPA mice had significantly less weight gain, fat mass, lower blood glucose, insulinemia and hepatic steatosis after 10 weeks of diet. In addition, EPA prevented muscle metabolism alterations since intramuscular triglycerides were decreased and β-oxidation increased. In soleus muscles of HFD+EPA mice, apelin and APJ expression were significantly increased compared to HFD mice. However, plasma apelin concentrations in HFD and HFD+EPA mice were similar. EPA-induced apelin expression was confirmed in differentiated C2C12 myocytes but in this model, apelin secretion was also increased in response to EPA treatment. In conclusion, EPA supplementation in HFD prevents obesity and metabolic alterations in mice, especially in skeletal muscle. Since EPA increases apelin/APJ expression in muscle, apelin may act in a paracrine/autocrine manner to contribute to these benefical effects.

  13. A quantitative study of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production by Nannochloropsis gaditana for aquaculture as a function of dilution rate, temperature and average irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Rodríguez, J; González-Céspedes, A M; Cerón-García, M C; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Acién-Fernández, F G; Molina-Grima, E

    2014-03-01

    Different pilot-scale outdoor photobioreactors using medium recycling were operated in a greenhouse under different environmental conditions and the growth rates (0.1 to 0.5 day(-1)) obtained evaluated in order to compare them with traditional systems used in aquaculture. The annualized volumetric growth rate for Nannochloropsis gaditana was 0.26 g l(-1) day(-1) (peak 0.4 g l(-1) day(-1)) at 0.4 day(-1) in a 5-cm wide flat-panel bioreactor (FP-PBR). The biomass productivity achieved in this reactor was 10-fold higher than in traditional reactors, reaching values of 28 % and 45 % dry weight (d.w.) of lipids and proteins, respectively, with a 4.3 % (d.w.) content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). A model for predicting EPA productivity from N. gaditana cultures that takes into account the existence of photolimitation and photoinhibition of growth under outdoor conditions is presented. The effect of temperature and average irradiance on EPA content is also studied. The maximum EPA productivity attained is 30 mg l(-1) day(-1).

  14. Distinctive effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in regulating neural stem cell fate are mediated via endocannabinoid signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, S C; Mandhair, H K; Fincham, R E A; Kerr, D M; Roche, M; Molina-Holgado, F

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a complex interplay between the endocannabinoid system, omega-3 fatty acids and the immune system in the promotion of brain self-repair. However, it is unknown if all omega-3 fatty acids elicit similar effects on adult neurogenesis and if such effects are mediated or regulated by interactions with the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effects of DHA and EPA on neural stem cell (NSC) fate and the role of the endocannabinoid signalling pathways in these effects. EPA, but not DHA, significantly increased proliferation of NSCs compared to controls, an effect associated with enhanced levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and p-p38 MAPK, effects attenuated by pre-treatment with CB1 (AM251) or CB2 (AM630) receptor antagonists. Furthermore, in NSCs derived from IL-1β deficient mice, EPA significantly decreased proliferation and p-p38 MAPK levels compared to controls, suggesting a key role for IL-1β signalling in the effects observed. Although DHA similarly increased 2-AG levels in wild-type NSCs, there was no concomitant increase in proliferation or p-p38 MAPK activity. In addition, in NSCs from IL-1β deficient mice, DHA significantly increased proliferation without effects on p-P38 MAPK, suggesting effects of DHA are mediated via alternative signalling pathways. These results provide crucial new insights into the divergent effects of EPA and DHA in regulating NSC proliferation and the pathways involved, and highlight the therapeutic potential of their interplay with endocannabinoid signalling in brain repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Zeina; Kristal, Alan R.; Gulati, Roman; Luick, Bret; Bersamin, Andrea; O'Brien, Diane; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Stephensen, Charles B.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.; Boyer, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Background N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers. Objective We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids, modify associations of obesity with chronic disease risk biomarkers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 330 Yup'ik Eskimos, generalized additive models (GAM) and linear and quadratic regression models were used to examine associations of BMI with biomarkers across RBC EPA and DHA categories. Results Median (5th–95th percentile) RBC EPA and DHA were 2.6% (0.5–5.9%) and 7.3% (3.3–8.9%), respectively. In regression models, associations of BMI with triglycerides, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin differed significantly by RBC EPA and DHA. The GAM confirmed regression results for triglycerides and CRP: At low RBC EPA and RBC DHA, the predicted increases in triglycerides and CRP concentrations associated with a BMI increase from 25 to 35 were 99.5±45.3 mg/dl (106%) and 137.8±71.0 mg/dl (156%), respectively, for triglycerides and 1.2±0.7 mg/l (61%) and 0.8±1.0 mg/l (35%), respectively, for CRP. At high RBC EPA and RBC DHA, these predicted increases were 13.9±8.1 mg/dl (23%) and 12.0±12.3 mg/dl (18%), respectively, for triglycerides and 0.5±0.5 mg/l (50%) and −0.5±0.6 mg/l (−34%), respectively, for CRP. Conclusions In this population, high RBC EPA and DHA were associated with attenuated dyslipidemia and low-grade systemic inflammation among overweight and obese persons. This may help inform recommendations for n-3 fatty acid intakes in the reduction of obesity-related disease risk. PMID:21427737

  16. Efficacy and safety of TAK-085 compared with eicosapentaenoic acid in Japanese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia undergoing lifestyle modification: the omega-3 fatty acids randomized double-blind (ORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Saito, Yasushi; Kudou, Kentarou; Ootake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and clinical practice guidelines advocate treatment to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels. In Japan, an EPA-E (eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester) product has been used clinically for treating dyslipidemia. We investigated the TG-lowering effects of TAK-085 (EPA-E + docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester) in comparison with EPA-E in Japanese patients with hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL and acid in TAK-085 contains approximately 465 mg of EPA plus 375 mg of docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl as ethyl esters. Guidance on lifestyle modifications was provided throughout. The primary end point was the percent change in TG levels (baseline from end of treatment), which was -10.8 ± 22.6, -22.9 ± 23.1, and -11.2 ± 25.7 in the TAK-085 2 g/day, TAK-085 4 g/day, and EPA-E 1.8 g/day groups, respectively. TAK-085 4 g/day produced a significantly greater reduction in TG than EPA-E 1.8 g/day (P < .0001), whereas TAK-085 2 g/day was not inferior to EPA-E 1.8 g/day. Changes in other lipid parameters were relatively modest. There were no notable safety or tolerability differences between the groups. In Japanese patients with modest hypertriglyceridemia who also underwent lifestyle intervention, TAK-085 4 g/day reduced TG more than EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 2 g/day had similar effects on TG as EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 was well-tolerated. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation between stable isotope ratios in human red blood cells and hair: implications for using the nitrogen isotope ratio of hair as a biomarker of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Boyer, Bert B; King, Irena B; Metzgar, Jordan S; O'Brien, Diane M

    2009-12-01

    The nitrogen isotope ratio (expressed as delta(15)N) of red blood cells (RBCs) is highly correlated with the RBC long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in Yup'ik Eskimos. Because delta(15)N can also be measured in hair samples, it could provide a noninvasive, retrospective biomarker for EPA and DHA intakes. We investigated the agreement between delta(15)N in hair and RBCs and then evaluated the relations between hair delta(15)N and RBC EPA and DHA. We also assessed the agreement in carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) between hair and RBCs, because delta(13)C has been proposed as a dietary biomarker in other populations. We assessed relations between hair and RBC delta(15)N and delta(13)C in a community-based sample of 144 Yup'ik Eskimos and examined the correlations between delta(15)N and RBC EPA and DHA in a subset of these participants (n = 44). We showed a 1:1 relation with good agreement between hair and RBC delta(15)N (r = 0.91) and delta(13)C (r = 0.87). Hair isotope ratios were greater than RBC ratios by 1.5 per thousand for delta(15)N and by 2.3 per thousand for delta(13)C. There were strong correlations between hair delta(15)N and RBC EPA and DHA (r = 0.83 and 0.84, respectively). These results support the use of hair delta(15)N values as a biomarker of EPA and DHA intakes. Because hair collection is noninvasive and the samples require no special processing, studies of EPA and DHA intakes in large populations could use biomarkers rather than self-reports to assess these fatty acids.

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Prospective Cohort Studies of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Miller, Paige E; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Kuratko, Connye N; Bylsma, Lauren C

    2017-01-01

    To conduct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) on coronary heart disease (CHD), and to conduct meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association between EPA+DHA intake and CHD risk. A systematic literature search of Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1947, to November 2, 2015, was conducted; 18 RCTs and 16 prospective cohort studies examining EPA+DHA from foods or supplements and CHD, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, coronary death, and angina, were identified. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) and 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was examined in subgroup and sensitivity analyses and by meta-regression. Dose-response was evaluated in stratified dose or intake analyses. Publication bias assessments were performed. Among RCTs, there was a nonstatistically significant reduction in CHD risk with EPA+DHA provision (SRRE=0.94; 95% CI, 0.85-1.05). Subgroup analyses of data from RCTs indicated a statistically significant CHD risk reduction with EPA+DHA provision among higher-risk populations, including participants with elevated triglyceride levels (SRRE=0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98) and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SRRE=0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98). Meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies resulted in a statistically significant SRRE of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92) for higher intakes of EPA+DHA and risk of any CHD event. Results indicate that EPA+DHA may be associated with reducing CHD risk, with a greater benefit observed among higher-risk populations in RCTs. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Enriched Artemia sp. by EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid; C20:5n-3 and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid; C22:6n-3 on Survival Rate of Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agus Suprayudi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient content of natural food is one of the main factors for determining the successful of marine fish fry production.  EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid are two essential fatty acids for marine fish larvae.   Low levels of EPA and DHA content in natural food is major problem in marine fish larval production.  Rotifers fed by Nannochloropsis contained EPA about 0.94%-1.46% and DHA was limited, while in Artemia was 0.27%-0.39% EPA and DHA was undetected (Suprayudi et al., 2002a.  Feeding on supplemented Artemia with EPA 28G and DHA 70G in ratio of 1:1 could not significantly improved its survival rate and larval development time, while growth by length and carapas width at first crab were higher  than  that of fed with unenriched Artemia. Keywords: EPA, DHA, Artemia, swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus   ABSTRAK Kandungan nutrisi dalam pakan alami merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang menentukan keberhasilan produksi benih spesies akuatik laut.  EPA (asam ekosapentanat dan DHA (asam dokosaheksanat merupakan 2 asam lemak esensil bagi larva ikan laut.  Kandungan EPA dan DHA yang rendah pada pakan alami merupakan masalah utama dalam produksi larva ikan laut.  Rotifer yang diberi pakan Nannochloropsis mengandung EPA 0,94%-1,46% dan DHA dengan jumlah yang sangat kecil, sementara Artemia EPA mengandung 0,27%-0,39% dan DHA tidak terdeteksi (Suprayudi et al., 2002a. Pemberian Artemia yang diperkaya dengan EPA 28G dan DHA 70G dengan perbandingan 1:1 tidak memberikan hasil yang signifikan pada tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan waktu perkembangan larva rajungan, sementara pertumbuhan panjang dan lebar karapas lebih baik pada crab 1 dibandingkan dengan yang diberi Artemia tidak diperkaya. Kata kunci: EPA, DHA, Artemia, rajungan, Portunus pelagicus

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Lirong [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Qi, Wentao [Academy of State Administration of Grain, No.11 Baiwanzhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100037 (China); Cheng, Dai; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Xiaohong, E-mail: caoxh@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Chunling, E-mail: wangchunling@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • EPA evoked ROS formation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation, the opening of MPTP and the phosphorylation of JNK. • EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation was depended on production of ROS. • EPA-induced ROS generation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} increase, and JNK activated caused MPTP opening. • The apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C through the MPTP. • EPA induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways. - Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n−3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP

  1. Prostaglandin transporter (OATP2A1/SLCO2A1) contributes to local disposition of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Kamo, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hiroaki; Otake, Katsumasa; Tamai, Ikumi

    2016-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived prostaglandin E3 (PGE3) possesses an anti-inflammatory effect; however, information for transporters that regulate its peri-cellular concentration is limited. The present study, therefore, aimed to clarify transporters involved in local disposition of PGE3. PGE3 uptake was assessed in HEK293 cells transfected with OATP2A1/SLCO2A1, OATP1B1/SLCO1B1, OATP2B1/SLCO2B1, OAT1/SLC22A6, OCT1/SLC22A1 or OCT2/SLC22A2 genes, compared with HEK293 cells transfected with plasmid vector alone (Mock). PGE3 uptake by OATP2A1-expressing HEK293 cells (HEK/2A1) was the highest and followed by HEK/1B1, while no significantly higher uptake of PGE3 than Mock cells was detected by other transporters. Saturation kinetics in PGE3 uptake by HEK/2A1 estimated the Km as 7.202 ± 0.595 μM, which was 22 times higher than that of PGE2 (Km=0.331 ± 0.131 μM). Furthermore, tissue disposition of PGE3 was examined in wild-type (WT) and Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1(-/-)) mice after oral administration of EPA ethyl ester (EPA-E) when they underwent intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (e.g., lipopolysaccharide). PGE3 concentration was significantly higher in the lung, and tended to increase in the colon, stomach, and kidney of Slco2a1(-/-), compared to WT mice. Ratio of PGE2 metabolite 15-keto PGE2 over PGE2 concentration was significantly lower in the lung and colon of Slco2a1(-/-) than that of WT mice, suggesting that PGE3 metabolism is downregulated in Slco2a1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, PGE3 was found to be a substrate of OATP2A1, and local disposition of PGE3 could be regulated by OATP2A1 at least in the lung. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid normalizes hippocampal omega-3 and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, attenuates glial activation and regulates BDNF function in a rodent model of neuroinflammation induced by central interleukin-1β administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yilong; Xu, Min; Kalueff, Allan V; Song, Cai

    2017-05-18

    Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that EPA may attenuate neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglial activation and microglia-produced proinflammatory cytokines, and by enhancing the expression of astrocytes-produced neurotrophins and their receptors. Male Long-Evans rats were fed either palm oil supplemented diet or EPA supplemented diet for 42 days. On day 36 of diet feeding, rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of IL-1β or saline for 7 days. The glial activation, the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), calcium-dependent phospholipase (cPL) A2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, and PUFA profile in the hippocampus were analyzed. IL-1β elevated biomarkers of microglial CD11b and astrocyte GFAP expression, increased the expression of APP, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but reduced BDNF and its receptor (TrKB). IL-1β also lowered n-3 EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but increased n-6 PUFAs and cPLA2 activity in the hippocampus. EPA supplement normalized the n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and cPLA2 levels, inhibited glial activation, reduced APP and TNF-α expression, as well as up-regulated BDNF and TrKB. Supplementation with EPA appear to have potential effects on improving glial over-activation, n3/n6 imbalance and BDNF down-regulation, which contribute to anti-inflammatory and may provide beneficial effects on inflammation-associated disease such as AD.

  3. A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Couture, Patrick; Leclerc, Myriam; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Talbot, Denis; Tchernof, André; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions. We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA. Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Between DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (6.9% ± 1.8% compared with 2.2% ± 1.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations for DHA compared with

  4. Effect of the triacylglycerol structure on volatile components produced during eicosapentaenoic acid autoxidation; Eikosapentaen san no jido sanka ni yori shozuru kihatsusei seibun ni oyobosu toriashiruguriserin kozo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Y.; Aoyagi, T.; Fujimoto, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-09-20

    For clarification of the effects of the triacylglycerol (TG) structure on volatile components produced during the autoxidation of highly unsaturated fatty acids, TG samples containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and palmitic acid (1:2) were autoxidized at 25degC and headspace volatiles were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography using solid phase micro-extraction method. Hydroperoxides were produced much more during this autoxidation of EPA-containing TGs with time and increased the moles of EPA in a single TG molecule. Total amounts of volatile compounds were greatest in the case of 1:2 mixtures of trieicosapentaenoylglycerol and tripalmitoylglycerol (EEE/PPP(1:2)). The major volatile compound was 2,4,7-decatrienal in all unoxidized TGs. Volatile components were essentially the same for unoxidized and autoxidized 1:1 mixtures of dieicosapentaenoyl-palmitoylglycerol and tripalmitoylglycerol (EEP/PPP(1:1)), and dipalmitoyl-eicosapentaenoylglycerol (EPP), whereas many different compounds were produced in autoxidized EEE/PPP(1:2). 1-Propanol, 2-butenal and 2-pentenal could be detected only in autoxidized EEE/PPP(1:2). The TG structure is thus shown to affect the formation of volatile compounds during the autoxidation of EPA. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enhance Dexamethasone Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma Cells by the p53/miR-34a/Bcl-2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianping; Li, Mengshun; Geng, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in multiple myeloma (MM) for its cytotoxic effects on lymphoid cells. However, many MM patients are resistant to dexamethasone, although some can benefit from dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we noted that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhanced the dexamethasone sensitivity of MM cells by inducing cell apoptosis. q-PCR analysis revealed that miR-34a could be significantly induced by PUFAs in U266 and primary MM cells. Transfection with miR-34a antagonist or miR-34a agomir could restore or suppress the dexamethasone sensitivity in U266 cells. Both luciferase reporter assay and Western blot showed that Bcl-2 is the direct target of miR-34a in MM cells. In addition, we observed that PUFAs induced p53 protein expression in MM cells under dexamethasone administration. Furthermore, suppressing p53 by its inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, regulated the miR-34a expression and modulated the sensitivity to dexamethasone in U266 cells. In summary, these results suggest that PUFAs enhance dexamethasone sensitivity to MM cells through the p53/miR-34a axis with a likely contribution of Bcl-2 suppression.

  6. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, François; Assies, Johanna; Jansen, Eugène H. J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients with major

  7. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients

  8. Supplementation with Eicosapentaenoic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Does Not Influence Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Major Depression : A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients

  9. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts......-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0...

  10. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  11. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the third highest fatty acid in total fatty acids. MUFAs were found to be higher than SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in all seasons. Docosahexaenoic acid C22:6 3, linoleic acid C18:2 6 and eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 3 were the highest levels among the PUFAs. The percentages of 3 fatty acid were higher ...

  12. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or aspirin for colorectal adenoma prevention during colonoscopic surveillance in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mark A; Sandell, Anna C; Montgomery, Alan A; Logan, Richard F A; Clifford, Gayle M; Rees, Colin J; Loadman, Paul M; Whitham, Diane

    2013-07-29

    The naturally-occurring omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ω-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial 'efficacy' study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55-73 year-old patients, who have been identified as 'high risk' (detection of ≥5 small adenomas or ≥3 adenomas with at least one being ≥10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and 'advanced') per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as 'intermediate risk' for future surveillance. Exploratory end-points include levels of

  13. Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takahiro; Tsubata, Hideo; Hashimoto, Naoko; Takabe, Michinori; Miyata, Taishi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yamashita, Soichiro; Oishi, Shogo; Osue, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Kiminobu; Tsukishiro, Yasue; Onishi, Tetsuari; Shimane, Akira; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Ohara, Takeshi; Kawai, Hiroya; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-26

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) regulate postprandial insulin secretion, and correct postprandial glucose and lipid abnormalities. However, the effects of 6-month EPA treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction remain unknown in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomized 107 newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD to receive either 1800 mg/day of EPA (EPA group, n = 53) or no EPA (n = 54). Cookie meal testing (carbohydrates: 75 g, fat: 28.5 g) and endothelial function testing using fasting-state flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was changes in postprandial glycemic and triglyceridemic control and secondary outcomes were improvement of insulin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. After 6 months, the EPA group exhibited significant improvements in EPA/arachidonic acid, fasting triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The EPA group also exhibited significant decreases in the incremental TG peak, area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial TG, incremental glucose peak, AUC for postprandial glucose, and improvements in glycometabolism categorization. No significant changes were observed for hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels. The EPA group exhibited a significant increase in AUC-immune reactive insulin/AUC-plasma glucose ratio (which indicates postprandial insulin secretory ability) and significant improvements in FMD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that decreases in the TG/HDL-C ratio and incremental TG peak were independent predictors of FMD improvement in the EPA group. EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DHA-rich fish oil containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day. Subjects performed five sets of six maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises. Changes in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness as well as serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in blood were assessed before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. MVC was significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group at 2-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). ROM was also significantly greater in the EPA group than in the PL group at 1-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). At only 3 days after exercise, muscle soreness of the brachialis was significantly greater in the PL group than in the EPA group (p < 0.05), with a concomitant increase in serum IL-6 levels in the PL group. Eight-week EPA + DHA supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited ROM after exercise. The supplementation also attenuates muscle soreness and elevates cytokine level, but the effect is limited.

  15. Inhibition of Breast Cancer-lnduced Bone Pain, Metastasis, and Osteolysis in Nude Mice by LOVAZA and DHA Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    231BO breast cancer cells showed significant reduction of tumor cell invasion by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Based on... eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3), protects against inflammation, osteoclastogenesis, bone loss, autoimmune... eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cells (5 x 104) were plated on 24 well plate Matrigel inserts and allowed to transmigrate for 20

  16. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  18. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  19. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, Daan; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, D.; Schouten, E. G.; Geleijnse, J. M.; de Goede, J.; Griep, L. M. Oude; Teitsma-Jansen, A. M.; Waterham, E.; Giltay, E. J.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Deckers, J. W.; Katan, M. B.; Zock, P. L.; de Boer, M. J.; de Leeuw, H.; Boersma, E.; Jukema, J. W.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; van der Kuip, D. A. M.; Thomas, K.; Rivero-Ayerza, M.; Vollaard, A. M.; Fieren, C. J.; van Kempen, L. H. J.; Bakx, A.; Sedney, M. I.; Hertzberger, D. P.; Michels, H. R.; de Rotte, A. A.; van Rugge, R. P.; Klootwijk, A.; Verheul, J. A.; Nicastia, D. M.; de Medina, R. Robles; van Rossem, M.; Leenders, C. M.; van der Meer, P.; Uppal, S. C.; Blok, J. G.; Visser, R. F.; Mosterd, A.; Umans, V. A. W. M.; Reichert, C. L. A.; Louwerenburg, J. W.; Liem, A. H.; van Rees, C.; Kirchhof, C. J. H. J.; Konst, L.; Drost, H.; van Liebergen, R. A. M.; Polak, P. E.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Schroeder-Tanka, J.; van Kesteren, H.; van den Berg, B. J.; Bronzwaer, P. N. A.; van Loenhout, T. T.; de Milliano, P.; Bloemberg, B. P. M.; Okma, L.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Grootaarts, W.; van Rumpt, D.; Hulshof, P. J. M.; van der Struijs-van de Putte, H. M.; Versloot, P.; Hovenier, R.; de Vries, J. H. M.; Siebelink, E.; Rosier, O. E.; Zevenbergen, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from prospective cohort studies and randomized, controlled trials have provided evidence of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effect of the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and

  20. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  1. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  3. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  4. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  5. Defining the Molecular Actions of Dietary Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer: Selective Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    actions of linoleic acid (LAA), an omega-6 fatty acid , and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid , on breast cancer tumors have been...results from treatment of either LAA, an n-6 fatty acid , or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 fatty acid , could be inhibited by GW. For these...Research and Treatment, 2007 • Allred, C.D., Talbert, D.R., Southard, R.C, and Kilgore, M.W. PPARγ1 as a molecular target of eicosapentaenoic acid

  6. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  7. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  8. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  9. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  10. N-acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids – From fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs), in particular a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of

  11. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  12. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  14. The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA...

  15. Fatty Acid Content Of The Smoked, Fresh-Water Fish Clairas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the healthful n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are underrepresented in the diets of many people who live in the hot semi-arid regions of West Africa, we were interested in knowing the fatty acid content and composition of the oil of Clairas gariepinus ...

  16. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  17. Aristolochic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad. Aristolochic ... individuals with kidney or renal disease who consumed botanical products containing aristolochic acids. Animal Studies The findings ...

  18. The Impact of the 6:3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio on Intermediate Markers of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    acid to n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid +docosahexaenoic acid (17.6 pmol/L vs. 24.9 pmol/L; pɘ.01). Among... eicosapentaenoic acid ; and DHA, docosahexaenoic acid . *18:2n-6+18:3n-6+20:2n-6+20:3n-6+20:4n-6+22:4n-6+22:5n-6 †18:3n-3+20:4n-3+20:5n-3+22:5n-3+22:6n-3...polyunsaturated fatty acid ; LA, linoleic acid ; AA, arachidonic acid ; ALA, alpha-linolenic acid ; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid ; and DHA, docosahexaenoic acid

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic...... by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation...... or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects...

  20. Zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert; Burkinshaw, Roger; Winter, Matthew; Neville-Webbe, Helen; Lester, Jim; Woodward, Emma; Brown, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Both bone metastases and fragility fractures due to bone loss result in considerable morbidity affecting quality of life and independence as well as placing complex demands on healthcare resources. Zoledronic acid is a widely used intravenous bisphosphonate that reduces this skeletal morbidity in both benign and malignant conditions. The incidence, clinical importance and prevention strategies to minimize side effects associated with the use of zoledronic acid are discussed with a particular focus on use in oncology where intensive monthly scheduling is required. This potentially increases the risk for adverse events over the 6-12 monthly administration used to treat benign bone diseases. A detailed understanding of the generally favorable safety profile of zoledronic acid, but particularly the potential for renal dysfunction and osteonecrosis of the jaw. When compared to many other therapies, especially in the cancer setting, the severity of adverse events related to zoledronic acid is generally mild and, with the exception of the acute phase response causing transient fever, myalgia and bone pain, side effects are infrequent. Thus, the benefits of treatment with zoledronic acid within its licensed indications almost always outweigh the risks.

  1. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  2. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  4. The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Adonis; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease by discussing key epidemiologic and placebo-controlled studies in people with and without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. In addition, studies on the antitriglyceridemic, antihypertensive, hemostatic, antiarrhythmic, and antiatherogenic properties of omega-3 fatty acids were examined. Lastly, we discussed current dietary and safety recommendations regarding fish and fish oil capsules as stated by the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Environmental Protection Agency. We found that omega-3 fatty acids have shown to significantly reduce coronary mortality and sudden death in people without prior cardiovascular disease and reduce all-cause death and cardiac mortality in secondary prevention studies. Studies on stroke are still unclear and more studies need to focus on stroke subtypes. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids might be the result of their ability to reduce triglyceride levels, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, arrhythmia, and atherogenesis. Currently, the general public is recommended to consume two fatty fish meals per week (0.3-0.5 grams per day eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Pregnant mothers and children should refrain from eating fish high in methylmercury levels while limiting their consumption of other fish varieties to 12 ounces per week. Patients with coronary heart disease should have 1 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas patients with hypertriglyceridemia should take 3 to 5 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under a physician's supervision.

  5. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians are far from desirable

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Kock Wai Ng; Sivalingam Nalliah; Azlinda Hamid; Siew Rong Wong; Sim Ling Chee; Cheryl Andrea Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews available reports on theomega-6 (linoleic acid, LA) and omega-3 fatty acid[alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) + eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid) intakes amongstMalaysians against Malaysian Recommended NutrientIntakes (RNI), focussing particularly on pregnant andlactating women because of the availability of data forthese latter vulnerable groups. Overall, the omega-6 andomega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians arepoor and far from desirable. The nutritional...

  6. Salicylhydroxamic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as topological indices, can be used for establishing QSAR of interest in pharmacology. A number of successful QSAR studies were made 4 based on Wms by means of which we can determine the ways in which the structural features of SHA and SHA derivatives influence the course of nucleic acid synthesis in a tumour ...

  7. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  8. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish en incidence of heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study.Methods and resultsThe

  9. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on reproductive output and larval growth of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, I.E.; Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-spawning condition of adult bivalves is influenced by quantity and quality of available food. For bivalves, the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5(n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6(n-3) are presumed to determine the nutritional value of

  10. Maleopimaric acid acetic acid solvate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Yong-hong; Guo, Xiao-xin; Hu, Li-hong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C24H32O5·C2H4O2, is a derivative of abietic acid. The two fused and unbridged cyclohexane rings have chair conformations and the anhydride ring is planar. Of the other three six-membered rings, two have boat conformations and one has a twist-boat conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  11. Profiling of Omega 3 fatty acids from marine green algae Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Seeralan; Murugesan S.; Narender Sivaswamy S

    2016-01-01

    The applications of Omega-3 fatty acids for human health are rapidly expanding, which necessitates exploring alternative sources of fish. Single cell oils are now widely accepted in the market place and there is a growing awareness of the health benefits of PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The high prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of omega 3 f...

  12. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  13. Trachydiscus minutus, a New Biotechnological Source of Eicosapentaenoic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Petránková, Mirka; Cepák, Vladislav; Přibyl, Pavel; Sigler, Karel; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 265-269 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : MICROALGA ISOCHRYSIS-GALBANA * NANNOCHLOROPSIS SP * PHAEODACTYLUM-TRICORNUTUM Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  14. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2017-01-01

    the strongest changes in allele frequency since the Bronze Age show associations with expression changes and multiple lipid-related phenotypes. Furthermore, the selected alleles are associated with a decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids among Europeans...... to agriculture, resulting in a lower intake of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but a higher intake of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid.......FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe...

  15. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the omega-6 PUFA concentration of WBT was fairly low, total omega-3 PUFA concentration was significantly higher compared with omega-6 PUFA. In contrast to WBT, the FRT contained high omega-6 and low omega-3 PUFA concentrations. Linolenic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids and ...

  16. Growth inhibition of Monodus subterraneus by free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.; Miazek, K.; Willemsen, S.M.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monodus subterraneus is a microalga, which is known for its high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5omega3) content. To produce EPA commercially, high volumetric productivities of microalgae are required. These high productivities can be reached in flat panel photobioreactors with small optical paths

  17. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  19. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  20. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and the incidence of heart failure: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Brouwer, I.A.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study. Methods and results: The

  1. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and the incidence of heart failure: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study.Methods and resultsThe

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    OpenAIRE

    Peiru Wang; Min Sun; Jianwei Ren; Zora Djuric; Gary J. Fisher; Xiuli Wang; Yong Li

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (

  3. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  4. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  5. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  6. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  7. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  8. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  9. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: Pooling project of 19 cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...

  11. Quality and fatty acid profile of the oil extracted from fish waste (head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine lipid contains long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3). Consumptions of these PUFAs have been perceived to be important in human nutrition, health and disease prevention. Tuna, the important industrial ...

  12. Enriched eggs as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to enrich eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by using plant oils and fish oil as dietary supplements in laying hens’ feed. The focus was put on the effect of the daily consumption of 100 g of egg yolk, i.e. 100 g of egg mass, on the human health. The 1st group of laying hens was fed a diet containing soybean and fish oil, and the 2nd group was given feed containing a combination of linseed, rapeseed, soybean, and fish oils. Eggs laid by the 2nd group contained 4.73% α-linolenic acid, 0.20% eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.37% docosahexaenoic acid (% of total fatty acids in yolk lipids, P < 0.001, which marks an increase of × 4.04 for α-linolenic acid, × 3.33 for eicosapentaenoic acid, and × 1.75 for docosahexaenoic acid compared to eggs laid by the 1st group. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs of the 2nd group were × 2.8 higher than in the 1st first group. Calculated per 100 g of eggs of the 2nd group, the intake for the human body corresponds to 435 mg α-linolenic acid, 18.43 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, and 218.2 mg docosahexaenoic acid.

  13. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We

  14. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  15. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  16. Yogurt as a Vehicle for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Rognlien, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    Consumer interest in supplementation with healthy omega-3 fatty acids (Ï 3 FA) has led to increased research in fortification of popular foods with these healthy fats. Yogurt, which is already popular, offers a functional food matrix to fortify with Ï 3 FA. Fish oil, a major source of two important long chain Ï 3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an excellent source of Ï 3 FA enrichment into foods but brings problems of oxidation and off-flavors or odors when ...

  17. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  18. Metabolically Engineered Fungal Cells With Increased Content Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of fatty acids and particularly to the production of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in genetically engineered fungal cells, in particular, to metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... cells with increased content of ARA and EPA. The invention especially involves improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through various over-expression of e.g. cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase involved in fatty acid desaturation, and heterologous expression of cytochrome b5...... and cytochrome b5 reductase and expression of heterologous fatty acid synthases....

  19. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini

    2018-03-25

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health. Even though many health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported in the literature, there are also some controversies about their efficacy and certain benefits to human health.

  1. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  2. Effect of nitrogen limitation on lipid and fatty acid composition of three marine microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Fosse, Hilde Karoline

    2016-01-01

    The feed used in the aquaculture industry today uses mainly fish oil as lipid source, but this fish oil will be a limiting resource if the industry shall expand and meet the future demand of food to a growing world population. Lipids from marine microalgae can be a potential replacement of fish oil in feed used in the aquaculture industry. Marine microalgae species are a natural source of lipids, and important sources of the fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DH...

  3. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  4. Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed corelated with fatty acids content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Frunză

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed in terms of content of fatty acids. The biological material consisted of 42 rabbits (17 females and 15 males from which were collected Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Triceps Brachii muscles immediately after slaughter. The samples were vacuum packaged, frozen at -80 0C, and immediately after thawing have been minced and freeze-dried at -110 0C (using lyophilizer CoolSafe Scanvac. The content in fatty acids was followed through NIRS methodology, using FOSS 6500 spectrophotometer, by gender. Was determined: the saturated fatty acids: C14:0 (Myristic acid, C15: 0 (Pentadecanoic acid, C16: 0 (Palmitic acid, C17: 0 (Heptadecanoic acid and C18: 0 (Stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acids: Palmitoleic acid (C16: 1n-7, Vaccenic acid, cis-isomer of oleic acid (C18: 1n-7 and oleic acid (C18: 1n-9 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 and ω6: C18: 2n-6 (linoleic acid, C18: 3n-3 (Linolenic acid, C20: 2n-6 (Eicosadienoic acid, C20: 3n-6 (Eicosatrienoic acid, C20: 4n-6 (arachidonic acid, C20: 5n-3 (Eicosapentaenoic acid, C22: 4n-6 (Docosatetraenoic acid, C22: 5n-3 (Docosopentaenoic acid and C22: 6n- 3 (docosahexaenoic acid. The results were statistically analyzed, including analysis of variance (ANOVA and was observed significant differences between gender.

  5. Plasma Free Fatty Acids in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozturk, Ozlem; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Sertoglu, Erdim; Aydin, Hakan; Yilmaz, Ali; Cemal Yenen, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. Objective We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women Design Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography. Results Statistically differences was not seen between the groups with maternal age, gestational age, or plasma levels of EPA, DHA, and AA. Statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with plasma levels of C20 and C22(pHyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:28730165

  6. Plasma Free Fatty Acids in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozturk, Ozlem; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Sertoglu, Erdim; Aydin, Hakan; Yilmaz, Ali; Cemal Yenen, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women. Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistically differences was not seen between the groups with maternal age, gestational age, or plasma levels of EPA, DHA, and AA. Statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with plasma levels of C20 and C22(p Hyperemesis gravidarum.

  7. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  8. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Chem. 1998a, 46, 3473-3479). Addition of each of the unsaturated fatty acids: palmitoleic acid (16:1, n - 7), linoleic acid (C18:2, it - 6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, it - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n. - 3) to fresh minced salmon changed the sensory perception and increased...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...

  9. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by o...

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids are "building blocks" that join together to form proteins. If you have one of these disorders, your body may have trouble breaking down certain amino acids. Or there may be a problem getting the ...

  11. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in blood Images Blood test Uric acid crystals References Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  12. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  13. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002410.htm Pantothenic acid and biotin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water- ...

  14. Acid-fast stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  15. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  16. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  17. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  18. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  20. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid Monday, 01 January 2018 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  3. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  5. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  6. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  7. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  8. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  9. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  10. Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have beneficial health effects, but the molecular mediators of these effects are not well-characterized. Oxygenated n-3 FAs (oxylipins) may be an important class of mediators. Members of this chemic...

  11. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak...

  12. Optimization of cultivation conditions for fatty acid composition and EPA production in the eustigmatophycean microalga Trachydiscus minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Přibyl, Pavel; Kohoutková, J.; Kaštánek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2014), s. 181-190 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Eicosapentaenoic acid * polyunsaturated fatty acids * Trachydiscus minutus Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.559, year: 2014

  13. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  14. Amino acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  15. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth...

  16. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  17. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  18. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  19. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ω-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 series. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  1. Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell−1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell−1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03–40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6–20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and á-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6ù3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (Ä8-D, Ä9-D, Ä12-D, Ä15-D, Ä17-D, Ä6-D, Ä5-D, and Ä4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

  2. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  3. Lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower docosahexaenoic acid in men with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincke, Elda; Cosyns, Paul; Christophe, Armand B; De Vriese, Stephanie; Maes, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in plasma phospholipid fatty acids may play a role in aggressive behavior. Recently, it was suggested that a dysfunctional serotonergic turnover in the brain may be involved in the etiopathology of pedophilia. Depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may cause alterations in the serotonergic system that may be related to pedophilia and aggression. This study examines the serum phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA fractions in pedophilia. Twenty-seven pedophilic men and eighteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. In pedophilia there was a significant depletion of the C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), total n-3 fractions and an increase in the total n-6/n-3 and C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 (arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) ratios. Using the NEO Personality Inventory, lower DHA in pedophiles is related to more impulsiveness and lower agreeableness (trust, altruism, straightforwardness, compliance) and conscientiousness (self-discipline). The results of this study suggest that a depletion of the serum phospholipid n-3 higher unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and, in particular, of DHA may take part in the pathophysiology of pedophilia. One hypothesis is that a depletion of n-3 HUFAs and DHA may cause alterations in the serotonergic turnover, which are related to impulse discontrol and aggression-hostility, behaviors which are associated with pedophilia.

  4. The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could therefore be expected to play a role in cancer treatment. This review focuses on the role of ω-3 PUFAs in tumourigenesis and cancer cachexia. Studies indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation may promote arrest of tumour growth and reduce cell proliferation.

  5. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  6. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  7. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.

    1964-01-01

    De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

  8. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Young, Lindsay R; Picklo, Matthew J; Sauter, Edward R; Qin, Wenyi; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2012-01-01

    Compared with diets high in fat, low-fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low-fat (LF) (20% fat) and an LF high-omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3) (23% fat with 3% as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) would enhance n-3 composition of plasma phospholipid fatty acid and reduce urinary prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) relative to a high-fat diet (HF) (40% fat) and that these changes would be associated with alterations in δ5 desaturase (D5D) and δ6 desaturase (D6D) activity. Phospholipid fatty acids and urinary PGE(2) were measured, and D5D and D6D activity indices calculated in a crossover trial in 17 postmenopausal women fed each of 3 test diets (HF, LF, and LFn3) for 8-week feeding periods. Desaturase activity indices were calculated as D5D, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and D6D, 20:3n-6/18:2n-6. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, and total n-3 fatty acids increased, whereas linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased with consumption of LFn3. The LF resulted in enhanced arachidonic acid and DHA. High fat reduced D6D, whereas both HF and LF increased D5D. Urinary PGE(2) was reduced in response to both the LF and LFn3 diets. Low-fat diets, with or without long-chain n-3 fatty acids, promote positive health effects due in part to favorable alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and modification in desaturase activity indices, suggesting that the type and amount of fat consumed are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  10. Recovery of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  11. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, O.

    2006-10-01

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  12. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  16. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of marine snail Rapana venosa meat, visceral mass and operculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fenglei; Xing, Ronge; Wang, Xueqin; Peng, Quancai; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    Rapana venosa (Rv), an important marine snail, demonstrates an increasing nutritional and economic importance. However, there is still limited information available on their nutritional composition. The present study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of different body parts of Rv, aiming for its better application and research. The operculum contained a high amount of protein and flavor amino acids. The edible tissues, including meat and visceral mass, were valuable sources of essential amino acids (EAA) apart from methionine and cysteine. In addition, the meat contained high amount of taurine. Fatty acid analysis indicated that the edible tissues contained high amounts of ω3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6ω3), and had a low ω6/ω3 fatty acid ratio. Interestingly, significantly higher concentrations of most nutritional elements such as fat, EAA, EPA and DHA, were found in the visceral mass compared to those in the meat. The operculum of Rv may became a very interesting source for some protein and flavor peptide development, and the edible parts of Rv may be utilized for special dietary applications requiring high amounts of taurine, EPA, DHA and a lower ω6/ω3 fatty acid ratio. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Prevention of ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation by omega 3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Billman, G E; Hallaq, H; Leaf, A

    1994-01-01

    A specially prepared dog model of myocardial infarction was used to test the efficacy of the long-chain polyunsaturated fish oil omega 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acids to prevent ischemia-induced malignant cardiac arrhythmias. The dogs had sustained a prior experimental myocardial infarction from ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and a hydraulic cuff was implanted around the left circumflex artery at that operation. After r...

  18. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  19. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  20. Science of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tsuguo

    1992-01-01

    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  2. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  5. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlor...

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  9. Acid dissociation characteristics of humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochiyama, Osamu; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Inoue, Yasushi

    1995-01-01

    Based on the results from potentiometric titrations carried out on polyacrylic acid and some commercially available humic acids, the equation for the proton dissociation of weak polymeric acids is proposed to be K app (H + )α/(1-α) = K 1/2 {(1-α)/α}((Na + )/(Na + ) s ), where α is the degree of dissociation, K 1/2 is the dissociation constant at α = 1/2, and the brackets with subscript s denote the concentration at the surface of the polymer. This equation has been derived on the assumptions: (i) Each polymer molecule is a polybasic acid (H N R N ) having different acidic sites with K values from K 1 to K N . (ii) Binding energies of protons on these sites are all equal. (iii) The ratios of the dissociation constants of H N-i R N i- and H N-j R N j- is expressed by K i /K j = {(N-i+1)/i}/{(N-j+1)/j} since the probabilities to release or bind a proton are proportional to the numbers of protons or numbers of available anionic sites on the polymer. (iv) The effective concentration of protons at the surface of the polymer ((H + ) s ) is related by (H + ) s /(H + ) = (Na + ) s /(Na + ), where (Na + ) s can be estimated by the relation, (Na + ) s = (Cl - ) s + (R - ) s (where (R - ) s Σi(H N-i R N i- )). This leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Cl - ) s , which in turn leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Na + ) at high ionic strength and (Na + ) s ≅ (R - ) s = C R α at low ionic strength. (author)

  10. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  11. Production of shikimic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  13. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  14. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  15. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  16. NGF blocks polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in n-3 fatty acid-supplemented PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msika, Ora; Brand, Annette; Crawford, Michael A; Yavin, Ephraim

    2012-07-01

    Regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in proliferating and NGF-differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells deficient in n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) was studied. A dose- and time-dependent increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) glycerophospholipids (GPL) via the elongation/desaturation pathway following alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) supplements was observed. That was accompanied by a marked reduction of eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid 20:3n-9), an index of PUFA deficiency. EPA supplements were equally effective converted to 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. On the other hand, supplements of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) were not effectively converted into higher n-6 PUFA intermediates nor did they impair elongation/desaturation of ALA. Co-supplements of DHA along with ALA did not interfere with 20:5n-3 biosynthesis but reduced further elongation to 22-hydrocarbon PUFA intermediates. A marked decrease in the newly synthesized 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 following ALA or EPA supplements was observed after nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation. NGF also inhibited the last step in 22:5n-6 formation from LNA. These results emphasize the importance of overcoming n-3 PUFA deficiency and raise the possibility that growth factor regulation of the last step in PUFA biosynthesis may constitute an important feature of neuronal phenotype acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent openers of human M-channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Karlsson, Urban; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth

    2016-01-01

    the threshold current to evoke action potentials in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid facilitated opening of the human M-channel, comprised of the heteromeric human KV 7.2/3 channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes......AIM: Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to reduce neuronal excitability, in part by promoting inactivation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. Effects on neuronal potassium channels are less explored and experimental data ambiguous. The aim of this study was to investigate...... anti-excitable effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the neuronal M-channel, important for setting the resting membrane potential in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons. METHODS: Effects of fatty acids and fatty-acid analogues on mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and on the human KV 7...

  18. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  19. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  20. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  1. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  2. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  3. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: Design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Katan, M.B.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  4. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Schouten, Evert G.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Teitsma-Jansen, Anna M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kromhout, Daan; Kromhout, D.; Schouten, E. G.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Giltay, E. J.; de Goede, J.; Oude Griep, L. M.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Mulder, J. W.; Zock, P. L.; de Boer, M. J.; de Leeuw, H.; Boersma, E.; Jukema, J. W.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; van der Kuip, D. A. M.; Thomas, K.; Rivero-Ayerza, M.; Vollaard, A. M.; Fieren, C. J.; van Kempen, L. H. J.; Bakx, A.; Sedney, M. I.; Hertzberger, D. P.; Michels, H. R.; de Rotte, A. A.; van Rugge, R. P.; Klootwijk, A.; Verheul, J. A.; Nicastia, D. M.; Robles de Medina, R.; van Rossem, M.; Leenders, C. M.; van der Meer, P.; Uppal, S. C.; Blok, J. G.; Visser, R. F.; Mosterd, A.; Umans, V. A.; Reichert, C. L. A.; Louwerenburg, J. W.; Liem, A. H.; van Rees, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  5. Effect of a protein and energy dense n-3 fatty acid enriched oral supplement on loss of weight and lean tissue in cancer cachexia: a randomised double blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fearon, K. C. H.; von Meyenfeldt, M. F.; Moses, A. G. W.; van Geenen, R.; Roy, A.; Gouma, D. J.; Giacosa, A.; van Gossum, A.; Bauer, J.; Barber, M. D.; Aaronson, N. K.; Voss, A. C.; Tisdale, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: N-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may possess anticachectic properties. This trial compared a protein and energy dense supplement enriched with n-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (experimental: E) with an isocaloric isonitrogenous control supplement (C) for their effects on

  6. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  7. Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veleba, J.; Kopecký Jr., J.; Janovská, Petra; Kuda, Ondřej; Horáková, Olga; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Hájek, M.; Škoch, A.; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Rossmeisl, Martin; Olza, J.; de Castro, S. G.; Calder, P. C.; Gardlo, Alžběta; Fišerová, E.; Jensen, J.; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan; Pelikánová, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, Dec 2 (2015), s. 52 ISSN 1743-7075 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13763 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : eicosapentaenoic acid * docosahexaenoic acid * indirect calorimetry * meal test * humans * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2015

  8. Arachidonic Acid, but Not Omega-3 Index, Relates to the Prevalence and Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Population-Based Study of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S; Kristensen, Katrine L; Burillo, Elena

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models support dietary omega-3 fatty acids protection against abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but clinical data are scarce. The sum of red blood cell proportions of the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, known as omega-3 index, is a valid surrogate for long-te...

  9. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  10. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.

  11. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  12. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  13. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  14. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids through a vein (IV) Magnesium and calcium solutions to neutralize the acid Medicines ...

  15. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  16. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production. In one step of metabolism, ...

  17. Production of polyunsaturated fatty acid-by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Toshiaki (Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    Recently researches on the physiological activity of poly unsaturated fatty acid have been pushed forward, and the importance of poly unsaturated fatty acid has become clear. Accordingly, development of a method to produce it at low cost and in large quantities is demanded. This report explains the present situation of the development of producing {gamma}-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-{gamma}-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid by micro organisms. Lately GLA was successfully produced by mortierella isabellina of conjugation fungi, and this method is much more productive than the conventional method. In this case, as the amount of by-product, linolenic acid, is small, purification by Urea Adducts is easy.GLA of 97.5% purity can, therefore, be recovered at the rate of 46%, and it is already commercialized. Researches on other three acids are also active, and fungus species of high productivity is reported. At present, only GLA is put to practical use, and much is expected of the future development. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  20. Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

    2013-11-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon. ©2013 AACR.

  1. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  2. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  3. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  4. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Differentially Alter Oxylipin Profiles in Mouse Periuterine Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Yuriko; Belda, Benjamin J; Pedersen, Theresa L; Fedor, Dawn M; Mackey, Bruce E; Newman, John W; Kelley, Darshan S

    2017-05-01

    Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting. We examined the impact of a 4-week feeding of 0, 0.5, and 1.5% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the presence and absence of 0.5% CLA on AT oxylipin profiles in female C57BL/6N mice. Esterified oxylipins in AT derived from linoleic acid (LNA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA, and putative from CLA were quantified. CLA containing diets reduced AT mass by ~62%. Compared with the control diet, the DHA diet elevated concentrations of EPA-and DHA-derived alcohols and epoxides and LNA-derived alcohols, reduced ARA-derived alcohols, ketones, epoxides, and 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F 1α (P oxylipins, respectively. Thus, CLA elevated proinflammatory oxylipins while DHA increased anti-inflammatory oxylipins and diminished concentration of CLA-induced pro-inflammatory oxylipins in AT.

  5. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  6. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  7. Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Dutch bovine milk fat and their contribution to human dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Valenberg, H J F; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J; Bovenhuis, H; Feskens, E J M

    2013-07-01

    Weekly samples representative of Dutch milk were analyzed for concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA). Concentrations of the n-3 FA α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosatetraenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were 0.495±0.027, 0.041±0.004, 0.067±0.005, and 0.086±0.008g per 100g of fat, respectively, whereas docosahexaenoic acid was absent or present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat. Concentrations of the n-6 FA linoleic acid (LeA), γ-linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were 1.428±0.068, 0.070±0.007, 0.066±0.004, and 0.089±0.004g per 100g of fat, respectively; adrenic acid was present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat, whereas docosapentaenoic acid was absent in all samples. The concentrations of ALA and LeA were significantly higher in spring and summer, compared with autumn and winter. The concentrations of all other ALA- and LeA-derived n-3 and n-6 FA were not significantly different between seasons. The contribution of milk fat to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was calculated for human consumption levels in different countries. Milk fat contributed between 10.7 and 14.1% to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and between 23.5 and 34.2% to the intake of docosapentaenoic acid; whereas docosahexaenoic acid contribution was marginal. Arachidonic acid from milk fat contributed between 10.5 and 18.8% to the human intake of n-6 FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  9. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  10. Biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids by hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI GHASEMI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA metabolism leads to many diseases. In this study, producers of γ-linolenic acid (GLA, arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA were selected: Cephalosporium humicola IE (on glucose, dry biomass – 14 g/l, total lipids – 18-20%, GLA in lipids – 12.0%, Mucor globosus 11 (respectively – 15 g/l, 18% and 5% and Pythium irregulare LX (on glucose, dry biomass – 14.5 g/l, total lipids – 18-20%, 9.2 and 7.8% of ARA and EPA, respectively. On crude oil as the only source of carbon, the amount of biomass of the specified fungi decreases by 3-4 times, whereas the quantity of lipids and highly unsaturated fatty acids increases in four and 1.2 - 3.4 times, respectively. The maximum γ-linolenic acid in M. globosus and C. humicola was detected at neutral рН. Optimum volume of inoculate was 2.0-4.0%, nitrogen source NH4NO3, a carbon-nitrogen ratio 34:1. For biosynthesis of ARA and EPA by P. irregulare, the optimum nitrogen source was NH4Cl, рН 7.0- 8.0 and С/N - 50:1 at 28°C. The process of adaptation to stressful situation under crude oil motivated the increase of the rate of membrane phospholipids with high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%).

  12. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  13. Effect of different light spectra on growth and fatty acid composition in the eustigmatophycean microalga Trachydiscus minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Přibyl, Pavel; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Kohoutková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3-4 (2016), 103-115 ISSN 1314-6394 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : eicosapentaenoic acid * light * Trachydiscus minutus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (UCHP-M)

  14. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of Gammarus lacustris inhabiting lakes with and without fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhutova, O N; Sharapova, T A; Kalachova, G S; Shulepina, S P; Gladyshev, M I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a biotic factor--the presence of predatory fish in water--on the composition and content of fatty acids in crustaceans was studied in the populations of the lake amphipod Gammarus lacustris from two lakes with fish and three lakes without fish. It was found that, at an overall increase in the quantity and quality of food resources (namely, increase in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the biomass), the relative rate of DHA accumulation in gammarids in the lakes without fish is higher than in the lake with fish.

  15. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y

    2017-05-01

    We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

  16. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  17. Acid rain in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  18. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  19. 2-(Benzylcarbamoylnicotinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cao Mao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H12N2O3, the pyridine ring is twisted with respect to the phenyl ring and the carboxylic acid group at angles of 37.1 (5 and 8.1 (3°, respectively; the phenyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 41.4 (1° with the mean plane of the C—NH—C=O fragment. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs between the carboxylic acid and carbonyl groups. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into a supramolecular chain running along the a-axis direction.

  20. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Mickal, V.; Racek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10 B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  1. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  2. Fatty Acid Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea with Special Reference to Acyl Glycerides, Polar Lipids, and Free Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Foseid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp.. The highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions with 590.6 ug/g dry weight and 100.9 ug/g dry weight for blade and stipe, respectively. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. The blade had the highest PUFA/SFA ratio compared to stipe (1.02 versus 0.76 and the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (0.8 versus 3.5. This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries, this can be of importance for production of different health products.

  3. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  4. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  5. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  6. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  7. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  8. Effects of global change factors on fatty acids and mycosporine-like amino acid production in Chroothece richteriana (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silvera, Daniel; Pérez, Sandra; Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina; López-Jiménez, José Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Under natural conditions, Chroothece richteriana synthesizes a fairly high proportion of fatty acids. However, nothing is known about how environmental changes affect their production, or about the production of protective compounds, when colonies develop under full sunshine with high levels of UV radiation. In this study, wild colonies of C. richteriana were subjected to increasing temperature, conductivity, ammonium concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and UV radiations to assess the potential changes in lipid composition and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) concentration. The PERMANOVA analysis detected no differences for the whole fatty acid profile among treatments, but the percentages of α-linolenic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids increased at the lowest assayed temperature. The percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with lowering temperature. γ-linolenic and arachidonic acids decreased with increasing conductivity, and a high arachidonic acid concentration was related with increased conductivity. The samples exposed to UVB radiation showed higher percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids, at the expense of saturated fatty acids. MAAs accumulation increased but not significantly at the lowest conductivity, and also with the highest PAR and UVR exposure, while ammonium and temperature had no effect. The observed changes are probably related with adaptations of both membrane fluidity to low temperature, and metabolism to protect cells against UV radiation damage. The results suggest the potential to change lipid composition and MAAs concentration in response to environmental stressful conditions due to climate change, and highlight the interest of the species in future research about the biotechnological production of both compound types. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Associations among Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status, Anxiety, and Mental Toughness in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B; Madrigal, Leilani A

    2017-01-01

    Poor omega-3 fatty acid status has been linked to anxiety in the general population, but scarce data are available describing omega-3 fatty acid levels in athletes and their associations with anxiety and mental toughness. Whole blood samples were obtained from 54 female collegiate athletes and analyzed for fatty acids as a part of this cross-sectional observational study. Participants also completed a food frequency questionnaire on the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)-2, and Mental Toughness Scale (MTS). Measures were collected during the athletes' off-season. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine the associations between fatty acid levels and psychological scores. Blood levels of the HS-Omega-3 Index® (rho = -0.32, p = 0.02), eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.40, p = 0.003), and docosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.33, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Likewise, dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.38, p = 0.007) and docosahexaenoic acid (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Blood docosapentaenoic acid was positively correlated with MTS (rho = 0.27, p = 0.049). None of the dietary or blood fatty acids were significantly correlated with SAS-2 scores. Both blood and dietary omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with general but not sport-specific anxiety in female collegiate athletes during an off-season period. Randomized trials should be conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anxiety and mental toughness in athletes.

  10. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  11. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  12. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  13. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  14. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  15. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  16. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  17. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  18. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  19. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...

  20. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (L-Trp), were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). All the metal ions Cu(II),. Ni(II) and .... respective free amino acids show characteristic band positions, shifts and intensities, which can be correlated to ..... Financial support from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi to Prof P Rabindra. Reddy is gratefully ...

  1. [Acid hydrolysis of mandioca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, A J; Schneiderman, B; Baruffaldi, R; Nacco, R

    1975-01-01

    The influence of time of hydrolysis, pression of the process, ratio of mass of flour and volume and concentration of the acid solution was studied in the hydrolytic processes for Cassava flour. The aim was to obtain fermentable sugars, and the results were submitted to variance analysis.

  2. Hurnic acid protein complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl

  3. Nanoclusters of Cyanuric Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen bonding; molecular clusters; cyanuric acid; self-assembly; symmetry. ... Chemical Laboratory, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; Indian Institute of Science Education and ...

  4. Dietary (n-3)-fatty acids, prostaglandins, and prolonged gestation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins as well as stimulate formation of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandins. The latter ones often have lower biological activity than the former ones. The effect of (n-3)-fatty acids on prostaglandin formation has been shown by analysis of prostaglandin metabolites......Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... chain (n-3)-fatty acids. We have hypothesized that a high intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids prolongs gestation in humans by interfering with uterine prostaglandin formation, possibly by inhibiting formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostaglandin E2. Preliminary results of an epidemiological...

  5. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic inter esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.

  6. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  7. Kainic acid and 1'-hydroxykainic acid from Palmariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, U P; Bird, C J; Shacklock, P F; Laycock, M V; Wright, J L

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of kainic acid among various red algae was investigated. Analysis of free amino acids from different populations of Palmaria palmata showed that some were unable to accumulate kainic acid to detectable concentrations, whereas in two dwarf mutants it was a major component of the free amino acid composition. The amino acid profiles were also examined for unknown amino acids in the search for possible intermediates in kainic acid biosynthesis. The only unknown amino acid present in P. palmata extracts was isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy as 1'-hydroxykainic acid. This compound was found in all samples that contained kainic acid. To investigate the effect of growth conditions on kainic acid production different strains of P. palmata were grown at 5, 10, and 15 degrees C with or without added nitrate. No effect on production was observed, suggesting that the growth conditions in these experiments do not affect the level of gene expression in the pathway of kainic acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, changing the growth conditions did not induce synthesis of kainic acid in the non-producing strains of Palmariales.

  8. Influence of ionizing radiation on the fatty acid composition of herring fillets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.; Paul, G.; Ehlermann, D. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik)

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-irradiation (absorbed dose: 50 kGy, dose-rate: 2.9 kGy/h) on the distribution of fatty acid components in herring fillets has been examined using high-resolution gas chromatographic methods. Radiolytic treatment at 0/sup 0/C and exclusion of atmospheric oxygen caused no significant decrease in the relative amounts of the constituent saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid components. Specifically, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), which are of particular physiological interest were not affected by ..gamma..-rays, even after additional storage of the irradiated material at 0/sup 0/C for 4 weeks. Irradiation of oil extracted from herring fillets or of herring oil/water emulsions under aerobic conditions, however, destroyed eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid significantly. The loss of radio-resistance - as compared to the radiation-induced processes in the fillets - is explained by the absence of proteins, which effectively protect the lipid components from radiolytic decomposition. It is concluded that the commercial radiation processing of herring at the recommended dose levels (1 to 2 kGy) should not reduce the content of unsaturated fatty acid components.

  9. Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids.

  10. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  11. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  12. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. The relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Gulgun; Kursat, Fidanci Muzaffer; Ahmet, Tas; Alparslan, Genc Fatih; Omer, Gunes; Sertoglu, Erdem; Erkan, Sarı; Ediz, Yesilkaya; Turker, Turker; Ayhan, Kılıc

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern. Studies have shown autonomic dysfunction in obese children. The exact mechanism of this dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children using heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 48 obese and 32 healthy children were included in this case-control study. Anthropometric and biochemical data, HRV indices, and EMFA levels in both groups were compared statistically. HRV parameters including standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (NN), root mean square of successive differences, the number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by >50 ms (NN50), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs, high-frequency power, and low-frequency power were lower in obese children compared to controls, implying parasympathetic impairment. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were lower in the obese group (p<0.001 and p=0.012, respectively). In correlation analysis, in the obese group, body mass index standard deviation and linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein levels showed a linear correlation with one or more HRV parameter, and age, eicosapentaenoic acid, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated with mean heart rate. In linear regression analysis, age, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, body mass index standard deviation, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were related to HRV parameters, implying an effect on cardiac autonomic function. There is impairment of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. It appears that levels of EMFAs such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid play a role in the regulation of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa

  14. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  15. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-02-01

    Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation may be intolerance to adipic acid. Therefore, in this study, selected microorganisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, typically used in microbial cell factories were considered to evaluate their tolerance to adipic acid. Screening of yeasts and bacteria for tolerance to adipic acid was performed in microtitre plates, and in agar plates for A. niger in the presence of adipic acid over a broad range of concentration (0-684 mM). As the different dissociation state(s) of adipic acid may influence cells differently, cultivations were performed with at least two pH values. Yeasts and A. niger were found to tolerate substantially higher concentrations of adipic acid than bacteria, and were less affected by the undissociated form of adipic acid than bacteria. The yeast exhibiting the highest tolerance to adipic acid was Candida viswanathii, showing a reduction in maximum specific growth rate of no more than 10-15% at the highest concentration of adipic acid tested and the tolerance was not dependent on the dissociation state of the adipic acid. Tolerance to adipic acid was found to be substantially higher among yeasts and A. niger than bacteria. The explanation of the differences in adipic acid tolerance between the microorganisms investigated are likely related to fundamental differences in their physiology and metabolism. Among the yeasts investigated, C. viswanathii showed the highest tolerance and could be a potential host for a future microbial cell factory for adipic acid.

  16. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  17. Relationship between Fecal Content of Fatty Acids and Cyclooxygenase mRNA Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Duodenal Biopsies, Serum Lipoproteins, and Dietary Fat in Colectomized Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Almendingen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this to the proportions of fatty acids and levels of cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies, levels of serum lipoproteins, and diet. In the ileostomy group separately (n=12, the fecal content of arachidonic acid was correlated negatively to the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Total serum-cholesterol was negatively correlated to the fecal content of saturates and monounsaturates. The fecal palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid ratio was positively correlated to the levels of cyclooxygease-2 expression in duodenal biopsies.In the ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis group separately (n=17, significant correlations were found between the fecal contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, and the proportions of myristic acid, oleic acid and eicosaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Dietary monounsaturates were positively correlated to different fecal fatty acids. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms relevant to fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in addition to nutrition.

  18. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of tartaric acid to succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiayi [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; Vasiliadou, Efterpi S. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Goulas, Konstantinos A. [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Saha, Basudeb [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; University of Delaware; Newark; USA; Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation

    2017-01-01

    A novel one-step process for the selective production of succinic acid from tartaric acid is developed. High succinic yield is achieved in an efficient catalytic system comprised of MoOx/BC, HBr and acetic acid under hydrogen atmosphere.

  19. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muppala Ashokraju

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... formic acid) as it is obtained through the hydrolysis of biomass that contains water. In this context, we have per- formed the hydrogenation of levulinic acid with formic acid in presence of water (LA: FA: H2O 1:5:1) and the results are displayed in Figure 7b. The results indicate better performance of the cat-.

  20. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  1. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  2. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  3. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  4. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  6. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 3427-3481 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleic acids electrochemistry * DNA biosensors * DNA damage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 41.298, year: 2012

  7. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  8. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  9. Levulinic acid in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhin, Boris V; Baransky, V A; Eliseeva, G D

    1999-01-01

    Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural wastes is noted. The bibliography includes 260 references.

  10. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  11. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  12. Macrocyclic polyether complexes of amino acids and amino acid salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidzilya, V.A.; Oleksenko, LP.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the isolation of the complexes formed between various types of amino acid derivatives and macrocyclic polyethers, and the characterisation of their physical and chemical properties. The study shows that macrocyclic polyethers form 1:1 complexes with amino acids and amino acid derivatives, and that these complexes can be isolated in pure form. Amino acids can be bound to these complexes in their anionic forms, in switterionic forms, as well as in their protonated forms. These types of complexes may be useful for the transport of amino acids or their derivatives across both synthetic and natural membranes

  13. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  14. Baseline plasma fatty acids profile and incident cardiovascular events in the SU.FOL.OM3 trial: the evidence revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold K Fezeu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma fatty acids profile and the risk of future major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischemic stroke. METHODS: Baseline plasma fatty acids as well as established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2,263 patients enrolled in the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids randomized controlled trial. Incident major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events were ascertained during the 4.7 years of follow up. Hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 154, 379 and 84 patients had major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events respectively. Upon adjustment for gender, initial event, baseline age and BMI, the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event decreased significantly in successive quartiles of arachidonic acid (P trend<0.002, total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend<0.03, docosapentaenoic acid (P trend<0.019, docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.004, eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.03 and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.02. This inverse association was borderline significant with increased quartiles of stearidonic acid (P trend<0.06. In the full model, only stearidonic acid remained inversely associated with the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event (P trend<0.035, a cardiac event (P trend<0.016 or a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.014, while arachidonic acid was inversely associated with the risk a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.033. CONCLUSION: The inverse association of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with recurrence of Cardiovascular diseases was mainly driven by well-known cardiovascular risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN

  15. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  16. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  17. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  18. Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P=0.027 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA (P=0.037 and positively with arachidonic acid (AA (P=0.035, AA/EPA ratio (P=0.005, and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P=0.035. C-Reactive Protein (CRP was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P=0.048, and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P=0.010, P=0.008, resp.. Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P=0.027 and margaric acid (P=0.008. Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients.

  19. Fatty acids modulate the expression levels of key proteins for cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Chen, Guoxun; Ma, Meihu; Qiu, Ning; Zhu, Lingjiao; Li, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Fatty acids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is mediated by several transporter proteins. Of these proteins, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a major contributor to this process. The current study investigates the unknown mechanism by which fatty acids modulate cholesterol absorption. We evaluated the effects of six fatty acids palmitic acid (PAM), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cholesterol uptake and transport in human enterocytes Caco-2 cells, and on the mRNA expression levels of NPC1L1, others proteins (ABCG5, ABCG8, ABCA1, ACAT2, MTP, Caveolin 1, Annexin-2) involved in cholesterol absorption, and SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 that are responsible for lipid metabolism. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially for EPA and DHA, dose-dependently inhibited cholesterol uptake and transport in Caco-2 monolayer, while saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) had no inhibitory effects. EPA and DHA inhibited cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 monolayer might be caused by down-regulating NPC1L1 mRNA and protein levels, which were associated with inhibition of SREBP-1/- 2 mRNA expression levels. Results from this study indicate that functional food containing high PUFAs may have potential therapeutic benefit to reduce cholesterol absorption. Further studies on this topic may provide approaches to control lipid metabolism and to promote health.

  20. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  1. Omega-3 but not omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids inhibit the cancer-specific ENOX2 of the HeLa cell surface with no effect on the constitutive ENOX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, James; Morré, Dorothy M; Brightmore, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that dietary fatty acids (oleic acid (in olive oil), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) (in fish oil)) play important roles in carcinogenesis. The most potent antitumor effects of all fatty acids are given by fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The antitumor effects of CLA may be mediated through enhanced apoptosis. While CLA, EPA, and DHA (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) have inhibitory effects on cancer cells, omega-6 fatty acids have often shown negative or potentiating effects on cancer cells. Linoleic acid (an omega-6) is desaturated in the cell by delta 6 and 5 destaturases to form arachidonic acid. COX 1 and 2 isoforms then act on arachidonic acid to form prostaglandins and other related regulatory molecules. It is normally thought that what is important to the development of the cancerous phenotype is some balance of these various metabolites. In experiments with surface NOX proteins released from HeLa cells, spectrophotometric measurements of the oxidation of NADH revealed inhibition of the cancer-specific ENOX2 activity by CLA and the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and α-linolenic acids. The constitutive ENOX1 activity was not inhibited. In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid inhibited neither ENOX1 nor ENOX2. The findings indicate the possibility that a direct effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids on ENOX2 may be responsible for the potent activity of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids in cancer prevention and therapy.

  2. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE2 synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Haring, M.M.G.; Keestra, N.G.M.; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE2 in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid

  3. Nutritional armor for the injured warfighter: omega-3 fatty acids in surgery, trauma, and intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Morgan, Brian B; Heineman, John T; Martindale, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Nutrients have traditionally been viewed as a means to provide basic energy for cellular homeostasis and amino acids for protein synthesis in all humans. Young, healthy men and women in the military today are presumed to be well nourished and mentally and physically fit to perform their duties in austere environments. Exposure to high-intensity projectiles, blast injuries, and other wounds of war, however, is an everyday occurrence during deployment that potentially challenges all homeostatic mechanisms. After sustaining such devastating injuries, critically ill, surgical, and trauma patients are in a constant dynamic state between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome. Compelling evidence supports both immune and metabolic response modulation by specific nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The concept of providing nutrients as therapeutic rather than supportive agents to meet the basic cellular caloric and metabolic demands requires a major paradigm shift. Although the exact route and dose of these metabolically active lipids has yet to be determined, data from large clinical studies of cellular ex-vivo experiments in patients support the liberal use of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the setting of trauma, surgery, and intensive care. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Alpha Lipoic Acid Plus Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Vestibulodynia Associated With Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Felice, Raffaele; Gambini, Dania

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in combination with amitriptyline therapy in patients with vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). Women with VBD/PBS were randomly assigned to receive amitriptyline or amitriptyline plus a commercially available preparation (ALAnerv Age; Alfa Wassermann, Bologna, Italy) containing, in 2 capsules, ALA 600 mg plus docosahexaenoic acid 250 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 16.67 mg. Symptoms of burning and pain were assessed using a 10-cm visual analog scale and the short form of the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. Among 84 women who were randomized, the mean ± standard deviation dose of amitriptyline was 21.7 ± 6.6 mg/day, without statistical difference between the two groups. Pain, as assessed using both the pain rating index of the visual analog scale and the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, decreased significantly in both trial groups, with a greater effect seen with the addition of ALA and n-3 PUFAs. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment was also associated with improvements in dyspareunia and pelvic floor muscle tone. The overall incidence of adverse events was low, and none led to treatment discontinuation. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment in patients with VBD/PBS appears to improve outcomes and may allow for a lower dosage of amitriptyline, which may lead to fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acids profile and nutritional composition of two tropical diatoms from the Costa Rican Pacific Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rodríguez-Núñez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent an important nutritional source for diverse organisms, therefore, their nutritional value, and more specifically, total lipid and fatty acid contents, must be considered. This study evaluated the nutritional contents and potential growth under controlled conditions of Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Tropical microalgae, isolated from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In both strains, the nutritional composition and the fatty acid profile were evaluated in exponential and stationary phases. With regards to fatty acids, v sp. had more Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA in both the exponential (32.80% and stationary (27.20% phases. The results in growth rate, production and biochemical composition indicated two tropical microalgae strains suitable for cultivation under controlled conditions. The studies of the phytoplankton in this geographical area is highly relevant because of its importance in the primary production of nutrients and the importance of finding sources of fatty acids such as the EPA.

  6. Serum lipid fatty acids, phonological processing, and reading in children with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, M; Erkkilä, A T; Isotalo, E; Pulkkinen, J J; Haapanen, M-L; Virsu, V

    2006-01-01

    Reading skill is suggested to be related to phonological processing ability and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we investigated whether fatty acids (FAs) are related to phonological processing, whether the relations between PUFAs and reading generalize to other FAs, whether these relations are mediated by phonological processing, and whether relations of FAs are specific for language-related functions. Blood samples of 49 ten-year-old children with oral clefts were collected for FA proportion analysis in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. On the same day, they performed tasks of phonological processing, reading, and both verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Sequential regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, and cleft type) showed that phonological processing was inversely related to myristic acid in phospholipids and positively related to eicosapentaenoic acid in cholesteryl esters. Reading was inversely related to palmitoleic and gammalinolenic acids in phospholipids. The relations between FAs and reading were not mediated by phonological processing and FAs related only to language-related functions.

  7. Fatty acids profile and nutritional composition of two tropical diatoms from the Costa Rican Pacific Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, K.; Toledo-Aguero, P.

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae represent an important nutritional source for diverse organisms, therefore, their nutritional value, and more specifically, total lipid and fatty acid contents, must be considered. This study evaluated the nutritional contents and potential growth under controlled conditions of Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Tropical microalgae, isolated from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In both strains, the nutritional composition and the fatty acid profile were evaluated in exponential and stationary phases. With regards to fatty acids, Nitzschia sp. had more Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) in both the exponential (32.80%) and stationary (27.20%) phases. The results in growth rate, production and biochemical composition indicated two tropical microalgae strains suitable for cultivation under controlled conditions. The studies of the phytoplankton in this geographical area is highly relevant because of its importance in the primary production of nutrients and the importance of finding sources of fatty acids such as the EPA. [es

  8. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  9. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  10. N-Acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids - from fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Jocelijn; Balvers, Michiel; Witkamp, Renger

    2013-06-01

    N-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), in particular α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanisms have been proposed, but their interactions with the endocannabinoid system have received relatively little attention so far. However, it has already been shown some time ago that consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs not only affects the synthesis of prototypic endocannabinoids like anandamide but also stimulates the formation of specific n-3 LC-PUFA-derived conjugates with ethanolamine, dopamine, serotonin or other amines. Some of these fatty amides show overlapping biological activities with those of typical endocannabinoids, whereas others possess distinct and sometimes largely unknown receptor affinities and other properties. The ethanolamine and dopamine conjugates of DHA have been the most investigated thus far. These mediators may provide promising new leads to the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders and for other pharmacological applications, including their use as carrier molecules for neurotransmitters to target the brain. Furthermore, combinations of n-3 LC-PUFA-derived fatty acid amides, their precursors and FAAH inhibitors offer possibilities to optimise their effects in health and disease. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Adsorption of humic acid on acid-activated Greek bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulia, Danae; Leodopoulos, Ch; Gimouhopoulos, K; Rigas, F

    2009-12-15

    The adsorption of humic acid on bentonite from Milos Island (Greece) acid-treated with dilute H(2)SO(4) solutions over a concentration range between 0.25 and 13M has been studied. Bentonite activated with 3M sulfuric acid (AAS) showed a higher efficiency in removing humic acid from aqueous solutions and was selected for further investigation. The specific surface area of acid-activated bentonite was estimated using the methylene blue adsorption method. The morphology of untreated, activated, and HA-sorbed bentonite was studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of contact time, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of humic acid onto bentonite activated with 3M H(2)SO(4) were studied using a batch adsorption technique. Acidic pH and high ionic strength proved to be favorable for the adsorption efficiency. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations and the isotherm constants were determined. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(o), DeltaS(o), and DeltaG(o)) of adsorption of humic acid onto acid-activated bentonite with 3M sulfuric acid were also evaluated.

  12. Cytenamide acetic acid solvate

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabianni, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptatriene-5-carboxamide ethanoic acid solvate), C16H13NO C2H4O2, the cytenamide and solvent molecules form a hydrogen-bonded R2 2(8) dimer motif, which is further connected to form a centrosymmetric double ring motif arrangement. The cycloheptene ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the leastsquares planes through the two aromatic rings is 54.7 (2) . peer...

  13. Crassulacean acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Geydan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of Crassulacean acid metabolism is presented, characterized by showing the occurrence, activity and plasticity of these complex mechanism at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level, framed by the presence of the denominated four phases in CAM and its repercussion and expression due to different stresses in an ecological context. The basic enzymes, and metabolites necessary for the optional functioning of CAM are presented as well as their mode of action and cellular control. Finally, it is shown how environmental conditions and molecular signalling mediate the phenotypic plasticity.

  14. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  15. Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, B E; Bochner, F; Imhoff, D M; Johns, D; Rowland, M

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive method for the determination of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Any proteins present are precipitated with methyl cyanide. After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernate is directly injected into an octadecyl silane reversed-phase chromatographic column, then eluted with a mixture of water, butanol, acetic acid, and sodium sulfate, and quantitated at 313 nm by ultraviolet detection according to peak-height ratios (with internal standard, o-methoxybenzoic acid) or peak heights (no internal standard). The method allows estimates within 25 min. Sensitivity was 0.2 mg/L for gentisic acid, and 0.5 mg/L for both salicyluric and salicylic acid (20-micro L injection volume); response was linear with concentration to at least 2.000 g/L for salicylic acid and metabolites. Analytical recovery of salicylic acid and metabolites from urine is complete. Intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation) is 5.52% at 7.5 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.01% at 9.33 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.07% at 7.96 mg/L for gentisic acid. Interassay precision is 7.32% at 7.51 mg/L for salicylic acid, 5.52% at 8.58 mg/L for salicyluric acid, and 3.97% at 8.32 mg/L for gentisic acid. We saw no significant interference in urine from patients being treated with various drugs other than aspirin.

  16. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam

    2013-01-01

    .77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.10) of marine n-3 PUFA compared with the lowest tertile. Similar trends, but also not statistically significant, were found separately for eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant association between the content......OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study...

  17. The role of Omega-3 and Omega-9 fatty acids for the treatment of neuropathic pain after neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Arriero, Iriana; Serrano-Muñoz, Diego; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goicoechea, Carlos; Taylor, Julian; Velasco, Ana; Ávila-Martín, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosaexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA) and 2-hydroxy oleic acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models. These FAs reduces noxious hyperreflexia and pain-related anxiety behavior following peripheral nerve injury and improves sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury (SCI), including facilitation of descending inhibitory antinociception. The relative safe profile of neuroactive fatty acids (FAs) holds promise for the future clinical development of these molecules as analgesic agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1.......2, and 1.2 microM, respectively, in a functional GluR5 assay. Compound 6c (IC(50) = 4.8 microM at GluR5) showed activity in the in vivo ATPA rigidity test, indicating that 6c has better pharmacokinetic properties than 8h, which was inactive in this test. The AUBAs are the first example of a series...

  19. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  20. Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssen, S; González-Calero, G; Schimiczek, M; Singer, M V

    1999-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action.