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Sample records for acid docosahexaenoic acid

  1. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, L A; Yeo, Y K

    1999-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of plentiful DHA in the diet improves learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. During the last 50 years, many infants have been fed formula diets lacking DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids. DHA deficiencies are associated with foetal alcohol syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria, unipolar depression, aggressive hostility, and adrenoleukodystrophy. Decreases in DHA in the brain are associated with cognitive decline during aging and with onset of sporadic Alzheimer disease. The leading cause of death in western nations is cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between fish consumption and reduction in sudden death from myocardial infarction. The reduction is approximately 50% with 200 mg day(-1)of DHA from fish. DHA is the active component in fish. Not only does fish oil reduce triglycerides in the blood and decrease thrombosis, but it also prevents cardiac arrhythmias. The association of DHA deficiency with depression is the reason for the robust positive correlation between depression and myocardial infarction. Patients with cardiovascular disease or Type II diabetes are often advised to adopt a low-fat diet with a high proportion of carbohydrate. A study with women shows that this type of diet increases plasma triglycerides and the severity of Type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. DHA is present in fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel) and mother's milk. DHA is present at low levels in

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Weiser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is the predominant omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA found in the brain and can affect neurological function by modulating signal transduction pathways, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, myelination, membrane receptor function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, membrane integrity and membrane organization. DHA is rapidly accumulated in the brain during gestation and early infancy, and the availability of DHA via transfer from maternal stores impacts the degree of DHA incorporation into neural tissues. The consumption of DHA leads to many positive physiological and behavioral effects, including those on cognition. Advanced cognitive function is uniquely human, and the optimal development and aging of cognitive abilities has profound impacts on quality of life, productivity, and advancement of society in general. However, the modern diet typically lacks appreciable amounts of DHA. Therefore, in modern populations, maintaining optimal levels of DHA in the brain throughout the lifespan likely requires obtaining preformed DHA via dietary or supplemental sources. In this review, we examine the role of DHA in optimal cognition during development, adulthood, and aging with a focus on human evidence and putative mechanisms of action.

  3. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  4. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important requirement in the human diet. It is also essential in the nutrition of crustaceans and aquaculture animals. Of the sources available for commercial production of DHA...

  5. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8 mo

  6. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  7. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  8. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  9. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  10. Biotechnological production and applications of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, L.; Swaaf, de M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid composed of 22 carbon atoms and six double bonds. Because the first double bond, as counted from the methyl terminus, is at position three, DHA belongs to the so-called omega-3 group. In recent years, DHA has attracted much attention because

  11. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  12. Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are abundant in brain and may be conditionally essential in fetal life. We investigated umbilical artery (UA) and vein (UV) fatty acid compositions and early neonatal neurological condition in 317 term i

  13. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guièze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 μM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity.

  15. Uptake and accumulation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid by Chlorella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Yukino, T; Maruyama, I; Kido, S; Kitaoka, S

    2001-01-01

    Tuna oil or its hydrolysate was added to a culture of Chlorella for its nutritional fortification as a feed for rotifer. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in its free form was taken up by the cells of Chlorella vulgaris strain K-22 and by other strains, but tuna oil was not taken up by the cells. Accumulated DHA was found by electron microscopy in the cells in oil droplets. All strains of Chlorella used in these experiments took up exogenous DHA into the cells. It seems that the structure of the cell wall did not affect the uptake of DHA into the Chlorella cells.

  16. Deficient liver biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid correlates with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available Reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, a neurotrophic and neuroprotective fatty acid, may contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated whether the liver enzyme system that provides docosahexaenoic acid to the brain is dysfunctional in this disease. Docosahexaenoic acid levels were reduced in temporal cortex, mid-frontal cortex and cerebellum of subjects with Alzheimer's disease, compared to control subjects (P  =  0.007. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE scores positively correlated with docosahexaenoic/α-linolenic ratios in temporal cortex (P =  0.005 and mid-frontal cortex (P  =  0.018, but not cerebellum. Similarly, liver docosahexaenoic acid content was lower in Alzheimer's disease patients than control subjects (P  =  0.011. Liver docosahexaenoic/α-linolenic ratios correlated positively with MMSE scores (r  =  0.78; P<0.0001, and negatively with global deterioration scale grades (P  =  0.013. Docosahexaenoic acid precursors, including tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6n-3, were elevated in liver of Alzheimer's disease patients (P  =  0.041, whereas expression of peroxisomal d-bifunctional protein, which catalyzes the conversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid into docosahexaenoic acid, was reduced (P  = 0.048. Other genes involved in docosahexaenoic acid metabolism were not affected. The results indicate that a deficit in d-bifunctional protein activity impairs docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in liver of Alzheimer's disease patients, lessening the flux of this neuroprotective fatty acid to the brain.

  17. Metabotyping of docosahexaenoic acid - treated Alzheimer's disease cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Bahety

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the significant amount of work being carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the mechanism by which DHA affects amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP-induced metabolic changes has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the metabolic phenotypes (metabotypes associated with DHA therapy via metabonomic profiling of an AD cell model using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS. METHODS: The lysate and supernatant samples of CHO-wt and CHO-AβPP695 cells treated with DHA and vehicle control were collected and prepared for GC/TOFMS metabonomics profiling. The metabolic profiles were analyzed by multivariate data analysis techniques using SIMCA-P+ software. RESULTS: Both principal component analysis and subsequent partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed distinct metabolites associated with the DHA-treated and control groups. A list of statistically significant marker metabolites that characterized the metabotypes associated with DHA treatment was further identified. Increased levels of succinic acid, citric acid, malic acid and glycine and decreased levels of zymosterol, cholestadiene and arachidonic acid correlated with DHA treatment effect. DHA levels were also found to be increased upon treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that DHA plays a role in mitigating AβPP-induced impairment in energy metabolism and inflammation by acting on tricarboxylic acid cycle, cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and fatty acid metabolism. The perturbations of these metabolic pathways by DHA in CHO-wt and CHO-AβPP695 cells shed further mechanistic insights on its neuroprotective actions.

  18. Oxidative stability of Liposomes composed of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jørgensen, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stability of liposomes made of (Docosahexaenoic acid) DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) was examined during preparation and storage. After preparation of the liposomes, the concentration of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary oxidation products (Thiobarbituric acid...

  19. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  20. Circulating docosahexaenoic acid levels are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3 are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally "programming" this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24 vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01. Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = -0.37, P <0.0001. The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Low circulating DHA levels are associated with

  1. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  2. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies.

  3. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (ARA metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  4. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rotstein, Nora P

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here, we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in retina photoreceptors, and its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have multiple beneficial effects. Here, we show that retina neurons in vitro express the desaturase FADS2 and can synthesize DHA from EPA. Moreover, addition of EPA to these cultures protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress and promotes their differentiation through its metabolization to DHA.

  5. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized, double-blin

  6. Fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic-acid-producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii on ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaf, de M.E.; Pronk, J.T.; Sijtsma, L.

    2003-01-01

    The heterotrophic marine microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii produces docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications. So far, DHA production has been studied with glucose and acetic acid as carbon sources. This study investigates the potential of etha

  7. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their malnouris

  8. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their malnouris

  9. Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlates with DHA status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Aim-To investigate whether low docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed infants is a result of low omega 3 fatty acid intake via breast milk. Methods-Fatty acid composition of breast milk of eight Pakistani mothers, and of the erythrocytes of their

  10. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized,

  11. Lipase specificity towards eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid depends on substrate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg, Ann-Marie; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The fatty acid specificity of five lipases towards eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was evaluated in the hydrolysis of fish oil, squid oil and a model system. The model system contained methyl esters of EPA, DHA and palmitic acid. All the investigated lipases discriminated against both EPA and DHA more in the model system than in the natural oils. Thus both EPA and DHA were more easily hydrolysed from a glyceride than from a methyl ester. In the model system, the lipase from Candida rugosa showed the highest discrimination against DHA, while the lipases from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas cepacia discriminated against EPA the most. In a glyceride, the fatty acid specificity of lipases towards EPA and DHA was affected by the positional distribution of the fatty acids and the glyceride structure due to the regiospecificity and triglyceride specificity of the lipase. In the oils, the Pseudomonas lipases also discriminated against EPA the most, while DHA was initially discriminated the most by the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus. However, after longer reaction times the enrichment of DHA in the glyceride fraction of the oils was greatest for the lipase from C. rugosa.

  12. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations are higher in women than in men through estrogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Gooren, L.J.G.; Toorians, A.W.F.T.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: During pregnancy there is a high demand for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is needed for formation of the fetal brain. Women who do not consume marine foods must synthesize DHA from fatty acid precursors in vegetable foods. Objective: We studied sex differences in DHA status and the r

  14. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  15. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  16. Method of producing an oil including docosahexaenoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratledge, C.; Anderson, A.J.; Kanagachandran, K.; Grantham, D.J.; Stephenson, J.C.; Swaaf, de M.E.; Sijtsma, L.

    2005-01-01

    C. cohnii is cultured in a suitable growth medium with acetic acid/acetate as the main carbon source. The acetate is provided, and replenished, by adding acetic acid to the growth medium in response to an increase in pH resulting from the utilisation of acetic acid/acetate by C. cohnii. The C. cohni

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%).

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esther (DHAEE microcapsule production by spray-drying: optimization by experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid with important metabolic activities. Its conjugated double bonds make it susceptible to decomposition. Its stability may be improved through fatty acid entrapment with a spray-drying technique; however, the many parameters involved in this technique must be considered to avoid affecting the final product quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the entrapment conditions and yields of fish oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. Microcapsules were obtained from Acacia gum using a spray-drying technique. The experimental samples were analyzed by chromatography and delineated by Statistica software, which found the following optimum entrapment conditions: an inlet temperature of 188 °C; 30% core material; an N2 flow rate of 55 mm; and a pump flow rate of 12.5 mL/minute. These conditions provided a 66% yield of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in the oil, corresponding to 19.8% of entrapped docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (w/w. This result was considered significant since 30% corresponded to wall material.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses arachidonic acid-induced proliferation of LS-174T human colon carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piet Habbel; Karsten H Weylandt; Katja Lichopoj; Johannes Nowak; Martin Purschke; Jing-Dong Wang; Cheng-Wei He; Daniel C Baumgart; Jing X Kang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their combination on colon cancer cell growth.METHODS: The LS-174T colon cancer cell line was used to study the role of the prostaglandin precursor AA and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA on cell growth. Cell viability was assessed in XTT assays. For analysis of cell cycle and cell death, flow cytometry and DAPI staining were applied. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p21 and bcl-2 in cells incubated with AA or DHA was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in the presence of AA and DHA was measured using a PGE2ELISA.RESULTS: AA increased cell growth, whereas DHA reduced viability of LS 174T cells in a time- and dosedependent manner. Furthermore, DHA down- regulated mRNA of bcl-2 and up-regulated p21. Interestingly,DHA was able to suppress AA-induced cell proliferation and significantly lowered AA-derived PGE2 formation.DHA also down-regulated COX-2 expression. In addition to the effect on PGE2 formation, DHA directly reduced PGE2-induced cell proliferation in a dosedependent manner.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DHA can inhibit the pro-proliferative effect of abundant AA or PGE2.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fundamental fatty acid for the brain: New dietary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Francisca; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, María; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2017-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3, DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of marine origin fundamental for the formation and function of the nervous system, particularly the brain and the retina of humans. It has been proposed a remarkable role of DHA during human evolution, mainly on the growth and development of the brain. Currently, DHA is considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding due their active participation in the development of the nervous system in early life. DHA and specifically one of its derivatives known as neuroprotectin D-1 (NPD-1), has neuroprotective properties against brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and injury caused after brain ischemia-reperfusion episodes. This paper discusses the importance of DHA in the human brain given its relevance in the development of the tissue and as neuroprotective agent. It is also included a critical view about the ways to supply this noble fatty acid to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children: a novel approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Radaelli, Giovanni; Soldati, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis. Indeed alteration of gut microbiota composition and increased intestinal permeability may rise the exposure of liver to gut-derived bacterial products, causing activation of signalling pathways implicated in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. This mechanism has been observed in vitro and animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease but also in a clinical study in adults. While evidence suggests that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation may decrease liver fat in adults, in pediatric population only a study examined this topic. In obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the possible efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid treatment, and underlying mechanisms, to identify the optimal required dose and to evaluate if the docosahexaenoic acid effect is limited to the duration of the treatment or it may continue after the end of treatment.

  2. Alpha-synuclein gene ablation increases docosahexaenoic acid incorporation and turnover in brain phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail Y; Rosenberger, Thad A; Feddersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that ablation of alpha-synuclein (Snca) reduces arachidonate (20:4n-6) turnover in brain phospholipids through modulation of an endoplasmic reticulum-localized acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl). The effect of Snca ablation on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) metabolism is unkno...

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid regulates gene expression in HUVEC cells treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czepiel, Jacek; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Perucki, William; Wołkow, Paweł

    2015-07-16

    The molecular mechanism of inflammation and carcinogenesis induced by exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not clearly understood. Our study was undertaken due to the strong pro-carcinogenic potential and reactivity of PAH-metabolites, as well as the susceptibility of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of n-3 docosahexaenoic acid on human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We analysed the influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or PAHs supplementation on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and glutathione S transferase Mu1 (GSTM1) protein expression as well as on the prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2), AHR, GSTM1, PLA2G4A, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene expression. We observed that COX-2 and AHR protein expression was increased while GSTM1 expression was decreased in cells exposed to DHA and PAHs. Docosahexaenoic acid down-regulated CYP1A1 and up-regulated the AHR and PTGS2 genes. Our findings suggested that DHA contributes significantly to alleviate the harmful effects caused by PAHs in endothelial cells. Moreover, these results suggest that a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids is helpful to reduce the harmful effects of PAHs exposure on human living in heavily polluted areas.

  4. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Richardson, Kris; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Subjects were sampled at baseline and six weeks after receiving either: olive oil 6.0 g/day (n = 16), EPA 1.8 g/day (n = 16), or DHA 1.8 g/day (n = 18). PBMC were subjected to gene expression analysis by microarray with key findings confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Plasma phospholipid EPA increased 3 fold in the EPA group, and DHA increased 63% in the DHA group (both p expression in the following pathways: 1) interferon signaling, 2) receptor recognition of bacteria and viruses, 3) G protein signaling, glycolysis and glycolytic shunting, 4) S-adenosyl-l-methionine biosynthesis, and 5) cAMP-mediated signaling including cAMP responsive element protein 1 (CREB1), as well as many other individual genes including hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A). The findings for CREB1 and HIF1A were confirmed by Q-PCR analysis. Our data indicate that EPA supplementation was associated with significant effects on gene expression involving the interferon pathway as well as down-regulation of CREB1 and HIF1A, which may relate to its beneficial effect on CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated acid protects against indomethacin-induced gastric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Peña, Elizabeth Arlen; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2012-12-15

    Previous studies have shown gastroprotective effect of fish oil in several experimental models. However, the mechanisms and active compounds underlying this effect are not fully understood. Fish oil has several components; among them, one of the most studied is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. The aim of this study was to examine the gastroprotective effect of DHA as a pure compound in a rat model of indomethacin-induced gastric injury as well as elucidate some of the mechanism(s) behind DHA's gastroprotective effect. Indomethacin was orally administered to induce an acute gastric injury (3, 10 and 30mg/kg). Omeprazol (a proton pump inhibitor, 30mg/kg, p.o.) and DHA (3, 10, 30mg/kg, p.o.) were gavaged 30 and 120min, respectively, before indomethacin insult (30mg/kg p.o.). Three hours after indomethacin administration, rats were sacrificed, gastric injury was evaluated by determining the total damaged area. A sample of gastric tissue was harvested and processed to quantify prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Indomethacin produced gastric injury in dose-dependent manner. DHA protected against indomethacin-induced gastric damage, and this effect was comparable with omeprazol's gastroprotective effect. DHA did not reverse the indomethacin-induced reduction of PGE(2) gastric levels. In contrast, DHA partially prevented the indomethacin-induced increase in LTB(4) gastric levels. This is the first report demonstrating DHA's gastroprotective effect as a pure compound. Furthermore, the results reveal that the gastroprotective effect is mediated by a decrease in gastric LTB(4) levels in indomethacin-induced gastric damage.

  6. Neuroprotection of rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation by enrichment with docosahexaenoic acid and by inhibition of hydrolysis of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids by calcium independent phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokin, M; Chechneva, O; Reymann, K G; Reiser, G

    2006-06-30

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the development of pathological states in brain after hypoxia/ischemia. Here, we investigated the role of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipids for neuronal survival. We used organotypic cultures of rat brain hippocampal slices exposed to 40 min of oxygen-glucose deprivation, to study the consequences of experimental ischemia. In [14C]docosahexaenoic acid-labeled cultures, oxygen-glucose deprivation induced significant release of radioactive docosahexaenoic acid. This release could be blocked by the selective inhibitor of the Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, 4-bromoenol lactone (10 microM), when it was added 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Addition of 4-bromoenol lactone at 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation markedly decreased the neuronal damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The protective effect was substantially higher in dentate gyrus than in CA1 and CA3 areas. Enrichment of the hippocampal tissue with docosahexaenoic acid by incubation with 10 microM docosahexaenoic acid for 24 h exerted the same neuroprotective effect, which was observed after treatment with 4-bromoenol lactone. In contrast to the 24 h-preincubation, simultaneous addition of docosahexaenoic acid with the onset of oxygen-glucose deprivation had no protective effect. This suggests that incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid into phospholipids is required for the protective effect observed. Then the possible involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism in docosahexaenoic acid-induced neuroprotection was tested. Inhibition of prostaglandin production by ibuprofen produced no change in neuroprotection after 24-h incubation of the hippocampal slices with docosahexaenoic acid. Simultaneous inhibition of Ca2+-independent and Ca2+-dependent phospholipases A2 by treatment with the general phospholipase A2 inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (3 microM, 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid accumulation in hraustochytrids: Search for the rationale

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Sambaiah, K.; Kumon, Y.; Nakahara, T.

    ) 151:1657–1664 1661 and microalgae, neutral and polar lipids were produced in equal amounts in the early growth phase, but on fur- ther cell growth only the neutral lipids increased. The present study, as well as the literature on the general biology... and puriWcation. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917 Cohen Z, Khozin-Goldberg D, Adlerstein D, Bigogno C (2000) The role of triacylglycerol as a reservoir of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the rapid production of chloroplastic lipids in certain microalgae...

  8. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  9. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in promoting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Ganesan; Desouza, Cyrus V; Clevenger, Michelle E; Ramalingam, Ramesh; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of enrichment with n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Enrichment with DHA but not EPA significantly increased the differentiation markers compared to control differentiated cells. DHA compared to EPA treatment led to a greater increase in adiponectin secretion and, conditioned media collected from DHA treated cells inhibited monocyte migration. Moreover, DHA treatment resulted in inhibition of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. DHA treated cells predominantly accumulated DHA in phospholipids whereas EPA treatment led to accumulation of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), an n-3 fatty acid. Of note, adding DPA to DHA inhibited DHA-induced differentiation. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on preadipocyte differentiation may be due, in part, to differences in their intracellular modification which could impact the type of n-3 fatty acids incorporated into the cells.

  10. N-acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids – From fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs), in particular a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanism

  11. Production of Structured Triacylglycerols Containing Palmitic Acids at sn-2 Position and Docosahexaenoic Acids at sn-1, 3 Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Guo, Yongli; Sun, Zhaomin; Jie, Xu; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has been shown well-established health benefits that justify their use as functional ingredients in healthy foods and nutraceutical products. Structured triacylglycerols rich in 1,3-docosahexenoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol were produced from algal oil (Schizochytrium sp) which was prepared by a two-step process. Novozym 435 lipase was used to produce tripalmitin. Tripalmitin was then used to produce the final structured triacylglycerol (STAG) through interesterification reactions using Lipozyme RM IM. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic reaction were a mole ratio of tripalmitin/fatty acid ethyl esters 1:9, 60°C, 10% enzyme load (wt % of substrates), 10 h; the enzymatic product contained 51.6% palmitic acid (PA), 30.13% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) and 5.33% docosapentanoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), 12.15% oleic acid (OLA). This STAG can be used as a functional ingredient in dietary supplementation to provide the benefits of DHA.

  12. The influence of supplemental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at eighteen months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. The effects of DHA (220 mg/day, n=41), DHA+AA (220 mg/day, n=39) or placebo (n=34) during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at 18 months, and the relations between umbilical cord DHA, AA and Mead acid

  13. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, and supplemental intakes of EPA alone up to 1.8 g/day, do not raise safety concerns for adults. Dietary recommendations for EPA and DHA based on cardiovascular risk considerations for European adults are between 250 and 500 mg/day. Supplemental intakes of DHA alone up to about 1 g/day do not raise safety concerns for the general population. No data are available for DPA when consumed alone. In the majority of the human studies considered, fish oils, also containing DPA in generally unknown (but relatively low amounts, were the source of EPA and DHA.

  14. Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant docosahexaenoic acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Harsløf, L.; Larsen, L.H.;

    2013-01-01

    Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy is supported by DHA in breast-milk and may thus decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alphalinolenic acid is low and polymorphisms in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has...... been shown to have little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHAstatus. We aim to investigate the role of diet and FADS-polymorphisms on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years. Methods: This cross-sectional study with Danish infants...... use data from two prospective studies (EFiON and the SKOTcohort). We measured erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status at 9 months (n=409) and 3 years (n=176) and genotyped 4 FADS tagSNPs, rs3834458, rs1535, rs174575 and rs174448 (n=401)....

  15. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success.

  16. Bioprocess development for docosahexaenoic acid from novel fungal isolate of Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jini, Sugatha; Hridya, Azhikodan; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2015-06-01

    Fungal cultures were isolated from soil samples collected from the Western Ghats regions of Kerala. Primary screening of isolated strains were done by Sudan black staining method and 15 lipid producing cultures were isolated. The fatty acid profiling of the positive strains were analyzed for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production. Selected oleaginous cultures were grown in submerged culture condition to study the biomass yield and poly unsaturated fatty acid, DHA production. The optimization of production process under submerged conditions was carried out using statistical experimental design and confirmation of DHA was done by GC analysis. Maximum DHA production of 150 mg/l was achieved on 4 days of incubation at submerged condition in the presence of glucose as carbon source.

  17. Evaluation of docosahexaenoic acid in a dog model of hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William C; Cox, James W; Asemu, Girma; O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio F; Shekar, Kadambari C; Hoag, Stephen W; Rastogi, Sharad; Sabbah, Hani N; Daneault, Caroline; des Rosiers, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter cardiac phospholipids and prevent cardiac pathology in rodents subjected to pressure overload. This approach has not been evaluated in humans or large animals with hypertension-induced pathological hypertrophy. We evaluated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in old female dogs with hypertension caused by 16 weeks of aldosterone infusion. Aldosterone-induced hypertension resulted in concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function in placebo-treated dogs. DHA supplementation increased DHA and depleted arachidonic acid in cardiac phospholipids, but did not improve LV parameters compared to placebo. Surprisingly, DHA significantly increased serum aldosterone concentration and blood pressure compared to placebo. Cardiac mitochondrial yield was decreased in placebo-treated hypertensive dogs compared to normal animals, which was prevented by DHA. Extensive analysis of mitochondrial function found no differences between DHA and placebo groups. In conclusion, DHA did not favorably impact mitochondrial or LV function in aldosterone hypertensive dogs.

  18. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Carlson, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Humans evolved a uniquely large brain among terrestrial mammals. Brain and nervous tissue is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Docosahexaenoic acid is required for lower and high order functions in humans because of understood and emerging molecular mechanisms. Among brain components that depend on dietary components, DHA is limiting because its synthesis from terrestrial plant food precursors is low but its utilization when consumed in diet is very efficient. Negligible DHA is found in terrestrial plants, but in contrast, DHA is plentiful at the shoreline where it is made by single-celled organisms and plants, and in the seas supports development of very large marine mammal brains. Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the docosahexaenoic acid producing thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thraustochytrids are unicellular, marine protists, and there is a growing industrial interest in these organisms, particularly because some species, including strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, accumulate high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 (ATCC PRA-276, with a size of 43 Mbp, and 11,683 predicted protein-coding sequences. The data has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession LNGJ00000000. The genome sequence will contribute new insight into DHA biosynthesis and regulation, providing a basis for metabolic engineering of thraustochytrids.

  1. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaf, de M.E.; Sijtsma, L.; Pronk, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    The heterotrophic marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications, during batch cultivation on complex media containing sea salt, yeast extract, and glucose. In the present study, fed-batch cult

  2. Developmental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation improves adult learning and increases resistance against excitotoxicity in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gódor-Kacsándi, A.; Felszeghy, K.; Ranky, M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Nyakas, C.

    2013-01-01

    Through metabolic imprinting mechanisms a number of bioactive molecules including polyunsaturated fatty acids affect brain functions in the developmental age and longer-lasting beneficial effects are expected. In this study pregnant rats were offered diets either containing no docosahexaenoic acid (

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates the enterocyte Caco-2 cell expression of MicroRNAs involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and greater chemoprevention. However, the mechanisms underlying the biologic effects of DHA remain unknown. It is well known that microRNAs (m...

  4. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaf, de M.E.; Sijtsma, L.; Pronk, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    The heterotrophic marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii is known to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with food and pharmaceutical applications, during batch cultivation on complex media containing sea salt, yeast extract, and glucose. In the present study, fed-batch cult

  5. Improved mitochondrial function with diet-induced increase in either docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP. We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3 and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6 in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca(2+ load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6. Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca(2+-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca(2+ load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs.

  6. Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-04-01

    Membrane phospholipids make up a substantial portion of the human brain, and changes in their amount and composition are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the changes that phospholipids undergo during normal adult aging. This study examined changes in phospholipid composition in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over the adult life span. The largest age-related changes were an increase in the abundance of both mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6 by approximately one-third from age 20 to 100 years and a 25% decrease in mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_20:4. Generally, increases were seen with age in phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid across both membrane fractions, whereas phospholipids containing either arachidonic or adrenic acid decreased with age. These findings suggest a gradual change in membrane lipid composition over the adult life span.

  7. Effects of Altered Maternal Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Placental Global DNA Methylation Patterns in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asmita Kulkarni; Kamini Dangat; Anvita Kale; Pratiksha Sable; Preeti Chavan-Gautam; Sadhana Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12) are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulti...

  8. Effect of in vitro docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to marine algae-adapted and unadapted rumen inoculum on the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids infreeze-dried grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Mengistu, G.; Fievez, V.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic (18:2n-6) and linolenic (18:3n-3) acid during in vitro incubations with rumen inoculum from dairy cattle adapted or not to marine algae and with or without additional in vitro docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supp

  9. N-Acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids - from fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Jocelijn; Balvers, Michiel; Witkamp, Renger

    2013-06-01

    N-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), in particular α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanisms have been proposed, but their interactions with the endocannabinoid system have received relatively little attention so far. However, it has already been shown some time ago that consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs not only affects the synthesis of prototypic endocannabinoids like anandamide but also stimulates the formation of specific n-3 LC-PUFA-derived conjugates with ethanolamine, dopamine, serotonin or other amines. Some of these fatty amides show overlapping biological activities with those of typical endocannabinoids, whereas others possess distinct and sometimes largely unknown receptor affinities and other properties. The ethanolamine and dopamine conjugates of DHA have been the most investigated thus far. These mediators may provide promising new leads to the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders and for other pharmacological applications, including their use as carrier molecules for neurotransmitters to target the brain. Furthermore, combinations of n-3 LC-PUFA-derived fatty acid amides, their precursors and FAAH inhibitors offer possibilities to optimise their effects in health and disease.

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Signalolipidomics in Nutrition: Significance in Aging, Neuroinflammation, Macular Degeneration, Alzheimer’s, and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bazan, Nicolas G.; Molina, Miguel F.; Gordon, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical nutritional lipids that must be obtained from the diet to sustain homeostasis. Omega-3 and -6 PUFAs are key components of biomembranes and play important roles in cell integrity, development, maintenance, and function. The essential omega-3 fatty acid family member docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained and uniquely concentrated in the nervous system, particularly in photoreceptors and synaptic membranes. DHA plays a key role i...

  11. Increasing levels of two different fish oils lower ruminal biohydrogenation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dohme, Frigga; Fievez, Veerle; Raes, Katleen; Demeyer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary $n-3$ fatty acids limits any attempt to increase their contents in products of ruminants. The aim of the study was to determine whether total lipolysis, release rate of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) from triacylglycerols (TG), their biohydrogenation and their accumulation as unesterified fatty acids was affected by the fish oil type (FOa; FOb), inclusion level (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg per incubation ...

  12. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Differentially Alter Oxylipin Profiles in Mouse Periuterine Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Yuriko; Belda, Benjamin J; Pedersen, Theresa L; Fedor, Dawn M; Mackey, Bruce E; Newman, John W; Kelley, Darshan S

    2017-05-01

    Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting. We examined the impact of a 4-week feeding of 0, 0.5, and 1.5% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the presence and absence of 0.5% CLA on AT oxylipin profiles in female C57BL/6N mice. Esterified oxylipins in AT derived from linoleic acid (LNA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA, and putative from CLA were quantified. CLA containing diets reduced AT mass by ~62%. Compared with the control diet, the DHA diet elevated concentrations of EPA-and DHA-derived alcohols and epoxides and LNA-derived alcohols, reduced ARA-derived alcohols, ketones, epoxides, and 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1α (P < 0.05), and had mixed effects on ALA-derived alcohols. Dietary CLA lowered EPA-, DHA-, and ALA-derived epoxides, ARA-derived ketones and epoxides, and ALA-derived alcohols. While dietary CLA induced variable effects in EPA-, DHA-, and LNA-derived alcohols and LNA-derived ketones, it elevated ARA-derived alcohols and PGF1α, PGF2α, and F2-isoprostanes. DHA counteracted CLA-induced effects in 67, 57, 43, and 29% of total DHA-, ARA-, EPA-, and ALA-derived oxylipins, respectively. Thus, CLA elevated proinflammatory oxylipins while DHA increased anti-inflammatory oxylipins and diminished concentration of CLA-induced pro-inflammatory oxylipins in AT.

  13. PENGARUH DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA PADA TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK BALITA GIZI BURUK YANG DIRAWAT JALAN [The effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under-five with severe malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Lamid1, , , , dan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under five with severe malnutrition. Sample was children whose age from 6 to 24 months suffering from severe malnutrition with weight /age index of WHO standard of Z score 0,05.

  14. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  15. Lipase inhibitor orlistat decreases incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Oliveira, Manuel; Pescia, Grégory; Moulin, Julie; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Orlistat is a gastric and pancreatic lipases inhibitor that is often prescribed to obese subjects. Orlistat has been shown to decrease the absorption of biologically important lipophilic micronutrients such as liposoluble vitamins. We hypothesized that long-term administration of orlistat may lower the incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in blood lipids and tissues. This hypothesis was tested in rats fed a diet supplemented with fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental high-fat diets containing fish oil (control diet) or fish oil plus orlistat (200 and 400 mg/kg of diet) over the course of 3 weeks. Fat absorption and the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, among other fatty acids, in red blood cells, plasma, liver, and spleen, were measured at the end of the experimental period. The results show that at 200 mg and 400 mg/kg of diet orlistat lowers fat absorption by 9% (P = .008) and 54% (P = .008). Orlistat given at the higher level induced a reduction of the incorporation of EPA in red blood cell (-45%; P = .006) and in plasma (-34%; P = .026) compared to the control group. Our results confirmed that administration of orlistat reduces incorporation of n-3 LC-PUFA in blood lipids and tissues in a rat model.

  16. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA: An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  18. Alcohol abuse and docosahexaenoic acid: Effects on cerebral circulation and neurosurvival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are major and yet surprisingly unacknowledged worldwide causes of brain damage, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Chronic abuse of alcohol is likely to elicit significant changes in essential polyenoic fatty acids and the membrane phospholipids (PLs that covalently contain them in brain membranes. Among the fatty acids of the omega-3 polyenoic class, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which is relatively concentrated in mammalian brain, has proven particularly important for proper brain development as well as neurosurvival and protection. DHA losses in brains of chronic alcohol-treated animals may contribute to alcohol′s neuroinflammatory and neuropathological sequelae; indeed, DHA supplementation has beneficial effects, including the possibility that its documented augmenting effects on cerebral circulation could be important. The neurochemical mechanisms by which DHA exerts its effects encompass several signaling routes involving both the membrane PLs in which DHA is esterified as well as unique neuroactive metabolites of the free fatty acid itself. In view of indications that brain DHA deficits are a deleterious outcome of human alcoholism, increasing brain DHA via supplementation during detoxification of alcoholics could potentially fortify against dependence-related neuroinjury.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): an ancient nutrient for the modern human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  20. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  1. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  2. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DH...

  3. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  4. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  5. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Lassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  6. A novel therapeutic strategy for experimental stroke using docosahexaenoic acid complexed to human albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayev Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts in ischemic stroke research and significant improvements in patient care within the last decade, therapy is still insufficient. There is a compelling, urgent need for safe and effective neuroprotective strategies to limit brain injury, facilitate brain repair, and improve functional outcome. Recently, we reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3 complexed to human albumin (DHA-Alb is highly neuroprotective after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo in young rats. This review highlights the potency of DHA-Alb therapy in permanent MCAo and aged rats and whether protection persists with chronic survival. We discovered that a novel therapy with DHA-Alb improved behavioral outcomes accompanied by attenuation of lesion volumes even when animals were allowed to survive three weeks after experimental stroke. This treatment might provide the basis for future therapeutics for patients suffering from ischemic stroke.

  7. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  8. Effect of Nitrogen Sources on the Growth and Docosahexaenoic Acid Accumulation in Crypthecodinium cohnii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jufang; Wu Haizhen; Liang Shizhong; Chen Feng

    2002-01-01

    The effect of various nitrogen sources on the growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yield is determined in Crypthecodinium cohnii ATCC30556. Single nitrogen tryptone and peptone are suitable to growth, the dry weight biomass is up to 2.78 g/L and 2.70g/L respectively on medium containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen. Peptone is a favorable nitrogen source for DHA accumulation, DHA yield increases up to 338.56 mg/L. Using peptone and KNO3 as a multiple nitrogen source, the highest biomass and DHA yield are obtained from media containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen in which the ratio of peptone-N:NO3--N is 1:2,and the biomass and DHA yield are 2.98 g/L(DW) and 527.97mg/L respectively.

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Incorporation of lutein and docosahexaenoic acid from dietary microalgae into the retina in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebelen-Berthier, Coralie; Acar, Niyazi; Pouillart, Philippe; Thabuis, Clementine; Rodriguez, Bertrand; Depeint, Flore; Clerc, Elise; Mathiaud, Adeline; Bourdillon, Anne; Baert, Blandine; Bretillon, Lionel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation. We also observed a significant increase in retinal and plasmatic levels of DHA in the microalgae-fed group. In conclusion, the plasmatic and retinal contents of lutein and DHA were significantly increased in quail fed with lutein- and DHA-rich microalgae. Food fortification with microalgae may be an innovative way to increase lutein and DHA consumption in humans.

  11. Phytanic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase the metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid and CYP26 gene expression in intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampen, A; Meyer, S; Nau, H

    2001-10-31

    Retinoids are essential for growth and cell differentiation of epithelial tissues. The effects of the food compounds phytol, the phytol metabolite phytanic acid, and the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the retinoid signaling pathway in intestinal cells were studied. Phytol inhibited the formation of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) from dietary retinol in intestinal cells. Phytanic acid, a known retinoic X receptor (RXRalpha) and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPARalpha) activator, also activated PPARdelta, and to a lesser degree PPARgamma, in a transactivation assay. Phytanic acid had no effect on intestinal RA hydroxylase CYP26 (also named P450RAI) gene expression and metabolism of all-trans-RA in intestinal Caco-2 cells. However, in combination with retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-ligands (all-trans-RA or synthetic Am580) phytanic acid enhanced the induction of CYP26 and RA-metabolism in comparison to treatments with all-trans-RA or Am580 alone. Also treatment with DHA did not affect CYP26 gene expression and RA-metabolism but cotreatment of the cells with DHA and all-trans-RA or Am580 enhanced the induction of CYP26, in comparison to the induction caused by all-trans-RA or Am580 alone. This study indicates that food compounds such as phytanic acid and DHA that are RXR-agonists and have an impact on intestinal CYP26 gene expression and metabolism of all-trans-RA in intestinal cells.

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  13. Effects of Long-Term Oral Administration of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Immune Functions of Young Rats

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    Osamu Shido

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for production of docosahexaenoic acid based on a myxobacterial PUFA synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperlein, Katja; Zipf, Gregor; Bernauer, Hubert S; Müller, Rolf; Wenzel, Silke C

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can be produced de novo via polyketide synthase-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases, which are encoded by pfa biosynthetic gene clusters originally discovered from marine microorganisms. Recently similar gene clusters were detected and characterized in terrestrial myxobacteria revealing several striking differences. As the identified myxobacterial producers are difficult to handle genetically and grow very slowly we aimed to establish heterologous expression platforms for myxobacterial PUFA synthases. Here we report the heterologous expression of the pfa gene cluster from Aetherobacter fasciculatus (SBSr002) in the phylogenetically distant model host bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. The latter host turned out to be the more promising PUFA producer revealing higher production rates of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After several rounds of genetic engineering of expression plasmids combined with metabolic engineering of P. putida, DHA production yields were eventually increased more than threefold. Additionally, we applied synthetic biology approaches to redesign and construct artificial versions of the A. fasciculatus pfa gene cluster, which to the best of our knowledge represents the first example of a polyketide-like biosynthetic gene cluster modulated and synthesized for P. putida. Combination with the engineering efforts described above led to a further increase in LC-PUFA production yields. The established production platform based on synthetic DNA now sets the stage for flexible engineering of the complex PUFA synthase.

  15. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection.

  16. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival.

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    Joseph T O'Flaherty

    Full Text Available A 15-LOX, it is proposed, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer in part by converting arachidonic, eicosatrienoic, and/or eicosapentaenoic acids to n-6 hydroxy metabolites. These metabolites inhibit the proliferation of PC3, LNCaP, and DU145 prostate cancer cells but only at ≥1-10 µM. We show here that the 15-LOX metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 17-hydroperoxy-, 17-hydroxy-, 10,17-dihydroxy-, and 7,17-dihydroxy-DHA inhibit the proliferation of these cells at ≥0.001, 0.01, 1, and 1 µM, respectively. By comparison, the corresponding 15-hydroperoxy, 15-hydroxy, 8,15-dihydroxy, and 5,15-dihydroxy metabolites of arachidonic acid as well as DHA itself require ≥10-100 µM to do this. Like DHA, the DHA metabolites a induce PC3 cells to activate a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ reporter, express syndecan-1, and become apoptotic and b are blocked from slowing cell proliferation by pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PPARγ or syndecan-1. The DHA metabolites thus slow prostate cancer cell proliferation by engaging the PPARγ/syndecan-1 pathway of apoptosis and thereby may contribute to the prostate cancer-suppressing effects of not only 15-LOX but also dietary DHA.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces suppressive and migratory functions of CD4CD25 regulatory T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Plé, Aude; Moutairou, Kabirou; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Immunological tolerance is one of the fundamental aspects of the immune system. The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have emerged as key players in the development of tolerance to self and foreign antigens. However, little is known about the endogenous factors and mechanisms controlling their suppressive capacity on immune response. In this study, we observed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, diminished, in a dose-dependent manner, the capacity of Treg cells to inhibit the CD4+CD25− effector T-cell proliferation. DHA not only reduced the migration of Treg cells toward chemokines but also downregulated the mRNA expression of CCR-4 and CXCR-4 in Treg cells. DHA also curtailed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and downregulated the Smad7 levels in these cells. Contradictorily, DHA upregulated the mRNA expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, TGF-β, and IL-10; nonetheless, this fatty acid increased the expression of p27KIP1 mRNA, known to be involved in Treg cell unresponsiveness. In Foxp3-immunoprepitated nuclear proteins, DHA upregulated histone desacetylase 7 levels that would again participate in the unresposnsiveness of these cells. Finally, a DHA-enriched diet also diminished, ex vivo, the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Altogether, these results suggest that DHA, by diminishing Treg cell functions, may play a key role in health and disease. PMID:19561360

  18. Diet-induced docosahexaenoic acid non-raft domains and lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Shaikh, Saame

    2010-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that generally suppresses the function of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs). An emerging mechanism by which DHA modifies lymphocyte function is through changes in the organization of sphingolipid/cholesterol lipid raft membrane domains. Two contradictory models have been proposed to explain how DHA exerts its effects through changes in raft organization. The biophysical model, developed in model membranes, shows that DHA-containing phospholipids form unique non-raft membrane domains, that are organizationally distinct from lipid rafts, which serve to alter the conformation and/or lateral organization of lymphocyte proteins. In contrast, the cellular model on DHA and rafts shows that DHA suppresses lymphocyte function, in part, by directly incorporating into lipid rafts and altering protein activity. To reconcile opposing biophysical and cellular viewpoints, a major revision to existing models is presented herein. Based largely on quantitative microscopy data, it is proposed that DHA, consumed through the diet, modifies lymphocyte function, in part, through the formation of nanometer scale DHA-rich domains. These nano-scale domains disrupt the optimal raft-dependent clustering of proteins necessary for initial signaling. The data covered in this review highlights the importance of understanding how dietary n-3 PUFAs modify lymphocyte membranes, which is essential toward developing these fatty acids as therapeutic agents for treating inflammatory diseases.

  19. Brown but not white adipose cells synthesize omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Zhang, Ji Yao; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Guowen; Subramanian, Nivetha; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ which coordinates several crucial biological functions including fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is most abundant in young infants during the brain growth spurt when demands for omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is greatest for brain structure. Our aim was to characterize relative biosynthesis of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from precursors in cultured white (WAT) and brown (BAT) cells and study relevant gene expression. Mouse WAT and BAT cells were grown in regular DMEM media to confluence, and differentiation was induced. At days 0 and 8 cells were treated with albumin bound d5-18:3n-3 (d5-ALA) and analyzed 24h later. d5-ALA increased cellular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in undifferentiated BAT cells, whereas differentiated BAT cells accumulated 20:4n-3, EPA and DPA. DHA as a fraction of total omega-3 LCPUFA was greatest in differentiated BAT cells compared to undifferentiated cells. Undifferentiated WAT cells accumulated EPA, whereas differentiated cells accumulated DPA. WAT accumulated trace newly synthesized DHA. Zic1 a classical brown marker and Prdm16 a key driver of brown fat cell fate are expressed only in BAT cells. Ppargc1a is 15 fold higher in differentiated BAT cells. We conclude that in differentiated adipose cells accumulating fat, BAT cells but not WAT cells synthesize DHA, supporting the hypothesis that BAT is a net producer of DHA.

  20. Screening and characterization of Isochrysis strains and optimization of culture conditions for docosahexaenoic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Isochrysis is a genus of marine unicellular microalgae that produces docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), a very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of significant health and nutritional value. Mass cultivation of Isochrysis for DHA production for human consumption has not been established due to disappointing low DHA productivity obtained from commonly used Isochrysis strains. In this study, 19 natural Isochrysis strains were screened for DHA yields and the results showed that the cellular DHA content ranged from 6.8 to 17.0 % of total fatty acids with the highest DHA content occurring in the exponential growth phase. Isochrysis galbana #153180 exhibited the greatest DHA production potential and was selected for further investigation. The effects of different light intensities, forms, and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and salinity on growth and DHA production of I. galbana #153180 were studied in a bubble column photobioreactor (PBR). Under favorable culture conditions, I. galbana #153180 contained DHA up to 17.5 % of total fatty acids or 1.7 % of cell dry weight. I. galbana #153180 was further tested in outdoor flat-plate PBRs varying in light path length, starting cell density (SCD), and culture mode (batch versus semicontinuous). When optimized, record high biomass and DHA productivity of I. galbana #153180 of 0.72 g L(-1) day(-1) and 13.6 mg L(-1) day(-1), or 26.4 g m(-2) day(-1) and 547.7 mg m(-2) day(-1), respectively, were obtained, suggesting that I. galbana #153180 may be a desirable strain for commercial production of DHA.

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

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    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  3. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-10-29

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis, brain aging and Alzheimer's disease: Can we reconcile the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphael; Castellano, Christian A; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    A crossroads has been reached on research into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the one hand, several prospective observational studies now clearly indicate a protective effect of higher fish and DHA intake against risk of AD. On the other hand, once AD is clinically evident, supplementation trials demonstrate essentially no benefit of DHA in AD. Despite apparently low DHA intake in AD, brain DHA levels are frequently the same as in controls, suggesting that low DHA intake results in low plasma DHA but does not necessarily reduce brain DHA in humans. Animal models involving dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency to deplete brain DHA may therefore not be appropriate in AD research. Studies in the healthy elderly suggest that DHA homeostasis changes during aging. Tracer methodology now permits estimation of DHA half-life in the human brain and whole body. Apolipoprotein E alleles have an important impact not only on AD but also on DHA homeostasis in humans. We therefore encourage further development of innovative approaches to the study of DHA metabolism and its role in human brain function. A better understanding of DHA metabolism in humans will hopefully help explain how higher habitual DHA intake protects against the risk of deteriorating cognition during aging and may eventually give rise to a breakthrough in the treatment of AD.

  5. Does aging change docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis? Implications for the challenge to cognitive health in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Christian-Alexandre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies fairly convincingly suggest that higher intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids present in fish is associated with reduced risk for age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Normally, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in plasma is positively associated with DHA intake. However, despite being associated with lower fish and DHA intake, unexpectedly, ARCD is not consistently associated with lower plasma DHA. Furthermore, DHA is often slightly but significantly higher in plasma and erythrocytes in the elderly without ARCD compared to young adults. Higher plasma DHA in the elderly may be a sign that their fish or DHA intake is higher but we show here that various aspects of DHA homeostasis also change with age. Our supplementation and tracer studies show that DHA metabolism, e.g. transit through the plasma and apparent retroconversion but not beta-oxidation, is different in healthy elderly compared to healthy young adults. Apolipoprotein E4 increases the risk of ARCD, possibly in part because it changes DHA homeostasis. Therefore, independent of differences in fish intake, changing DHA homeostasis may contribute to making the elderly more susceptible to cognitive decline despite them having similar or sometimes higher plasma DHA than in younger adults.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro and mice gastric mucosa colonization.

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    Marta Correia

    Full Text Available H. pylori drug-resistant strains and non-compliance to therapy are the major causes of H. pylori eradication failure. For some bacterial species it has been demonstrated that fatty acids have a growth inhibitory effect. Our main aim was to assess the ability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to inhibit H. pylori growth both in vitro and in a mouse model. The effectiveness of standard therapy (ST in combination with DHA on H. pylori eradication and recurrence prevention success was also investigated. The effects of DHA on H. pylori growth were analyzed in an in vitro dose-response study and n in vivo model. We analized the ability of H. pylori to colonize mice gastric mucosa following DHA, ST or a combination of both treatments. Our data demonstrate that DHA decreases H. pylori growth in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA inhibits H. pylori gastric colonization in vivo as well as decreases mouse gastric mucosa inflammation. Addition of DHA to ST was also associated with lower H. pylori infection recurrence in the mouse model. In conclusion, DHA is an inhibitor of H. pylori growth and its ability to colonize mouse stomach. DHA treatment is also associated with a lower recurrence of H. pylori infection in combination with ST. These observations pave the way to consider DHA as an adjunct agent in H. pylori eradication treatment.

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Potential Tool to Prevent Membrane Rupture and Preterm Labor

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    Emanuela Pietrantoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and preterm-PROM (pPROM, are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Bivalent Ligand Combining Caffeine and Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Azuaje, Jhonny; Morató, Xavier; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sotelo, Eddy; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-02-27

    Caffeine is a promising drug for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), demonstrating neuroprotective properties that have been attributed to its interaction with the basal ganglia adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). However, the doses needed to exert these neuroprotective effects may be too high. Thus, it is important to design novel approaches that selectively deliver this natural compound to the desired target. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the brain and can act as a specific carrier of caffeine. Furthermore, DHA displays properties that may lead to its use as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we constructed a novel bivalent ligand covalently linking caffeine and DHA and assessed its pharmacological activity and safety profile in a simple cellular model. Interestingly, the new bivalent ligand presented higher potency as an A2AR inverse agonist than caffeine alone. We also determined the range of concentrations inducing toxicity both in a heterologous system and in primary striatal cultures. The novel strategy presented here of attaching DHA to caffeine may enable increased effects of the drug at desired sites, which could be of interest for the treatment of PD.

  9. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Apoptosis and Proliferation in the Placenta: Preliminary Report

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    Ewa Wietrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. Materials and Methods. We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group. The control group consisted of 50 women who did not receive such supplementation (control group. We determined the expression of Ki-67 and p21 as markers of proliferation and caspase 3 activity as a marker of apoptosis and DHA levels in umbilical cord blood. Results. Caspase 3 activity was significantly lower in the DHA group in comparison to the control group. Umbilical cord blood DHA concentration was higher in the DHA group. The expression of the proteins p21 and Ki-67 did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions. We observed an association between DHA supplementation and inhibition of placental apoptosis. We did not find an association between DHA and proliferation process in the placenta.

  10. Comparison of the Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Fasting Blood Sugar, Triglyceride, and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Azizi Soleiman; Shima Jazayeri; Shahriyar Eghtesadi; Mohammadreza Vafa; Mahmoodreza Gohari; Amirkamran Nikoosokhan; Assadolah Rajab; Iraj Heidari; Naseh Pahlavani

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that consumption of fish oil results in reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk factor such as triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic patients. It is not clear which component of fish oil(EPA or DHA) is more important. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study designed as a tripl...

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.;

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1......-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory...

  12. α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, alone and combined with trastuzumab, reduce HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell growth but differentially regulate HER2 signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been shown to reduce breast tumor growth, enhance the effectiveness of the HER2-targeted drug trastuzumab (TRAS) and reduce HER2 signaling in mouse models. It is unclear whether this is due to direct effects of ALA or due to its long-chain n-3 fatty acids metabolites including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Methods The ability of HER2-overexpressing BT-474 human breast cancer cells to convert ALA to long-chain n-3 fatty ...

  13. Effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with paclitaxel on the treatment of mice mammary carcinoma

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    Kamran Rakhshan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women. One of the various gene expression involved in breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu gene expression increases. Factors of dietary affect on regulation of hormone secretion and the rate of breast cancer. One of these factors is amount and type of fats in diet. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA and Docosah-exaenoic acid (DHA are members of poly unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, effects of dietary GLA and DHA alone or together with paclitaxel on treatment of mice mammary carcinoma has been evaluated.Methods: Thirty female balb/c mice were divided in six groups randomly. Carcinoma-tous mass induced by tumor implantation method. Spontaneous breast adenocarcinoma of mice were used as tumor stock. The tumors of these mice were removed aseptically, dissected into 0.5 cm3 pieces. These pieces were transplanted subcutaneously into their right flank. GLA and DHA added to the mice diet two week prior to tumor implanta-tion. At the end of intervention, tumors were removed and HER2 gene expression was measured. The weight of animal and tumor volume measured weekly.Results: It was not significant change in the weight of animals that consumed DHA and DHA with taxol. Tumor volume in those groups that received corn oil with taxol (P<0.01, DHA (P<0.05 and DHA with taxol (P<0.001 showed significant decrease in comparison with control group. HER2 gene expression in DHA with taxol decreased significantly in comparison with control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Consumption of DHA oil with taxol causes decrease the volume of carcin-oma mass. The future studies with large number of sample is needed to support this finding.

  14. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion induced by tumor-associated macrophages.

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    Cheng-Chung Li

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in fish oil that decrease the risk of prostate cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are the main leukocytes of intratumoral infiltration, and increased TAMs correlates with poor prostate cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism of n-3 PUFAs on prostate cancer cell progression induced by TAMs is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of EPA and DHA on modulating of migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells induced by TAMs-like M2-type macrophages. PC-3 prostate cancer cells were pretreated with EPA, DHA, or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, before exposure to conditioned medium (CM. CM was derived from M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages. The migratory and invasive abilities of PC-3 cells were evaluated using a coculture system of M2-type macrophages and PC-3 cells. EPA/DHA administration decreased migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. The PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity and cytosolic inhibitory factor κBα (IκBα protein expression increased while the nuclear factor (NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein level decreased in PC-3 cells incubated with CM in the presence of EPA/DHA. Further, EPA/DHA downregulated mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Pretreatment with GW9662 abolished the favorable effects of EPA/DHA on PC-3 cells. These results indicate that EPA/DHA administration reduced migration, invasion and macrophage chemotaxis of PC-3 cells induced by TAM-like M2-type macrophages, which may partly be explained by activation of PPAR-γ and decreased NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity.

  15. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violet low) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.

  16. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  17. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cell Cycle Pathways in Breast Cell Lines With Different Transformation Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescigno, Tania; Capasso, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice

    2016-06-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), abundant in fish, have been shown to affect development and progression of some types of cancer, including breast cancer. The aim of our study was to further analyze and clarify the effects of these nutrients on the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer. Following treatments with DHA we examined cell viability, death, cell cycle, and some molecular effects in breast cell lines with different transformation, phenotypic, and biochemical characteristics (MCF-10A, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-1). These investigations showed that DHA is able to affect cell viability, proliferation, and cell cycle progression in a different way in each assayed breast cell line. The activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and the expression and/or activation of molecules involved in cell cycle regulation such as p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p53, are very differently regulated by DHA treatments in each cell model. DHA selectively: (i) arrests non tumoral MCF-10A breast cells in G0 /G1 cycle phase, activating p21(Waf1/Cip1) , and p53, (ii) induces to death highly transformed breast cells SK-BR-3, reducing ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and (iii) only slightly affects each analyzed process in MCF-7 breast cell line with transformation degree lower than SK-BR-3 cells. These findings suggest a more relevant inhibitory role of DHA within early development and late progression of breast cancer cell transformation and a variable effect in the other phases, depending on individual molecular properties and degree of malignancy of each clinical case.

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

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    Jinying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1. DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA.

  19. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  20. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  1. Regulation of Ecto-5´-Nucleotidase by Docosahexaenoic Acid in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Thi Thom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Modulation of extracellular adenine nucleotide and adenosine concentrations is one potential mechanism by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may exert beneficial effects in critically ill patients. This study assessed DHA effects on extracellular adenine purines. Methods: Experiments used human pulmonary endothelial cells (HPMEC and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC treated with DHA (48 h. mRNA level (real-time PCR, expression (western blot, flow cytometry and activities (hydrolysis of etheno(ε-purines and fluorescence HPLC of CD73 (ecto-5´-nucleotidase and CD39 (ecto-NTPDase-1 were quantified. Results: DHA elevated total CD73 membrane protein expression concentration-dependently but CD73 mRNA level did not change. Increased expression was paralleled by increased enzyme activity. Effects observed on membrane level were reversed in intact cells, in which ε-AMP hydrolysis decreased after DHA. In intact endothelial cells ATP release was enhanced and CD39 activity blunted following DHA treatment. Hence, extracellular ATP and ADP concentrations increased and this inhibited ε-AMP hydrolysis. Conclusion: In human endothelial cells DHA caused 1 up-regulation of CD73 protein content and increased AMP hydrolysis at the cell membrane level, 2 increased cellular ATP release, and 3 decreased extracellular ATP/ADP hydrolysis. Thus, reorganization of the extracellular adenine-nucleotide-adenosine axis in response to DHA resulted in an increased extracellular ATP/adenosine ratio.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid sensitizes colon cancer cells to sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Eunmyong; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Cha, Jun Hyung; Choi, Hwanho; Park, Wanseo; Choi, Hyeon Kyeom; Ko, Seong-Hee; Kim, So Hee

    2012-06-01

    Sulindac analogs represent one of the most efficacious groups of NSAIDs reducing the risk of colon cancer. Recent studies have shown that sulindac sulfide, a sulindac analog effective at lower doses compared to its parent compound, triggers the death receptor (DR)5-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Induction of apoptosis via activation of the DR-mediated pathway would be an ideal therapeutic strategy to eliminate cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the possibility that colon cancer cells are sensitized to sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), via activation of the DR/extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our data demonstrated that DHA combination sensitized colon cancer cells to sulindac sulfide-induced apoptosis, leading to enhanced growth suppression of human colon cancer xenografts. The combination effect was primarily attributed to increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-8 activation. Moreover, pretreatment with z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) or stable expression of dominant negative caspase-8 genes blocked DHA/sulindac sulfide cotreatment-induced apoptosis. In view of the finding that DR5 silencing abrogated the combination-stimulated apoptosis, we propose that apoptotic synergy induced by sulindac sulfide plus DHA is mediated via DR5. Our findings collectively support the utility of a combination of sulindac sulfide and DHA in the effective prevention and treatment of colon cancer.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses breast cancer cell metastasis by targeting matrix-metalloproteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soyeon; Kim, Soyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Wu, Tong; Park, Jong-Il; Lim, Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women, and nearly half of breast cancer patients develop distant metastatic disease after therapy. Despite the significant advances that have been achieved in understanding breast cancer metastasis in the past decades, metastatic cancer is still hard to cure. Here, we demonstrated an anti-cancer mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that suppressed lung metastasis in breast cancer. DHA could inhibit proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and this was mainly through blocking Cox-2-PGE2-NF-κB-MMPs cascades. DHA treatment significantly decreased Cox-2 and NF-κB expression as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, DHA also reduced NF-κB binding to DNA which may lead to inactivation of MMPs. Moreover, in vivo studies using Fat-1 transgenic mice showed remarkable decrease of tumor growth and metastasis to EO771 cells to lung in DHA-rich environment. In conclusion, DHA attenuated breast cancer progression and lung metastasis in part through suppressing MMPs, and these findings suggest chemoprevention and potential therapeutic strategy to overcome malignant breast cancer. PMID:27363023

  4. Effects of Culture Conditions on Growth and Docosahexaenoic Acid Production from Schizochytrium limacinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of temperature, initial pH, salinity of culture medium, and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6 n-3, DHA) production from Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 were investigated in the present study. The results revealed that the optimal temperature, initial pH and salinity level of the medium for DHA production were 23 ℃, 7.0 and 18,respectively. Glucose was proved the best carbon source for the growth and DHA production from S. limacinum. Among the nitrogen sources tested, soybean cake hydrolysate, a cheap by-product, was found to be effective for the accumulation of DHA in S. limacinum cells. In addition, increasing the concentration of carbon sources in the medium caused a significant increase in cell biomass;however, accumulation of DHA in cells was mainly stimulated by the ratio of C/N in the medium. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum DHA yield achieved in flasks was 4.08 g L-1 after 5 d of cultivation.

  5. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

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    Heidi N. Bagley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI- induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1 normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2 increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Did not Alter trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Incorporation into Mice Brain and Eye Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Madhuri; Adkins, Yuriko; Mackey, Bruce E; Kelley, Darshan S

    2017-09-01

    trans 10,cis 12-CLA has been reported to alter fatty acid composition in several non-neurological tissues, but its effects are less known in neurological tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if CLA supplementation would alter brain and eye fatty acid composition and if those changes could be prevented by concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3). Eight-week-old, pathogen-free C57BL/6N female mice (n = 6/group) were fed either the control diet or diets containing 0.5% (w/w) t10,c12-CLA in the presence or absence of either 1.5% DHA or 1.5% EPA for 8 weeks. CLA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the eye but not in the brain lipids of the CLA group when compared with the control group. The sums of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n3:n6 ratio did not differ between these two groups for both tissues. The n3:n6 ratio and concentrations of 20:5n3 and 22:5n3 were significantly greater, and those of 20:4n6, 22:4n6, and 22:5n6 were lesser in the CLA + DHA and CLA + EPA groups than in the control and CLA groups for either tissue. DHA concentration was higher in the CLA + DHA group only but not in the CLA + EPA group when compared with the CLA group for both tissues. The dietary fatty acids generally induced similar changes in brain and eye fatty acid concentration and at the concentrations used both DHA and EPA fed individually with CLA were more potent than CLA alone in altering the tissue fatty acid concentration.

  7. Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids Involved in Neuroprotection and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Lancet 1998; 352: 688–91. 22. Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG: A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long- chain ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0074 TITLE: Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: identification of Bioactive Metabolites of Docosahexaenoic Acids...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01 March, 2011 - 28 Feb 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Neural Resilience to Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid has influence on action potentials and transient outward potassium currents of ventricular myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Yu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many reports about the anti-arrhythmic effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, the mechanisms are still not completely delineated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of action potentials and transient outward potassium currents (Ito of Sprague-Dawley rat ventricular myocytes and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on action potentials and Ito. Methods The calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion. Action potentials and Ito of epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results 1. Action potential durations (APDs were prolonged from epicardial to endocardial ventricular myocytes (P 2. Ito current densities were decreased from epicardial to endocardial ventricular myocytes, which were 59.50 ± 15.99 pA/pF, 29.15 ± 5.53 pA/pF, and 12.29 ± 3.62 pA/pF, respectively at +70 mV test potential (P 3. APDs were gradually prolonged with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, however, APDs changes were not significant as DHA concentrations were in the range of 0 μmol/L to 1 μmol/L. 4. Ito currents were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 μmol/L to 100 μmol/L, and its half-inhibited concentration was 5.3 μmol/L. The results showed that there were regional differences in the distribution of action potentials and Ito in rat epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes. APDs were prolonged and Ito current densities were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations. Conclusion The anti-arrhythmia mechanisms of DHA are complex, however, the effects of DHA on action potentials and Ito may be one of the important causes.

  9. Free radical oxidation of plasmalogen glycerophosphocholine containing esterified docosahexaenoic acid: structure determination by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemski Berry, Karin A; Murphy, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Plasmalogen phospholipids have a vinyl ether substituent at the sn-1 position that is susceptible to oxidative reactions that occur at cell membranes. However, the mechanism by which this oxidation occurs and the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position have not been established. To gain insight into these mechanisms, the oxidized phospholipid products resulting from the exposure of 1-O-hexadec-1'-enyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (16:0p/22:6-GPCho) to the free radical initiator 2, 2'-azobis (2- amidinopropane) hydrochloride were examined. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, and electron ionization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to structurally characterize the oxidized glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) products. The radical-induced peroxidation of 16:0p/22:6-GPCho revealed two major classes of oxidized phospholipids. The first class of products was formed by oxidation at the sn-1 position and included 1-lyso-2-docosahexaenoyl-GPCho and 1-formyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-GPCho. Additionally, the second class of oxidized products where oxidation occurred at the sn-2 position was classified into three categories that included chain-shortened omega-aldehydes, terminal gamma-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, and the addition of one or two oxygen atoms onto the sn-2 position of 16:0p/22:6-GPCho. These results clearly indicate that free radical-induced oxidation of plasmalogen phospholipids with esterified docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position underwent oxidation at both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions.

  10. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplemented Diet Influences the Orchidectomy-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Navarro, Rocío; del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats. For this purpose mesenteric artery segments obtained from control, orchidectomized or orchidectomized plus DHA-supplemented diet were utilized to analyze: (1) the release of prostanoids, (2) formation of NO and ROS, (3) the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh), as well as the involvement of prostanoids and NO in this response, and (4) the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), analyzing also the effect of exogenous noradrenaline (NA), and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The results demonstrate beneficial effects of DHA on the vascular function in orchidectomized rats, which include a decrease in the prostanoids release and superoxide formation that were previously augmented by orchidectomy. Additionally, there was an increase in endothelial NO formation and the response to ACh, in which NO involvement and the participation of vasodilator prostanoids were increased. DHA also reversed the decrease in EFS-induced response caused by orchidectomy. All of these findings suggest beneficial effects of DHA on vascular function by reversing the neurogenic response and the endothelial dysfunction caused by orchidectomy. PMID:28068359

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); McCabe, Michael J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester NY (United States); Rosenspire, Allen, E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an essential fatty acid for the proper functioning of neuronal cells: their role in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The brain and the nervous system are tissues with high contents of two polyunsaturated fatty acids: arachidonic acid (20:4, omega-6, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, omega-3, DHA. Despite their abundance in these tissues, AA and DHA cannot be re-synthesized in mammals. However, the concentration of these fatty acids can be modulated by dietary intake. AA and DHA must be provided by the diet as such (preformed or through the respective omega-6 and omega-3 precursors from vegetable origin. Linoleic acid, the precursor of AA is very abundant in the western diet and therefore the formation of AA from linoleic acid is not restrictive. On the other hand, alpha linolenic acid, the precursor of DHA is less available in our diet and preformed DHA is highly restrictive in some populations. During the last period of gestation and during the early post natal period, neurodevelopment occurs exceptionally quickly, and significant amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA, are critical to allow neurite outgrowth and the proper brain and retina development and function. In this review various functions of DHA in the nervous system, its metabolism into phospholipids, and its involvement in different neurological and mood disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and others are revised.

    El cerebro y el sistema nervioso son tejidos con un alto contenido de dos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados: el ácido araquidónico (20:4, omega-6, AA y el ácido docosahexaenoico (22:6, omega-3, DHA. A pesar de la abundancia de estos ácidos grasos en dichos tejidos los mamíferos no los pueden sintetizar de novo. Sin embargo, la concentración de estos ácidos grasos puede ser modificada por la dieta. El AA y el DHA pueden ser aportados por la dieta como tales (preformados o a partir de los respectivos precursores de origen vegetal. El ácido linoleico, precursor del AA es muy abundante en la dieta occidental, por lo cual la

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1...

  15. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  17. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  18. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on a Biomarker of Head Trauma in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Jones, Margaret T; Kirk, K Michele; Gable, David A; Repshas, Justin T; Johnson, Torie A; Andréasson, Ulf; Norgren, Niklas; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    American football athletes are exposed to subconcussive impacts over the course of the season resulting in elevations in serum neurofilament light (NFL), a biomarker of axonal injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been reported to reduce axonal trauma associated with traumatic brain injury in rodent models. However, the optimal dose in American football athletes is unknown. This study examined the effect of differing doses of DHA on serum NFL over the course of a season of American football. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 81 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I American football athletes were assigned to ingest either 2, 4, 6 g·d of DHA or placebo. Blood was sampled at specific times over the course of 189 d, coincident with changes in intensity, hours of contact, and likely changes in head impacts. Standardized magnitude-based inference was used to define outcomes. DHA supplementation increased plasma DHA in a dose-dependent manner (2 g·d: mean difference from baseline; ±90% CL; 2 g·d: 1.3; ±0.6; 4 g·d: 1.6; ±0.7%; 6 g·d: 2.8; ±1.2%). Serum NFL increased to a greater extent in starters (area under the curve, 1995 ± 1383 pg·mL) versus nonstarters (1398 ± 581 pg·mL; P = 0.024). Irrespective of dose, supplemental DHA likely attenuated serum NFL coincident with increases in serum NFL by likely small and moderate magnitude (effect size = 0.4-0.7). Findings from this study, the first large-scale study examining potential prophylactic use of DHA in American football athletes, include identification of optimal dose of DHA, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of DHA supplementation.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates breast cancer cell metabolism and the Warburg phenotype by targeting bioenergetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, Michael; Kikawa, Keith D; Dranka, Brian P; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Pardini, Ronald S

    2015-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) depresses mammary carcinoma proliferation and growth in cell culture and in animal models. The current study explored the role of interrupting bioenergetic pathways in BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines representing respiratory and glycolytic phenotypes, respectively and comparing the impacts of DHA with a non-transformed cell line, MCF-10A. Metabolic investigation revealed that DHA supplementation significantly diminished the bioenergetic profile of the malignant cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. DHA enrichment also resulted in decreases in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) total protein level and transcriptional activity in the malignant cell lines but not in the non-transformed cell line. Downstream targets of HIF-1α, including glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were decreased by DHA treatment in the BT-474 cell line, as well as decreases in LDH protein level in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Glucose uptake, total glucose oxidation, glycolytic metabolism, and lactate production were significantly decreased in response to DHA supplementation; thereby enhancing metabolic injury and decreasing oxidative metabolism. The DHA-induced metabolic changes led to a marked decrease of intracellular ATP levels by 50% in both cancer cell lines, which mediated phosphorylation of metabolic stress marker, AMPK, at Thr172. These findings show that DHA contributes to impaired cancer cell growth and survival by altering cancer cell metabolism, increasing metabolic stress and altering HIF-1α-associated metabolism, while not affecting non-transformed MCF-10A cells. This study provides rationale for enhancement of current cancer prevention models and current therapies by combining them with dietary sources, like DHA.

  20. Crosstalk between Helicobacter pylori and gastric epithelial cells is impaired by docosahexaenoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Correia

    Full Text Available H. pylori colonizes half of the world's population leading to gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori strains resistant to antibiotics are increasing which raises the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been shown to decrease H. pylori growth and its associated-inflammation through mechanisms poorly characterized. We aimed to explore DHA action on H. pylori-mediated inflammation and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells (AGS and also to identify bacterial structures affected by DHA. H. pylori growth and metabolism was assessed in liquid cultures. Bacterial adhesion to AGS cells was visualized by transmission electron microscopy and quantified by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Inflammatory proteins were assessed by immunoblotting in infected AGS cells, previously treated with DHA. Bacterial total and outer membrane protein composition was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Concentrations of 100 µM of DHA decreased H. pylori growth, whereas concentrations higher than 250 µM irreversibly inhibited bacteria survival. DHA reduced ATP production and adhesion to AGS cells. AGS cells infected with DHA pre-treated H. pylori showed a 3-fold reduction in Interleukin-8 (IL-8 production and a decrease of COX2 and iNOS. 2D electrophoresis analysis revealed that DHA changed the expression of H. pylori outer membrane proteins associated with stress response and metabolism and modified bacterial lipopolysaccharide phenotype. As conclusions our results show that DHA anti-H. pylori effects are associated with changes of bacteria morphology and metabolism, and with alteration of outer membrane proteins composition, that ultimately reduce the adhesion of bacteria and the burden of H. pylori-related inflammation.

  1. Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid on anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid and lamotrigine in animal seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavzan, Hakimeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Sardari, Soroush; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-10-01

    Add-on therapy is a common strategy to improve efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Anticonvulsant potential and appropriate safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) makes it a promising candidate for combination therapy. We evaluated influence of DHA on anticonvulsant activity of AEDs phenytoin, valproate, and lamotrigine in maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), and kindling models of epilepsy. The dose-response to DHA was obtained 15 min after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in PTZ model of clonic seizures in mice, MES model of tonic seizures in mice, and kindling model of complex partial seizures in rats. The dose-response curve of valproate (30 min after i.p. injection to mice) in PTZ, phenytoin (60 min after i.p. injection to mice) in MES, and lamotrigine (60 min after i.p. injection to rats) in kindling models were obtained. Dose-response curves of the AEDs were then achieved in the presence of ED25 of DHA. DHA had no anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. However, it showed a dose-dependent protective effect against PTZ (ED50 = 0.13 μM) and kindled seizures (ED50 = 1.08 mM). DHA at ED25 caused a 3.6-fold increase in potency of valproate as its ED50 value from 117.5 (98.3-135.3) decreased to 32.5 (21.6-44.1) mg/kg. Moreover, a 4.9-fold increase in potency of lamotrigine occurred, as its ED50 value from 13.10 (11.50-14.9) decreased to 2.65 (0.8-5.6) mg/kg. CompuSyn analysis indicated synergistic anticonvulsant interaction between DHA and both valproate and lamotrigine. Co-administration strategy of the safe and inexpensive anticonvulsant compound DHA with AEDs should be favorably regarded in clinical studies of epilepsy treatment.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essentiality and requirements: why and how to provide supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprize from 50-60% of the structural matter of the brain and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA is the most  important omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain phospholipids comprizing 25% of the total fatty acids of the grey matter. The majority of the DHA present in the human brain is incorporated during the brain growth spurt which starts at week 26 of gestation and imposes a high demand for the fatty acid until about 2 years of age. DHA is required during brain development when neuronal and glial differentiation and migration, and active myelination and synaptogenesis take place. The fatty acid must be incorporated into the brain lipids as preformed DHA because less than 5% of its precursor (alpha linolenic acid, LNA is converted to DHA. The human foetus has a limited ability to synthesize DHA from LNA, and therefore it must be largely supplied from maternal sources. Maternal DHA available for foetal nutrition can be provided from three main sources: adipose tissue, which is the main reservoir for the fatty acid; through biosynthesis from the precursor LNA, which occurs mainly in the liver; and as preformed DHA from dietary sources. In the postnatal period DHA is provided by the mother to the newborn through milk secretion. Western nutrition provides low LNA and DHA and Expert Nutrition Committees suggest that mothers should receive DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. At present DHA supplementation can be provided from different sources: as purified free DHA, as an ethyl ester derivative, extracted from single-cell algae oils, from egg yolk phospholipids, or in the form of sn-2 DHA monoacylglycerol. In this review we revise and discuss the evidence of DHA requirements for the newborn, the need for maternal supplementation during pregnancy and nursing, and the alternatives at present for providing DHA supplementation.Los lípidos comprenden entre el 50-60% de la estructura del cerebro, y el

  3. In silico Screening and Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Like Molecules in Experimental Models of Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi Loron, Ali; Sardari, Soroush; Narenjkar, Jamshid; Sayyah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs and the intolerability in 20-30% of the patients raises demand for developing new drugs with improved efficacy and safety. Acceptable anticonvulsant activity, good tolerability, and inexpensiveness of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) make it as a good candidate for designing and development of the new anticonvulsant medications. Ten DHA-based molecules were screened based on in silico screening of DHA-like molecules by root-mean-square deviation of atomic positions, the biological activity score of Professional Association for SQL Server, and structural requirements suggested by pharmacophore design. Anticonvulsant activity was tested against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and tonic seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 50 Hz, 1 ms duration) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the screened compounds to mice. Among screened compounds, 4-Phenylbutyric acid, 4-Biphenylacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, and 2-Phenylbutyric acid showed significant protective activity in pentylenetetrazole test with ED50 values of 4, 5, 78, and 70 mM, respectively. In MES test, shikimic acid and 4-tert-Butylcyclo-hexanecarboxylic acid showed significant activity with ED50 values 29 and 637 mM, respectively. Effective compounds had no mortality in mice up to the maximum i.c.v. injectable dose of 1 mM. Common electrochemical features and three-dimensional spatial structures of the effective compounds suggest the involvement of the anticonvulsant mechanisms similar to the parent compound DHA.

  4. The effects on plasma, red cell and platelet fatty acids of taking 12 g/day of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for 16 months : dihomogammalinolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids and relevance to Inuit metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrobin, David; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2003-01-01

    A patient with mantle cell lymphoma took 12g/day of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for 16 months. Compared to reference values, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids were elevated in plasma, red cells and platelets but docosahexaenoic acid levels were in the normal range. Arachidonic acid levels were

  5. Mechanisms for the activation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 by saturated fatty acids and inhibition by docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel H; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-15

    Saturated fatty acids can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 but polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the activation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopetides, ligands for TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, are acylated by saturated fatty acids. Removal of these fatty acids results in loss of their ligand activity suggesting that the saturated fatty acyl moieties are required for the receptor activation. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these saturated fatty acyl groups of the ligands directly occupy hydrophobic lipid binding domains of the receptors (or co-receptor) and induce the dimerization which is prerequisite for the receptor activation. Saturated fatty acids also induce the dimerization and translocation of TLR4 and TLR2 into lipid rafts in plasma membrane and this process is inhibited by DHA. Whether saturated fatty acids induce the dimerization of the receptors by interacting with these lipid binding domains is not known. Many experimental results suggest that saturated fatty acids promote the formation of lipid rafts and recruitment of TLRs into lipid rafts leading to ligand independent dimerization of the receptors. Such a mode of ligand independent receptor activation defies the conventional concept of ligand induced receptor activation; however, this may enable diverse non-microbial molecules with endogenous and dietary origins to modulate TLR-mediated immune responses. Emerging experimental evidence reveals that TLRs play a key role in bridging diet-induced endocrine and metabolic changes to immune responses.

  6. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  7. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been used to treat a range of different conditions, including periodontal disease (PD and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. That DHA helps with these oral and gastrointestinal diseases in which inflammation and bacterial dysbiosis play key roles, raises the question of whether DHA may assist in the prevention or treatment of other inflammatory conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome, which have also been linked with inflammation and alterations in normal host microbial populations. Here we review established and investigated associations between DHA, PD, and IBD. We conclude that by beneficially altering cytokine production and macrophage recruitment, the composition of intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity, lipopolysaccharide- and adipose-induced inflammation, and insulin signaling, DHA may be a key tool in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and their mechanisms of action on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Jan; Hurt-Camejo, Eva

    2017-08-10

    Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that elevated triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein levels in the circulation increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Prescription formulations of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma TG levels and are approved for the treatment of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Many preclinical studies have investigated the TG-lowering mechanisms of action of OM3FAs, but less is known from clinical studies. We conducted a review, using systematic methodology, of studies in humans assessing the mechanisms of action of EPA and DHA on apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, including TG-rich lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). A systematic search of PubMed retrieved 55 articles, of which 30 were used in the review; 35 additional arrticles were also included. In humans, dietary DHA is retroconverted to EPA, while production of DHA from EPA is not observed. Dietary DHA is preferentially esterified into TGs, while EPA is more evenly esterified into TGs, cholesterol esters and phospholipids. The preferential esterification of DHA into TGs likely explains the higher turnover of DHA than EPA in plasma. The main effects of both EPA and DHA are decreased fasting and postprandial serum TG levels, through reduction of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG production. The exact mechanism for reduced VLDL production is not clear but does not include retention of lipids in the liver; rather, increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation is likely. The postprandial reduction in TG levels is caused by increased lipoprotein lipase activity and reduced serum VLDL-TG concentrations, resulting in enhanced chylomicron clearance. Overall, no clear differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on TG levels, or on turnover of TG-rich lipoproteins, have been observed. Effects on LDL are complex and may be influenced by genetics, such as APOE genotype. EPA and

  10. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  11. Identification of a novel C22-∆4-producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) specific polyunsaturated fatty acid desaturase gene from Isochrysis galbana and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tonglei; Yu, Aiqun; Li, Ming; Ou, Xiuyuan; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2012-12-01

    Isochrysis galbana, produces long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). A novel gene (IgFAD4-2), encoding a C22-∆4 polyunsaturated fatty acid specific desaturase, has been isolated and characterized from I. galbana. A full-length cDNA of 1,302 bp was cloned by LA-PCR technique. The IgFAD4-2 encoded a protein of 433 amino acids that shares 78 % identity with a previously reported ∆4-desaturase (IgFAD4-1) from I. galbana. The function of IgFAD4-2 was deduced by its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which then desaturated docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) to DHA. The conversion ratio of DPA to DHA was 34 %, which is higher than other ∆4-desaturases cloned from algae. However, IgFAD4-2 did not catalyze the desaturation or elongation reactions with other fatty acids. These results confirm that IgFAD4-2 has C22-∆4-PUFAs-specific desaturase activity.

  12. Dietary sesamin and docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids synergistically increase the gene expression of enzymes involved in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchige, Premakumara G; Takahashi, Yoko; Ide, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The interaction of sesamin, one of the most abundant lignans in sesame seed, and highly purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the form of ethyl ester in affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation was examined in rats. In the first experiment, 3 groups of rats were fed with purified experimental diets free of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester and containing 0%, 0.2%, and 0.4% sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin), and 2 groups of animals were fed with a 2% DHA ethyl ester diet containing either 0% or 0.2% sesamin. In the second trial, 4 groups of rats were fed with either a 0% or a 2% EPA ethyl ester diet containing 0% or 0.2% sesamin. After 15 days of feeding, DHA and EPA ethyl esters added to a sesamin-free diet little affected the activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased the activity levels of various hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation irrespective of the presence or absence of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester in diets. However, the diet containing sesamin and DHA or EPA ethyl ester in combination increased many of these parameters synergistically. In particular, the peroxisomal palmitoyl-coenzyme A oxidation rate and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase activity level were much higher in rats fed with sesamin and DHA or EPA in combination than in animals fed with a diet free of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester and containing sesamin. Analyses of mRNA levels revealed that a diet simultaneously containing sesamin and n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester increased the gene expression of various enzymes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in a synergistic manner. However, the combination of sesamin and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters was ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, microsomal cytochrome P-450 IV A1, and cytosolic liver-type fatty acid-binding protein. It was concluded that sesamin and DHA or EPA

  13. High oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition: a randomized, blinded trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zeilani, Mamane; Ickes, Scott; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Ken; Craig, Christina; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Singh, Lauren; Brenna, J. Thomas; Manary, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. RUTF contains large amounts of linoleic acid and very little α-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child. A novel high oleic RUTF (HO-RUTF) was developed with less linoleic acid to determine its effect on DHA and EPA status. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, clinical effectiveness trial treating rural Malawian children with severe acute malnutrition. Children were treated with either HO-RUTF or standard RUTF. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid status was measured upon enrollment and after 4 weeks and compared between the two intervention groups. Results Among the 141 children enrolled, 48/71 receiving HO-RUTF and 50/70 receiving RUTF recovered. Plasma PL samples were analyzed from 43 children consuming HO-RUTF and 35 children consuming RUTF. The change in DHA content during the first 4 weeks was +4% and −25% in the HO-RUTF and RUTF groups, respectively (P = 0.04). For EPA, the change in content was 63% and −24% in the HO-RUTF and RUTF groups (P < 0.001). For arachidonic acid, the change in content was −3% and 13% in the HO-RUTF and RUTF groups (P < 0.009). Conclusions The changes in DHA and EPA seen in the children treated with HO-RUTF warrant further investigation as they suggest HO-RUTF support improved PUFA status, necessary for neural development and recovery. PMID:25633498

  14. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA...... 6 g/day, and of DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA...

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ghee (clarified butter also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method. Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mmFNx0160 m, ID of 0.25 mm. The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

  17. First-Episode Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Erythrocyte Membrane Docosahexaenoic Acid Deficits: Dissociation from Clinical Response to Lithium or Quetiapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Adler, Caleb M.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, LCn-3 fatty acid status at the initial onset of mania and its association with treatment response are not known. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was determined in first-episode bipolar manic or mixed (n=40) and healthy (n=40) subjects. Mood symptom ratings were obtained with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Erythrocyte fatty acid composition and clinical ratings were also determined within a sub-group of bipolar subjects following 8-week (n=19) or 52-week (n=11) open-label treatment with lithium or quetiapine. At baseline bipolar subjects exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition compared with healthy subjects (−23%, p<0.0001). EPA (20:5n-3) and docosapentanoic acid (22:5n-3), and LCn-6 fatty acids including arachidonic acid were not different. Following 8- or 52-week treatment with lithium or quetiapine, YMRS and HDRS total scores decreased significantly whereas erythrocyte fatty acids including DHA did not change. These data indicate that selective erythrocyte DHA deficits coincide with the initial onset of manic symptoms, and reductions in mood symptoms following treatment are not mediated by changes in fatty acid status. PMID:26477955

  18. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Bascuñán, Karla; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Barrera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Jorge; Puigrredon, Claudia; Parraguez, Gloria; Orellana, Paula; Gonzalez, Valeria; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2015-08-04

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

  19. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Valenzuela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Linolenic acid (ALA is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L., a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60% and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22–35 years old tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21 and a chia group (n = 19, which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and DHA; (ii a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

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    Guorong Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days. DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures.

  1. Production of high docosahexaenoic acid by Schizochytrium sp. using low-cost raw materials from food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost substrates from food industry, including maize starch hydrolysate and soybean meal hydrolysate, were used to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88. Glucose derived from maize starch hydrolysate was used as the carbon source and soybean meal hydrolysate as the nitrogen sources. In 10L bioreactor fermentation, by using the soybean meal hydrolysate as the main nitrogen source, the biomass of Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 reached 85.27 g L(-1), and the yields of DHA was 20.7g L(-1). As a comparison, when yeast extract was used as the main nitrogen source, the yields of biomass and DHA were 68.93 g L(-1) and 13.3 g L(-1), respectively. From the results of this study, these hydrolysates can provide all the nutrients required for high-density cultivation of S. limacinum OUC88 and DHA production, that will improve the economical and competitive efficiency of commercial DHA production.

  2. Effects of chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid addition to linseed oil on biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3 in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Hovenier, R.; Vlaeminck, B.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Rumen biohydrogenation kinetics of C18:3n-3 from several chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) addition to linseed oil were evaluated in vitro. Linseed products evaluated were linseed oil, crushed linseed, formaldehyde treated crushed

  3. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania) : targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, RS; Fokkema, MR; Smit, EN; van der Meulen, J; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the

  4. A role for lipid rafts in the protection afforded by docosahexaenoic acid against ethanol toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliche-Djoudi, Fatiha; Podechard, Normand; Collin, Aurore; Chevanne, Martine; Provost, Emilie; Poul, Martine; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.

  5. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC. Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats by decreasing the excitability of DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Li-Jun; Qi, Rui; Yang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Guo-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease in human beings with characteristic symptoms of hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. One of the most common complications of early-onset diabetes mellitus is peripheral diabetic neuropathy, which is manifested either by loss of nociception or by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown the potential of anti-inflammation and modulating neuron excitability. The present study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of DHA on the allodynia and hyperalgesia of diabetic rats were also evaluated. Dietary DHA supplementation effectively attenuated both allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. DHA supplementation decreased the excitability of DRG neurons by decreasing the sodium currents and increasing potassium currents, which may contribute to the effect of alleviating allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The results suggested that DHA might be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  7. Improved docosahexaenoic acid production in Aurantiochytrium by glucose limited pH-auxostat fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janthanomsuk, Panyawut; Verduyn, Cornelis; Chauvatcharin, Somchai

    2015-11-01

    Fed-batch, pH auxostat cultivation of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing microorganism Aurantiochytrium B072 was performed to obtain high cell density and record high productivity of both total fatty acid (TFA) and DHA. Using glucose feeding by carbon excess (C-excess) and by C-limitation at various feeding rates (70%, 50% or 20% of C-excess), high biomass density was obtained and DHA/TFA content (w/w) was improved from 30% to 37% with a 50% glucose feed rate when compared with C-excess. To understand the biochemistry behind these improvements, lipogenic enzyme assays and in silico metabolic flux calculations were used and revealed that enzyme activity and C-fluxes to TFA were reduced with C-limited feeding but that the carbon flux to the polyketide synthase pathway increased relative to the fatty acid synthase pathway. As a result, a new strategy to improve the DHA to TFA content while maintaining relatively high DHA productivity is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-04-05

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies.

  9. Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Nikul K.; Ross, Alastair B.; Scheers, Nathalie; Savolainen, Otto I.; Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n-3 fatty acids. PMID:28075380

  10. Temperature-Dependent Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Gamma Linolenic Acid Effects on Phospholipid Membranes With and Without Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonar, D.; Horasanb, N.; Sünnetçioğlu, M. Maral

    2016-07-01

    Free docosahexaenoic acid (DHAn-3) and gamma linolenic acid (GLAn-6) effects on dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes were studied as a function of temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. 5- and 16-doxyl stearic acid (5-, 16-DS) spin labels were utilized to obtain information from the interfacial and alkyl chain region, respectively. In the studied temperature range, the presence of DHAn-3 or GLAn-6 caused decreases in maximum hyperfi ne splitting values and correlation times of DMPC membranes. Both in the interfacial region and depths of membrane, changes were more pronounced for DHAn-3 in pure DMPC. In the presence of cholesterol (CH), DHAn-3 and GLAn-6 effects were similar and more pronounced in the depths of the membrane. The changes in the structure and dynamics of samples were obtained from simulations of spectra, which indicated some changes in the number of spectral components by incorporation of DHAn-3 and GLAn-6. In the interfacial region and below the main phase transition temperature of DMPC, there was an increase in heterogeneity. For temperatures above the phase transition, a more homogeneous environment for spin label was obtained in the presence of fatty acids.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Tanabe, Yoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2014-03-17

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum), TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA), or EPA (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Renal Functions by Increasing Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolite Levels in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats, a Metabolic Syndrome Model

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    Masanori Katakura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHRcp rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum, TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA, or EPA (300 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  13. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats.

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    Elsherbiny, Marwa E; Goruk, Susan; Monckton, Elizabeth A; Richard, Caroline; Brun, Miranda; Emara, Marwan; Field, Catherine J; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-10-22

    Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains.

  14. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa E. Elsherbiny

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7, a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C; Nelson, G J; Schmidt, P C; Ferretti, A; Erickson, K L; Yu, R; Chandra, R K; Mackey, B E

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as triacylglycerol on the fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and select activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of Western Human Nutrition Reach Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization diet throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg D alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. PBMNC fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production were examined on day 30 and 113; immune cell functions were tested on day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. DHA feeding increased its concentration from 2.3 to 7.4 wt% in the PBMNC total lipids, and decreased arachidonic acid concentration from 19.8 to 10.7 wt%. It also lowered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, in response to lipopolysaccharide, by 60-75%. Natural killer cell activity and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly reduced by DHA feeding. These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.

  16. Effects of supplemented diacylglycerol rich in docosahexaenoic acid on serum triacylglycerol in a diet-induced hyperlipidemic model of rats are essentially equivalent to those of triacylglycerol rich in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Tadakazu; Murota, Itsuki; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Baba, Takashi; Toyama, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Nami; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Effects of supplemented docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), given as diacylglycerol (DG) rich in DHA (DHA-DG), triacylglycerol (TG) rich in DHA (DHA-TG) or fish oil concentrate (DHA-70), on the serum concentration of TG and its bioavailability in the rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia were studied. Hypertriglyceridemia was induced by feeding male Wistar rats a semi-purified diet that contained 5% corn oil and 50% sucrose by weight. In addition to the feeding of dietary corn oil, the rats received DHA intragastrically at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 d and the control rats were given olive oil. The serum concentration of TG in the rats that received DHA-DG was significantly lower than in the control rats. However, there were no significant differences in diet intake, energy intake, body weight gain, visceral fat mass or fecal excretion of total fatty acids among the four groups. The amounts of DHA excreted into the feces of the three groups of rats that received DHA were approximately 0.4% of the DHA administered. The extent of the decreases induced by DHA-DG in the serum level of TG was almost the same as those induced by DHA-TG and DHA-70. The administration of DHA, regardless of the differences in molecular structure, did not affect the hepatic contents of TG or phospholipid. The administration of DHA-DG considerably increased the proportions of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) while decreasing the proportion of arachidonic acid in hepatic lipids, and as a result in the lipids in serum and erythrocytes, to the same extents as did DHA-TG and DHA-70. These results suggest that the hypotriglyceridemic effects and bioavailability of DHA when supplemented in the form of DG are essentially equivalent to those of DHA-TG and DHA-70.

  17. Supplementation with 200 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid from mid-pregnancy through lactation improves the docosahexaenoic acid status of mothers with a habitually low fish intake and of their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Renate L; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Klassen-Wigger, Petra; Bergmann, Karl E; Richter, Rolf; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Grathwohl, Dominik; Haschke, Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3), important for fetal/infant neurodevelopment, depends on the maternal fatty acid (FA) status, which may be marginal in central Europe. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a daily vitamin/mineral supplement with and without 200 mg DHA from mid-pregnancy through lactation on the DHA concentrations in maternal and infant red blood cell phospholipids (RBC%), and in breast milk FA (%). At 21 weeks' gestation, 144 women were enrolled into a randomised, double-blind clinical trial receiving daily: (1) a basic vitamin-mineral supplement (Vit/Min group), (2) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS group), or (3) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g FOS plus 200 mg fish oil-derived DHA (DHA-FOS group). FAs were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. While maternal RBC-DHA% at enrolment was not different, at 37 weeks gestation, and 3 months after delivery RBC-DHA% were significantly higher in the DHA-FOS group. The breast milk DHA% was twice as high in the DHA-FOS group (0.50%) than in the two others (0.25 %) (p pregnancy through lactation seems appropriate to improve the DHA status of mothers and infants. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E; Nyakas, C; Kiliaan, A; Farkas, T; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM; Högyes, E.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  19. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E.; Nyakas, C.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Farkas, T.; Penke, B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  20. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier Regulates Endogenous Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Choy, Kwok H C; Zeng, Annie X; Marriott, Philip J; Owada, Yuji; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-11-16

    Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA. Cognitive function was assessed in male and female FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice using a battery of memory paradigms. FABP5(-/-) mice exhibited impaired working memory and short-term memory, and these cognitive deficits were associated with a 14.7 ± 5.7% reduction in endogenous brain DHA levels. The role of FABP5 in the blood-brain barrier transport of DHA was assessed by measuring (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and capillaries isolated from FABP5(+/+) and FABP5(-/-) mice. In line with a crucial role of FABP5 in the brain uptake of DHA, (14)C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries of FABP5(-/-) mice was reduced by 48.4 ± 14.5% and 14.0 ± 4.2%, respectively, relative to those of FABP5(+/+) mice. These results strongly support the hypothesis that FABP5 is essential for maintaining brain endothelial cell uptake of DHA, and that cognitive deficits observed in FABP5(-/-) mice are associated with reduced CNS access of DHA. Genetic deletion of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in mice reduces uptake of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries and reduces brain parenchymal levels of endogenous DHA. Therefore, FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell is a crucial contributor to the brain levels of DHA. Critically, lowered brain DHA levels in FABP5(-/-) mice occurred in tandem with cognitive deficits in a battery of memory paradigms. This study provides evidence of a critical role

  1. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, R; Bhatt, Anant N; Dwarakanath, B S; Das, Undurti N

    2016-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions.

  2. Upregulated expression of brain enzymatic markers of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Ameer Y

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal models, the metabolic syndrome elicits a cerebral response characterized by altered phospholipid and unesterified fatty acid concentrations and increases in pro-apoptotic inflammatory mediators that may cause synaptic loss and cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that these changes are associated with phospholipase (PLA2 enzymes that regulate arachidonic (AA, 20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-6 acid metabolism, major polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain. Male Wistar rats were fed a control or high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Brains were assayed for markers of AA metabolism (calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2 IVA and cyclooxygenases, DHA metabolism (calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA and lipoxygenases, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and synaptic integrity (drebrin and synaptophysin. Lipid concentrations were measured in brains subjected to high-energy microwave fixation. Results The high-sucrose compared with control diet induced insulin resistance, and increased phosphorylated-cPLA2 protein, cPLA2 and iPLA2 activity and 12-lipoxygenase mRNA, but decreased BDNF mRNA and protein, and drebrin mRNA. The concentration of several n-6 fatty acids in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and lysophosphatidylcholine was increased, as was unesterified AA concentration. Eicosanoid concentrations (prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4 did not change. Conclusion These findings show upregulated brain AA and DHA metabolism and reduced BDNF and drebrin, but no changes in eicosanoids, in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. These changes might contribute to altered synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment in rats and humans with the metabolic syndrome.

  3. First-episode bipolar disorder is associated with erythrocyte membrane docosahexaenoic acid deficits: Dissociation from clinical response to lithium or quetiapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Blom, Thomas J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2015-12-15

    Deficits in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, LCn-3 fatty acid status at the initial onset of mania and its association with treatment response are not known. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was determined in first-episode bipolar manic or mixed (n=40) and healthy (n=40) subjects. Mood symptom ratings were obtained with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Erythrocyte fatty acid composition and clinical ratings were also determined within a sub-group of bipolar subjects following 8-week (n=19) or 52-week (n=11) open-label treatment with lithium or quetiapine. At baseline bipolar subjects exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition compared with healthy subjects (-23%, plithium or quetiapine, YMRS and HDRS total scores decreased significantly whereas erythrocyte fatty acids including DHA did not change. These data indicate that selective erythrocyte DHA deficits coincide with the initial onset of manic symptoms, and reductions in mood symptoms following treatment are not mediated by changes in fatty acid status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  5. Imaging plasma docosahexaenoic acid (dha incorporation into the brain in vivo, as a biomarker of brain DHA: Metabolism and neurotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapoport Stanley I.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is critical for normal brain structure and function, and its brain concentration depends on dietary DHA content and hepatic conversion from its dietary derived n-3 precursor, a-linolenic acid (α-LNA. We developed an in vivo method in rats using quantitative autoradiography to image incorporation into brain of unesterified plasma DHA, and showed that the incorporation rate equals the rate of brain metabolic DHA consumption. Thus, quantitative imaging of DHA incorporation from plasma into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain DHA metabolism and neurotransmission. The method has been extended to humans with the use of positron emission tomography (PET. Furthermore, imaging in unanesthetized rats using DHA incorporation as a biomarker in response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA administration confirms that regional DHA signaling is independent of extracellular calcium, and likely mediated by a calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2. Studies in mice in which iPLA2-VIA (β was knocked out confirmed that this enzyme is critical for baseline and muscarinic cholinergic signaling involving DHA.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Cerebral Damage and Ameliorates Long-Term Cognitive Impairments Caused by Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, M; Urigüen, L; Martínez-Millán, L; Hilario, E; Álvarez, A

    2016-10-29

    As the interest in the neuroprotective possibilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain injury has grown in the recent years, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of this fatty acid in an experimental model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. To this end, motor activity, aspects of learning, and memory function and anxiety, as well as corticofugal connections visualized by using tracer injections, were evaluated at adulthood. We found that in the hours immediately following the insult, DHA maintained mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and transmembrane potential, as well as the integrity of synaptic processes. Seven days later, morphological damage at the level of the middle hippocampus was reduced, since neurons and myelin were preserved and the astroglial reactive response and microglial activation were seen to be diminished. At adulthood, the behavioral tests revealed that treated animals presented better long-term working memory and less anxiety than non-treated hypoxic-ischemic animals, while no difference was found in the spontaneous locomotor activity. Interestingly, hypoxic-ischemic injury caused alterations in the anterograde corticofugal neuronal connections which were not so evident in rats treated with DHA. Thus, our results indicate that DHA treatment can lead to long-lasting neuroprotective effects in this experimental model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemic brain injury, not only by mitigating axonal changes but also by enhancing cognitive performance at adulthood.

  7. Lipid extractions from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich and oleaginous Chlorella sp. biomasses by organic-nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk; Farooq, Wasif; Chung, Jane; Han, Jong-In; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Jeong, Sang Hwa; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae biorefinement has attracted in intensive academic and industrial interest worldwide for its potential to replace petrol biofuels as economically and environmentally advantageous alternatives. However, harvesting and lipid extraction remain as critical and difficult issues to be resolved. In the present study, four amino-groups functionalized organic-nano clays were prepared. Specifically, Mg or Al or Ca backboned and covalently linked with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyltrimethoxysilane by sol-gel reaction under ambient conditions, resulted in Mg-APTES clay, Al-APTES clay, Ca-APTES clay, and Mg-N3 clay, respectively. Each organic-nanoclay was utilized for lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass. As a result, the lipid-extraction efficiency of paste docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich Chlorella sp. with low lipid content was high, while one of paste oleaginous Chlorella sp. with high lipid content was relatively low. Despite the low lipid-extraction efficiencies in all of the wet microalgae biomass, the conversion of the extracted lipids' fatty acids to biodiesel was nearly 100%.

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Promotes Axon Outgrowth by Translational Regulation of Tau and Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Toshinari; Mayanagi, Taira; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Fukumoto, Kentaro; Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Sobue, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    n-3 PUFAs are essential for neuronal development and brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological effects remain unclear. Here we examined the mechanistic action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. We found that DHA treatment of cortical neurons resulted in enhanced axon outgrowth that was due to increased axon elongation rates. DHA-mediated axon outgrowth was accompanied by the translational up-regulation of Tau and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), two important axon-related proteins, and the activation of Akt and p70 S6 kinase. Consistent with these findings, rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), prevented DHA-mediated axon outgrowth and up-regulation of Tau and CRMP2. In addition, DHA-dependent activation of the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway enhanced 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract-dependent translation of Tau and CRMP2. Therefore, our results revealed an important role for the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway in DHA-mediated neuronal development.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin–proteasome system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

  10. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid on glial derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin in bilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Akkoyunlu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder marked by cell death in the Substantia nigra (SN. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in the phospholipid fraction of the brain and is required for normal cellular function. Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurturin (NTN are very potent trophic factors for PD. The aim of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of GDNF and NTN by investigating their immunostaining levels after administration of DHA in a model of PD. For this reason we hypothesized that DHA administration of PD might alter GDNF, NTN expression in SN. MPTP neurotoxin that induces dopaminergic neurodegeneration was used to create the experimental Parkinsonism model. Rats were divided into; control, DHA-treated (DHA, MPTP-induced (MPTP, MPTP-induced+DHA-treated (MPTP+DHA groups. Dopaminergic neuron numbers were clearly decreased in MPTP, but showed an increase in MPTP+DHA group. As a result of this, DHA administration protected dopaminergic neurons as shown by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. In the MPTP+DHA group, GDNF, NTN immunoreactions in dopaminergic neurons were higher than that of the MPTP group. In conclusion, the characterization of GDNF and NTN will certainly help elucidate the mechanism of DHA action, and lead to better strategies for the use of DHA to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Aurantiochytrium species: high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by the newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mang; Song, Xiaojin; Feng, Yingang; Li, Wenli; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    A heterotrophic microalga, strain SD116, with the ability to produce high concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was isolated from Shuidong Bay, Guangdong Province, China. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 18S rDNA of SD116 showed that the strain has a close phylogenetic relationship to Aurantiochytrium species. The highest rates for growth and DHA accumulation for SD116 were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 2.0% yeast extract, and 50% artificial seawater (ASW) at a pH of 7 at 28°C. The maximum total lipid content reached 56.3% of the dry cell weight (DCW), and the maximum DHA content accounted for 50.9% of the total fatty acid (TFA) content. It was further found that urea may be a potential nitrogen source for industrial fermentation because of its cheap price and ability to induce a relatively high biomass and lipid production capacity. Using 5 L fermenters, the DCW, total lipid content, and DHA yield were found to be 70.43 g L(-1), 71.09% of the DCW, and 17.42 g L(-1) (34.79% of the TFA), respectively. The results show that Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 is a promising candidate for commercial DHA production and could be useful for the synthesis of biomass-related products.

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Conjugation Enhances Distribution and Safety of siRNA upon Local Administration in Mouse Brain

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    Nikan, Mehran; Osborn, Maire F; Coles, Andrew H; Godinho, Bruno MDC; Hall, Lauren M; Haraszti, Reka A; Hassler, Matthew R; Echeverria, Dimas; Aronin, Neil; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The use of siRNA-based therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease requires efficient, nontoxic distribution to the affected brain parenchyma, notably the striatum and cortex. Here, we describe the synthesis and activity of a fully chemically modified siRNA that is directly conjugated to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the mammalian brain. DHA conjugation enables enhanced siRNA retention throughout both the ipsilateral striatum and cortex following a single, intrastriatal injection (ranging from 6–60 μg). Within these tissues, DHA conjugation promotes internalization by both neurons and astrocytes. We demonstrate efficient and specific silencing of Huntingtin mRNA expression in both the ipsilateral striatum (up to 73%) and cortex (up to 51%) after 1 week. Moreover, following a bilateral intrastriatal injection (60 μg), we achieve up to 80% silencing of a secondary target, Cyclophilin B, at both the mRNA and protein level. Importantly, DHA-hsiRNAs do not induce neural cell death or measurable innate immune activation following administration of concentrations over 20 times above the efficacious dose. Thus, DHA conjugation is a novel strategy for improving siRNA activity in mouse brain, with potential to act as a new therapeutic platform for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27504598

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits cancer cell growth via p27Kip1, CDK2, ERK1/ERK2, and retinoblastoma phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naim A; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Aires, Virginie; Yamashita, Tomoko; Oaxaca-Castillo, David; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2006-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PUFA of the n-3 family, inhibited the growth of FM3A mouse mammary cancer cells by arresting their progression from the late-G(1) to the S phase of the cell cycle. DHA upregulated p27(Kip1) levels by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, i.e., ERK1/ERK2. Indeed, inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation by DHA, U0126 [chemical MAPK extracellularly signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor], and MEK(SA) (cells expressing dominant negative constructs of MEK) resulted in the accumulation of p27(Kip1). MAP kinase (MAPK) inhibition by DHA did not increase p27(Kip1) mRNA levels. Rather, this fatty acid stabilized p27(Kip1) contents and inhibited MAPK-dependent proteasomal degradation of this protein. DHA also diminished cyclin E phosphorylation, cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in these cells. Our study shows that DHA arrests cell growth by modulating the phosphorylation of cell cycle-related proteins.

  14. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

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    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  15. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  16. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on interleukin-2 receptor signaling pathway in lipid rafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulated the functions of membrane receptors in T cells and suppressed T cell -mediated immune responses. But the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation are not yet elucidated. Lipid rafts are plasma membrane microdomains, in which many receptors localized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts. We isolated lipid rafts by discontinuous sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and found that DHA could change the composition of lipid rafts and alter the distribution of key molecules of IL-2R signaling pathway, which transferred from lipid rafts to detergent-soluble membrane fractions. These results revealed that DHA treatment increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n(3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid rafts and changed the lipid environment of membrane microdomains in T cells. Compared with controls, DHA changed the localization of IL-2R, STAT5a and STAT5b in lipid rafts and suppressed the expression of JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine phosphotyrosine in soluble membrane fractions. Summarily, this study concluded the effects of DHA on IL-2R signaling pathway in lipid rafts and explained the regulation of PUFAs in T cell-mediated immune responses.

  17. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates the impairment of spatial cognition learning ability in amyloid beta-infused rats.

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    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabe, Yoko; Fujii, Yoshimi; Kikuta, Toshihiko; Shibata, Hitoshi; Shido, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We investigated whether administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major (n-3) fatty acid of the brain, ameliorates the impairment of learning ability in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), rats infused with amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide (1-40) into the cerebral ventricle. Inbred 3rd generation male rats (20 wk old) fed a fish oil-deficient diet were randomly divided into 4 groups: a vehicle group, an Abeta peptide-infused group (Abeta group), a DHA group, and an Abeta + DHA group. A mini-osmotic pump filled with Abeta peptide or vehicle was implanted in the rats, and they were tested for learning ability-related reference and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze. The rats were then orally fed DHA dissolved in 5% gum Arabic solution at 300 mg/(kg . d) (DHA and Abeta + DHA groups) or vehicle alone (vehicle and Abeta groups) and tested again for learning ability. DHA administered for 12 wk significantly reduced the increase in the number of reference and working memory errors in the Abeta-infused rats, and increased both the cortico-hippocampal level of DHA and the molar ratio of DHA/arachidonic acid, suggesting an amelioration of the impaired spatial cognition learning ability. Furthermore, DHA suppressed the increases in the levels of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of Abeta-infused rats, suggesting that DHA increases antioxidative defenses. DHA is thus a possible therapeutic agent for ameliorating learning deficiencies due to Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly

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    Brenna J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher fish or higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake normally correlates positively with higher plasma DHA level, but recent evidence suggests that the positive relationship between intake and plasma levels of DHA is less clear in the elderly. Methods We compared the metabolism of 13C-DHA in six healthy elderly (mean - 77 y old and six young adults (mean - 27 y old. All participants were given a single oral dose of 50 mg of uniformly labelled 13C-DHA. Tracer incorporation into fatty acids of plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids, as well as apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA were evaluated 4 h, 24 h, 7d and 28d later. Results Plasma incorporation and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA reached a maximum within 4 h in both groups, but 13C-DHA was transiently higher in all plasma lipids of the elderly 4 h to 28d later. At 4 h post-dose, 13C-DHA β-oxidation was 1.9 times higher in the elderly, but over 7d, cumulative β-oxidation of 13C-DHA was not different in the two groups (35% in the elderly and 38% in the young. Apparent retroconversion of 13C-DHA was well below 10% of 13C-DHA recovered in plasma at all time points, and was 2.1 times higher in the elderly 24 h and 7d after tracer intake. Conclusions We conclude that 13C-DHA metabolism changes significantly during healthy aging. Since DHA is a potentially important molecule in neuro-protection, these changes may be relevant to the higher vulnerability of the elderly to cognitive decline.

  19. Association of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation With Alzheimer Disease Stage in Apolipoprotein E ε4 Carriers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Hussein N; Braskie, Meredith N; Mack, Wendy J; Castor, Katherine J; Fonteh, Alfred N; Schneider, Lon S; Harrington, Michael G; Chui, Helena C

    2017-03-01

    The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) allele identifies a unique population that is at significant risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential ω-3 fatty acid that is critical to the formation of neuronal synapses and membrane fluidity. Observational studies have associated ω-3 intake, including DHA, with a reduced risk for incident AD. In contrast, randomized clinical trials of ω-3 fatty acids have yielded mixed and inconsistent results. Interactions among DHA, APOE genotype, and stage of AD pathologic changes may explain the mixed results of DHA supplementation reported in the literature. Although randomized clinical trials of ω-3 in symptomatic AD have had negative findings, several observational and clinical trials of ω-3 in the predementia stage of AD suggest that ω-3 supplementation may slow early memory decline in APOE4 carriers. Several mechanisms by which the APOE4 allele could alter the delivery of DHA to the brain may be amenable to DHA supplementation in predementia stages of AD. Evidence of accelerated DHA catabolism (eg, activation of phospholipases and oxidation pathways) could explain the lack of efficacy of ω-3 supplementation in AD dementia. The association of cognitive benefit with DHA supplementation in predementia but not AD dementia suggests that early ω-3 supplementation may reduce the risk for or delay the onset of AD symptoms in APOE4 carriers. Recent advances in brain imaging may help to identify the optimal timing for future DHA clinical trials. High-dose DHA supplementation in APOE4 carriers before the onset of AD dementia can be a promising approach to decrease the incidence of AD. Given the safety profile, availability, and affordability of DHA supplements, refining an ω-3 intervention in APOE4 carriers is warranted.

  20. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  1. Effect of Sodium Valproate and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunder, Sushil Kiran; Arivazhahan, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Analgesics are commonly prescribed medications used to alleviate pain of various aetiologies without affecting the patient’s consciousness. They interfere with the transmission of pain signals. A commonly used antiepileptic drug, sodium valproate has been used in various non-epileptic conditions like migraine prophylaxis and in the treatment of bipolar disorder because of the multiple mechanisms by which it acts. Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA), an omega 3 fatty acid, is known to possess analgesic activity. We planned a study to assess the effect of sodium valproate alone and in combination with DHA in rat models of pain. Aim To evaluate the analgesic activity of sodium valproate and DHA supplementation using various experimental models in albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods For analgesic activity, A total of 48 adult Wistar albino rats were divided into eight groups of six rats each. Group I was control (distil water 1 ml/kg), Group II received intraperitoneal injection of tramadol (10 mg/kg), Group III, IV, V were injected intraperitoneal sodium valproate 100, 200, 400 mg/kg with distil water respectively and Group VI, VII, VIII were given sodium valproate 100, 200, 400 mg/kg plus DHA 300 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) respectively. Analgesic activity was assessed using hot plate, tail flick and acetic acid writhing models. Results We found that sodium valproate at higher doses (400 mg/kg) used either alone along with DHA (300 mg/kg) showed statistically significant analgesic activity in comparison to control in various experimental models for assessing pain. Conclusion Combination of sodium valproate along with DHA has shown promising analgesic activity. PMID:28511406

  2. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Influence Liver Triacylglycerol and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet

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    Gabriela Salim de Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6 and Fructose (Fr, n = 32, the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased. The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.

  3. Obtention of highly purified fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from sardine oil by silver-resin chromatography. A semipreparative procedure.

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    Nieto, S.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid (ERA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were obtained from silver-resin column chromatography of ERA+DHA concentrates obtained from sardine oil. Two types of silver-impregnated resins were assayed; Amberlite IR-118H and Dowex 50 W-HCR-W2.The Amberlite-silver column allows the separation of almost pure fractions (98.5% of ERA, being unable to separate DHA from other polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Dowex-silver column does not separate the ERA from the concentrate but allows the isolation of a highly purified fraction of DHA. The chromatographic procedure described may provide pure forms of two important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional or pharmacological research or as substrates for the obtention of structured lipids.

    Mediante cromatografía en columna utilizando resinas impregnadas con ion plata se separaron fracciones puras de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA y ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA a partir de un concentrado de EPA+DHA obtenido de aceite de sardina. Se utilizaron dos tipos de resinas impregnadas con plata: Amberlite-IR 118H y Dowex 50 W-HCR-W2. La columna de Amberlite-plata permite la separación de fracciones casi puras de ERA (98,5%, siendo incapaz de separar el DHA de otros ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. La columna de Dowex-plata no separa el ERA a partir del concentrado, pero permite la obtención de una fracción de DHA de alta pureza. El procedimiento cromatográfico que se describe permite obtener fracciones puras de dos importantes ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la serie n-3 que pueden ser utilizados para la investigación nutricional o farmacológica, o como sustratos para la obtención de lípidos estructurados.

  4. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

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    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  5. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  6. Neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid on hippocampal cell death and learning and memory impairments in a valproic acid-induced rat autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingquan; Wang, Xuelai; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Han; Wang, Yanming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Fengyu; Wu, Lijie

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in rat offspring is capable of inducing experimental autism with neurobehavioral aberrations. This study investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hippocampal cell death, learning and memory alteration in an experimental rat autism model. We found that DHA supplementation (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day, 21 days) rescued the VPA (600 mg/kg) induced DHA reduction in plasma and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, increased the levels of hippocampal p-CaMKII and p-CREB without affecting total protein level, and altered BDNF-AKT-Bcl-2 signaling pathway, as well as inhibited the activity of caspase-3. DHA also influenced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the VPA-treated offspring. Consistent with the previous results, we also observed that 300 mg/kg DHA supplementation markedly increased the cell survival, decreased the cell apoptosis, and increased mature neuronal cell in the hippocampus in VPA-treated offspring. Utilizing the Morris water maze test, we found that DHA prevented cognitive impairment in offspring of VPA-treated rats. The data suggested that DHA may play a neuroprotective role in hippocampal neuronal cell and ameliorates dysfunctions in learning and memory in this rat autism model. Thus, DHA could be used as treatment intervention for mitigating behavioral dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Fasting Blood Sugar, Triglyceride, and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Fateme Azizi Soleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that consumption of fish oil results in reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk factor such as triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic patients. It is not clear which component of fish oil(EPA or DHA is more important. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study designed as a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 60 diabetic men and women, aged 30-65 years, were randomly assigned to consume 1g/d EPA, DHA, and canola oil for 12 week. Fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure were measured before and after the study. Results were analyzed through repeated measure test. Results:. After 12 weeks of intervention, 23 women and 22 men with a mean ± SD age of 54.9± 8.2 completed the study. In comparison with the changes from baseline, FBS and triglyceride levels didn't differ between groups (P>0.05. SBP and DBP reduced in three groups (P= 0.0015 and P= 0.000 respectively but they didn't differ between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Consumption of 1g/d EPA or DHA doesn't have any effect on FBS, triglyceride, SBP and DBP. This study is the first one which has compared fish oil components effects in diabetic patients.

  8. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

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    Miki Sagara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on coronary heart disease risks in 38 middle-aged men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia in Scotland, a five-week double-blind placebo-controlled dietary supplementation with either 2 g of DHA or active placebo (1 g of olive oil was conducted. Percent composition of DHA in plasma phospholipids increased significantly in DHA group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in DHA group, but not in placebo group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C increased significantly, and total cholesterol (TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios decreased significantly in both groups. There was no change in TC and non-HDL-C. We conclude that 2 g/day of DHA supplementation reduced coronary heart disease risk factor level improving blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid profiles in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic Scottish men who do not eat fish on a regular basis.

  9. Localized delivery of low-density lipoprotein docosahexaenoic acid nanoparticles to the rat brain using focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulik, Rohit S; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R

    2016-03-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2 × more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain.

  10. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

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    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  11. Neuroprotective and immune effects of active forms of vitamin D3 and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease patients

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    Milan Fiala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer disease (AD, afflict an increasing proportion of the older population with aging. Decreased exposure to sunlight and decreased consumption of fish, fruits, and vegetables, are two epidemiological factors that appear to be related to the pandemic of AD. In addition to replacing simple with complex carbohydrates and avoiding saturated fat, two nutritional components, vitamin D (acting through the endogenous hormonal form 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25D and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (acting through the docosanoid lipidic modulators resolvins and neuroprotectins have high potential for prevention of Alzheimer disease. 1,25D is a neuroprotective, it acts both directly and indirectly in neurons by improving the clearance of amyloid-beta by macrophages/microglia. Resolvins and neuroprotectins inhibit amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-precursor protein, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis. It is likely that the increased consumption of vitamin D and fish oil could prevent neurodegeneration in some subjects by maintaining adequate endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine production of 1,25D and the DHA-derived lipidic modulators. Before firm recommendations of the dosage can be proposed, however, the in vivo effects of vitamin D3 and DHA supplementation should be investigated by prospective studies.

  12. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid by a newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

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    Hong, Won-Kyung; Rairakhwada, Dina; Seo, Pil-Soo; Park, Sung-Yong; Hur, Byung-Ki; Kim, Chul Ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, a novel oleaginous Thraustochytrid containing a high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was isolated from a mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia. The strain identified as an Aurantiochytrium sp. by 18S rRNA sequencing and named KRS101 used various carbon and nitrogen sources, indicating metabolic versatility. Optimal culture conditions, thus maximizing cell growth, and high levels of lipid and DHA production, were attained using glucose (60 g l⁻¹) as carbon source, corn steep solid (10 g l⁻¹) as nitrogen source, and sea salt (15 g l⁻¹). The highest biomass, lipid, and DHA production of KRS101 upon fed-batch fermentation were 50.2 g l⁻¹ (16.7 g l⁻¹ day⁻¹), 21.8 g l⁻¹ (44% DCW), and 8.8 g l⁻¹ (40% TFA), respectively. Similar values were obtained when a cheap substrate like molasses, rather than glucose, was used as the carbon source (DCW of 52.44 g l⁻¹, lipid and DHA levels of 20.2 and 8.83 g l⁻¹, respectively), indicating that production of microbial oils containing high levels of DHA can be produced economically when the novel strain is used.

  13. Coordination of gene expression of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascade enzymes during human brain development and aging.

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    Veronica H Ryan

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades.AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging.The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism.Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years and Aging (21 to 78 years intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA and PTGS2 (COX-2 genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci.Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

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    Elajami, Tarec K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Lakshminarayan, Dharshan; Soliman, Michael; Chandnani, Madhuri; Welty, Francine K

    2017-07-14

    Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. Two-hundred sixty-two subjects with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to either Lovaza (1.86 g of EPA and 1.5 g of DHA daily) or no Lovaza (control) for 1 year. Percent change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was compared. Mean (SD) age was 63.3 (7.6) years; 17% were women and 30% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic subjects, no change in urine ACR occurred in either the Lovaza or control groups. In contrast, ACR increased 72.3% (P<0.001) in diabetic subjects not receiving Lovaza, whereas those receiving Lovaza had no change. In diabetic subjects on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, those receiving Lovaza had no change in urine ACR, whereas those not receiving Lovaza had a 64.2% increase (P<0.001). Change in ACR was directly correlated with change in systolic blood pressure (r=0.394, P=0.01). EPA and DHA supplementation attenuated progression of albuminuria in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Emotion-Based Cognition in Mice Is Differentially Influenced by Dose and Chemical Form of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid.

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    Laugero, Kevin D; Adkins, Yuriko; Mackey, Bruce E; Kelley, Darshan S

    2017-09-08

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the potency and efficacy of dietary DHA may depend on the form of DHA (e.g., phospholipid; PL vs. triglyceride; TG). In this study, we compared in mice the effects of consuming PL and TG forms of DHA on associative, avoidance (fear) based learning and memory. Diets consisted of either no DHA or 1%, 2%, and 4% PL- or TG-DHA. After 4 weeks on the test diets (n = 12/group), we used the 3-day passive avoidance (PA) and elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine fear and fear-associated learning and memory. We found a significant (p < 0.05) diet by time interaction in the PA and EPM. Compared to the control and the 1% TG-DHA group, mice consuming the diet supplemented with 1% PL-DHA displayed a significantly greater latency by test day 2 in the 3-day PA. No differences in latency between any of the groups were observed during trials 1 and 3. Mice consuming the 2% PL-DHA diet spent significantly more time frequenting the open arms during the first minute, but not the last 4 min, of the test. Compared to all other groups, mice fed the 4% TG-DHA diet had increased spleen, liver, and visceral fat weight. Consumption of the lower dose PL-DHA may confer enhanced efficacy, particularly on fear-based learning behavior.

  16. Emotion-Based Cognition in Mice Is Differentially Influenced by Dose and Chemical Form of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid

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    Kevin D. Laugero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the potency and efficacy of dietary DHA may depend on the form of DHA (e.g., phospholipid; PL vs. triglyceride; TG. In this study, we compared in mice the effects of consuming PL and TG forms of DHA on associative, avoidance (fear based learning and memory. Diets consisted of either no DHA or 1%, 2%, and 4% PL- or TG-DHA. After 4 weeks on the test diets (n = 12/group, we used the 3-day passive avoidance (PA and elevated plus maze (EPM to examine fear and fear-associated learning and memory. We found a significant (p < 0.05 diet by time interaction in the PA and EPM. Compared to the control and the 1% TG-DHA group, mice consuming the diet supplemented with 1% PL-DHA displayed a significantly greater latency by test day 2 in the 3-day PA. No differences in latency between any of the groups were observed during trials 1 and 3. Mice consuming the 2% PL-DHA diet spent significantly more time frequenting the open arms during the first minute, but not the last 4 min, of the test. Compared to all other groups, mice fed the 4% TG-DHA diet had increased spleen, liver, and visceral fat weight. Consumption of the lower dose PL-DHA may confer enhanced efficacy, particularly on fear-based learning behavior.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

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    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  18. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

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    Angela M. Devlin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133 age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation, randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day and ARA (200 mg/day supplement (supplement or a corn oil supplement (control until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00, B (95% CI, p = 0.045 in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94, p < 0.001 and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68, p = 0.001. These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.

  19. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker discovery and association analysis with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content in Larimichthys crocea

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    Shijun Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species. 69,845 high quality SNP markers that evenly distributed along genome were detected in at least 80% of 500 individuals. Nearly 95% randomly selected genotypes were successfully validated by Sequenom MassARRAY assay. The association studies with the muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content discovered 39 significant SNP markers, contributing as high up to ∼63% genetic variance that explained by all markers. Functional genes that involved in fat digestion and absorption pathway were identified, such as APOB, CRAT and OSBPL10. Notably, PPT2 Gene, previously identified in the association study of the plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid level in human, was re-discovered in large yellow croaker. Our study verified that EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS could produce quality SNP markers in a cost-efficient manner in teleost genome. The developed SNP markers and the EPA and DHA associated SNP loci provided invaluable resources for the population structure, conservation genetics and genomic selection of large yellow croaker and other fish organisms.

  20. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients

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    Paolo Cotogni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549 exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3 and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6 in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7. 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3 release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined. Results. The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001. The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001 but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01. The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001 as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01, while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

  1. Regulation of Serum Response Factor and Adiponectin by PPARγ Agonist Docosahexaenoic Acid

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    Clayton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that significant health benefits involving the regulation of signaling proteins result from the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs. Serum response factor (SRF is involved in transcriptional regulation of muscle growth and differentiation. SRF levels are increased in the aging heart muscle. It has not been examined whether SRF is made by adipocytes and whether SRF secretion by adipocytes is modulated by PPARγ agonist DHA. Adiponectin is made exclusively by adipocytes. We and others have previously reported that PUFAs such as DHA increase adiponectin levels and secretion in adipocytes. Here we show that DHA downregulates SRF with a simultaneous upregulation of adiponectin and that both these responses are reversible by PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore, there appears to be a direct relationship between DHA exposure and increased levels of membrane-associated high-density adiponectin, as well as lower levels of membrane-associated SRF. Thus, we find that the levels of SRF and adiponectin are inversely related in response to treatment with PPARγ agonist DHA. Decreased levels of SRF along with increase in membrane-associated adiponectin could in part mediate the health benefits of DHA.

  2. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

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    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  3. Expanding the docosahexaenoic acid food web for sustainable production: engineering lower plant pathways into higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2011-01-01

    Algae are becoming an increasingly important component of land plant metabolic engineering projects. Land plants and algae have similar enough genetics to allow relatively straightforward gene transfer and they also share enough metabolic similarities that algal enzymes often function in a plant cell environment. Understanding metabolic systems in algae can provide insights into homologous systems in land plants. As examples, algal models are currently being used by several groups to better understand starch and lipid metabolism and catabolism, fields which have relevance in land plants. Importantly, land plants and algae also have enough metabolic divergence that algal genes can often provide new metabolic traits to plants. Furthermore, many algal genomes have now been sequenced, with many more in progress, and this easy access to genome-wide information has revealed that algal genomes are often relatively simple when compared with plants. One example of the importance of algal, and in particular microalgal, resources to land plant research is the metabolic engineering of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids into oilseed crops which typically uses microalgal genes to extend existing natural plant biosynthetic pathways. This review describes both recent progress and remaining challenges in this field.

  4. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

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    Katherine E. Corder, Katherine R. Newsham, Jennifer L. McDaniel, Uthayashanker R. Ezekiel, Edward P. Weiss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2 were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS, swelling (arm circumference, muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension, skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02. Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006, indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78 or arm swelling (p = 0.75. Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid decreases pro-inflammatory mediators in an in vitro murine adipocyte macrophage co-culture model.

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    Anna A De Boer

    Full Text Available Paracrine interactions between adipocytes and macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. Dietary strategies to mitigate such inflammation include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids, which act through PPARγ-dependent and independent pathways. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model designed to mimic the ratio of macrophages:adipocytes in obese adipose tissue, whereby murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophages in direct contact, or separated by a trans-well membrane (contact-independent mechanism, with 125 µM of albumin-complexed DHA, EPA, palmitic acid (PA, or albumin alone (control. Thus, we studied the effect of physical cell contact versus the presence of soluble factors, with or without a PPARγ antagonist (T0070907 in order to elucidate putative mechanisms. After 12 hr, DHA was the most anti-inflammatory, decreasing MCP1 and IL-6 secretion in the contact system (-57%, -63%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05 with similar effects in the trans-well system. The trans-well system allowed for isolation of cell types for inflammatory mediator analysis. DHA decreased mRNA expression (p<0.05 of Mcp1 (-7.1 fold and increased expression of the negative regulator, Mcp1-IP (+1.5 fold. In macrophages, DHA decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1 polarization markers (p ≤ 0.05, Nos2 (iNOS; -7 fold, Tnfα (-4.2 fold and Nfκb (-2.3 fold, while increasing anti-inflammatory Tgfβ1 (+1.7 fold. Interestingly, the PPARγ antagonist co-administered with DHA or EPA in co-culture reduced (p ≤ 0.05 adiponectin cellular protein, without modulating other cytokines (protein or mRNA. Overall, our findings suggest that DHA may lessen the degree of MCP1 and IL-6 secreted from adipocytes, and may reduce the degree of M1 polarization of macrophages recruited to adipose tissue, thereby decreasing the intensity of pro-inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes

  6. Astaxanthin and Docosahexaenoic Acid Reverse the Toxicity of the Maxi-K (BK) Channel Antagonist Mycotoxin Penitrem A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Amira A.; Naguib, Khayria M.; Mohamed, Magdy M.; Amra, Hassan A.; Nada, Somaia A.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Abdel-Rahman B.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Penitrem A (PA) is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K) channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST) is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs), inducing neuroprotective effects. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acid naturally occurring in fish and algae. DHA is essential for normal neurological and cellular development. This study evaluated the protective activity of AST and DHA against PA-induced toxicity, in vitro on Schwann cells CRL-2765 and in vivo in the worm Caenorhbitidis elegans and Sprague Dawley rat models. PA inhibited the viability of Schwann cells, with an IC50 of 22.6 μM. Dose-dependent treatments with 10–100 μM DHA significantly reversed the PA toxicity at its IC50 dose, and improved the survival of Schwann cells to 70.5%–98.8%. Similarly, dose-dependent treatments with 10–20 μM AST reversed the PA toxicity at its IC50 dose and raised these cells’ survival to 61.7%–70.5%. BK channel inhibition in the nematode C. elegans is associated with abnormal reversal locomotion. DHA and AST counteracted the in vivo PA BK channel antagonistic activity in the C. elegans model. Rats fed a PA-contaminated diet showed high levels of glutamate (GLU), aspartate (ASP), and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), with observed necrosis or absence of Purkinjie neurons, typical of PA-induced neurotoxicity. Dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) levels were abnormal, Nitric Oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level in serum and brain homogenates was significantly decreased in PA-treated rats. DHA and AST

  7. Astaxanthin and Docosahexaenoic Acid Reverse the Toxicity of the Maxi-K (BK Channel Antagonist Mycotoxin Penitrem A

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    Amira A. Goda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penitrem A (PA is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs, inducing neuroprotective effects. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acid naturally occurring in fish and algae. DHA is essential for normal neurological and cellular development. This study evaluated the protective activity of AST and DHA against PA-induced toxicity, in vitro on Schwann cells CRL-2765 and in vivo in the worm Caenorhbitidis elegans and Sprague Dawley rat models. PA inhibited the viability of Schwann cells, with an IC50 of 22.6 μM. Dose-dependent treatments with 10–100 μM DHA significantly reversed the PA toxicity at its IC50 dose, and improved the survival of Schwann cells to 70.5%–98.8%. Similarly, dose-dependent treatments with 10–20 μM AST reversed the PA toxicity at its IC50 dose and raised these cells’ survival to 61.7%–70.5%. BK channel inhibition in the nematode C. elegans is associated with abnormal reversal locomotion. DHA and AST counteracted the in vivo PA BK channel antagonistic activity in the C. elegans model. Rats fed a PA-contaminated diet showed high levels of glutamate (GLU, aspartate (ASP, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA, with observed necrosis or absence of Purkinjie neurons, typical of PA-induced neurotoxicity. Dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, and norepinephrine (NE levels were abnormal, Nitric Oxide (NO and Malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly increased, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC level in serum and brain homogenates was significantly decreased in PA-treated rats. DHA and AST

  8. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  9. Estimation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea by using a self-administered diet history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Yatsuki, Yuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes during pregnancy affect fetal development and maternal mental health; therefore, an accurate assessment of EPA and DHA intakes is required. We hypothesized that a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed for non-pregnant adults could be used for estimating EPA and DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women; thus, we evaluated the validity and reproducibility of the DHQ during pregnancy. We recruited 262 healthy participants with singleton pregnancies during their second trimester at a university hospital in Tokyo between June 2010 and July 2011. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were measured as reference values. Fifty-eight women completed the DHQ twice, within a 4- to 5-week period to assess the reproducibility of the results. Among the participants without pregnancy-associated nausea (n = 180), significantly positive correlations were observed between energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA (r(s) = 0.388), DHA (r(s) = 0.264), and EPA + DHA (r(s) = 0.328). More than 60% of the participants without nausea fell into the same or adjacent quintiles according to energy-adjusted intakes and plasma concentrations of EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA. Meanwhile, among the participants with nausea, a low correlation for EPA and no correlation for DHA and EPA + DHA were found. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the 2-time DHQ measurements were 0.691 (EPA) and 0.663 (DHA). The results indicate that the DHQ has an acceptable level of validity and reproducibility for assessing EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA intakes in pregnant Japanese women without nausea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid metabolism and signaling in iPLA2β (VIA)-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Rosa, Angelo O.; Ramadan, Epolia; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Greenstein, Deanna; Wohltmann, Mary; Turk, John; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) selectively hydrolyzes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in vitro from phospholipid. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene encoding this enzyme occur in patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration plus brain iron accumulation and dystonia-parkinsonism without iron accumulation, whereas mice lacking PLA2G6 show neurological dysfunction and neuropathology after 13 months. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism and signaling would be reduced in 4-month-old iPLA2β-deficient mice without overt neuropathology. Saline or the cholinergic muscarinic M1,3,5 receptor agonist arecoline (30 mg/kg) was administered to unanesthetized iPLA2β−/−, iPLA2β+/−, and iPLA2β+/+ mice, and [1-14C]DHA was infused intravenously. DHA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, representing DHA metabolism, were determined using quantitative autoradiography in 81 brain regions. iPLA2β−/− or iPLA2β+/− compared with iPLA2β+/+ mice showed widespread and significant baseline reductions in k* and Jin for DHA. Arecoline increased both parameters in brain regions of iPLA2β+/+ mice but quantitatively less so in iPLA2β−/− and iPLA2β+/− mice. Consistent with iPLA2β’s reported ability to selectively hydrolyze DHA from phospholipid in vitro, iPLA2β deficiency reduces brain DHA metabolism and signaling in vivo at baseline and following M1,3,5 receptor activation. Positron emission tomography might be used to image disturbed brain DHA metabolism in patients with PLA2G6 mutations. PMID:20686114

  11. Microbial production of docosahexaenoic acid by a low temperature-adaptive strain Thraustochytriidae sp. Z105: screening and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng-Peng; Lu, Ming-Bo; Li, Wei; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2010-08-01

    As an alternative source in addition to fish oil, microbial production of docosahexaenoic acid has been recieved more and more attentions owing to their culture advantage. A unicellular eukaryotic microbe with high DHA production and capable of low temperature-adaptive growth was isolated from seawater and identified as Thraustochytriidae sp. Z105. The siginificant effect of temperature on cell growth and DHA synthesis by the strain was revealed. It could grow and produce DHA even at 4 degrees C, but hardly grow above 35 degrees C. Low temperature (15-25 degrees C) was favorable for formation of biomass, lipids and DHA, but DHA synthesis was completely blocked above 30 degrees C. Conditions for high level DHA production by Thraustochytriidae sp. Z105 in flask culture were optimized as follows: medium containing glucose 80 g/l, yeast extract 5.0 g/l, K2HPO(4) . 3 H2O 1.0 g/l, MgSO4 . 7 H2O 0.5 g/l, seawater crystal 20 g/l, pH 6.0, liquid volume 30 ml/250 ml, temperature 20 degrees C, agitation speed of 200 r/min, and culture for 120 h. Under the optimal conditions, biomass of 16.72 g/l, total lipids of 5.35 g/l, DHA yield of 1.71 g/l (accounting for 32% of the total lipids) were achieved, respectively. In flask cluture level, the DHA productivity of Thraustochytriidae sp. Z105 was higher than most reported results, which suggested the wild type strain was a potential superior candidate for industrialization of DHA production. Moreover, the strain is an unique and valuable resource for investigation of the low temperature adaptive mechanism related to DHA synthesis.

  12. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid in combination with other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of biosynthesis genes and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in tissues of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Howarth, Fraser J E; Glencross, Brett D; Tocher, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate interactions of dietary LC-PUFA, a dose-response study with a range of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) levels (1 g kg(-1), 5 g kg(-1), 10 g kg(-1), 15 g kg(-1) and 20 g kg(-1)) was performed with post-smolts (111 ± 2.6g; mean ± S.D.) over a nine-week feeding period. Additional diets included 10 g kg(-1) DHA in combination with 10 g kg(-1) of either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) or arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), and a diet containing 5 g kg(-1) each of DHA and EPA. The liver, brain, head kidney and gill were collected at the conclusion of the trial, and lipid and fatty acid compositions were determined as well as expression of genes of LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Total lipid content and class composition were largely unaffected by changes in dietary LC-PUFA. However, phospholipid (PL) fatty acid compositions generally reflected that of the diet, although the response varied between tissues. The liver most strongly reflected diet, followed by the head kidney. In both tissues increasing dietary DHA led to significantly increased DHA in PL and inclusion of EPA or ARA led to higher levels of these fatty acids. The brain showed the most conserved composition and gene expression profile, with increased dietary LC-PUFA resulting in only minor changes in PL fatty acids. Dietary LC-PUFA significantly affected the expression of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases, Elovl 2, 4 and 5, and SREBPs although this varied between tissues with greatest effects observed in the liver followed by the head kidney, similar to PL fatty acid compositions.

  13. Comparison of the effects of major fatty acids present in the Mediterranean diet (oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) and in hydrogenated oils (elaidic acid) on 7-ketocholesterol-induced oxiapoptophagy in microglial BV-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbabi, Meryam; Zarrouk, Amira; Bezine, Maryem; Meddeb, Wiem; Nury, Thomas; Badreddine, Asmaa; Karym, El Mostafa; Sghaier, Randa; Bretillon, Lionel; Guyot, Stéphane; Samadi, Mohammad; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Nasser, Boubker; Mejri, Mondher; Ben-Hammou, Sofien; Hammami, Mohamed; Lizard, Gérard

    2017-04-10

    Increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which results mainly from cholesterol auto-oxidation, are often found in the plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and might contribute to activation of microglial cells involved in neurodegeneration. As major cellular dysfunctions are induced by 7KC, it is important to identify molecules able to impair its side effects. Since consumption of olive and argan oils, and fish is important in the Mediterranean diet, the aim of the study was to determine the ability of oleic acid (OA), a major compound of olive and argan oil, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) present in fatty fishes, such as sardines, to attenuate 7KC-induced cytotoxic effects. Since elaidic acid (EA), the trans isomer of OA, can be found in hydrogenated cooking oils and fried foods, its effects on 7KC-induced cytotoxicity were also determined. In murine microglial BV-2 cells, 7KC induces cell growth inhibition, mitochondrial dysfunctions, reactive oxygen species overproduction and lipid peroxidation, increased plasma membrane permeability and fluidity, nuclei condensation and/or fragmentation and caspase-3 activation, which are apoptotic characteristics, and an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, which is a criterion of autophagy. 7KC is therefore a potent inducer of oxiapoptophagy (OXIdation+APOPTOsis+autoPHAGY) on BV-2 cells. OA and EA, but not DHA, also favor the accumulation of lipid droplets revealed with Masson's trichrome, Oil Red O, and Nile Red staining. The cytotoxicity of 7KC was strongly attenuated by OA and DHA. Protective effects were also observed with EA. However, 7KC-induced caspase-3 activation was less attenuated with EA. Different effects of OA and EA on autophagy were also observed. In addition, EA (but not OA) increased plasma membrane fluidity, and only OA (but not EA) was able to prevent the 7KC-induced increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, in BV-2 microglial cells, the principal fatty acids of the

  14. Cloning and functional analysis of putative malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase gene from the docosahexaenoic acid-producer Schizochytrium sp. TIO1101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rubin; Ge, Yuqing; Yang, Bo; Zhong, Xiaoming; Lin, Xiangzhi; Huang, Zhen

    2013-06-01

    Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), which transfers the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to holo-acyl carrier protein (ACP), is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. Schizochytrium sp. TIO1101 is a marine protist with high levels of docosahexaenoic acid accumulation. In this study, the putative fabD gene coding MCAT was isolated from Schizochytrium sp. TIO1101. The Schizochytrium MCAT gene (ScTIOfabD) contained an 1176 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 391 amino acids. The ScTIOfabD gene exhibited high novelty in nucleotide and amino acid sequence. The highest amino acid identity was only 35 % between ScTIOMCAT and the reported MCATs. Further studies demonstrated that ScTIOMCAT could bind malonyl-CoA directly and transfer malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the ACP domain in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ScTIOMCAT was relative close to MCATs of yeast strains. Overexpression of ScTIOMCAT in Saccharomyces cereviseae significantly increased the MCAT activity, without negative effects on the growth rate of the host strain. In addition, ScTIOMCAT generated 16.8 and 62 % increase in biomass and fatty acid accumulation, respectively, and did not alter the profile of fatty acid. Our results indicated that the novel MCAT gene from Schizochytrium sp. TIO1101 was crucial for fatty acid synthesis and had potential applications for genetic modifications of oil-producing species.

  15. Thermogenesis, blood metabolites and hormones, and growth of lambs born to ewes supplemented with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithly, J I; Kott, R W; Berardinelli, J G; Moreaux, S; Hatfield, P G

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality is a major factor affecting profitability in the sheep industry, and lamb thermogenesis is a key element in neonatal lamb survival. Increased lamb vigor has been reported when ewes were supplemented during late gestation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the effects of DHA on lamb thermogenesis and immunocompetence have not been investigated. Eighty twin-bearing Targhee ewes (ages 2 to 5 yr; 68.5 ± 3 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 supplement treatments to determine the effects of feeding DHA to ewes during late gestation and early lactation on lamb thermogenesis, serum metabolites and hormones, and lamb growth. Supplement treatments were 12 g·ewe(-1)·d(-1) of algae-derived DHA (DHA Gold Advanced Bionutrition Corp., Columbia, MD; algae-derived DHA); and no algae-derived DHA (control). Supplements were individually fed daily during the last 30 d (±7 d) of gestation and pen fed (6 pens/treatment with 6 or 7 ewes/pen) during the first 38 d (±7 d) of lactation. One hour after lambing and before nursing, twin-born lambs were weighed, blood sampled via jugular puncture, and placed in a dry cold chamber for 30 min (0°C), and rectal temperatures were recorded every minute for 30 min. Lambs were removed from the cold chamber, blood sampled, warmed for 15 min, and returned to their dam. Ewes were blood sampled, and colostrum samples were collected 1 h postpartum. Ewe and lamb sera were assayed for glucose, NEFA, cortisol, and leptin. Lamb rectal temperature, glucose, NEFA, cortisol, leptin, and birth weights did not differ between treatments. The BW at 38 d was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs born to control ewes than for lambs born to algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes; however, the colostrum of algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes had a greater specific gravity (P = 0.05) than for control ewes. Overall, despite a potentially positive effect on ewe colostral IgG concentrations, supplementation of algae-derived DHA during

  16. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  17. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...... to increased dietary ARA content. However, pigmentation was not affected by inclusion levels of EPA or DHA when ARA was high. This, and no relation between DHA: EPA or ARA: EPA ratios and pigmentation and only a weak relation to ARA: DHA ratio, advocate for that it is the absolute concentration of ARA...... resulted in a lower growth rate, which suggests that visual aberrations affected prey capture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid vs. docosahexaenoic acid supply on the distribution of fatty acids among the rat cardiac subcellular membranes after a short- or long-term dietary exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau-Ralliard Delphine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work showed that the functional cardiac effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in rats requires a long feeding period (6 months, although a docosahexaenoic (DHA acid-supply affects cardiac adrenergic response after 2 months. However, the total cardiac membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA composition remained unchanged after 2 months. This delay could be due to a specific reorganization of the different subcellular membrane PUFA profiles. This study was designed to investigate the evolution between 2 and 6 months of diet duration of the fatty acid profile in sarcolemmal (SL, mitochondrial (MI, nuclear (NU and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR membrane fractions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups (n = 10/diet/period, either n-3 PUFA-free diet (CTL, or ALA or DHA-rich diets. After 2 or 6 months, the subcellular cardiac membrane fractions were separated by differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients. Each membrane profile was analysed by gas chromatography (GC after lipid extraction. Results As expected the n-3 PUFA-rich diets incorporated n-3 PUFA instead of n-6 PUFA in all the subcellular fractions, which also exhibited individual specificities. The diet duration increased SFA and decreased PUFA in SL, whereas NU remained constant. The SR and MI enriched in n-3 PUFA exhibited a decreased DHA level with ageing in the DHA and CTL groups. Conversely, the n-3 PUFA level remained unchanged in the ALA group, due to a significant increase in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. N-3 PUFA rich diets lead to a better PUFA profile in all the fractions and significantly prevent the profile modifications induced by ageing. Conclusion With the ALA diet the n-3 PUFA content, particularly in SR and SL kept increasing between 2 and 6 months, which may partly account for the delay to achieve the modification of adrenergic response.

  19. Evaluation of the hepatic bioconversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in rats fed with oils from chia (Salvia hispánica) or rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia O., G.; Valenzuela B., A.; Cornejo Z., P.; Vizcarra, M.; Masson S., L.; Gormáz, J. G.; Valenzuela B., R.

    2012-01-01

    The high dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids generates health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other chronic diseases. The consumption of fish, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, is low in Latin America and it is necessary to seek other alternatives, such as chia oil (CO) or rosa mosqueta oil (RMO), which are rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor of the n -3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic ac...

  20. One-pot enzymatic synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid-rich triacylglycerols at the sn-1(3) position using by-product from selective hydrolysis of tuna oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Momokawa, Yuusuke; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shimada, Yuji

    2011-01-31

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil has been industrially produced by selective hydrolysis of tuna oil with a lipase that acts weakly on DHA. The free fatty acids (FFAs) generated in this process as by-products contain a high DHA concentration (46wt%) but are treated as industrial waste. This study attempted to reuse these by-product FFAs using a one-pot process, and succeeded in producing triacylglycerols (TAGs) through the esterification of the by-product FFAs with glycerol using immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase. Regiospecific analysis of the resulting TAGs showed that the content of DHA at the sn-1(3) position (51.7mol%) was higher than the content of DHA at the sn-2 position (17.3mol%). The DHA distribution in TAGs synthesized in this study was similar to the DHA distribution in TAGs from seal oil.

  1. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method shows that vitamin E deficiency depletes arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Lebold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that embryogenesis depends upon α-tocopherol (E to protect embryo polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from lipid peroxidation, new methodologies were applied to measure α-tocopherol and fatty acids in extracts from saponified zebrafish embryos. A solid phase extraction method was developed to separate the analyte classes, using a mixed mode cartridge (reverse phase, π–π bonding, strong anion exchange, then α-tocopherol and cholesterol were measured using standard techniques, while the fatty acids were quantitated using a novel, reverse phase liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS approach. We also determined if α-tocopherol status alters embryonic lipid peroxidation products by analyzing 24 different oxidized products of arachidonic or docosahexaenoic (DHA acids in embryos using LC with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight MS. Adult zebrafish were fed E− or E+ diets for 4 months, and then were spawned to obtain E− and E+ embryos. Between 24 and 72 hours post-fertilization (hpf, arachidonic acid decreased 3-times faster in E− (21 pg/h compared with E+ embryos (7 pg/h, P<0.0001, while both α-tocopherol and DHA concentrations decreased only in E− embryos. At 36 hpf, E− embryos contained double the 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids and 7-hydroxy-DHA concentrations, while other hydroxy-lipids remained unchanged. Vitamin E deficiency during embryogenesis depleted DHA and arachidonic acid, and increased hydroxy-fatty acids derived from these PUFA, suggesting that α-tocopherol is necessary to protect these critical fatty acids.

  2. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  3. Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca(2+) uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

    2013-06-01

    High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function.

  4. Curcumin and linseed oil co-delivered in phospholipid nanoemulsions enhances the levels of docosahexaenoic acid in serum and tissue lipids of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2017-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) primarily found in marine fishes. The diets of vegetarian population do not contain preformed DHA, but they can derive it from shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant oils. However, the conversion efficiency of ALA to DHA is minimal in human adults. This may cause insufficiency of DHA in the vegetarian population. Curcumin, diferuloyl methane found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2. The present study was designed to prepare curcumin nanoemulsion using phospholipid core material (Lipoid™) and exploring the possibility of enhancing its bioavailability and its impact on DHA levels in rats. Curcumin was dissolved in coconut oil (CNO, MCFA rich), Sunflower oil (SNO, n-6 PUFA rich) or Linseed oil (LSO, n-3 PUFA rich) and nanoemulsions were prepared after mixing with Lipoid™ using high pressure homogenizer. The nanoemulsions were fed to weaning rats for 60 days along with AIN-93 diets. Rats fed nanoemulsion containing curcumin in LSO showed high levels of curcumin in serum liver, heart and brain. Significant increase in DHA levels of serum and tissue lipids were observed in rats given LSO with curcumin in nanoemulsions. Therefore, supplementation of diets with ALA rich LSO and curcumin could increase DHA concentrations in serum, liver, heart and brain lipids which have implications for meeting the DHA requirements of vegetarian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid given from birth affect visual and auditory performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. M.; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.;

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether it is possible to enhance the level of 22:6(n-3) in the central nervous system, newborn rats were fed dietary supplements containing oils with either specific or random triacylglycerol structure, but similar concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the specific...... in metabolism of fatty acids resulting from their position in the dietary triacylglycerol molecule. The higher levers of 22:6(n-3) were accompanied by significantly lower levels of the long-chain (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with the reference group. The fatty acid profiles, including the level...... of 22:6(n-3), in the retina phospholipids were not affected by the three different diets apart from a lower level of 20:4(n-6) in rats fed the experimental diets, indicating a strong tendency to maintain a high level of 22:6(n-3) in the retina. The changes in the fatty acid profiles did not result...

  6. Rats given linseed oil in microemulsion forms enriches the brain synaptic membrane with docosahexaenoic acid and enhances the neurotransmitter levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasini, Dhavamani; Lokesh, Belur R

    2015-02-01

    Long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for the normal functioning of the brain. The vegetarian sections of the population get only alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) through their diet as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Hence, in this group of the population, the ALAs need to be converted to DHA through the action of the desaturase and the elongase enzymes. However, the conversion of the ALA to the DHA is very minimal (linseed oil (LSO) containing ALA. The rats were fed LSO as microemulsions in whey protein or in lipoid for 60 days through gavage. The rats given LSO microemulsions in lipoid showed higher levels of the DHA in the brain synaptic membrane when compared to rats given LSO without emulsion formation. This decreased the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the brain synaptic membrane. This also increased the membrane fluidity, Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase activity, and acetylcholine esterase activity in the synaptic membranes. Furthermore, Ca²⁺-Mg²⁺ ATPase activity, monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B activity was lowered in the rats given LSO in the microemulsion form. The dopamine and the serotonin levels in the brain were increased in the rats given LSO in the microemulsion form with lipoid as compared to those given LSO without the preemulsion formation. This study indicates that the LSO microemulsions in the lipoid can enhance the synaptic membrane DHA levels and influence the functions associated with the brain in a beneficial manner.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 532) and maintenance, of normal bone (ID 642, 697, 1552) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are “omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (GLA)”, “gamma-linolenic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid (GLA+EPA)”, and “evening primrose oil...... and fish oil”. From the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituents that are the subject of the claims are the n-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in evening primrose oil and the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  8. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  9. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  10. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  11. Evaluation of the hepatic bioconversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rats fed with oils from chia (Salvia hispánica or rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia O., G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids generates health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other chronic diseases. The consumption of fish, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, is low in Latin America and it is necessary to seek other alternatives, such as chia oil (CO or rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, which are rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of the n -3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This study evaluates the hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA and the damage to the liver (histology and transaminase in Sprague- Dawley rats fed different vegetable oils. Four experimental groups (n = 9 animals each group were fed the following dietary supplements for 21 days: a sunflower oil (SFO, b RMO, c CO d olive oil with fish oil added (EPA and DHA (OO/FO. RMO and CO increased the hepatic levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p El elevado aporte en la dieta de ácidos grasos omega- 6, en relación a los ácidos grasos omega-3, genera alteraciones de la salud cardiovascular, inflamación y otras patologías crónicas no transmisibles. Por otro lado, el pescado rico en ácidos grasos omega-3 es de bajo consumo en Latinoamérica, siendo necesario buscar otras alternativas de aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3, como lo son el aceite de chía (CO o el de rosa mosqueta (RMO, ricos en ácido α-linolénico (ALA, que es el precursor de los ácidos grasos omega-3, eicosapentaenoico (EPA y docosahexaenoico (DHA. Este trabajo evaluó en forma preliminar la bioconversión hepática del ALA en EPA y DHA y el daño hepático (histología y transaminasas en ratas Sprague-Dawley alimentadas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales (n = 9 animales por grupo que recibieron durante 21 días: a aceite de girasol (SFO; b RMO, c CO y d aceite de oliva adicionado de aceite de pescado (EPA

  12. High dietary consumption of trans fatty acids decreases brain docosahexaenoic acid but does not alter amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phivilay, A; Julien, C; Tremblay, C; Berthiaume, L; Julien, P; Giguère, Y; Calon, F

    2009-03-03

    Dietary consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased during the 20th century and is a suspected risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. More recently, high TFA intake has been associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the impact of TFA on an animal model genetically programmed to express amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau pathological markers of AD, we have fed 3xTg-AD mice with either control (0% TFA/total fatty acid), high TFA (16% TFA) or very high TFA (43% TFA) isocaloric diets from 2 to 16 months of age. Effects of TFA on plasma hepatic enzymes, glucose and lipid profile were minimal but very high TFA intake decreased visceral fat of non-transgenic mice. Importantly, dietary TFA increased brain TFA concentrations in a dose-related manner. Very high TFA consumption substantially modified the brain fatty acid profile by increasing mono-unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Very high TFA intake induced a shift from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) toward n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) without altering the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the cortex of both control and 3xTg-AD mice. Changes in levels of Abeta(40), Abeta(42), tau protein, phosphorylated tau protein and synaptic markers were not statistically significant in the three groups of 3xTg-AD mice, despite a trend toward decreased insoluble tau in very high TFA-fed 3xTg-AD animals. In summary, TFA intake modulated brain fatty acid profiles but had no significant effect on major brain neuropathological hallmarks of AD in an animal model.

  13. Effects of pure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on oxidative stress, inflammation and body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-3 Fatty acids reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that they may reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive, due, in part, to type of omega-3 fatty acids used. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pure eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, the two major omega-3 fatty acids, on inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Sixty patients with DM-II were randomly allocated to receive daily either ~1 gr EPA or ~1 gr DHA, or a canola oil as placebo for 12 weeks in a randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Serum MDA, CRP, body weight, BMI, and fat mass were measured at baseline and after intervention. Results: Forty-five patients with a mean (±SD age of 54.9 ± 8.2 years with BMI of 27.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 and fasting blood glucose 96.0 ± 16.2 mg/dl completed the intervention. Neither EPA nor DHA had significant effects on serum FBS, C-reactive protein, body weight, BMI, and fat mass after intervention (P > 0.05. In addition, while MDA increased 18% in the placebo group (P = 0.009, it did not change in the EPA or DHA group (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of supplementation with 1gr/d EPA or DHA prevent increasing oxidative stress without changing marker of inflammation. This study is the first report demonstrating that neither EPA nor DHA have effects on body fat mass in type 2 diabetic patients.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo via reactive oxygen species formation and caspase 8 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study sought to further investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of a representative omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, with a focus on assessing the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as an important mechanism for its anticancer actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies showed that DHA strongly reduces the viability and DNA synthesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture, and also promotes cell death via apoptosis. Mechanistically, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase 8 contribute critically to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Co-presence of antioxidants or selective inhibition or knockdown of caspase 8 each effectively abrogates the cytotoxic effect of DHA. Using athymic nude mice as an in vivo model, we found that feeding animals the 5% fish oil-supplemented diet for 6 weeks significantly reduces the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vivo through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation as well as promotion of cell death. Using 3-nitrotyrosine as a parameter, we confirmed that the fish oil-supplemented diet significantly increases oxidative stress in tumor cells in vivo. Analysis of fatty acid content in plasma and tissues showed that feeding animals a 5% fish oil diet increases the levels of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid in both normal and tumorous mammary tissues by 329% and 300%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DHA can strongly induce apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of apoptosis in these cells is selectively mediated via caspase 8 activation. These observations call for further studies to assess the effectiveness of fish oil as a dietary supplement in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  15. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  16. Effects of chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid addition to linseed oil on biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, A; Hovenier, R; Vlaeminck, B; van Vuuren, A M; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2010-11-01

    Rumen biohydrogenation kinetics of C18:3n-3 from several chemically or technologically treated linseed products and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) addition to linseed oil were evaluated in vitro. Linseed products evaluated were linseed oil, crushed linseed, formaldehyde treated crushed linseed, sodium hydroxide/formaldehyde treated crushed linseed, extruded whole linseed (2 processing variants), extruded crushed linseed (2 processing variants), micronized crushed linseed, commercially available extruded linseed, lipid encapsulated linseed oil, and DHA addition to linseed oil. Each product was incubated with rumen liquid using equal amounts of supplemented C18:3n-3 and fermentable substrate (freeze-dried total mixed ration) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h using a batch culture technique. Disappearance of C18:3n-3 was measured to estimate the fractional biohydrogenation rate and lag time according to an exponential model and to calculate effective biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3, assuming a fractional passage rate of 0.060/h. Treatments showed no differences in rumen fermentation parameters, including gas production rate and volatile fatty acid concentration. Technological pretreatment (crushing) followed by chemical treatment applied as formaldehyde of linseed resulted in effective protection of C18:3n-3 against biohydrogenation. Additional chemical pretreatment (sodium hydroxide) before applying formaldehyde treatment did not further improve the effectiveness of protection. Extrusion of whole linseed compared with extrusion of crushed linseed was effective in reducing C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation, whereas the processing variants were not different in C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation. Crushed linseed, micronized crushed linseed, lipid encapsulated linseed oil, and DHA addition to linseed oil did not reduce C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation. Compared with the other treatments, docosahexaenoic acid addition to linseed oil resulted in a comparable trans11,cis15-C18

  17. Circulating Docosahexaenoic Acid Associates with Insulin-Dependent Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Glucose Uptake in Older Women Born from Normal Weight Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeau, Robert M.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G.; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: Thirty-seven elderly women were separated into elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17) and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20) groups. We measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and insulin-dependent tissue-specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long-chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA) was significantly lower in OOM (p = 0.015). DHA/FA associated significantly with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU) (p = 0.031) and the metabolizable glucose value derived from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (M-value) in the OLM group only (p = 0.050). Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers. PMID:28165405

  18. Algal supplementation of vegetarian eating patterns improves plasma and serum docosahexaenoic acid concentrations and omega-3 indices: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, J C; Neale, E P; Probst, Y C; Peoples, G E

    2017-04-17

    Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations. The SCOPUS, Science Direct and Web of Science scientific databases were searched to identify relevant studies assessing the effect of algal DHA consumption by vegetarian (including vegan) populations. Four randomised controlled trials and two prospective cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies reported algal sources of DHA significantly improve DHA concentrations (including plasma, serum, platelet and red blood cell fractions), as well as omega-3 indices, in vegetarian populations. An evident time or dose response was not apparent given the small number of studies to date. Future studies should address long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies in vegetarian populations using algal DHA and explore the potential physiological and health improvements in these individuals. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Circulating Docosahexaenoic Acid Associates with Insulin-Dependent Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Glucose Uptake in Older Women Born from Normal Weight Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Badeau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM or offspring of lean mothers (OLM. Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: Thirty-seven elderly women were separated into elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17 and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20 groups. We measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and insulin-dependent tissue-specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long-chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA was significantly lower in OOM (p = 0.015. DHA/FA associated significantly with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU (p = 0.031 and the metabolizable glucose value derived from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (M-value in the OLM group only (p = 0.050. Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers.

  20. Synthesis of sn-2 docosahexaenoyl monoacylglycerol by mild enzymatic transesterification of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and glycerol in a solvent-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Moreno-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic transesterification of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA ethyl ester with glycerol was performed with several lipases in a solvent-free system and it involves the initial formation of sn-2 docosahexaenyl monoacylglyceride. This DHA derivative is highly relevant for improving the bioavailability of DHA and it has received increasing interest in the field of nutrition. Three commercial lipases, from Rhizomucor miehei (RML, Alcaligenes sp (QL, and Candida antarctica-fraction B (CALB were tested. In certain cases (CALB, using an excess of DHA ethyl ester and high temperatures the transesterification reaction continues to the formation of triacylglycerides, but in other cases, sn-2 monoacylglyceride (2-MG is the unique synthetic product even in the presence of high concentrations of DHA ethyl ester. At low temperatures (e.g. 37°C, RML derivatives synthesize only 2-MG in 15 min. These very mild conditions are very interesting for the thermal oxidative stability of the omega-3 fatty acid and for the thermal stability of the biocatalyst. Using Normal Phase HPLC-ELSD and accurate markers, the formation of the 2-MG was confirmed.

  1. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Molfino; Maria Ida Amabile; Massimo Monti; Stefano Arcieri; Filippo Rossi Fanelli; Maurizio Muscaritoli

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among th...

  2. Early dietary intervention with structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid. Effect on brain, liver, and adipose tissue lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete Myrup; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    Newborn rats were fed liquid diets containing 7 wt% fat in which 3.8% of the total fatty acids were 22:6n-3. The fats were either a specificstructured oil with 22:6n-3 mostly located in the sn-2 position or a randomized oil with 22:6n-3 equally distributed in the triacylglycerol (TAG)molecules. T...

  3. Experience in the use of docosahexaenoic acid (BrudiPlus in patients with increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in Acad. V.I. Kulakov Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor is the reason of infertility in almost half of marriages. Infertile men have the percentage of sperm with violations of DNA integrity of over 30 %; with that, healthy fertile men have that indicator of less than 15 %. Understanding of importance of damages of sperm DNA is growing with distribution ofauxiliary reproductive technologies. As of today, these consequences have not been studies yet, and the therapeutic effect of intake of antioxidants has not direct correlation with the sperm DNA fragmentation level. Docosahexaenoic acid is one of the most valuable omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for human health. Docosahexaenoic acid is the main component of the brain gray matter, retina, testes, and sperm cell membranes. In connection with that, a study was held the purpose of which was to assess the effect of the nutraceutical enzymatic docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride (BrudiPlus in high concentrations on damaged sperm DNA of patients with idiopathic pathozoospermia. 40 patients with idiopathic pathozoospermia and the level of DNA fragmentation over the statutory value took part in this study. The following positive results were received: intake of BrudiPlus allowed decreasing sperm DNA damages and improving of antioxidant system of sperm. 

  4. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellenbach, Lisa J; Olson, Kari L; McConnell, Karen J; Stolcpart, Ryan S; Nash, James D; Merenich, John A

    2006-12-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The American Heart Association recommends 1000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), daily for cardioprotection and higher doses for triglyceride-lowering in patients with CAD. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing DHA to DHA + EPA in patients with CAD and triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dL. Subjects were randomized to either 1000 mg of DHA or 1252 mg of DHA + EPA for eight weeks. Baseline and eight-week laboratories were drawn to assess changes in the fasting lipid profile. The primary objective was to evaluate the change in triglycerides between the two groups at eight weeks. A total of 116 subjects were enrolled; 57 in the DHA group and 59 in the DHA + EPA group. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The mean age was 69.4 +/- 9.1 years and 70.7% were male. Triglycerides decreased by an average of 21.8% in the DHA group (p triglyceride goal (less than 150 mg/dL) compared to the DHA + EPA group (24.6% versus 10.2%, p triglycerides in patients with CAD. There do not appear to be significant differences in triglyceride-lowering between DHA only and DHA + EPA combination products when dosing is based on DHA.

  5. Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels of young rats are related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA levels and fat matrix of the diet: impact of dairy fat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dososahexaenoate (DHA is highly concentrated in mammalian nervous and visual systems and its deficiency during gestation, lactation and early life, could have dramatic impacts on brain functions and mental health. Achieving an appropriate DHA status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how a-linolenic acid (ALA provided by different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both young male and female rats. Young rats born from dams fed during gestation and lactation with a low ALA diet (0.4% of fatty acids were subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to an anhydrous dairy fat blend-based diet that provided 1.5% ALA or to a palm oil blend-based diet that provided the same ALA level: either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid (ARA. With each diet the n-6/ n-3 ratio was similar (10 to follow the values generally recommended for infant formula. Fatty acids analysis in whole brain showed that 1.5% ALA dairy fat blend was superior to both 1.5% ALA palm-oil blends, supplemented or not with dietary DHA, for increasing brain DHA. Females compared to males had significantly higher brain DHA with the 1.5% ALA palm-blend diet, but the dietary supplementation with DHA smoothed the differences by a specific increase of males DHA brain. In conclusion, dairy fat blend enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of post-weaning rats. Inclusion of dairy fat in infant formulas should be reconsidered.

  6. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

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    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates adipose tissue angiogenesis and insulin resistance in high fat diet-fed middle-aged mice via a sirt1-dependent mechanism.

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    Luo, Xiaoqin; Jia, Ru; Yao, Qinyu; Xu, Yirui; Luo, Zhenyu; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Nanping

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6, n-3), one of PUFAs, exerts beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases, obesity and diabetes. Angiogenesis in adipose tissue has a major role in the development of obesity and its related metabolic complications. Inhibition of angiogenesis is an emerging strategy for the novel treatment for obesity. Thus, we examined the effect of DHA on angiogenesis in adipose tissues and investigated the underlying mechanisms. In high-fat diet (HFD) fed middle-aged mice, DHA inhibited the macrophage-derived inflammation and angiogenesis in adipose tissues, reduced adipocyte size and body fat composition and improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, DHA reversed the HFD-induced reduction of Sirt1 in adipose tissues. Interestingly, the effects of DHA were attenuated by lentivirus-mediated Sirt1 knockdown with increasing expression of markers of macrophage-derived inflammation and angiogenesis, associated with impaired insulin sensitivity. Overall, our findings demonstrated that DHA reduced angiogenesis of adipose tissues and attenuated insulin resistance in HFD-induced obese mice via the activation of Sirt1. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Impact of carbon and nitrogen feeding strategy on high production of biomass and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium sp. LU310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Nan; Lu, Yinghua; Ng, I-Son

    2015-05-01

    A new isolated Schizochytrium sp. LU310 from the mangrove forest of Wenzhou, China, was found as a high producing microalga of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, the significant improvements for DHA fermentation by the batch mode in the baffled flasks (i.e. higher oxygen supply) were achieved. By applied the nitrogen-feeding strategy in 1000 mL baffled flasks, the biomass, DHA concentration and DHA productivity were increased by 110.4%, 117.9% and 110.4%, respectively. Moreover, DHA concentration of 21.06 g/L was obtained by feeding 15 g/L of glucose intermittently, which was an increase of 41.25% over that of the batch mode. Finally, an innovative strategy was carried out by intermittent feeding carbon and simultaneously feeding nitrogen. The maximum DHA concentration and DHA productivity in the fed-batch cultivation reached to 24.74 g/L and 241.5 mg/L/h, respectively.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid phospholipid differentially modulates the conformation of G90V and N55K rhodopsin mutants associated with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyun; Herrera-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2017-05-01

    Rhodopsin is the visual photoreceptor of the retinal rod cells that mediates dim light vision and a prototypical member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The structural stability and functional performance of rhodopsin are modulated by membrane lipids. Docosahexaenoic acid has been shown to interact with native rhodopsin but no direct evidence has been established on the effect of such lipid on the stability and regeneration of rhodopsin mutants associated with retinal diseases. The stability and regeneration of two thermosensitive mutants G90V and N55K, associated with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa, have been analyzed in docosohexaenoic phospholipid (1,2-didocosa-hexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DDHA-PC) liposomes. G90V mutant reconstituted in DDHA-PC liposomes significantly increased its thermal stability, but N55K mutant showed similar thermal sensitivity both in dodecyl maltoside detergent solution and in DDHA-PC liposomes. The retinal release process, measured by fluorescence spectroscopy, became faster in the lipid system for the two mutants. The opsin conformation was stabilized for the G90V mutant allowing improved retinal uptake whereas no chromophore binding could be detected for N55K opsin after photoactivation. The results emphasize the distinct role of DHA on different phenotypic rhodopsin mutations associated with classical (G90V) and sector (N55K) retinitis pigmentosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential effects of exercise and dietary docosahexaenoic acid on molecular systems associated with control of allostasis in the hypothalamus and hippocampus.

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    Gomez-Pinilla, F; Ying, Z

    2010-06-16

    Given the robust influence of diet and exercise on brain plasticity and disease, we conducted studies to determine their effects on molecular systems important for control of brain homeostasis. Studies were centered on a battery of proteins implicated in metabolic homeostasis that have the potential to modulate brain plasticity and cognitive function, in rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. Adult male rats were exposed to a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched diet (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 14 days. Here we report that the DHA diet and exercise influence protein levels of molecular systems important for the control of energy metabolism (primarily phospho-AMPK, silent information regulator type 1), food intake (primarily leptin and ghrelin receptors), stress (primarily glucocorticoid receptors), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11betaHSD1). Exercise or DHA dietary supplementation had differential effects on several of these class proteins, and the concurrent application of both altered the pattern of response elicited by the single applications of diet or exercise. For example, exercise elevated levels of glucocorticoids receptors in the hypothalamus and the DHA diet had opposite effects, while the concurrent application of diet and exercise suppressed the single effects of diet or exercise. In most of the cases, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus had a distinctive pattern of response to the diet or exercise. The results harmonize with the concept that exercise and dietary DHA exert specific actions on the hypothalamus and hippocampus, with implications for the regulations of brain plasticity and cognitive function.

  11. N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine, an Endocannabinoid-like Conjugate of Dopamine and the n-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Microglia and Macrophages via COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Plastina, Pierluigi; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Jansen, Renate; Balvers, Michiel; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Witkamp, Renger; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2017-03-15

    Several studies indicate that the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contributes to an attenuated inflammatory status in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. To explain these effects, different mechanisms are being proposed, including those involving endocannabinoids and related signaling molecules. Many of these compounds belong to the fatty acid amides, conjugates of fatty acids with biogenic amines. Conjugates of DHA with ethanolamine or serotonin have previously been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and potentially neuroprotective properties. Here, we synthesized another amine conjugate of DHA, N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA), and tested its immune-modulatory properties in both RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. N-Docosahexaenoyl dopamine significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (CCL20) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), whereas its parent compounds, dopamine and DHA, were ineffective. Further exploration of potential effects of DHDA on key inflammatory mediators revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA level and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were concentration-dependently inhibited in macrophages. In activated BV-2 cells, PGE2 production was also reduced, without changes in COX-2 mRNA levels. In addition, DHDA did not affect NF-kB activity in a reporter cell line. Finally, the immune-modulatory activities of DHDA were compared with those of N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and similar potencies were found in both cell types. Taken together, our data suggest that DHDA, a potentially endogenous endocannabinoid, may be an additional member of the group of immune-modulating n-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators.

  12. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency increases levels of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adduct and sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by docosahexaenoic acid and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jishen; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Xuan, Zhuoli; Dyba, Marcin; Fu, Ying; Sen, Supti; Berry, Deborah; Creswell, Karen; Hu, Jiaxi; Roy, Rabindra; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2016-07-01

    The acrolein derived cyclic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct (Acr-dG), formed primarily from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) under oxidative conditions, while proven to be mutagenic, is potentially involved in DHA-induced apoptosis. The latter may contribute to the chemopreventive effects of DHA. Previous studies have shown that the levels of Acr-dG are correlated with apoptosis induction in HT29 cells treated with DHA. Because Acr-dG is shown to be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, to further investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis, in this study, NER-deficient XPA and its isogenic NER-proficient XAN1 cells were treated with DHA. The Acr-dG levels and apoptosis were sharply increased in XPA cells, but not in XAN1 cells when treated with 125μM of DHA. Because DHA can induce formation of various DNA damage, to specifically investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis induction, we treated XPA knockdown HCT116+ch3 cells with acrolein. The levels of both Acr-dG and apoptosis induction increased significantly in the XPA knockdown cells. These results clearly demonstrate that NER deficiency induces higher levels of Acr-dG in cells treated with DHA or acrolein and sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis in a correlative manner. Collectively, these results support that Acr-dG, a ubiquitously formed mutagenic oxidative DNA adduct, plays a role in DHA-induced apoptosis and suggest that it could serve as a biomarker for the cancer preventive effects of DHA.

  13. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on gestational age and size at birth: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Wang, Meng; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Juárez-Márquez, Sergio; Rivera, Juan; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-06-01

    The need for omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during pregnancy has received much attention, but evidence of effects on birth outcomes is limited. To evaluate whether prenatal DHA supplementation increases gestational age and birth size. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We randomly assigned 1,094 pregnant women (18 to 35 years of age; median DHA dietary intake, 55 mg/day) to 400 mg/day of algal DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks of gestation through delivery. Birth outcomes (968 live births and 5 stillbirths) were ascertained from hospital records within 24 hours of delivery. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences between the control and DHA group (all p > .05) in mean gestational age (39.1 + 1.7 and 39.0 +/- 1.9 weeks, respectively), weight (3.20 + 0.47 and 3.21 +/- 0.45 kg, respectively), length (50.3 +/- 2.7 and 50.3 +/- 2.3 cm, respectively) and head circumference (34.3 +/- 1.8 and 34.3 +/- 1.5 cm, respectively) at birth. Offspring of supplemented primigravidae (n = 370) were heavier (difference, 99.4 g; 95% CI, 5.5 to 193.4) and had larger head circumferences (difference, 0.5 cm; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9) than controls; the differences in multigravidae (n = 603) were -53.3 g (95% CI, -126.8 to 20.2) and -0.2 cm (95% CI, -0.4 to 0.1), respectively (p size in a population where dietary DHA intakes are very low. Benefits of the intervention on infant health and neurodevelopment are under study.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid signaling modulates cell survival in experimental ischemic stroke penumbra and initiates long-term repair in young and aged rats.

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    Tiffany N Eady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid, a major omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, improves behavioral deficit and reduces infarct volume and edema after experimental focal cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that DHA elicits neuroprotection by inducing AKT/p70S6K phosphorylation, which in turn leads to cell survival and protects against ischemic stroke in young and aged rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. DHA, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 or vehicle (saline was administered 3 h after onset of stroke. Neurological function was evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. DHA treatment improved functional recovery and reduced cortical, subcortical and total infarct volumes 7 days after stroke. DHA also reduced microglia infiltration and increased the number of astrocytes and neurons when compared to vehicle on days 1 and 7. Increases in p473 AKT and p308 AKT phosphorylation/activation were observed in animals treated with DHA 4 h after MCAo. Activation of other members of the AKT signaling pathway were also observed in DHA treated animals including increases in pS6 at 4 h and pGSK at 24 h. DHA or NPD1 remarkably reduced total and cortical infarct in aged rats. Moreover, we show that in young and aged rats DHA treatment after MCAo potentiates NPD1 biosynthesis. The phosphorylation of p308 AKT or pGSK was not different between groups in aged rats. However, pS6 expression was increased with DHA or NPD1 treatment when compared to vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that DHA induces cell survival, modulates the neuroinflammatory response and triggers long term restoration of synaptic circuits. Both DHA and NPD1 elicited remarkable protection in aged animals. Accordingly, activation of DHA signaling might provide benefits in the management of ischemic stroke both acutely as well as long term to limit ensuing disabilities.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 induces neuronal survival via secretase- and PPARγ-mediated mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease models.

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    Yuhai Zhao

    Full Text Available Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1 is a stereoselective mediator derived from the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA with potent inflammatory resolving and neuroprotective bioactivity. NPD1 reduces Aβ42 peptide release from aging human brain cells and is severely depleted in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. Here we further characterize the mechanism of NPD1's neurogenic actions using 3xTg-AD mouse models and human neuronal-glial (HNG cells in primary culture, either challenged with Aβ42 oligomeric peptide, or transfected with beta amyloid precursor protein (βAPP(sw (Swedish double mutation APP695(sw, K595N-M596L. We also show that NPD1 downregulates Aβ42-triggered expression of the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and of B-94 (a TNF-α-inducible pro-inflammatory element and apoptosis in HNG cells. Moreover, NPD1 suppresses Aβ42 peptide shedding by down-regulating β-secretase-1 (BACE1 while activating the α-secretase ADAM10 and up-regulating sAPPα, thus shifting the cleavage of βAPP holoenzyme from an amyloidogenic into the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Use of the thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, the irreversible PPARγ antagonist GW9662, and overexpressing PPARγ suggests that the NPD1-mediated down-regulation of BACE1 and Aβ42 peptide release is PPARγ-dependent. In conclusion, NPD1 bioactivity potently down regulates inflammatory signaling, amyloidogenic APP cleavage and apoptosis, underscoring the potential of this lipid mediator to rescue human brain cells in early stages of neurodegenerations.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates a HER2-Associated Lipogenic Phenotype, Induces Apoptosis, and Increases Trastuzumab Action in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Carcinoma Cells

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    Graziela Rosa Ravacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer, lipid metabolic alterations have been recognized as potential oncogenic stimuli that may promote malignancy. To investigate whether the oncogenic nature of lipogenesis closely depends on the overexpression of HER2 protooncogene, the normal breast cell line, HB4a, was transfected with HER2 cDNA to obtain HER2-overexpressing HB4aC5.2 cells. Both cell lines were treated with trastuzumab and docosahexaenoic acid. HER2 overexpression was accompanied by an increase in the expression of lipogenic genes involved in uptake (CD36, transport (FABP4, and storage (DGAT of exogenous fatty acids (FA, as well as increased activation of “de novo” FA synthesis (FASN. We further investigate whether this lipogenesis reprogramming might be regulated by mTOR/PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway markers, p70S6 K1, SREBP1, and LIPIN1, as well as an increase in DEPTOR expression (the main inhibitor of the mTOR was detected in HB4aC5.2. Based on these results, a PPARγ selective antagonist, GW9662, was used to treat both cells lines, and the lipogenic genes remained overexpressed in the HB4aC5.2 but not HB4a cells. DHA treatment inhibited all lipogenic genes (except for FABP4 in both cell lines yet only induced death in the HB4aC5.2 cells, mainly when associated with trastuzumab. Neither trastuzumab nor GW9662 alone was able to induce cell death. In conclusion, oncogenic transformation of breast cells by HER2 overexpression may require a reprogramming of lipogenic genetic that is independent of mTORC1 pathway and PPARγ activity. This reprogramming was inhibited by DHA.

  18. Dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid: actions on bone mineral and serum biomarkers in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Li, Yong; Seifert, Mark F

    2006-04-01

    Hypoestrogenic states escalate bone loss in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effects of the amount and ratio of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone mineral in 3-month-old sexually mature ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats. For 12 weeks, the rats were fed either a high-PUFA (HP) or a low-PUFA (LP) diet with a ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of 5:1 (HP5 and LP5) or 10:1 (HP10 and LP10). All diets (modified AIN-93G) provided 110.4 g/kg of fat from safflower oil and/or high-oleate safflower oil blended with n-3 PUFAs (DHASCO oil) as a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid analyses confirmed that the dietary ratio of 5:1 significantly elevated the amount of DHA in the periosteum, marrow and cortical and trabecular bones of the femur. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements for femur and tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density showed that the DHA-rich diets (HP5 and LP5) resulted in a significantly lower bone loss among the OVX rats at 12 weeks. Rats fed the LP diets displayed the lowest overall serum concentrations of the bone resorption biomarkers pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline, whereas the bone formation marker osteocalcin was lowest in the HP groups. Regardless of the dietary PUFA content, DHA in the 5:1 diets (HP5 and LP5) preserved rat femur BMC in the absence of estrogen. This study indicates that the dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs (LP5 and HP5) and bone tissue concentration of total long-chain n-3 PUFAs (DHA) minimize femur bone loss as evidenced by a higher BMC in OVX rats. These findings show that dietary DHA lowers the ratio of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid)/n-3 in bone compartments and that this ratio in tissue correlates with reduced Pyd but higher bone alkaline phosphatase activity and BMC values that favor bone conservation in OVX rats.

  19. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lact...

  20. Margarines fortified with α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid alter the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes but do not affect the antioxidant status of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Sarah; Lindenmeier, Michael; Harnack, Kerstin; Krome, Katharina; Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Wahrburg, Ursel; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of increased intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, or DHA incorporated into a food matrix on the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and on biomarkers of oxidant/antioxidant status. To this end, a controlled dietary study was conducted in 74 healthy men and women. The participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions in which margarines fortified with either 10 weight percent ALA, EPA, or DHA ethyl esters replaced their normal spread for 6 wk. The total intakes of ALA, EPA, and DHA were 4.4, 2.2, and 2.3 g/d, respectively. Consuming EPA increased the erythrocyte proportion of EPA (394%) and the omega-3 index (sum of EPA and DHA, 38%). Consumption of DHA increased erythrocyte DHA (91%), the omega-3 index (98%), and EPA (137%). The omega-3 index increased to a significantly greater extent in the DHA group than in the EPA group. ALA did not increase erythrocyte EPA or the omega-3 index. We found no change in plasma uric acid or antioxidant capacity in any of the groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the EPA and DHA interventions. All 3 interventions decreased erythrocyte linoleic acid hydroperoxides but did not affect their MDA concentrations. In conclusion, the intake of both isolated EPA and DHA incorporated into margarine resulted in an enhanced incorporation of EPA and DHA into erythrocytes. Our findings indicate that DHA is quantitatively superior to EPA in view of the EPA+DHA tissue incorporation and also that 4 g/d ALA is not sufficient to increase the omega-3 index over a 6-wk period.

  1. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

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    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  2. The binding of Aβ1-42 to lipid rafts of RBC is enhanced by dietary docosahexaenoic acid in rats: Implicates to Alzheimer's disease.

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    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Katakura, Masanori; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Shido, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Once amyloid β peptides (Aβs) of the Alzheimer's disease build up in blood circulation, they are capable of binding to red blood cell (RBC) and inducing hemolysis of RBC. The mechanisms of the interactions between RBC and Aβ are largely unknown; however, it is very important for the therapeutic target of Aβ-induced hemolysis. In the present study, we investigated whether Aβ1-42 interacts with caveolin-1-containing detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of RBC and whether the interaction could be modulated by dietary pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA pre-administration to rats inhibited hemolysis by Aβ1-42. This activity was accompanied by increased DHA levels and membrane fluidity and decreased cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species in the RBCs of the DHA-pretreated rats, suggesting that the antioxidative property of DHA may rescue RBCs from oxidative damage by Aβ1-42. The level of caveolin-1 was augmented in the DRMs of DHA-pretreated rats. Binding between Aβ1-42 and DRMs of RBC significantly increased in DHA-rats. When fluorescently labeled Aβ1-42 (TAMRA-Aβ1-42) was directly infused into the bloodstream, it again occupied the caveolin-1-containing DRMs of the RBCs from the DHA-rats to a greater extent, indicating that circulating Aβs interact with the caveolin-1-rich lipid rafts of DRMs and the interaction is stronger in the DHA-enriched RBCs. The levels of TAMRA-Aβ1-42 also increased in liver DRMs, whereas it decreased in plasma of DHA-pretreated rats. DHA might help clearance of circulating Aβs by increased lipid raft-dependent degradation pathways and implicate to therapies in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] incorporation and blood flow are increased in chronic alcoholics: a positron emission tomography study corrected for cerebral atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Umhau

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol dependence has been associated with disturbed behavior, cerebral atrophy and a low plasma concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3, particularly if liver disease is present. In animal models, excessive alcohol consumption is reported to reduce brain DHA concentration, suggesting disturbed brain DHA metabolism. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism also is abnormal in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: We compared 15 non-smoking chronic alcoholics, studied within 7 days of their last drink, with 22 non-smoking healthy controls. Using published neuroimaging methods with positron emission tomography (PET, we measured regional coefficients (K* and rates (J(in of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain of each group using [1-(11C]DHA, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF using [(15O]water. Data were partial volume error corrected for brain atrophy. Plasma unesterified DHA concentration also was quantified. RESULTS: Mean K* for DHA was significantly and widely elevated by 10-20%, and rCBF was elevated by 7%-34%, in alcoholics compared with controls. Unesterified plasma DHA did not differ significantly between groups nor did whole brain J(in, the product of K* and unesterified plasma DHA concentration. DISCUSSION: Significantly higher values of K* for DHA in alcoholics indicate increased brain avidity for DHA, thus a brain DHA metabolic deficit vis-à-vis plasma DHA availability. Higher rCBF in alcoholics suggests increased energy consumption. These changes may reflect a hypermetabolic state related to early alcohol withdrawal, or a general brain metabolic change in chronic alcoholics.

  4. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Requena, Daniela F.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Casper, T. Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  5. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups

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    Valenzuela, A.; Nieto, S.; Sanhueza, J.; Morgado, N.; Rojas, I.; Zanartu, P.

    2010-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (Dha) is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHA containing lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC), obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine) supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily.), before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT) activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mothers plasma and increases the pups DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period. (Author) 66 refs.

  6. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

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    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes dopaminergic differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells and inhibits teratoma formation in rats with Parkinson-like pathology.

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    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Shih-Jen; Kao, Chung-Lan; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Ding, Dah-Ching; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yi-Jen; Ku, Hung-Hai; Lin, Chin-Po; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Liang-Kung; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have shown potential for differentiation and may become a resource of functional neurons for the treatment of PD. However, teratoma formation is a major concern for transplantation-based therapies. This study examined whether functional neurons could be efficiently generated from iPS cells using a five-step induction procedure combined with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) treatment. We demonstrated that DHA, a ligand for the RXR/Nurr1 heterodimer, significantly activated expression of the Nurr1 gene and the Nurr1-related pathway in iPS cells. DHA treatment facilitated iPS differentiation into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in vitro and in vivo and functionally increased dopamine release in transplanted grafts in PD-like animals. Furthermore, DHA dramatically upregulated the endogenous expression levels of neuroprotective genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) and protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced apoptosis in iPS-derived neuronal precursor cells. DHA-treated iPS cells significantly improved the behavior of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated PD-like rats compared to control or eicosapentaenoic acid-treated group. Importantly, the in vivo experiment suggests that DHA induces the differentiation of functional dopaminergic precursors and improves the abnormal behavior of 6-OHDA-treated PD-like rats by 4 months after transplantation. Furthermore, we found that DHA treatment in iPS cell-grafted rats significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of embryonic stem cell-specific genes (Oct-4 and c-Myc) in the graft and effectively blocked teratoma formation. Importantly, 3 Tesla-magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo green fluorescence protein imaging revealed that no teratomas were present

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7-9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study.

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    Alexandra J Richardson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and the current low intakes in most modern developed countries are believed to contribute to a wide variety of physical and mental health problems. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that dietary supplementation with long-chain omega-3 may improve child behavior and learning, although most previous trials have involved children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or developmental coordination disorder (DCD. Here we investigated whether such benefits might extend to the general child population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on the reading, working memory, and behavior of healthy schoolchildren. DESIGN: Parallel group, fixed-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT. SETTING: Mainstream primary schools in Oxfordshire, UK (n = 74. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy children aged 7-9 years initially underperforming in reading (≤ 33(rd centile. 1376 invited, 362 met study criteria. INTERVENTION: 600 mg/day DHA (from algal oil, or taste/color matched corn/soybean oil placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-standardized measures of reading, working memory, and parent- and teacher-rated behavior. RESULTS: ITT analyses showed no effect of DHA on reading in the full sample, but significant effects in the pre-planned subgroup of 224 children whose initial reading performance was ≤ 20(th centile (the target population in our original study design. Parent-rated behavior problems (ADHD-type symptoms were significantly reduced by active treatment, but little or no effects were seen for either teacher-rated behaviour or working memory. CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation appears to offer a safe and effective way to improve reading and behavior in healthy but underperforming children from mainstream schools. Replication studies are clearly warranted, as such

  9. Protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid on cardiovascular disease%DHA/EPA在心血管疾病防治中的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志明; 余超; 陆姝欢; 肖敏; 周强; 李翔宇

    2014-01-01

    鱼油和藻油中富含ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸(Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid,ω-3 PUFA),食用鱼油或藻油能有效地防治心血管疾病,保护心血管健康.鱼油或藻油中ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸重要成分是二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)和二十碳五烯酸(EPA),但鱼油成本高、容易受到污染且产量难以满足全球需求,而微藻发酵生产的DHA藻油因其成本低、安全性高、产量高的优势受到越来越多的关注.DHA及EPA可从不同角度保护心血管健康,但两者作用机制并不相同,DHA在保护心血管以及预防心血管疾病方面比EPA更加重要.许多国家卫生机构都针对DHA和EPA提出不同的建议摄入量来治疗心血管疾病或保持心血管健康.综述了大量文献资料,详细论述了DHA和EPA对保持心血管健康的不同功效,比较了两者的作用机制的差异,同时介绍了不同国家所提出的DHA和EPA的建议摄入量.

  10. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound alone

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    Jo Davisson V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a collection of diseases in which molecular phenotypes can act as both indicators and mediators of therapeutic strategy. Therefore, candidate therapeutics must be assessed in the context of multiple cell lines with known molecular phenotypes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and curcumin (CCM are dietary compounds known to antagonize breast cancer cell proliferation. We report that these compounds in combination exert a variable antiproliferative effect across multiple breast cell lines, which is synergistic in SK-BR-3 cells and triggers cell signaling events not predicted by the activity of either compound alone. Methods Dose response curves for CCM and DHA were generated for five breast cell lines. Effects of the DHA+ CCM combination on cell proliferation were evaluated using varying concentrations, at a fixed ratio, of CCM and DHA based on their individual ED50. Detection of synergy was performed using nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model and Combination Index approaches. Cell molecular network responses were investigated through whole genome microarray analysis of transcript level changes. Gene expression results were validated by RT-PCR, and western blot analysis was performed for potential signaling mediators. Cellular curcumin uptake, with and without DHA, was analyzed via flow cytometry and HPLC. Results CCM+DHA had an antiproliferative effect in SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MCF7 and MCF10AT cells. The effect was synergistic for SK-BR-3 (ER- PR- Her2+ relative to the two compounds individually. A whole genome microarray approach was used to investigate changes in gene expression for the synergistic effects of CCM+DHA in SK-BR-3 cells lines. CCM+DHA triggered transcript-level responses, in disease-relevant functional categories, that were largely non-overlapping with changes caused by CCM or DHA individually. Genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis, and

  11. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHAcontaining lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC, obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily., before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mother’s plasma and increases the pups’ DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period.El ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA que requiere el feto y el recién nacido lo aporta la madre desde sus reservas y la dieta, por lo cual se sugiere suplementar a la madre con DHA. No hay consenso sobre la mejor forma de suplementación. Proponemos que un lisofosfolípido que contiene DHA y colina (DHA-LPC obtenido de huevos con alto contenido de DHA es

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil Supplementation Improves Body Composition without Influence of the PPARγ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Anahita; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Shidfar, Farzad; Alvandi, Ehsan; Toupchian, Omid; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to investigate (1) the impact of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil supplementation on body composition, plasma adiponectin level, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene expression, and (2) whether the effect of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the aforementioned variables is modulated by PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism. We genotyped PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ala carriers and non-Ala carriers were randomly assigned to DHA-rich fish oil or placebo intake for 8 weeks. Glycemic control was not affected by the intervention. The supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil decreased waist circumference (p Pro12Ala polymorphism did not influence the changes in the desired variables. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 花生四烯酸、二十二碳六烯酸和二十碳五烯酸在炎症中的作用概述%Roles of arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳泽深; 姜悦; 陈峰

    2016-01-01

    心脑血管疾病、肿瘤、糖尿病、神经系统疾病、自身免疫等疾病严重危害着人类的生命和健康,并消耗着大量医疗资源。事实上,很多疾病发生和发展的背后都伴随着炎症反应,炎症是众多疾病的病理基础,甚至是导致这些疾病的诱因。炎症本身是机体的防御性反应,但过度的炎症反应和长期慢性炎症会损害机体的稳态。炎症的调节和控制由炎症介质介导,花生四烯酸(arachidonic acid, AA)、二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid, DHA)和二十碳五烯酸(eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA)等长链多不饱和脂肪酸(long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFAs)的衍生物是一类重要的调控炎症的介质。炎性细胞间的交流和细胞内信号传递与LC-PUFAs有关。AA经环氧酶和脂氧合酶合成的类二十烷酸主要起促炎作用,但有的也有抗炎作用。DHA和EPA在体内起抗炎作用,由它们合成的消退素(resolvins, Rvs)和保护素(protectin, PD)是重要的抗炎活性物质。DHA和EPA还可以干扰炎性细胞内信号传导途径来抑制炎症反应。本文从炎症与疾病的关系、LC-PUFAs的衍生物及其促炎和抗炎机制等方面综述了AA、DHA和EPA在炎症中的作用。%ABSTRACT:Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, neurological diseases and autoimmune disease are major threat to human health and long life, and a large amount of medical resources are consumed on the treatment of these diseases. In fact, the progression of these diseases is pointed out to be accompanied by inflammatory response, and inflammation is regarded as pathological basis of many diseases. Normally inflammation itself is a defensive reaction of body, but excessive inflammatory response and chronic inflammation can damage organ homeostasis. On the other side, regulation and control of inflammation can be mediated by inflammatory mediators. It is indicated that derivatives of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

  14. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

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    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Cell Death in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Repressing mTOR via AMPK Activation and PI3K/Akt Inhibition

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    Nayeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer properties and mechanism of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs have been demonstrated in several cancers; however, the mechanism in lung cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a ω3-PUFA, induced apoptosis and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. DHA-induced cell death was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and inactivated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling. Knocking down AMPK and overexpressing Akt increased mTOR activity and attenuated DHA-induced cell death, suggesting that DHA induces cell death via AMPK- and Akt-regulated mTOR inactivation. This was confirmed in Fat-1 transgenic mice, which produce ω3-PUFAs. Lewis lung cancer (LLC tumor cells implanted into Fat-1 mice showed slower growth, lower phospho-Akt levels, and higher levels of apoptosis and autophagy than cells implanted into wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-induced apoptosis and autophagy in NSCLC cells are associated with AMPK activation and PI3K/Akt inhibition, which in turn lead to suppression of mTOR; thus ω3-PUFAs may be utilized as potential therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell migration via the GPR120/PP2A/ERK1/2/eNOS signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Che-Yi; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Ye, Siou-Yu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lu, Chia-Yang; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2014-05-07

    Cell migration plays an important role in angiogenesis and wound repair. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen that is essential for endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, shows both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which DHA down-regulates VEGF-induced cell migration. HUVECs were used as the study model, and the MTT assay, Western blot, wound-healing assay, and phosphatase activity assay were used to explore the effects of DHA on cell migration. GPR120 is the putative receptor for DHA action. The results showed that DHA, PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), and GW9508 (a GPR120 agonist) inhibited VEGF-induced cell migration. In contrast, pretreatment with okadaic acid (OA, a PP2A inhibitor) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (an NO donor) reversed the inhibition of cell migration by DHA. VEGF-induced cell migration was accompanied by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS. Treatment of HUVECs with DHA increased PP2A enzyme activity and decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and eNOS. However, pretreatment with OA significantly decreased DHA-induced PP2A enzyme activity and reversed the DHA inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest that stimulation of PP2A activity and inhibition of the VEGF-induced ERK1/2/eNOS signaling pathway may be involved in the DHA suppression of VEGF-induced cell migration. Thus, the effect of DHA on angiogenesis and wound repair is at least partly by virtue of its attenuation of cell migration.

  17. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  18. Effects of Iron Supplementation With and Without Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Based on Paraoxonase-1, hs-CRP, and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratio in Women with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Amani, Samira; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shekarriz, Ramin; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tissue deposition of iron following prolonged high dose of oral supplementation for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) leads to body iron overload and oxidative stress, which starts the process of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cardiovascular disease risk based on paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women with IDA. In this randomized controlled trial, 76 women with IDA, aged 15-45 years, were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of DHA supplement or placebo with an iron tablet, once daily for 12 weeks. The participants were assessed by measurement of the serum iron, ferritin, PON-1, hs-CRP levels, and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio at the beginning and end of study. Serum hs-CRP decreased in the DHA-supplemented group (p = 0.036), and ApoA-I decreased in the placebo group (p = 0.013). No significant difference was detected for the serum PON-1 concentration and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in two groups. Iron supplementation combined with DHA may have favorable effects on serum hs-CRP in women with IDA.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 in HR-1 hairless mouse skin by blocking MSK1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a representative ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of DHA on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Our study revealed that topical application of DHA prior to UVB irradiation attenuated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and NAD(PH:oxidase-4 (NOX-4 in hairless mouse skin. DHA pretreatment also attenuated UVB-induced DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α/β, phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. In addition, UVB-induced phosphorylation of p65 at the serine 276 residue was significantly inhibited by topical application of DHA. Irradiation with UVB induced phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (MSK1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, and all these events were attenuated by pretreatment with DHA. Blocking ERK and p38 MAP kinase signaling by U0126 and SB203580, respectively, diminished MSK1 phosphorylation in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. Pretreatment with H-89, a pharmacological inhibitor of MSK1, abrogated UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 in mouse skin. In conclusion, topically applied DHA inhibits the UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 by blocking the phosphorylation of MSK1, a kinase downstream of ERK and p38 MAP kinase, in hairless mouse skin.

  20. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

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    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  1. 二十二碳六烯酸的保健功能%Review of the Healthy Function of Docosahexaenoic Acid(DHA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车璐

    2015-01-01

    DHA, which is a kind of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can protect people's cardiovascular function, and have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, regulating immunity function and other effects. But excessive consumption will have negative impacts, such as disrupting the membrane permeability, and affecting the enzyme activity, etc. This paper introduces in detail the healthy function of DHA, and gives out its suitable dosage, the ratio ofω-6/ω-3 is 4∶1~3∶1, that is recommended by WTO.%二十二碳六烯酸是一种ω-3型多不饱和脂肪酸,可以保护人的心血管功能,并具有抗癌、抗炎、调整免疫等功效。但过量食用会有负面影响,比如扰乱膜渗透性、影响酶活等。详细介绍了二十二碳六烯酸的保健功能,并给出其适用量,即WHO推荐的ω-6/ω-3值为4∶1~3∶1。

  2. Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid - Reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; van der Meulen, Jan; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We need information on the diet on which our genes evolved. Objective: We studied the milk fatty acid [FA] composition of mothers living in the island of Chole [Tanzania, Indian Ocean]. These mothers have high intakes of boiled marine fish and coconut, and consume plenty amount of fruits

  3. Characterization of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells: the importance of enhanced BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Wolf, Roman F; Zhou, Jundong; Avery, Jori E; Wu, Jinchang; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-05-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 h of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish-oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA's induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells.

  4. A possible role for ghrelin, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and docosahexaenoic acid in reducing the quality of life of coeliac disease patients following a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Clemente, Caterina; Ferreri, Carla; Orlando, Antonella; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) has been reported to negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of coeliac disease (CD) patients. The gut-brain axis hormones ghrelin and leptin, with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), may affect QoL of CD patients undergoing GFD. Our aims were to evaluate whether: (a) the circulating concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and BDNF in CD patients were different from those in healthy subjects; (b) GFD might induce changes in their levels; (c) BDNF Val66Met polymorphism variability might affect BDNF levels; and (d) serum BDNF levels were related to dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a neurotrophin modulator. Nineteen adult coeliac patients and 21 healthy controls were included. A QoL questionnaire was administered, and serum concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, BDNF and red blood cell membrane DHA levels were determined at the enrolment and after 1 year of GFD. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was analysed. Results from the questionnaire indicated a decline in QoL after GFD. Ghrelin and leptin levels were not significantly different between groups. BDNF levels were significantly (p = 0.0213) lower in patients after GFD (22.0 ± 2.4 ng/ml) compared to controls (31.2 ± 2.2 ng/ml) and patients at diagnosis (25.0 ± 2.5 ng/ml). BDNF levels correlated with DHA levels (p = 0.008, r = 0.341) and the questionnaire total score (p = 0.041, r = 0.334). Ghrelin and leptin seem to not be associated with changes in QoL of patients undergoing dietetic treatment. In contrast, a link between BDNF reduction and the vulnerability of CD patients to psychological distress could be proposed, with DHA representing a possible intermediate.

  5. CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S Polymorphisms and Oral Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients: The NAT2 Study.

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    Bénédicte M J Merle

    Full Text Available Genetic susceptibility could be modified by environmental factors and may also influence differential responses to treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We investigated whether genotype could influence response to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-supplementation in the occurrence of choroidal new vessels (CNV.The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 (NAT2 study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, comparative study, including 250 patients aged 55 to 85 years with early lesions of age-related maculopathy, visual acuity better than 0.4 Logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution units in the study eye and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. Patients were randomized at baseline to receive either 3 daily fish-oil capsules, each containing 280 mg DHA, 90 mg EPA and 2 mg Vitamin E, or placebo.Patients carrying the risk allele (C for CFH Y402H had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (Hazard Ratio (HR=0.97; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.54-1.76 for heterozygous and HR=1.29; 95%CI: 0.69-2.40 for homozygous. Patients carrying the risk allele (T for ARMS2 A69S had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (HR=1.68; 95%CI: 0.91-3.12 for heterozygous and HR=1.78; 95%CI: 0.90-3.52 for homozygous. A significant interaction was observed between CFH Y402H and DHA-supplementation (p=0.01. We showed a protective effect of DHA-supplementation among homozygous non-risk patients. Among these patients, occurrence of CNV was 38.2% in placebo group versus 16.7% in DHA group (p=0.008.These results suggest that a genetic predisposition to AMD conferred by the CFH Y402H variant limits the benefit provided by DHA supplementation.ISRCTN registry 98246501.

  6. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  7. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk Suplementação com ácido graxo ômega-3 docosahexaenoico: influência sobre a composição lipídica e perfil de ácidos graxos no leite humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at pOBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da suplementação na dieta de gestantes e de lactantes com ácidos graxos ômega-3 docosahexaenoico, sob a forma de óleo de peixe, e sua influência na composição do leite humano. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 60 gestantes, com idade entre 18 e 38 anos, saudáveis, com padrão alimentar adequado e não fumantes. A intervenção consistiu na suplementação da dieta com cápsulas de óleo de peixe, totalizando um consumo diário de 315mg de ácido docosahexaenoico e 80mg de ácido eicosapentaenoico, no período entre o terceiro trimestre de gravidez e o terceiro mês após o parto. O teor de lipídeos totais e do perfil de ácidos graxos foi determinado pelos métodos de crematócrito e de cromatografia gasosa. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizada estatística descritiva e nível de significância de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Entre o grupo sujeito à dieta suplementada (cápsulas de óleo de peixe e o grupo controle (cápsulas contendo amido de milho como excipiente, não se constatou diferença estatística quanto aos valores totais de lipídeos. Entretanto, no leite

  8. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  9. 二十二碳六烯酸对阿尔茨海默病患者认知功能的影响%Influence of docosahexaenoic acid on the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海侠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) slows cognitive and functional decline in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Forty patients with mild to moderate AD were selected and randomly divided into DHA group ( n = 24) and control group (n = 16). The DHA group received algal DHA at a dose of 2 g/d. The control group received the identical placebo of corn oil or soybean oil. Duration of treatment was 18 months. Main observation indicators included changes of the sum of boxes of Alzheimer's disease assessment scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and clinical dementia rating (CDR),while the secondary observation indicators included the changes of mini mental status examination (MMSE) ,ADCS- activities of daily living (ADCS - ADL) and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results There was no significant difference of average growth in ADAS - COG and CDR between the two groups. There was no significant difference of average decreasing condition in MMSE,ADCS-ADL and NPI between the two groups. The rate of brain atrophy was not affected by treatment with DHA. Conclusion Compared with the placebo,supplementation with DHA do not slow the rate of cognitive and functional decline in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.%目的 探讨补充二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)是否能减缓阿尔茨海默(AD)患者认知功能的下降.方法 筛选40例轻中度AD患者,随机分为DHA剂量组(24例)与对照组(16例),DHA组服用藻类DHA 2 g/d,对照组服用含玉米油或大豆油的胶囊剂,治疗18个月.主要观察指标为:AD认知分量表评定量表(ADAS-COG)和临床痴呆评分(CDR)总和方块评分的变化;次要观察指标为:简易精神状态检查(MMSE)分值变化、日常活动评分修正量表(ADCS- ADL)、神经精神症状问卷(NPI).结果 2组ADAS - COG、CDR平均增长值与对照组相比较,差异无统计学意义;2组治疗后MMSE、ADCS-ADL及NPI平均评

  10. C20∶4和C22∶6对早产儿视功能和认知功能的影响%Effects of Docosahexaenoic and Arachidonic Acid on Visual and Cognitive Function of Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宏裕; 苏宜香

    2001-01-01

    【目的】 探讨补充模拟母乳二十二碳六烯酸(C22∶6 ,DHA)和二十碳四烯酸(C20∶4,AA)水平的脂肪酸对早产儿视功能和认知功能的影响 。【方法】 选取体质量<2 100 g ,胎龄<37周的早产儿32名,分为3组:A组,母乳组11例;B组,传统配方组10例;C组,补 充组11例。B组配方不含DHA和AA,C组配方添加了DHA和AA。补充组配方补充至婴儿体质量达 (2.50±0.10) kg。当胎龄满42周±1周时以鲍秀兰等新生儿行为神经测定方法测认知功能 ;出生后3个月时测双眼视网膜电图。【结果】 补充组早产儿在视功能、认知功能等方面都 与母乳组相近,而传统配方组则低于母乳组和补充组(P<0.05)。【结论】 给予早产儿 补充模拟母乳水平的DHA和AA,可促进其正常的脑发育和视网膜发育,使认知功能和视功能 与母乳喂养的早产儿相近。%【Objective】 To study the effects of docosahexaenoic ac id (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) intake on the visual and cognitive function o f preterm infants. 【Methods】 32 preterm infants (gestational age<37 weeks) wer e divided into three groups which were fed with different formula respectively: group A, breast milk(n=11); group B, a conventional formula lacking DHA and AA (n=10); group C, DHA and AA enriched formula (n=11). Group C was stop ped to fed enriched formula when infant's weight reached (2.50±0.10) kg. Cognitiv e function was evaluated by NBNA test when the corrected age of each preterm inf ant was 42 week±7 day, ERG of both eyes was tested at three-months old. The ex periment lasted for three months. 【Results】 Cognitive and visual function of g roup C were similar to group A, however, some indexes of group B were significan tly lower than group A and C (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Adding DHA and AA to f ormulas similar to breast milk in amounts, can improve cognitive and visual func tion of preterm infants, and help these infants

  11. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

  12. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  13. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  14. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  15. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  16. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  17. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  18. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  19. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  20. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  1. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of aspartic acid include: ...

  2. Update on cardiometabolic health effects of w-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Goede, de J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fish fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may promote cardiometabolic health. This review summarizes the results of recent meta-analyses of prospective studies on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type 2 and markers of atherosclerosis and thro

  3. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  4. Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm newborns fed formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Luijendijk, Ingrid; De Curtis, Mario; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) that play pivotal roles in growth and neurodevelopment. Objective: We aimed to quantify the synthesis of LCPs in preterm infants fed infant formula containing LCPs. Design: Twenty-two p

  5. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  6. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage. 10 Do I need folic acid after menopause? Yes. Women who have gone through menopause still need 400 micrograms of folic acid every ... United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, ...

  7. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  8. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  9. Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

    2013-10-16

    Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH.

  10. A meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M; Ding, Eric L; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    Certain algae contain the (n-3) fatty acid DHA, yet the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been systematically examined. Our objective was to examine the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between 1996 and 2011 examining the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors and performed a meta-analysis of the association between algal oil DHA supplementation and changes in the concentrations of TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). We identified 11 randomized controlled trials with 485 healthy participants that evaluated the relation between algal oil DHA supplementation and TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The median dose of algal DHA was 1.68 g/d. The pooled estimate for the change in TG concentration was -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.14), 0.23 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) for LDL-C, and 0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05-0.10) for HDL-C. DHA supplementation from algal oil, a marine source of (n-3) fatty acids not extracted from fish, may reduce serum TG and increase HDL-C and LDL-C in persons without coronary heart disease.

  11. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  12. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  13. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and nervonic acid on the damage of learning and memory abilities in rats induced by 1-bromopropane%二十二碳六烯酸和神经酸对1-溴丙烷染毒大鼠学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华; 王清华; 王韵阳; 谢长明; 谢克勤; 赵秀兰

    2013-01-01

    0.05),the DHA+1-BP group had significantly increased GR activity (P<0.05),and the NA+1-BP group had significantly increased γ-GCL activity (P<0.05).Conclusion The rats exposed to 1-BP have oxidative stress in the brain and impaired cognitive function.DHA and NA can reduce 1-BP-induced cognitive function impairment in rats,possibly by increasing the activities of GR and γ-GCL and the content of GSH in the brain.%目的 观察二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid,DHA)和神经酸(nervonic acid)对1-溴丙烷(1-bromopropane,1-BP)致大鼠学习认知功能损伤的保护作用及机制.方法 SPF级雄性Wistar大鼠40只,随机分为溶剂对照组、1-BP染毒组(800 mg/kg)、神经酸(150 mg/kg)+ 1-BP组(800 mg/kg)、DHA(500mg/kg)+1-BP组(800 mg/kg),每组10只.分别经灌胃给予相应受试物7d,第8天开始采用Morris水迷宫试验检测大鼠的学习和记忆能力,连续5d.水迷宫结束次日断头处死大鼠,迅速剥离大鼠大脑皮层,在冰浴中制备组织匀浆,分别测定还原型谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)和丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量、谷胱甘肽还原酶(glutathione reductase,GR)及γ-谷氨酰半胱氨酸连接酶(γ-glutamate cysteineligase,γ-GCL)活力.结果 Morris水迷宫定位航行试验中,1-BP染毒组大鼠的逃避潜伏期和游泳总路程明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与1-BP染毒组比较,DHA+1-BP组大鼠的逃避潜伏期和游泳总路程明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).空间探索试验中,与1-BP组比较,DHA+1-BP组和神经酸+1-BP组的穿越平台次数明显增加,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与对照组比较,1-BP染毒组平台周边时间/总时间比值明显减少,与1-BP组比较,DHA+1-BP组动物的平台周边时间/总时间比值明显增加,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与对照组比较,1-BP染毒组动物大脑GSH含量降低了18.1%,DHA+1-BP组GSH含量明显高于1-BP组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).

  14. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking a specific nutritional supplement, containing vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), a compound isolated from grains (azelaic acid), zinc, ... lung cancer in most people. A type of skin cancer called melanoma. Limited research suggests that taking ...

  15. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-complex vitamin needed by the body to manufacture red blood cells. A deficiency of this vitamin ... prepared from dried yeast, fruit, and fresh leafy green vegetables to increase the folic acid in your ...

  16. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  17. Changes in plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in response to intravenous supply of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taan, Omer; Stephenson, James A.; Spencer, Laura; Pollard, Cristina; West, Annette L; Philip C. Calder; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs co...

  18. Is the fatty acid composition of Daphnia galeata determined by the fatty acid composition of the ingested diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, P.M.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia galeata and their algal food was analysed and showed many similarities, however, some significant differences were also found in the relative abundance of the FA C16:4 omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Their relative abundances were much lower in d

  19. Is the fatty acid composition of Daphnia galeata determined by the fatty acid composition of the ingested diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, P.M.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia galeata and their algal food was analysed and showed many similarities, however, some significant differences were also found in the relative abundance of the FA C16:4 omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Their relative abundances were much lower in

  20. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid....... These studies demonstrate how subtle differences in chemical structures can result in profound differences in pharmacological activity....

  1. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

  2. No effects of n)3 fatty acid supplementation on serum total testosterone levels in older men: the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Heijboer, A.C.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to testosterone levels in epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to assess whether the n-3 fatty acids affects testosterone levels in post-myocardial infarction (MI)

  3. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Wexler, P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  6. Effects of Fish Oil Diet and Age on the Fatty Acid Composition and the Endogenous Lipase Activity in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Jin, Z; Wada, O

    2000-01-01

    The influences of a fish oil diet and aging on the fatty acid composition in mouse brain, and the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from brain membranes by endogenous lipase were studied. The changes in brain fatty acid composition with aging were determined in 5-weeks, 5-months and 19-months old mice fed on a commercial chow. Mice of different ages were also fed a fish oil or lard diet for 30 days, and the influence of the diets on brain fatty acid composition and endogenous lipase activity was analyzed. In aged mice fed on a commercial chow brain arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (%) decreased significantly, whereas blood arachidonic acid (%) increased and docosahexaenoic acid (%) did not change. The percentages of brain docosahexaenoic acid were significantly higher but those of arachidonic acid were lower in the fish oil diet group than in the lard diet group. However, there were no significant differences in the endogenous lipase activity between the different age or dietary groups. The release of arachidonic acid showed a tendency to decrease and docosahexaenoic acid to increase in mice fed on the fish oil diet. These results suggest that dietary lipids affect the percentages of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids which are released by the endogenous lipase in brain although the decreases in brain polyunsaturated fatty acid content with aging are not due to the enzyme activation, and dietary lipids do not influence the enzyme activity.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  8. Effect of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil on fatty acid profile and metabolic parameters in lean and obese Zucker rats

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, John M; Banz, William J.; Krul, Elaine S; Butteiger, Dustie N; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of marine-based oils high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to protect against obesity-related pathologies. It is less clear whether traditional vegetable oils with high omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n6PUFA) content exhibit similar therapeutic benefits. As such, this study examined the metabolic effects of a plant-based n3PUFA, stearidonic acid (SDA), in polygenic obese rodents. Me...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  10. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  11. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on reproductive output and larval growth of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, I.E.; Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-spawning condition of adult bivalves is influenced by quantity and quality of available food. For bivalves, the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5(n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6(n-3) are presumed to determine the nutritional value of alga

  12. Gender-specific Associations of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption with 10-year Incidence of Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on

  13. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  14. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Verónica M; Actis, Adriana B

    2012-02-01

    The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and cohort studies and relevant in vitro and animal experiments were included in this 2000-2010 revision. Epidemiological studies on CLA intake or its tissue concentration related to breast and prostate tumorigenesis are not conclusive; EPA and DHA intake have shown important inverse associations just in some studies. Additional research on the analysed association is required.

  16. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  17. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  18. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  19. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  20. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  1. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  2. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  4. Growth and development of term infants fed with milk with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M. Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    @@ Presently, there is growing interest in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are considered a major determinant of growth, visual and neural development, and long-term health.1 Two groups of LCPUFAs have received special interest: homologues of linoleic acid (LA) of the n-6 series, which are precursors of arachidonic acid (AA), and homologues of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the n-3 series, which are precursors of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis%二十二碳六烯酸抑制氧化应激状态下人视网膜色素上皮细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘越峰; 罗卫民; 张勇; 钟晓东

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To observe the effect of docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA) on H2 O2-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelium cells and its molecular mechanism .METHODS: Human retinal pigment epithelium cell line ARPE-19 was cultured in vitro, and 12.5 mmol/L H2 O2 was used to mimic the oxidative stress condition .The cells were treated with 30~100μmol/L DHA for 4~24 h.The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at mRNA and protein levels was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot , respectively .The enzymic activity of HO-1 was measured by colorimetry . Production of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) was determined by fluorescent probe .Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was examined by immunofluorescence method .Apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry .RE-SULTS:The mRNA and protein expression and the enzymic activity of HO-1 were significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells after DHA treatment .Meanwhile , nuclear translocation of Nrf 2 was also observed .Apoptosis appeared and ROS was produced upon H2O2 incubation.In contrast, DHA at 100 μmol/L significantly abrogated H2O2-induced apoptosis and ROS production.Furthermore, silencing of HO-1 by specific siRNA, or treatment with ZnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1, partly counteracted the protective effect against H 2 O2-induced apoptosis and ROS production .CONCLUSION: DHA protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress via induction of heme oxygenase -1 expression after Nrf2 activation .%目的:观察二十二碳六烯酸( docosahexaenoic acid ,DHA)对外源性H2 O2诱导人视网膜色素上皮细胞凋亡的影响及分子机制。方法:体外培养人视网膜色素上皮细胞系ARPE-19,加入终浓度为12.5 mol/L的H2 O2诱导氧化应激,随后用30~100μmol/L DHA作用细胞4~24 h;real-time PCR和Western blot分别检测血红素氧合酶-1(heme oxygenase-1,HO-1) mRNA和蛋白的表达;比色法分析HO-1酶活性;荧光

  6. The anti-depression effects of docosahexaenoic acid and its effects on the expression of caspase-3 in hippocampal neuron%二十二碳六烯酸抗抑郁作用及其对海马神经元caspase-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂平; 郑巧; 林创杰; 邓若梅子; 冯蔚姣; 胡航通; 刘伟; 向秋玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on depression,and its influence on the expression of caspase-3 in hippocampal neuron.Methods A total of 50 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (control,model,fluoxetine,DHA,combination group),10 rats in each group.SD rats were given different stimuli for 21 days to set up unforeseeable chronic stress depression model.After 21 days,the changes of behaviors in forced swimming test and morphology change in CA1,CA2 and CA3 in hippocampal neurons were observed.The change of caspase-3 in hippocampal neuron were detected by real-time PCR and western blot.Results Behavioral results showed that the swimming immobility time in depression model group,DHA group and combination group were respectively(113.33±9.50) s,(81.67±7.68) s and(73.00±8.54) s.Compared with depression model group,the DHA group and DHA combined with fluoxetine group obviously reduced the swimming immobility time of rats(t=8.164,9.855,P<0.01).HE stain result showed DHA could partly recovered the number of hippocampal neurons in CA1,CA2 and CA3 and reduced apoptosis.qPCR and WB results showed DHA alone or DHA combined with fluoxetine could inhibit mRNA and protein level of caspase-3 in hippocampal neurons.Conclusion DHA can improve depression to a certain extent in a rat model of unforeseeable chronic stress depression,which might work through inhibition of neuron apoptosis and caspase-3 expression in hippocampal neurons.%目的 观察二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid,DHA)对抑郁症的治疗作用及其对海马神经元caspase-3表达的影响.方法 50只SD大鼠随机分为5组(空白对照组,抑郁模型组,氟西汀组,DHA组,氟西汀与DHA联合用药组),每组10只,连续21 d每天给予不同刺激,建立慢性应激不可预见抑郁大鼠模型.21 d后强迫游泳实验进行行为学检测,HE染色检测海马CA1、CA2、CA3区锥体细胞的形态学变化.荧光实时定量PCR和Western Blot

  7. Evidence of inadequate docosahexaenoic acid status in Brazilian pregnant and lactating women Evidencia de estado inadecuado del ácido docosahexaenóico en gestantes y nutrices brasileras Evidência de estado inadequado do ácido docosahexaenóico em gestantes e nutrizes brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G Torres

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently published data concerning dietary intake of fat and food sources of (n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA in Brazil are reviewed together with data on biochemical indices of PUFA status during pregnancy and lactation and PUFA composition of breast milk in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Potential inadequacies of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA status among Brazilian pregnant and lactating women have not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The data reviewed show that dietary intake of food sources of n-3 LCPUFA is low and possibly deficient in Brazil, and that biochemical indices of maternal DHA status and breast milk DHA content are low compared to the international literature. These data indicate inadequate DHA status among Brazilian women during pregnancy and lactation, but this evidence needs confirmation through comprehensive and specific population-based studies.Son revisadas informaciones publicadas recientemente sobre la ingestión de tipos de grasas alimenticias y fuentes de alimentos de ácidos grasos poli-insaturados de cadena larga (AGPI-CL n-3 en Brasil, junto con índices bioquímicos del estado nutricional para AGPI en gestantes y nutrices y la composición en AGPI en la leche de mujeres brasileras adultas y adolescentes. Posibles inadecuaciones del estado nutricional del ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA en las gestantes y nutrices brasileras aún no fueron investigadas con amplitud y profundidad suficientes en Brasil. Los datos considerados muestran que la ingestión dietética de fuentes de alimentos de AGPI-CL n-3 en Brasil y baja e insuficiente. Así mismo, los índices bioquímicos del estado nutricional materno para el DHA y la proporción de DHA en la leche de mujeres brasileras adultas y adolescentes son bajos, cuando se comparan con datos internacionales. Estos datos indican posible estado inadecuado para el DHA en gestantes y nutrices brasileras, pero estas evidencias merecen confirmación por medio de estudios

  8. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-10-15

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transport and cellular signaling. To test this hypothesis, PHTs were cultured in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 50 μM), OA (100 μM), or PA (100 μM). DHA and OA were also combined to test whether DHA could counteract the OA stimulatory effect on amino acid transport. The effects of fatty acids were compared against a vehicle control. Amino acid transport was measured by isotope-labeled tracers. Activation of inflammatory-related signaling pathways and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. Exposure of PHTs to DHA for 24 h reduced amino acid transport and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT3, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein (rp)S6. In contrast, OA increased amino acid transport and phosphorylation of ERK, mTOR, S6 kinase 1, and rpS6. The combination of DHA with OA increased amino acid transport and rpS6 phosphorylation. PA did not affect amino acid transport but reduced IκBα expression. In conclusion, these fatty acids differentially regulated placental amino acid transport and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary fatty acids could alter the intrauterine environment by modifying placental function, thereby having long-lasting effects on the developing fetus.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  10. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    to the coastal sedimentary humic acids implying higher association of amino acids with the carbonaceous and fine grained sedimentary humic acids. Both the humic and fulvic acids are composed of neutral, acidic, basic, aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids....

  11. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  12. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  13. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  14. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  15. The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA......) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA....

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  17. A study of the fatty acid profile in the muscle of Monopterus chuchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional capacity of the fish Monopterus chuchia in terms of its fatty acid content was investigated to get an insight of their fatty acid composition in their most consumed part i.e. their muscle tissue. Our investigation shows the presence of SFA’s like caproic acid, caprylic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, behenic acid, MUFA’s like myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and nutritionally important PUFA’s like Eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid in major amount. Erucic acid, which is reported to be an anti-nutritional factor, is present in extremely low concentration. Thus the fish which is generally consumed by very few can be farmed as a cheap nutritional source for the masses.

  18. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  19. Intake of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to coronary calcification: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; Vliegenthart, P.R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification

  20. N-3 fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia-related events, and fatal myocardial infarction in postmyocardial infarction patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Boer, de M.J.; Deckers, J.W.; Boersma, E.; Zock, P.L.; Giltay, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce-beta oxidation in white fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flachs, P.; Horakova, O.; Brauner, P.; Rossmeisl, M.; Pecina, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Ruzickova, J.; Sponarova, J.; Drahota, Z.; Vlcek, C.; Keijer, J.; Houstek, J.; Kopecky, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adipose tissue mass, preferentially in the abdomen. The more pronounced effect of marine-derived eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on adiposity, compared with their precursor -linolenic acid, may be mediated by ch

  2. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  3. Long-term effect of dietary α-linolenic acid or decosahexaenoic acid on incorporation of decosahexaenoic acid in membranes and its influence on rat heart in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether long-term intake of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), supplied as whole grain-extruded linseed, can increase endogenous production of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) in healthy adult rats and influence the heart rate (HR) and adrenergic response in the same way as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diets. DHA enrichment was evaluated using FA analysis of tissue phospholipids after 8, 16, 24, and 32 wk of feeding in male Wistar...

  4. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  5. Developmentally dependent and different roles of fatty acids OMEGA-6 and OMEGA-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourek, J; Mourek, J

    2011-01-01

    The developmentally-dependent differences in the biological significances and effects of PUFA-OMEGA-6 (namely of arachidonic acid) and PUFA-OMEGA-3 (namely of docosahexaenoic acid) are discussed. The clinical results as well as developmental experiences are indicating a hypothesis of the evolution...

  6. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  7. A process for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by marine microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaf, de M.E.; Sijtsma, L.; Pronk, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new process of producing polyunsaturated fatty acids by culturing marine microorganisms on a monoalcohol. The new process is particularly suitable for producing docosahexaenoic acid by dinoflagellates (Crypthecodinium cohnii). The process can be performed as a batc

  8. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We exami

  9. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA......Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar...... whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological...

  10. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vanja I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

  11. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...

  12. Differentiating prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) from dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.

    1993-01-01

    by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation......Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic...... or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects...

  14. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  15. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  16. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  17. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  18. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  19. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  20. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  1. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  2. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  3. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  4. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis.

  6. Fatty acids and sleep in UK children: subjective and pilot objective sleep results from the DOLAB study--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Burton, Jennifer R; Sewell, Richard P; Spreckelsen, Thees F; Richardson, Alexandra J

    2014-08-01

    Sleep problems in children are associated with poor health, behavioural and cognitive problems, as are deficiencies of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid. Theory and some evidence support a role for these fatty acids in sleep regulation, but this issue has received little formal investigation. We examined associations between blood fatty acid concentrations (from fingerstick blood samples) and subjective sleep (using an age-standardized parent questionnaire) in a large epidemiological sample of healthy children aged 7-9 years (n = 395) from mainstream UK schools. In a randomized controlled trial, we then explored whether 16-week supplementation (600 mg day(-1) ) with algal docosahexaenoic acid versus placebo might improve sleep in a subset of those children (n = 362) who were underperforming in reading. In a randomly selected subsample (n = 43), sleep was also assessed objectively via actigraphy. In 40% of the epidemiological sample, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire scores indicated clinical-level sleep problems. Furthermore, poorer total sleep disturbance scores were associated weakly but significantly with lower blood docosahexaenoic acid (std coeff. -0.105*) and a lower docosahexaenoic acid : arachidonic acid ratio (std coeff. -0.119**). The treatment trial showed no significant effects on subjective sleep measures. However, in the small actigraphy subsample, docosahexaenoic acid supplementation led on average to seven fewer wake episodes and 58 min more sleep per night. Cautiously, we conclude that higher blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid may relate to better child sleep, as rated by parents. Exploratory pilot objective evidence from actigraphy suggests that docosahexaenoic acid supplementation may improve children's sleep, but further investigations are needed.

  7. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Damitha De Mel; Cenk Suphioglu

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA...

  8. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent openers of human M-channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Karlsson, Urban; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth

    2016-01-01

    , by shifting the conductance-versus-voltage curve towards more negative voltages (by -7.4 to -11.3 mV by 70 μM). Uncharged docosahexaenoic acid methyl ester and monounsaturated oleic acid did not facilitate opening of the human KV 7.2/3 channel. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that circulating...... acids reduce neuronal excitability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  12. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  13. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  14. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  15. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  16. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español ( ... a woman needs 400 micrograms (mcg) every day. Facts About Folic Acid Download and print this fact ...

  17. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  18. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  19. DHA对新生大鼠缺氧缺血性脑损伤后远期学习记忆障碍的影响%Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on long-term learning and memory disorders after hypoxic ischemic brain damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾成; 舒斯云; 黄玉莎; 程燕; 陈君; 王斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on long-term learning and memory disorders and potential mechanism in rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage. Methods Sixty neonatal 7-day-old SD rats were ramdonly divided into three groups: group S (sham operation+vehicle treatment), group C (hypoxic-ischemic brain damage [HIBD]+vehicle treatment) and group D (HIBD+DHA treatment). After left common carotid artery was isolated and ligated for 2.5 h, rats of group C and group D were put into a condition which oxygen concentration was about 8%for 2 h;rats in the group S were only isolated the left carotid artery, without ligation or hypoxia treatment;rats in the group D were intraperitoneally injected DHA of 15 mg/kg after modeling, and rats in the group S and group C were intraperitoneally injected equivalent volume of vehcle, once a day for 10 consecutive days. The pathomorphology changes of the hypocampal CA1 area, and marginal division of striatum were observed by Nissl staining 48 h after modling; the apoptosis cells were measured by TUNEL;immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 positive cells in the two brain areas. Morris water maza test was used to evaluate the long-term lerning and momory functions of 2-month-old rats, and the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) positive cells were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results The pathomorphology damage was significantly improved, the expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 positive cells and the neuron apoptosis in hypocampal CA1 areas and marginal division of striatum in group D were all signficantly decreased as compared with those in the group C (P<0.05). Rats in group D had significantly decreased escape latency as compared with those in group C in Morris water maze test (P<0.05), and the expression of NMDAR1 positive cells in the two brain areas of group D was significantly increased as compared with that in the group C (P<0

  20. DHA 联合5-FU 对人胃癌细胞增殖的抑制及线粒体呼吸链膜蛋白复合体的表达变化%The effect of combination of docosahexaenoic acid and 5-fluorouracil on the proliferation of human gastric cancer cell line AGS and the expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙逢; 赵志浩; 刘竹君; 高琨; 李幼芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)in combination on human gastric cancer cell line AGS in vitro .Methods Human gastric cancer line AGS was treated with different concentrations of DHA and 5-FU alone or in combination.The inhibition of cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay.Dose of median (IC50 )of drugs (alone or in combination)and the combination index (CI)were calculated using the median-effect equation and the combination index equation of Chou-Talalay.Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle distribution.The expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex in AGS cells was analyzed with Western blot.Results DHA and 5-FU alone or in combination could markedly suppress the proliferation of AGS in significantly time-dependent and dose-dependent manners (P <0.05).IC50 values with DHA or 5-FU administered for 24 h and 48 h were 5 1.60 μg/mL (DHA:24 h),34.82 μg/mL (DHA:48 h),45.90 μg/mL (5-FU:24 h),and 1 6.86 μg/mL (5-FU:48 h), respectively.DHA remarkably strengthened the inhibitory effect of 5-FU and decreased IC50 of 5-FU by 3.56 -2.1 5 folds.The combination of DHA and 5-FU showed synergism.Flow cytometry showed that AGS cells treated with DHA and 5-FU were arrested in G0/G1 phase and the proportion of AGS cells in G0/G1 phase increased compared with that in the control group,DHA group and 5-FU group,while the proportion of the cells in S phase decreased significantly (P < 0.05 ).Western blot showed after treatment with DHA and 5-FU for 48 h,the expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex was significantly decreased compared with control group,DHA group and 5-FU group (P <0.05).Conclusion DHA could act synergistically with 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of gastric carcinoma cells,and meanwhile decrease the dose of 5-FU.The mechanism may be associated with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and interference in the energy metabolism of AGS cells

  1. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  2. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  3. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  4. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  5. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  6. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  7. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  8. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaeno

  9. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  10. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important

  11. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important c

  12. Erythrocyte phospholipid and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Koehrer

    Full Text Available Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans.We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy. The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes was determined by gas chromatography and the phospholipid structure was determined by liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionisation source and coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS. A significant decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in erythrocytes of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy was observed. The origin of this decrease was a loss of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipids esterified with these LCPUFAs. In diabetic patients without retinopathy, this change was balanced by an increase in the levels of several phosphatidyl-choline species. No influence of diabetes nor of diabetic retinopathy was observed on the concentrations of plasmalogen-type phospholipids.Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were associated with a reduction of erythrocyte LCPUFAs in phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. The increase of the amounts of phosphatidyl-choline species in erythrocytes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy might be a compensatory mechanism for the loss of LC-PUFA-rich phosphatidyl-ethanolamines.

  13. Induction of lipid oxidation gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act as potent natural hypolipidemics and are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Mice fed long-term a high fat diet, in which medium-chain alpha linoleic acid (ALA) was partially replaced by long-chain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and ei

  14. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  15. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Dijkstra, J.; Issa-Zacharia, A.; Nespen, van T.; Straalen, van W.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experime

  16. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Barnathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fatty acids with a D5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32 and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19. Finally, the D5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs. This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between D5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

  17. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  18. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  19. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  20. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty acids: importance of fatty acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Robinson, B S; Jaeger, T; Poulos, A

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, significantly enhanced neutrophil antiparasitic activity. This effect was >1.5-fold higher than that induced by an optical concentration of the known agonist cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At suboptimal concentrations, the combination of arachidonic acid and TNF-alpha caused a synergistic increase in neutrophil-mediated parasite killing. The fatty acid-induced effect was independent of the availability of serum opsonins but dependent on the structure of the fatty acids. The length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and availability of a free carboxyl group were important determinants of fatty acid activity. The fatty acids which increased neutrophil-mediated killing primed the enhanced superoxide radical generation of neutrophils in response to P. falciparum as detected by chemiluminescence. Scavengers of oxygen radicals significantly reduced the fatty acid-enhanced parasite killing, but cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. These findings have identified a new class of immunoenhancers that could be exploited to increase resistance against Plasmodium species.

  1. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect...... on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P

  2. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-05-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake of fish, seafood and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation and visual and cognitive development. The review focuses on new findings by both observational and interventional studies on the influence of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation on gestation length and birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, maternal depression and infant visual function and neural development. Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Observational and interventional studies indicate a significant association with prolonging gestation and reducing the risk of preterm delivery both in low-risk and in high-risk pregnancies. Further benefits have been suggested for intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and postpartum depression, but the evidence is inconclusive. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake both in pregnancy and lactation is associated with positive infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Women of reproductive age should achieve an average dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake of at least 200 mg/day.

  3. Assessment of essential fatty acid and ω3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20:3ω9 (Mead acid), 22:5ω6/20:4ω6 and 22:5ω6/22:6ω3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M.R.; Smit, E.N.; Martini, I.A.; Woltil, H.A.; Boersma, E.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and palmitic acid reciprocally modulate monocyte activation in part through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in pregnancy and has been associated with adverse health conditions for mothers and infants. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy may support maintenance of pregnancy by its effects on innate immunity and T cell function. Objective: We assessed the e...

  5. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food.

  6. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  7. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  8. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  9. Fatty acid transformation in zooplankton: from seston to benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Hansen, Benni Winding; Calliari, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    All organic matter, fatty acids (FA) in particular, is transformed in the pelagic plankton food web before reaching fishes or benthic organisms. Mesozooplankton (0.2 to 2 mm) is the main conduit for FA transfer, and FA profiles in sedimenting matter should therefore be significantly affected by its...... and MUFAs were enriched by 5 to 10% in sediment traps, while the proportion of the most important PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid, was reduced by up to 15% in summer and autumn. In conclusion, the periods of significant input of PUFAs to the sediment coincide with the period of highest transformation...

  10. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  11. Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment. PMID:21938272

  12. Fatty acid-induced changes in vascular reactivity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Raymond; Marette, André; Badeau, Mylène; Bourgoin, Frédéric; Mélançon, Sébastien; Bachelard, Hélène

    2005-12-01

    Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are known to modulate endothelial dysfunction, which is the first stage of atherosclerosis. However, their exact role in this initial phase is still unclear. The effects of isolated or combined (by 2) purified FAs from the main FA families were studied on the vascular response of isolated thoracic aorta in healthy rats to get a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of dietary FAs in regulating vascular endothelial function. Cumulative contraction curves to phenylephrine and relaxation curves to carbachol and then to sodium nitroprusside were obtained in the absence or presence of the FAs studied allowing endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent ability of the smooth muscle to relax to be assessed in each experimental group. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to carbachol was lowered by eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas it was not altered either by docosahexaenoic acid alone or by combined eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, and it was increased by linoleic acid (LA). A decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction was observed after incubation with arachidonic acid and with stearic acid. On the other hand, the endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by the addition of combined LA-arachidonic acid and LA-oleic acid. In conclusion, these data point out the differential effects of different types of FAs and of FAs alone vs combined on vascular reactivity. The complex nature of these effects could be partially linked to metabolic specificities of endothelial cells and to interactions between some FAs.

  13. Nitrogen Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoreltsev, Alla; Tulchinsky, Yuri; Fridman, Natalia; Gandelman, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Being a major conception of chemistry, Lewis acids have found countless applications throughout chemical enterprise. Although many chemical elements can serve as the central atom of Lewis acids, nitrogen is usually associated with Lewis bases. Here, we report on the first example of robust and modifiable Lewis acids centered on the nitrogen atom, which provide stable and well-characterized adducts with various Lewis bases. On the basis of the reactivity of nitrogen Lewis acids, we prepared, for the first time, cyclic triazanes, a class of cyclic organic compounds sequentially bearing three all-saturated nitrogen atoms (N-N-N motif). Reactivity abilities of these N-Lewis acids were explained by theoretical calculations. Properties and future applications of nitrogen Lewis acids are intriguing.

  14. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  15. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life.

  16. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  17. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  18. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  19. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  1. Induction of docosahexaenoic acid to expression of heme oxygenase-1 in retinal pigment epithelial cells%二十二碳六烯酸对人视网膜色素上皮细胞中血红素氧合酶-1表达的诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘越峰; 罗卫民; 张勇; 钟晓东

    2016-01-01

    .08,P<0.05;F=16.42,P<0.05),其中30、50和100μmol/L DHA组细胞中ROS相对荧光强度、细胞核Nrf2阳性细胞比例均明显高于0μmol/L DHA组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).100 μ.mol/L DHA处理条件下,NAC预处理后细胞中HO-1蛋白的相对表达量和细胞核Nrf2阳性细胞比例均明显低于单纯100μmol/L DHA组,Nrf2 siRNA转染组细胞中HO-1的相对表达量和细胞核Nrf2阳性细胞比例均明显低于空白siRNA转染组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05). 结论 低于100 μmol/L的DHA可能通过ROS/Nrf2途径诱导RPE细胞表达HO-1,从而发挥对细胞的保护作用.%Background Oxydative stress is an important pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.Resent evidences indicate that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an important role during the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and protect the cells against oxydative stress by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).However,whether DHA can induce the expression of HO-1 in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is unelucidated.Objective This study was to investigate the effect of DHA on the expression of HO-1 in RPE cells and its molecular mechanism.Methods Human RPE cell line ARPE-19 was cultured in vitro and treated with 30,50,100 and 120 μmol/L DHA for 4 to 24 hours,respectively,and the cells were cultured without DHA as the control group.The cytotoxicity of DHA was detected by lactate dehydrogenase(LDH),and the expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot assay,respectively.The enzymatic activity of HO-1 was detected by colorimetry.The reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportion in the cells was detected using fluorescence probe H2 DCFDA,and immunofluorescence technology was adopted to detect the nuclear translocation of nuclear facotor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2).The expression of Nrt2 protein in the cells was detected by Western blot after intervention of ROS inhibitor N

  2. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  4. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  8. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  9. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  10. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like

  11. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  12. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  15. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  17. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  18. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  19. Phenolic acids enzymatic lipophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria-Cruz; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Lipophilization is the esterification of a lipophilic moiety (fatty acid or fatty alcohol) on different substrates (phenolic acid, sugar, protein, ...), resulting in new molecules with modified hydrophilic/lipophilic balance. This reaction can be obtained chemically or enzymatically using different enzymes. Phenolic acids possess interesting biological properties (antioxidant, chelator, free radical scavenger, UV filter, antimicrobial, ...), but because of their relatively low solubility in aprotic media, their application in oil-based products is limited. Therefore, the esterification of their carboxylic acid function with a fatty alcohol enhances their hydrophobicity and results in a multifunctional amphiphilic molecule. Enzymatic lipophilization of phenolic acids is nowadays studied for potential industrial applications. Different systems have been proposed to perform the reaction yield [free or immobilized enzymes (lipase, feruloyl esterase, tannase, etc.), free or added organic solvent, addition of surfactant, microemulsion system, etc.]. Some of the functional properties of these esters have been demonstrated. This review presents a panorama of the advances in this field.

  20. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  1. Identification of novel genetic determinants of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition among Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Jørsboe, Emil; Sandholt, Camilla Helene;

    2016-01-01

    -28) and docosahexaenoic acid (rs6035106 in DTD1, 0.137% (0.025), p = 6.4x10-8), respectively. For a missense variant (rs80356779) in CPT1A, we identified a number of novel FA associations, the strongest with 11-eicosenoic acid (0.473% (0.035), p = 2.6x10-38), and for variants in FADS2 (rs174570), LPCAT3 (rs2110073...

  2. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  3. The Multifaceted Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Hallmarks of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to have multiple beneficial antitumour actions that affect the essential alterations that dictate malignant growth. In this review we explore the putative mechanisms of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cancer protection in relation to self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, and how these will hopefully translate from bench to bedside.

  4. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers in kernels of ... Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value ... of protein, especially when combined with foods with high lysine content.

  5. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... of the three LAB strains to utilize amino acids for growth and lactic acid production were employed to ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used for the ..... and characterization of potential probiotic lactobacilli from pig feces.

  6. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  7. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  8. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  10. Baseline plasma fatty acids profile and incident cardiovascular events in the SU.FOL.OM3 trial: the evidence revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold K Fezeu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma fatty acids profile and the risk of future major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischemic stroke. METHODS: Baseline plasma fatty acids as well as established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2,263 patients enrolled in the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids randomized controlled trial. Incident major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events were ascertained during the 4.7 years of follow up. Hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 154, 379 and 84 patients had major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events respectively. Upon adjustment for gender, initial event, baseline age and BMI, the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event decreased significantly in successive quartiles of arachidonic acid (P trend<0.002, total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend<0.03, docosapentaenoic acid (P trend<0.019, docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.004, eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.03 and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.02. This inverse association was borderline significant with increased quartiles of stearidonic acid (P trend<0.06. In the full model, only stearidonic acid remained inversely associated with the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event (P trend<0.035, a cardiac event (P trend<0.016 or a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.014, while arachidonic acid was inversely associated with the risk a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.033. CONCLUSION: The inverse association of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with recurrence of Cardiovascular diseases was mainly driven by well-known cardiovascular risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN

  11. The impact of different dietary sources of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of rat brain, liver and red blood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    There is a general consensus that the physiological activity of fish oil can be ascribable to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). However, the form in which they are introduced in diet might affect the rate of incorporation in tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of different marine origin and the incorporation of EPA and DHA in rat brain, liver and red blood cells (RBC). ...

  12. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile.

  13. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  14. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? The March of Dimes recommends that all babies ... in behavior Diarrhea, nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and throwing up Drowsiness Fever Fussiness Little appetite ...

  15. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures....... The aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  16. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  17. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  18. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  19. Folic acid - test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how ...

  20. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.