WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid derived indices

  1. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Chícharo; Maria Alexandra Chícharo

    2008-01-01

    Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1) at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2) at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3) at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nu...

  2. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Chícharo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1 at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2 at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3 at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems.

  3. Complexes of salicylic acid and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization and systematization have been made of literature data on complexing of various elements, including beryllium, cadmium, boron, indium, rare-earth elements, actinides, and transition elements with salicylic acid and it derivatives (amino-, nitro- and halosalicylic acids). The effect of the position and nature of the substitute, in the case of salicylic acid derivatives, on the complexing process is discussed. Certain physicochemical properties of the complexes under consideration are described along with data indicative of their stability

  4. Unit: Indicating Acidity, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The introductory core activities in this trial unit, prepared for students in grades seven through nine of Australian schools, use indicators derived from flower pigments to provide a more convenient measure of acidity than taste. Students are offered choices among seven options after completion of the core: "How Acidic is That?"; "What Colour is…

  5. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  6. The Adsorption Effect of Quaternized Chitosan Derivatives on Bile Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Xian MENG; Ya Qing FENG; Wen Jin LI; Cai Xia YIN; Jin Ping DENG

    2006-01-01

    Three quaternized chitosan derivatives were synthesized and their adsorption performance of bile acid from aqueous solution was studied. The adsorption capacities and rates of bile acid onto quaternized chitosan derivatives were evaluated. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model, which indicated that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step. The results showed that the quaternized chitosan derivatives are favorable adsorbents for bile acid.

  7. Sedimentary environment indicators: Benzothiazole and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Benzothiazoles distributional characteristics of crude oils and non-hydrocarbon fractions of source rocks in Mangya depression of the Qaidam Basin, Lunnan oil field in the Tarim Basin, Kelamayi oil field in the Junggar Basin and the Tulufan Basin oil field were analyzed. It was found that the distributions of benzothiazole are remarkable diversity in different sedimentary environmental oils. The swamp crude oils contain high quantity of benzothiazole and relatively high quantity of alkylthio-benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone. But the quantity of the 2,2′-dithiobis- ben-zothiazole is relatively low. The abundance of benzothiazole and 2,2′-dithiobis-benzothiazole are relatively high in semi-brackish water lacustrine crude oils, but the quantity of alkylthio-benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone are rela-tively low. The benzothiazoles belong to weak acid and mild base compound, and their stabilization conditions relate to their environmental medium. The nitrogenous bases are in favor of alkalescence environment, while weak acid nitroge-nous compounds are the main stable products under the weak acid environment. Benzothiazoles have great signifi-cance in identifying the oil- and gas-formed environment and the geochemistry study of non-hydrocarbon fraction in the future.

  8. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  9. NF EN 14104. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the acid index; NF EN 14104. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de l'indice d'acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard describes a titration method for the determination of the acid index of slightly colored fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). This method allows the determination of the acid index over a concentration range comprised between 0.10 mg of KOH/g and 1 mg of KOH/g. (J.S.)

  10. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  11. Stereoselective Synthesis of 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid Derivatives via Ylide Cyclopropanation of Dehydroamino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui; Deng Xianming; Zheng Juncheng; Shen Qi; Sun Xiuli; Tang Yong

    2011-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid derivatives are synthesized from readily available dehydroamino acid de-rivatives via sulfur ylide. A range of different ylides are employed and the corresponding aminocyclopropanes are afforded with reasonable diastereoselection in good yields.

  12. Cholic acid derivatives: novel antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P B; Li, C

    2000-02-01

    Mimics of squalamine and polymyxin B (PMB) have been prepared from cholic acid in hope of finding new antimicrobial agents. The squalamine mimics include the polyamine and sulphate functionalities found in the parent antibiotic, however, the positions relative to the steroid nucleus have been exchanged. The PMB mimics include the conservation of functionality among the polymyxin family of antibiotics, the primary amine groups and a hydrophobic chain. Although the squalamine and PMB mimics are morphologically dissimilar, they display similar activities. Both are simple to prepare and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Specific examples may be inactive alone, yet effectively permeabilise the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria rendering them sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics. Problems associated with some of the squalamine and PMB mimics stem from their haemolytic activity and interactions with serum proteins, however, examples exist without these side effects which can sensitise Gram-negative bacteria to hydrophobic antibiotics. PMID:11060676

  13. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  14. Synthesis of isothiocyanate-derived mercapturic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Zwanenburg, B.; Chittenden, G.J.F.; Verhagen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve mercapturic acids derived from saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic isothiocyanates were synthesised, by adding isothiocyanate to a solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium bicarbonate, in a typical yield of 77%. Isothiocyanates were synthesised first by adding the corresponding

  15. MODERN INDICATORS DERIVED FROM VALUE CREATION AND DISCOUNTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we will present the connection between discounted cash flow methods and the indicators derived from value creation, based on the business finance theory, which says that firm value will increase if projects with positive net present value are accepted, while it will be destroyed if projects with negative net present value are accepted.

  16. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  17. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  18. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  19. Quantification of acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; Salvachúa, Davinia; Cywar, Robin M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkaline pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here too excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.

  20. Branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylases derived from Psychrobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiashi; Timler, Jacobe G; Knutson, Carolann M; Barney, Brett M

    2013-09-01

    The conversion of branched-chain amino acids to branched-chain acids or alcohols is an important aspect of flavor in the food industry and is dependent on the Ehrlich pathway found in certain lactic acid bacteria. A key enzyme in the pathway, the 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC), is also of interest in biotechnology applications to produce small branched-chain alcohols that might serve as improved biofuels or other commodity feedstocks. This enzyme has been extensively studied in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis, but is also found in other bacteria and higher organisms. In this report, distinct homologs of the L. lactis KDC originally annotated as pyruvate decarboxylases from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 were cloned and characterized, confirming a related activity toward specific branched-chain 2-keto acids derived from branched-chain amino acids. Further, KDC activity was confirmed in intact cells and cell-free extracts of P. cryohalolentis K5 grown on both rich and defined media, indicating that the Ehrlich pathway may also be utilized in some psychrotrophs and psychrophiles. A comparison of the similarities and differences in the P. cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 KDC activities to other bacterial KDCs is presented. PMID:23826991

  1. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid. PMID:12537459

  2. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  3. Synthesis and antitumor activity of derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of natural product 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were prepared. In the preparation of mono-O-benzoyl ester derivative, it was observed that benzoyl group migrated from 3-O- to 23-O-position during the detritylation.

  4. INSURANCE CONTRACTS BASED ON INDICES, A STEP TOWARDS WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boton#537; Horia-Mircea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the methodology of structuring an index based insurance contract. The weather has always been the biggest risk factor in agriculture, affecting all aspects of the economic sectors. In the developed countries of the world, there is a significant number of rain-dependent farmers. To gain insight into potential growth of weather markets in developed countries, we are going to analyze the case of India. In 2003, Basix microfinance company in Hyderabad and ICICI Lombard insurance company in Mumbai have launched a pilot weather insurance, which had as basic index phenomena for Mahahbubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. Further detail can be found in the full-paper. In the paper we will enumerate the appropriate steps in the determining the necessity for the use of index based insurances. The appropriate stages are making a comparison between index based insurances and traditional insurances, and optimizing the use of weather indices in insurance contracts. In order for the contracts to be successful , the recommended steps are : developing a product based in an index, and after the we need to plan and implement the contract. In planning the implementation it is needed that we: identify the risks and areas where they manifest, then identify the best distribution channels; after this we can develop a prototype of the contract. The next step would the testing of the negotiability of the contract, then the contract is opened to be finalized. After this the index based insurance contract can be introduced to the market, but the program needs monitoring in order to insure its successfulness. In order for the market and contract to grow the necessary step are: having access to the necessary meteorological data, determine the optimal way of integrating the contract in the existing economical context, technical feasibility, property rights and the legal framework. In the end, the aim is to familiarize the literacy field and

  5. Microwave vegetation indices derived from satellite microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. In this study, the theoretical basis for a new type of passive microwav...

  6. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for 1H, and 31P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min

  7. Conformational Interconversions of Amino Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Exhaustive conformational interconversions including transition structure analyses of N-acetyl-l-glycine-N-methylamide as well as its alanine, serine, and cysteine analogues have been investigated at the MP2/6-31G** level, yielding a total of 142 transition states. Improved estimates of relative energies were obtained by separately extrapolating the Hartree-Fock and MP2 energies to the basis set limit and adding the difference between CCSD(T) and MP2 results with the cc-pVDZ basis set to the extrapolated MP2 results. The performance of eight empirical force fields (AMBER94, AMBER14SB, MM2, MM3, MMFFs, CHARMM22_CMAP, OPLS_2005, and AMOEBAPRO13) in reproducing ab initio energies of transition states was tested. Our results indicate that commonly used class I force fields employing a fixed partial charge model for the electrostatic interaction provide mean errors in the ∼10 kJ/mol range for energies of conformational transition states for amino acid conformers. Modern reparametrized versions, such as CHARMM22_CMAP, and polarizable force fields, such as AMOEBAPRO13, have slightly lower mean errors, but maximal errors are still in the 35 kJ/mol range. There are differences between the force fields in their ability for reproducing conformational transitions classified according to backbone/side-chain or regions in the Ramachandran angles, but the data set is likely too small to draw any general conclusions. Errors in conformational interconversion barriers by ∼10 kJ/mol suggest that the commonly used force field may bias certain types of transitions by several orders of magnitude in rate and thus lead to incorrect dynamics in simulations. It is therefore suggested that information for conformational transition states should be included in parametrizations of new force fields. PMID:26691979

  8. Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Vegetables by Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aydoğmuş, Zeynep; ÇETİN, Sevil Müge

    2002-01-01

    Determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in garlic, green pepper and chestnut was performed by derivative spectrophotometry without using any pre-separation or background correction techniques. The method is based on the measurement of the distances between two extremum values (peak-to-peak amplitudes) in second and third order derivative spectra of the extracts. Ten percent trichloroacetic acid was found to be the most suitable extraction solution. In the second order derivative spectru...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of some benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Melike; Kiliç, Deryanur; Ünver, Yaǧmur; Şentürk, Murat; Askin, Hakan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetic acid and choline. AChE inhibitors are used in treatment of several neurodegeneartive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, inhibition of AChE with some benzoic acid derivatives were investigated. 3-Chloro-benzoic acid (1), 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid (2), 2-(sulfooxy) benzoic acid (3), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic (6) were calculated IC50 values AChE enzyme. Kinetic investigations showed that similarly to AChE inhibitors. Benzoic acid derivatives (1-6) investigated are encouraging agents which may be used as lead molecules in order to derivative novel AChE inhibitors that might be useful in medical applications.

  10. Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Guzman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  11. Synthesis of azo derivatives of 4-aminosalicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Bao Zhao; Hui Xia Zheng; Yuan Gui Wei; Jiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    For searching a better 4-aminosalicylic acid derivative with higher activity and less side effects against the inflammatory bowel disease, 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) was protected by benzyloxycarbonyl and acetyl, respectively.The resultant was hydrogenized to remove protective group of amino group, then the product was reacted with NaNO2 to give diazonium salt, which was conjugated with salicylic acid, hydroxybenzene, N-salicyloyl glycine acid to get azo derivatives of 4-ASA.The azo derivatives were hydrolyzed under the alkaline condition to get the target products.All compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra in details.New derivatives of 4-ASA were characterized.The synthetic route was reasonable and feasible.

  12. Aerosol Indices Derived from MODIS Data for Indicating Aerosol-Induced Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD is a critical variable in estimating aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, evaluating severity of atmospheric pollution, and studying their impact on climate. With the assistance of the 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated apparent reflectancein relation to AOD in each Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS waveband in this study. The closeness of the relationship was used to identify the most and least sensitive MODIS wavebands. These two bands were then used to construct three aerosol indices (difference, ratio, and normalized difference for estimating AOD quickly and effectively. The three indices were correlated, respectively, with in situ measured AOD at the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET Lake Taihu, Beijing, and Xianghe stations. It is found that apparent reflectance of the blue waveband (band 3 is the most sensitive to AOD while the mid-infrared wavelength (band 7 is the least sensitive. The difference aerosol index is the most accurate in indicating aerosol-induced atmospheric pollution with a correlation coefficient of 0.585, 0.860, 0.685, and 0.333 at the Lake Taihu station, 0.721, 0.839, 0.795, and 0.629 at the Beijing station, and 0.778, 0.782, 0.837, and 0.643 at the Xianghe station in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. It is concluded that the newly proposed difference aerosol index can be used effectively to study the level of aerosol-induced air pollution from MODIS satellite imagery with relative ease.

  13. Hydrophobicity and Retention Coefficient of Selected Bile Acid Oxo Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posa, Mihalj; Pilipovic, Ana; Lalic, Mladena; Popovic, Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Retention coefficients (k) of cholic acid and its keto derivatives are determined by means of Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography at different temperatures (303K, 309K, and 313K). At each studied temperature, retention factor decreases if the hydroxyl group in the cholic acid molecule

  14. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino ...

  15. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  16. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoosong00@gmail.com; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang, E-mail: usshin12@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Et{sub 3}PO{sub 4} followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc){sub 2} to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for {sup 1}H, and {sup 31}P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO{sub 4} or CaCl{sub 2} were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min.

  17. Syntheses,characteristics,and fluorescence properties of complexes of europium with benzoic acid and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhongcheng; SHU Wangen; RUAN Jianming; HUANG Boyun; LIU Younian

    2004-01-01

    The binary complexes of europium with benzoic acid and its derivatives (phthalic acid, m-phthalic acid,o-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, and sulfosalicylic acid) were synthesized and their compositions were identified by elemental analyses. UV and IR of the complexes have been investigated. The UV spectra indicated that the complexes' ultraviolet absorption were mainly the ligands' absorption. The IR spectra showed that the IR spectra of complexes are different from those of free ligands. The fluorescence properties of them were investigated by using luminescence spectroscopy, the results showed that only three complexes appear as better luminescence, they were Eu-benzoic acid,Eu-m-phthalic acid and Eu-phthalic acid, while the others exhibited the ligands' wideband emission.

  18. Interaction Mechanism of Anthracene with Benzoic Acid and Its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ying-Ying; WANG Xiao-Chang; FAN Xiao-Yuan; ZHAO Bo; JIN Peng-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Interaction mechanism of anthracene, one of the typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with benzoic acid and its hydroxyl-substituted derivatives, o-hydroxylbenzoic acid and p-hydroxylbenzoic acid, were studied using FFIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. The experiments confirmed that there was a specific and oriented interaction between anthracene and the aromatic carboxylic acids, and the bonding mode depended on both the chemical struc- ture of reactants and acidity of solution. The π-H hydrogen bond played a main role in the interaction between an-thracene and the aromatic carboxylic proton of benzoic acid or o-hydroxylbenzoic acid when pH≤pK, and the π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction increasingly became the main binding mode when pH>pK. The de-crease of interaction intensity of benzoic acid was observed by introducing hydroxyl at its ortho position. The spe-cial D-π-A structure of p-hydroxylbenzoic acid made it easy to form the planar multi-molecule congeries that could interact with anthracene, so the interaction between anthracene and p-hydroxylbenzoic acid always followed the π-π EDA model no matter the solution acidity. For p-hydroxylbenzoic acid, the π-π interaction mode remained un-changed when pH increased from 2.0 to 10.0, and the binding intensity was higher than that between benzoic acid and anthracene because of the formation of the multi-molecule congeries.

  19. Direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids : applications in dipeptide synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S.; Yang, Y.; Liu, X.; Ferdousi, F. K.; Batsanov, A.S.; Whiting, A

    2013-01-01

    The direct amidation of amino acid derivatives catalyzed by arylboronic acids has been examined. The reaction was generally slow relative to simple amine-carboxylic acid combinations though proceeded at 65–68 °C generally avoiding racemization. 3,4,5-Trifluorophenylboronic and o-nitrophenylboronic acids were found to be the best catalysts, though for slower dipeptide formations, high catalyst loadings were required and an interesting synergistic catalytic effect between two arylboronic acids ...

  20. Synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of lithocholic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V A E Shaikh; N N Maldar; S V Lonikar

    2003-08-01

    A series of liquid crystalline derivatives of lithocholic acid were prepared using simple chemical reactions involving the terminal functional group—hydroxyl at C-3 and/or carboxyl at C-24. Thus methyl -3-(3-carboxy propionyl) lithocholate (I), 3-(3-carboxy propionyl) lithocholic acid (II), 3-acetyl lithocholic acid (III), 3-propionyl lithocholic acid (IV), 3-benzoyl lithocholic acid (V), 3-(4-nitrobenzoyl) lithocholic acid (VI), 3-cinnamoyl lithocholic acid (VII), methyl-3-(4-nitrobenzoyl) lithocholate (VIII) and 1,4-bis [cholan-24-methoxy carbonyl-3-oxycarbonyl] butane (IX) were prepared in good yields and characterized by IR, NMR and polarizing optical microscopy. Compounds (I) and (IX) exhibited monotropic behaviour while the others were enantiotropic. Some of the compounds also showed a high tendency of super cooling. Compounds (V), (VI) and (IX) formed cholesteric phase while the remaining compounds displayed smectic phase.

  1. Oleanolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Ata, Athar

    2008-12-01

    Oleanolic acid has been isolated from chloroform extract of Olea ferruginea Royle after removal of organic bases and free acids. The literature survey revealed it to be biologically very important. In this review the biological significance of oleanolic acid and its derivatives has been discussed. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on oleanolic acid and its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its cytotoxic, antitumer, antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, alpha-glucosidase, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, spasmolytic activity, anti-angiogenic, antiallergic, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. We present in this review, for the first time, a compilation of the most relevant scientific papers and technical reports of the chemical, pre-clinical and clinical research on the properties of oleanolic acid and its derivatives.

  2. Oleanolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Ata, Athar

    2008-12-01

    Oleanolic acid has been isolated from chloroform extract of Olea ferruginea Royle after removal of organic bases and free acids. The literature survey revealed it to be biologically very important. In this review the biological significance of oleanolic acid and its derivatives has been discussed. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on oleanolic acid and its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its cytotoxic, antitumer, antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, alpha-glucosidase, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, spasmolytic activity, anti-angiogenic, antiallergic, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. We present in this review, for the first time, a compilation of the most relevant scientific papers and technical reports of the chemical, pre-clinical and clinical research on the properties of oleanolic acid and its derivatives. PMID:18618318

  3. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Ursolic Acid and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G.G. do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid, an important bioactive compound, was isolated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Sambucus australis. In order to develop bioactive ursolic acid derivatives, two semi-synthetic compounds were obtained through modification at C-3. The antibacterial activity of the ursolic acid and its derivatives was investigated. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, against twelve bacterial strains. The influence of ursolic acid and its derivatives on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycosides antibiotics neomycin, amikacin, kanamycin and gentamicin was evaluated. The most representative synergistic effect was observed by 3β-formyloxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid at the concentration of 64 μg/mL in combination with kanamycin against Escherichia coli (27, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate from sputum, with reduction of MIC value from 128 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL. Ursolic acid and its derivatives were examined for their radical scavenger activity using the DPPH assay, and showed significant activity.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF NSUBSTITUTED ANTHRANILIC ACID DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Tiwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work eight newly synthesized structurally diverse anthranilic acid derivatives were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in albino rats. All the anthranilic acid derivatives were compared for their percentage inhibition of the oedema using control drug phenylbutazone. The desired anthranilic acid derivatives 5-bromo-2-{[5-{[(2E-3-(2- substitutedphenylprop-2-enoyl]amino}-1,3,4,-oxadiazol-2- yl methyl]amino}benzoic acid (compounds 1-4 were synthesized by condensation of 5-bromo-N - (2'-amino acetyl -1',3',4'-oxadiazol-5'-ylmethyl anthranilic acid and substituted aromatic aldehydes, respectively, and the compounds 5-bromo-N – [2'-amino [1"-acetyl-5''- (substitutedaryl-2'-pyrazolin-3"-yl]-1'3'4'-oxadiazol-5'- ylmethyl anthranilic acid (compounds 5-8 were synthesized by the condensation of compounds (1-4 with the hydrazine hydrate in the presence of few drops of glacial acetic acid. Compound 5 was found to be a potent member of this series which showed 51.05% antiinflammatory activity with ED50 of 51.05 mg/kg while phenylbutazone exhibited 47.23% anti-inflammatory activity at the same dose. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of spectral (FTIR and 1H-NMR data and elemental analysis.

  5. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  6. Thirty years of derivation of geomagnetic indices at the WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto and lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The derivation of AE, Dst and ASY/SYM indices started at the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, in 1978, 1985 and 1990, respectively. Before we started derivation of the AE indices, they were derived at the University of Alaska and then at NOAA. On the Dst index, it was derived and distributed by Prof. Masahisa Sugiura for long time at NASA/GSFC and when he moved to Kyoto University, we succeeded the service. The method of derivation of the AE and the Dst indices had been established when we succeeded derivation and they were rather simple. Most of the problems we had so far relate to obtaining the data used for the derivation. It is essential to get continuous data with high quality, however, it is not so easy for each observatory to keep the quality high under severe conditions in economic, political or technical aspects. International supports such as IAGA resolutions helped very much to improve the situation and continue derivation. Another problem we experienced was the change (or variety) of needs. Progress in space weather research or many new satellite programs requested more quick (or real-time) derivation of the indices, and our efforts were devoted to near real-time data transfer and derivation since middle of 1990's. The efforts still continue under the collaboration with various groups, institutions and observatories. In this talk, we report our current status.

  7. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoyuki Kawada; Toshiaki Otsuka

    2013-01-01

    Background The second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods The SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years). Among 4 waves of SDP...

  8. A New Ph Indicator Based on 2,5-Diaryl-1-salicylideneamino-1, 3, 4-triazole Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUNDOGDU,Ali; BULUT,Volkan,N.; DURAN,Celal; KEMER,Baris; BEKIRCAN,Olcay; SOYLAK,Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    2-Phenyl-5-p-tolyl-1-salicylideneamino-1,3,4-triazole (PTST) was studied among 2,5-diaryl-1-salicylidene amino-1,3,4-triazole derivatives as a novel potential pH indicator. In terms of absorption intensity coming from the acid-base reactions, PTST showed strong yellow-green colour with high extinction coefficient in the pH range 7.0-9.5. In addition, the corresponding colour development at the transition point can be attributed to the resonance structures of PTST, which were caused by the hydrogen ion dissociation from the acidic form of the compound in the presence of alkali. The full geometric optimization and achievement of the electronic structure of the molecule were performed by an AM1 semiempirical method. The triazole compound was compared with phenolphthalein (PT), which is widely used as an acid-base indicator in titrimetry, for accuracy test.

  9. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of Hydrogenated Ferulic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Can Cui; Zhi-Peng Wang; Xiu-jiang Du; Li-Zhong Wang; Shu-Jing Yu; Xing-Hai Liu; Zheng-Ming Li; Wei-Guang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A series of hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 4 were synthesized. The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were analyzed by H1 NMR and HRMS. The biological activity study showed that some of them displayed excellent protection activity and curative activity against TMV at 500 μg/mL.

  10. Conformation of some carboxylic acids and their derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, J.A.; Kroon, Jan; Peerdeman, A.F.; Schoone, J.C.

    1967-01-01

    The conformation in the crystalline state of some aliphatic carboxylic acids and their derivatives has been analysed. This analysis, based upon the results of structure determinations by means of X-ray diffraction, seems to support the concept that the conformation of a molecule is governed chiefly

  11. An Alternative to Synthetic Acid Base Indicator-Tagetes Erecta Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Elumalai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the use of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Tagetes erecta as an acid-base indicator in acid-base titrations. This natural indicator is easy to extract as well as easily available. Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution, availability and cost, the search for natural compounds as an acid-base indicator was started. Herbal indicators are evaluated by using strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base, weak acid-strong base and weak acid weak base. In all these titrations the methanolic extract of the flowers of Tagetes erecta was found to be very useful, economical, simple and accurate for acid base titration.

  12. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  13. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  14. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...

  15. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  16. Derivative vegetation indices as a new approach in remote sensing of vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Svetlana M.KOCHUBEY; Taras A.KAZANTSEV

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the advantages of derivative vegetation indices over simple reflectancebased indices that are traditionally used for remote sensing of vegetation.The idea of using reflectance derivatives instead of simple reflectance spectra was proposed several decades ago.Despite this,it has not been widely used in monitoring systems because the derivatives lack reliable parameters.In addition,most satellite monitoring systems are not equipped with hyperspectral sensors,which are considered necessary for operating with the reflectance derivatives.Here,we present original data indicating that the chlorophyll-related derivative index D725/D702 we derived can be accurately estimated from a reflectance spectrum of 10 nm resolution that would be suitable for most satellite-based sensors.Furthermore,the index is not sensitive to soil reflectance and can therefore be used for testing of open crops.Presence of blanc reflectance is also unnecessary.Preliminary results of index testing are presented.Perspectives on using this and other derivative indices are discussed.

  17. Preparation and adsorption behavior for metal ions and humic acid of chitosan derivatives crosslinked by irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the determination of the adsorption properties of metal ions and humic acid in water on crosslinked chitosan derivatives (carboxymethylchitosan) which were formed using the irradiation technique without any additives. The solubility test of these crosslinked materials were investigated in acidic, alkaline media,distilled water, and certain organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that the crosslinked chitosan derivatives possessed a porous morphological structure. Charged characteristic analyses demonstrated typically pH-dependent properties of the crosslinked materials. The adsorption studies were carried out by the batch method at room temperature. Adsorption of heavy metal ions (such as Cu2+, Cd2+) and humic acid onto crosslinked samples was found to be strongly pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetic studies indicated the rapid removal of metal ions, and humic acid from the aqueous solutions. Moreover, isothermal adsorption data revealed that Cu2+, Cd2+,and humic acid were removed by these crosslinked materials with high efficiency. Adsorption isothermal data were interpreted well by the Langmuir equation. These crosslinked carboxymethylated chitosan derivatives indicate favorable adsorption of metal ions and humic acid.

  18. Anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.S.S.; Lima, S.G. de; Lopes, J.A.D.; Chaves, M.H.; Cito, A.M.G.L. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gracito@ufpi.br; Oliveira, E.H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia; Reis, F.A.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Propolis is a sticky, gummy, resinous substance collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from various plant sources, which has excellent medicinal properties. This paper describes the isolation and identification of triterpenoids and anacardic acid derivatives from Brazilian propolis and their antibacterial activity. Their structures were elucidated by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, including uni- and bidimensional techniques; in addition, comparisons were made with data from academic literature. These compounds were identified as: cardanols (1a + 1b), cardols (2a + 2b), mono ene anacardic acid (3), alpha-amirine (4), beta-amirine (5), cycloartenol (6), 24-methylene-cycloartenol (7) and lupeol (8). The determination of the position of the double bond after a reaction with Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is described for the phenol derivatives. The ethanolic extract was tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity by using the disc diffusion method and it showed significant results against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella spp. (author)

  19. [Cardioprotective properties of new glutamic acid derivative under stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Sadikova, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of new glutamic acid derivative on the cardiac ino- and chronotropic functions has been studied in experiments on rats exposed to 24-hour immobilization-and-pain stress. It is established that glutamic acid derivative RGPU-238 (glufimet) at a dose of 28.7 mg/kg increases the increment of myocardial contractility and relaxation rates and left ventricular pressure in stress-tested animals by 13 1,1, 72.4, and 118.6%, respectively, as compared to the control group during the test for adrenoreactivity. Compound RGPU-238 increases the increment of the maximum intensity of myocardium functioning by 196.5 % at 30 sec of isometric workload as compared to the control group. The cardioprotective effect of compound RGPU-238 is 1.5 - 2 times higher than that of the reference drug phenibut. PMID:25365864

  20. Ionic products of metal complexes with dithiocarbonic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic products of the complexes of certain sulfide-forming metal ions (In, Cd, Te, etc.) with alkyl derivates of dithiocarbonic acid have been defined. The possibility to use ionic products of alkyl xanthates for predicting the practicability of employing alkyl xanthates as analytic reagents in titrimetric methods of analysis, in extractional methods of separation and determination of elements, increase in the determination selectivity, is shown. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Ionic derivatives of betulinic acid as novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Holmes, Shaletha S; Baker, Gary A; Challa, Suresh; Bose, Himangshu S; Song, Zhiyan

    2012-10-01

    Betulinic acid is a natural product possessing abundant and favourable biological activity, including anti-cancer, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV properties, while causing minimal toxicity to unaffected cells. The full biological potency of betulinic acid cannot be fully unlocked, however, for a number of reasons, a primary one being its limited solubility in aqueous and biologically pertinent organic media. Aiming to improve the water solubility of betulinic acid without disrupting its structurally related bioactivity, we have prepared different ionic derivatives of betulinic acid. Inhibition bioassays on HIV-1 protease-catalysed peptide hydrolysis indicate significantly improved performance resulting from converting the betulinic acid to organic salt form. Indeed, for one particular cholinium-based derivative, its water solubility is improved more than 100 times and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value (22 μg mL(-1)) was one-third that of wide-type betulinic acid (60 μg mL(-1)). These encouraging results advise that additional studies of ionic betulinic acid derivatives as a therapeutic solution against HIV-1 infection are warranted.

  2. Food group diversity indicators derived from qualitative list-based questionnaire misreported some foods compared to same indicators derived from quantitative 24-hour recall in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Arimond, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To be useful proxies of micronutrient intake at the population level in resource-limited societies, dietary diversity indicators should be simple and easy to collect in large surveys and their accuracy needs to be assessed. The present study aimed at comparing food group diversity indicators (FGI) derived from simple qualitative list-based questionnaires (qFGI) to the same indicators derived from quantitative 24-h recalls (QFGI). Both methods were administered separately on each of 3 recall days to women in 2 districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data were available for a total of 526 women x recalls. This study was performed within the framework of the Women's Dietary Diversity Project, which sought to analyze the relationships between various QFGI and the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of women's diets across 11 micronutrients. The comparison between paired qFGI and QFGI scores was made both in terms of accuracy of the reporting by the list-based questionnaire, taking the QFGI as the gold standard, and in terms of performance of indicators in predicting an MPA > 60%. Examination of paired QFGI-qFGI differences revealed that the more disaggregated the FGI, the higher were the mean differences in scores. Food groups most frequently misreported often corresponded to foods put in small quantities in sauces. Overreporting by list-based questionnaires was observed for indicators applying a 15-g minimum quantity of consumption for a group to count in the score and this may result in weaker performance in predicting the MPA. These results highlight trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity when operationalizing FGI through qualitative questionnaires.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  4. The Effects of Malonic Acid Derivatives and Acetic Acid Derivatives as Coadsorbents on the Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of malonic acid derivatives and acetic acid derivatives as coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of D908 dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells were investigated. Each of phenylmalonic acid (PMA and cyclopentylacetic acid (CPEAA coadsorptions was revealed to improve both the photocurrent and the photovoltage of the solar cells. The improved photocurrent was probably due to the suppression of self-quenching of the excited electrons in the dyes by coadsorption of PMA or CPEAA on the TiO2 that increased in the electron-injection yields from the dye to the TiO2. The improved photovoltage was probably due to suppression of recombination between the injected electrons and ions on the TiO2 surface. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that PMA or CPEAA coadsorption increased the content of bound dye on the TiO2 surface. This result suggests that PMA or CPEAA coadsorption improved the photocurrent of the solar cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that PMA or CPEAA coadsorption on the TiO2 surface increased the charge recombination resistance (R2 and decreased the diffusion resistance in the electrolyte (R3. These results suggest that the coadsorption of PMA or CPEAA on the TiO2 may improve its photovoltage and photocurrent.

  5. Genetic parameters for methane indicator traits based on milk fatty acids in Dual Purpose Belgian Blue cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Dairy production is pointed out for its large methane emission. Therefore, specific nutritional strategies are applying to abate methane emission but very less information is available about the animal genetic variability of methane emission. Methane indicators using traits indirectly related to methane and easily recorded like the mid-infrared (MIR) prediction of fatty acid could be used to conduct genetic studies. MIR methane indicators used in this study were derived from published fatty a...

  6. 76 FR 11891 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... 113 Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed... Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers... (FDA) is amending its regulations for thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in...

  7. Comparison of rainfall based SPI drought indices with SMDI and ETDI indices derived from a soil water budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, A.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling soil water budget is a key issue for assessing drought awareness indices based on soil moisture estimation. The aim of the study is to compare drought indices based on rainfall time series to those based on soil water content time series and evapotranspiration time series. To this end, a vertically averaged water budget over the root zone is implemented to assist the estimation of evapotranspiration flux. A daily time step is adopted to run the water budget model for a lumped watershed of 250 km2 under arid climate where recorded meteorological and hydrological data are available for a ten year period. The water balance including 7 parameters is computed including evapotranspiration, runoff and leakage. Soil properties related parameters are derived according to pedo transfer functions while two remaining parameters are considered as data driven and are subject to calibration. The model is calibrated using daily hydro meteorological data (solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, mean areal rainfall) as well as daily runoff records and also average annual (or regional) evapotranspiration. The latter is estimated using an empirical sub-model. A set of acceptable solutions is identified according to the values of the Nash coefficients for annual and decadal runoffs as well as the relative bias for average annual evapotranspiration. Using these acceptable solutions several drought indices are computed: SPI (standard precipitation index), SMDI (soil moisture deficit index) and ETDI (evapotranspiration deficit index). While SPI indicators are based only on monthly precipitation time series, SMDI are based on weekly mean soil water content as computed by the hydrological model. On the other hand ETDI indices are based on weekly mean potential and actual evapotranspirations as estimated by the meteorological and hydrological models. For SPI evaluation various time scales are considered from one to twelve months (SPI1, SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12). For all

  8. Biarylalkyl Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Novel Antischistosomal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Blohm, Ariane S; Quack, Thomas; Lange-Grünweller, Kerstin; Grünweller, Arnold; Hartmann, Roland K; Grevelding, Christoph G; Schlitzer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic platyhelminths are responsible for serious infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, which affect humans as well as animals across vast regions of the world. The drug arsenal available for the treatment of these diseases is limited; for example, praziquantel is the only drug currently used to treat ≥240 million people each year infected with Schistosoma spp., and there is justified concern about the emergence of drug resistance. In this study, we screened biarylalkyl carboxylic acid derivatives for their antischistosomal activity against S. mansoni. These compounds showed significant influence on egg production, pairing stability, and vitality. Tegumental lesions or gut dilatation was also observed. Substitution of the terminal phenyl residue in the biaryl scaffold with a 3-hydroxy moiety and derivatization of the terminal carboxylic acid scaffold with carboxamides yielded compounds that displayed significant antischistosomal activity at concentrations as low as 10 μm with satisfying cytotoxicity values. The present study provides detailed insight into the structure-activity relationships of biarylalkyl carboxylic acid derivatives and thereby paves the way for a new drug-hit moiety for fighting schistosomiasis. PMID:27159334

  9. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves ofClerodendrum volubile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Folashade Oluwayemisi Owolabi; Temiloluwa Adebola Adesioye; Deborah Olabisi Akinyele; Grace Ijeoma Okonrokwo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices ofClerodendrumvolubile (C. volubile) leaves. Methods:Dried leaves ofC. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months), threonine for children (6 months to 3 years), while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions:These results indicated the leaves ofC. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  10. Variability of basin scale water resources indicators derived from global hydrological and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Blyth, Eleanor; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    Global hydrological and land-surface models are becoming increasingly available, and as the resolution of these improves, as well how hydrological processes are represented, so does their potential. These offer consistent datasets at the global scale, which can be used to establish water balances and derive policy relevant indicators in medium to large basins, including those that are poorly gauged. However, differences in model structure, model parameterisation, and model forcing may result in quite different indicator values being derived, depending on the model used. In this paper we explore indicators developed using four land surface models (LSM) and five global hydrological models (GHM). Results from these models have been made available through the Earth2Observe project, a recent research initiative funded by the European Union 7th Research Framework. All models have a resolution of 0.5 arc degrees, and are forced using the same WATCH-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) meteorological re-analysis data at a daily time step for the 32 year period from 1979 to 2012. We explore three water resources indicators; an aridity index, a simplified water exploitation index; and an indicator that calculates the frequency of occurrence of root zone stress. We compare indicators derived over selected areas/basins in Europe, Colombia, Southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and Australia/New Zealand. The hydrological fluxes calculated show quite significant differences between the nine models, despite the common forcing dataset, with these differences reflected in the indicators subsequently derived. The results show that the variability between models is related to the different climates types, with that variability quite logically depending largely on the availability of water. Patterns are also found in the type of models that dominate different parts of the distribution of the indicator values, with LSM models providing lower values, and GHM models providing higher values in some

  11. Novel sustainable polymers derived from renewable rosin and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbon, Perry

    In the work of this dissertation, polymers derived from renewable bio-based resources prepared by various polymerization techniques were investigated. The properties of these polymeric materials were characterized and discussed. Rosin was first converted into acrylate or methacrylate monomers for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Second, rosin was combined with vegetable oil to produce completely renewable novel polyesters by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. Third, degradable block copolymers were synthesized composed of polycaprolactone and rosin grafted polycaprolactone with the aid of ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Finally, degradable polyesters were produced using vegetable oil derivatives as starting materials. These new rosin and fatty acid based renewable polymer materials will have potential applications as sustainable thermoplastics, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.

  12. Inhibition of acidic corrosion of aluminum by triazoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, E. (Alexandria Univ., Ibrahimia (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry); Atea, M. (Alexandria Univ., Ibrahimia (Egypt). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1994-02-01

    Inhibition of the corrosion of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) by some triazoline derivatives was studied in relation to the concentration of the inhibitors using gasometry, the weight-loss method, and the potentiodynamic technique. All compounds investigated were found to be inhibitors of the mixed type. The inhibitory character of the additives depended upon the +R (resonance) and +I (inductive) powers of alkyl or aryl groups of the triazoline derivatives. Inhibition was ascribed to the adsorption of the inhibitor onto the metal oxide surface following the Flory-Huggins isotherm. The compounds were adsorbed on the metal surface. Each molecule of the inhibitors occupied an average of 3.8 active sites on the metal surface. The values of activation free energies varied between [minus]30 kJ/mol and [minus]45 kJ/mol.

  13. Influence of organic acids on UV-Vis spectra of pyrrolidino- [60]fullerene derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pyrrolidino[60]fullerene 1 with pyrrolidine group was synthesized and characterized. The UV-Vis spectra showed that the blue shift of absorption peaks was first observed when strong organic acids such as p-toluene sulfonic or trifluoroacetic acid were added to the solution of pyrrolidino[60]fullerene 1 in dichloromethane. The results indicated that the pyrrolidino[60]fullerene derivatives without pyrrolidine group also possess the same phenomenon. Experiments and computation with the MOPAC 7.0 semi-em- pirical PM3 method demonstrated the reason that some energy gaps on [60]fullerene skeleton were increased because electronic charges on [60]fullerene framework transferred to pyrrolidine ring when strong organic acids were added into pyrrolidino[60]fullerene derivatives' solution; as the result, the complexes could be formed and some absorption wave-lengths blue shifted in the UV-Vis spectrum.

  14. Deriving Multidimensional Poverty Indicators: Methodological Issues and an Empirical Analysis for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coromaldi, Manuela; Zoli, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have recently adopted a multidimensional concept of poverty. There is considerable debate about the most appropriate degree of multidimensionality to retain in the analysis. In this work we add to the received literature in two ways. First, we derive indicators of multiple deprivation by applying a particular…

  15. A novel polymeric herbicide based on phenoxyacetic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimol Klaichim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel polymeric herbicide based on phenoxyacetic acid derivatives was prepared by the reaction of epoxidised liquid natural rubber (ELNR with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D or 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid(MCPA. The liquid natural rubber (LNR was firstly obtained from the degradation of natural rubber latex with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The epoxidised liquid natural rubber was prepared from thereaction of LNR with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide at 50oC for 6 hrs. The reaction of epoxidised liquid natural rubber with 2,4-D or MCPA using triethylamine as a catalyst in toluene was performed at 70, 80, and 90oC for 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24hrs. The polymeric herbicides obtained were characterized and the grafting percentage of 2,4-D or MCPA onto liquid natural rubber were also determined by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the grafting percentage increased with increasing amount of reactants, temperature, and reaction time. The release of 2,4-D and MCPA from polymeric herbicides was investigated in pH 6, 7, and 8 buffers at room temperature. The results show that the slowest release of 2,4-D and MCPA was found to be constant at pH 7 for 14 and 10 days, respectively.

  16. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Nguyen; J P Bedel; J C Rouillon; J P Marcerou; M F Achard

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core, several mesophases with switching properties are induced. The study of homologous series underlines the importance of the length and nature of the terminal chains. X-ray analysis reveals several new structures.

  17. Efficient Debromination of Vicinal (, (-Dibromo Carboxylic Acid Derivatives with the Sm/HOAc System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The α, β vicinal dibromo carboxylic acid and its derivatives were debrominated with Sm/HOAc system to afford the corresponding cinnamic acid and its derivatives in good yields under mild conditions.

  18. Azorhodanine derivatives as inhibitors for acidic corrosion of nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S; Al-Sarawy, Ahmed A; Omar, Tark M

    2005-01-01

    Azorhodanine derivatives (HL1-HL5) were tested as corrosion inhibitors for nickel in 2M HNO3 solution using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The results showed that these derivatives act as inhibitors for nickel in this medium. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. Polarization measurements indicated that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors, but the cathode is more polarized when an external current was applied. This means that these compounds retard the rate of hydrogen evolution and the rate of dissolution of the metal. Results showed that azorhodanine derivatives are adsorbed on the nickel surface following Temkin's adsorption isotherm. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed at different temperatures (30-45 degrees C).

  19. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives Inhibit Fructose-Mediated Protein Glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintorn Yibchok-anun; Sirichai Adisakwattana; Weerachat Sompong; Sathaporn Ngamukote; Aramsri Meeprom

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by...

  20. Using Time Series Segmentation for Deriving Vegetation Phenology Indices from MODIS NDVI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Hui, Dafeng [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing vegetation phenology is a highly significant problem, due to its importance in regulating ecosystem carbon cycling, interacting with climate changes, and decision-making of croplands managements. While ground based sensors, such as the AmeriFlux sensors, can provide measurements at high temporal resolution (every hour) and can be used to accurately calculate vegetation phenology indices, they are limited to only a few sites. Remote sensing data, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), collected using the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), can provide global coverage, though at a much coarser temporal resolution (16 days). In this study we use data mining based time series segmentation methods to derive phenology indices from NDVI data, and compare it with the phenology indices derived from the AmeriFlux data using a widely used model fitting approach. Results show a significant correlation (as high as 0.60) between the indices derived from these two different data sources. This study demonstrates that data driven methods can be effectively employed to provide realistic estimates of vegetation phenology indices using periodic time series data and has the potential to be used at large spatial scales and for long-term remote sensing data.

  1. O-Anisidine as Indicator in Titrimetric Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S.A.Andrews

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of the beautiful red coloured oxidized product of O-anisidine, the studies on its application in analytical techniques are scanty. So, authors have taken up the investigation on the utility of O-anisidine as a new Analytical reagent in the bromatometric-Indicator reaction. The detailed reaction on the potassium bromate and OAnisidine has enabled the authors to utilize O-Anisidine in titration of Ascorbic Acid and Isonicitonic Acid Hydrazide. Suitable conditions has been established with different acids viz., hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid to give sharp colour change at the equivalence point. The present method has been applied for the estimation of Ascorbic acid and also Isonicitonic Acid Hydrazide in pharmaceutical formulations and results obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained by standard methods

  2. Derivative-based global sensitivity measures: general links with Sobol' indices and numerical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Matieyendou, Matieyendou; Popelin, Anne-Laure; Gamboa, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of variance-based importance measures (called Sobol' indices) of the input variables of a numerical model can require a large number of model evaluations. It turns to be unacceptable for huge model involving a large number of input variables (typically more than ten). Recently, Sobol and Kucherenko have proposed the Derivative-based Global Sensitivity Measures (DGSM), defined as the integral of the squared derivatives of the model output, showing that it can help to solve the problem of dimensionality in some cases. We provide a general inequality link between DGSM and total Sobol' indices for input variables belonging in the class of Boltzmann probability measures, extending the previous results of Sobol and Kucherenko for uniform and normal measures. The special case of log-concave measures is also described. This link provides a DGSM-based maximal bound for the total Sobol indices. Numerical tests show the performance of the bound and its usefulness in practice.

  3. Separation of Six Pyridoncarboylxic Acid Derivatives by Micellar and Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Micellar and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC & MEEKC) separation of six closely structural pyridoncarboylxic acid derivatives were studied and compared. Both anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic surfactant hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were used to form micellar and microemulsion as pseudostation phases, respectively. The effects of the separation conditions on retention time and selectivity were studied. Good resolutions were obtained in selected systems, indicating that there is markably different selectivity between SDS and CTAB systems.

  4. Derivatives of xanthic acid are novel antioxidants: application to synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderback, Christopher M; Drake, Jennifer; Zhou, Daohong; Hackett, Janna M; Castegna, Alessandra; Kanski, Jaroslaw; Tsoras, Maria; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-04-01

    Xanthic acids have long been known to act as reducing agents. Recently, D609, a tricyclodecanol derivative of xanthic acid, has been reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that are attributed to specific inhibition of phosphatidyl choline phospholipase C (PC-PLC). However, because oxidative stress is involved in both of these cellular responses, the possibility that xanthates may act as antioxidants was investigated in the current study. Finding that xanthates efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the mechanism by which D609 and other xanthate derivatives may protect against oxidative damage was further examined. The xanthates studied, especially D609, mimic glutathione (GSH). Xanthates scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, form disulfide bonds (dixanthogens), and react with electrophilic products of lipid oxidation (acrolein) in a manner similar to GSH. Further, upon disulfide formation, dixanthogens are reduced by glutathione reductase to a redox active xanthate. Supporting its role as an antioxidant, D609 significantly (p < 0.01) reduces free radical-induced changes in synaptosomal lipid peroxidation (TBARs), protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), and protein conformation. Thus, in addition to inhibitory effects on PC-PLC, D609 may prevent cellular apoptotic and inflammatory cascades by acting as antioxidants and novel GSH mimics. These results are discussed with reference to potential therapeutic application of D609 in oxidative stress conditions.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonds in Benzoic Acid Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel‧kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Bazyl, O. K.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Mayer, G. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Kuzovkov, P. V.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform IR spectra of CCl4 solutions of benzoic acid and its biologically active derivatives. We investigated the proton-acceptor properties of the studied molecules theoretically by the molecular electrostatic potential method. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Based on an estimate of the proton-acceptor properties, we give an interpretation of the specific features of the IR spectra of benzoic acid and its derivatives in the region of the O-H and C = O vibrations. The mechanisms for interactions of the molecules are determined by the nature of substituents which are added to the benzene ring in positions para and meta to the carboxyl group. We identify the conditions for appearance of intermolecular hydrogen bonds of O-H · · · O = C, O-H · · · O-H types with formation of cyclic and linear dimers. We show that intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the type O-H · · · O-CH3 prevent the hydroxyl groups from participating in intermolecular interactions.

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new higher amino acid Schiff base derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir (nee Güngör), Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan; Özçelik, Berrin; Oyardı, Özlem

    2016-02-01

    Novel β-lactam derivatives (1c-3c) (1d-3d) were produced by using 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and the higher amino acid Schiff bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H/13C NMR and UV-vis spectra. Antibacterial activities of all the higher amino acid Schiff bases (1a-3a) (1b-3b) and β-lactam derivatives were screened against three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii RSKK 02026), three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 07005, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and their drug-resistant isolates by using broth microdilution method. Two fungi (Candida albicans and Candida krusei) were used for antifungal activity.

  7. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.

  8. On the second derivatives of periods and braking indices in radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Malov, I F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of some braking mechanisms for neutron stars was carried out to determine the sign of the second derivative of the pulsar period. This quantity is the important parameter for calculations of the braking index n. It is shown that this derivative can be positive and lead to decreasing of n. It is necessary to correct the methods of calculations of n used this moment because they are based as a rule on the suggestion on the constancy of pulsar parameters (magnetic fields, angles between some axes and so on). The estimations of corrections to braking indices are obtained. It is shown that these corrections can be marked for pulsars with long periods and their small derivatives.

  9. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  10. Pantothenic acid and its derivatives protect Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyshenkov, V S; Rakowska, M; Moiseenok, A G; Wojtczak, L

    1995-12-01

    Preincubation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells at 22 or 32 degrees C, but not at 0 degree C, with pantothenic acid, 4'-phosphopantothenic acid, pantothenol, or pantethine reduced lipid peroxidation (measured by production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive compounds) induced by the Fenton reaction (Fe2+ + H2O2) and partly protected the plasma membrane against the leakiness to cytoplasmic proteins produced by the same reagent. Pantothenic acid and its derivatives did not inhibit (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced peroxidation of phospholipid multilamellar vesicles, thus indicating that their effect on the cells was not due to the scavenging mechanism. Homopantothenic acid and its 4'-phosphate ester (which are not precursors of CoA) neither protected Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against lipid peroxidation nor prevented plasma membrane leakiness under the same conditions. Incubation of the cells with pantothenic acid, 4'-phosphopantothenic acid, pantothenol, or pantethine significantly increased the amount of cellular CoA and potentiated incorporation of added palmitate into phospholipids and cholesterol esters. It is concluded that pantothenic acid and its related compounds protect the plasma membrane of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against the damage by oxygen free radicals due to increasing cellular level of CoA. The latter compound may act by diminishing propagation of lipid peroxidation and promoting repair mechanisms, mainly the synthesis of phospholipids. PMID:8582649

  11. Syntheses,characteristics and fluorescence properties of complexes of terbium with benzoic acid and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-cheng; SHU Wan-gen; RUAN Jian-ming; HUANG Bai-yun; LIU You-nian

    2005-01-01

    The binary complexes of terbium with benzoic acid and its derivatives (phthalic acid,iso-phthalic acid,oaminobenzoic acid,salicylic acid,sulfosalicylic acid) were synthesized and their compositions were identified by elemental analyses.UV,IR of the complexes were investigated.The UV spectra indicate that the complexes'ultraviolet absorption is mainly the ligands' absorption,but the location of peak drifts.The IR spectra show that the IR spectra of complexes are different from those of free ligands,and the band at 400-500 cm-1,due to the stretching vibration of Tb-O,is absent for free ligands.The fluorescence properties were investigated by using luminescence spectroscope,the results show that all the six complexes of terbium exhibit excellent luminescence,due to the transition from the lowest excited state 5D4 to 7F ground state manifold,the complexes of terbium with sulfosalicylic acid have the strongest fluorescence intensity,and is stronger than o-aminobenzoic acid-terbium,whose fluorescence intensity is regarded as the strongest one in the literature,and even stronger than some phosphor of terbium.

  12. X-ray system signal derivation circuits for heat unit indicators and/or calibration meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliampere and kilovolt signals are monitored from the X-ray tube system high tension transformer. These signals may be connected to a heat unit indicator or a calibration meter or both. With the heat unit indicator, the heat level in an X-ray tube anode is monitored and referred to the level corresponding to the ambient room temperature as zero reference. As successive signal exposures or series of exposures are made, the X-ray tube heat loading is automatically monitored and displayed. The cooling characteristics of the tube are automatically reflected in the reading. A calibration meter may be connected to the signal derivation circuitry to indicate a plurality of operating parameters. The circuitry includes automatic scaling device for maintaining the relatively accurate signals required for the accurate operation of the heat indicator and the calibration meter. (UK)

  13. TWO BIOACTIVE FERULIC ACID DERIVATIVES FROM EREMOSTACHYS GLABRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Two ferulic acid derivatives, hexacosyl-(E-ferulate [1] and leucosceptoside A [2], have been isolated from the rhizomes of Eremostachys glabra. The chemical structures of these compounds have been elucidated by UV, ESIMS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses, and also by comparing experimental data with respective literature data. The free radical scavenging activity and general toxicity of these compounds have been assessed. While none of these compounds has shown any significant general toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LD50>1 mg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (RC50 = 0.0976 mg/mL and 0.0148 mg/mL, respectively.

  14. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Borhade, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  15. Effect of vanillin and its acid and alcohol derivatives on the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Bagheri-Kalmarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the present study the effects of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, as well as the newly synthesized vanillin derivative, bis-vanillin, were investigated on the oxidation of dopamine hydrochloride by mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, vanillin and bis-vanillin act as activators, while vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid exhibited inhibitory effects, the IC50 values being estimated 1.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. These compounds were mixed inhibitors. The presence of aldehyde and metoxy groups at the meta position of aromatic compounds seems to cause them to react as tyrosinase activators, as observed in the case of vanillin and bis-vanillin. The presence of both groups in bis-vanillin results in a stronger activation effect compared to vanillin. The results indicate that the electron-withdrawing capacity of the functional group at the C-1 position is essential for the inhibitory potency of vanillin derivatives. In comparison with other benzoic acid derivatives, the results obtained in this study suggest that the relative positioning of hydroxy and methoxy groups at meta and para positions plays an important role in the inhibition effects of benzoic acids and their inhibition potency.

  16. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Combs, Cindy; Peters, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) strongly influences the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLCC on ecosystem dynamics especially during hot and dry Mediterranean climate summers. Monthly, annual, and decadal FLCC digital maps (indices) were derived for June-September 1999-2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N (south of Monterey Bay) to latitude 41.95°N (north of Crescent City) from 26,000 hourly night and day Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images. Monthly average FLCC ranges from winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects farthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night, average total hours of FLCC are higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. The interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long-term geographic stability that is strongly associated with landform position. FLCC hours per day mapped contours, derived from decadal average FLCC, delineate the commonly used term "fog belt" into FLCC zones with increased locational precision. FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website (http://climate.calcommons.org/datasets/summertime-fog). FLCC indices can improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models; understanding meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns; solar energy feasibility studies; investigations of ecohydrology, evapotranspiration, and agricultural irrigation demand; and viticulture ripening models.

  17. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Cindy Combs,; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) changes the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLC on ecosystem dynamics during hot, dry Mediterranean climate summers. FLCC indices were generated from 26,000 hourly night and day FLCC maps derived from Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) data for June, July, August, and September, 1999- 2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N, south of Monterey Bay, to latitude 41.95°N, north of Crescent City. Monthly FLCC average hours per day (h/d) range from coefficient of variation shows long term geographic stability strongly associated with landform position. Contours delineating homogeneous zones of FLCC, derived from average decadal h/d FLCC, provide data to refine the commonly used term ‘fog belt.’ FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website. FLCC indices can be used to improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models, meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns, ecohydrological investigations of evapotranspiration, solar energy feasibility studies, agricultural irrigation demand and viticultural ripening models.

  18. Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

    2003-06-01

    Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it

  19. Synthesis of -acylurea derivatives from carboxylic acids and ,' -dialkyl carbodiimides in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Ramazani; Fatemeh Zeinali Nasrabadi; Aram Rezaei; Morteza Rouhani; Hamideh Ahankar; Pegah Azimzadeh Asiabi; Sang Woo Joo; Katarzyna Ślepokura; Tadeusz Lis

    2015-12-01

    Reactions of benzoic acid derivatives and ()-cinnamic acid derivatives with , '-dialkyl carbodiimide proceed smoothly at room temperature and in neutral conditions to afford -acylurea derivatives in high yields. The reaction proceeds smoothly and cleanly under mild conditions and no side reactions were observed.

  20. Generation and utilisation of quality indicators for satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Kenneth

    The extraction of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) from cloud and moisture features from successive geostationary satellite images is an established and important part of the global observing system. One of the main problems in the utilisation of this data is the variable quality of the derived displacement vectors. Furthermore the AMVs are still currently used as single point measurements, even though they are generally based on targets that represent large areas and the height that is assigned to the vectors often represents a layer mean. In the early AMV derivation schemes the derived vector fields were quality controlled by experienced meteorologists and poor vectors were removed. Furthermore any suspect vector showing any kind of deviations in time and space was rejected and hence only about 17% of all possible vectors were disseminated. Today the high production frequency and the increased resolution make manual quality control unfeasible. Furthermore the new assimilation schemes utilised in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) require qualitative information on the errors of the individual AMVs. This Thesis describes an Automatic Quality Control (AQC) scheme that is based on the statistical properties of the derived AMVs. The properties of the AMVs, i.e. their consistency in time and space, are interpreted with a number of tests. The outcome of each test is normalised such that they can be combined to a Quality Indicator (QI) that gives an estimation of the expected quality of every individual vector as is shown by statistics against radiosondes and verified by the positive impact in data assimilation schemes. The QIs are currently derived and disseminated together with the derived AMVs by several operational AMV derivation centres. Only a small number of vectors are now removed before dissemination. The QIs are used operationally for data selection at various NWT centres and have alleviated some of the problems related to the assimilation of this data in NWT

  1. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Bin; ZHAI Zheng; LUO GuangSheng; WANG JiaDing

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn-thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  2. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn- thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  3. Cannabimimetic fatty acid derivatives in cancer and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marzo, V; Melck, D; De Petrocellis, L; Bisogno, T

    2000-04-01

    Evidence for the role of the cannabimimetic fatty acid derivatives (CFADs), i.e. anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in the control of inflammation and of the proliferation of tumor cells is reviewed here. The biosynthesis of AEA, PEA, or 2-AG can be induced by stimulation with either Ca(2+) ionophores, lipopolysaccharide, or platelet activating factor in macrophages, and by ionomycin or antigen challenge in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells (a widely used model for mast cells). These cells also inactivate CFADs through re-uptake and/or hydrolysis and/or esterification processes. AEA and PEA modulate cytokine and/or arachidonate release from macrophages in vitro, regulate serotonin secretion from RBL-2H3 cells, and are analgesic in some animal models of inflammatory pain. However, the involvement of endogenous CFADs and cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors in these effects is still controversial. In human breast and prostate cancer cells, AEA and 2-AG, but not PEA, potently inhibit prolactin and/or nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced cell proliferation. Vanillyl-derivatives of anandamide, such as olvanil and arvanil, exhibit even higher anti-proliferative activity. These effects are due to suppression of the levels of the 100 kDa prolactin receptor or of the high affinity NGF receptors (trk), are mediated by CB(1)-like cannabinoid receptors, and are enhanced by other CFADs. Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase underlie the anti-mitogenic actions of AEA. The possibility that CFADs act as local inhibitors of the proliferation of human breast cancer is discussed here. PMID:10785541

  4. 76 FR 81363 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... (76 FR 11892). The final rule amended FDA's regulations for thermally processed low-acid foods... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 113 (formerly 2007N-0026) Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers; Correction...

  5. Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-09-01

    Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.

  6. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG He; DONG De-ming; WANG Ju; YANG Kai-ning; TIAN Lei; SUN Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar,total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi( Brassica rapa chihensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce( Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramnosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  7. Use of Terminalia catappa fruit extract as an indicator in acid-base titrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untwal L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond, family Combretaceae, is a large deciduous tree, originally from India. It thrives as an ornamental tree in many tropical cities of the world. The present work highlights the use of the acidified methanol extract of the outer cover of Terminalia catappa fruits as an acid-base indicator in different types of acid-base titrations. It is found to be a very useful, economical, simple, and accurate indicator for said titrations.

  8. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their antiparasitic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2008-09-01

    Piper glabratum and P. acutifolium were analyzed for their content of main secondary constituents, affording nine new benzoic acid derivatives (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 10-13), in addition to four known compounds (3, 6, 8, and 9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the new compounds as racemates. In the search for antiparasitic agents, the compounds were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote forms of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum. Among the evaluated compounds, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate (7) exhibited leishmanicidal effect (IC50 13.8-18.5 microg/mL) against the three Leishmania strains used, and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutenyl)benzoate (1), methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)benzoate (3), and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) benzoate (7) showed significant trypanocidal activity, with IC50 values of 16.4, 15.6, and 18.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:18712933

  9. Simultaneous analysis of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q(10) by derivative spectroscopy and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, D Venkat; Bhardwaj, V; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2006-09-15

    Antioxidants are gaining tremendous interest as chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic agents. Ellagic acid (EA) is a plant derived compound with very poor solubility in water and very low octanol/water partition coefficient and coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a highly lipophilic compound, which is synthesized in the body and can be derived from food supplements as well. The new insights in the combination therapy are promising a better future in many challenging diseases. Synergism is among the key advantages of combination therapy apart from decreased intensity of unwanted effects of a compound, increased patient compliance and reduction in cost of therapy. EA and CoQ(10) supplementation in combination will be beneficial in strengthening the weakened antioxidant defense system in many diseases related to oxidative stress. Here we report first derivative UV spectroscopic and HPLC methods for the simultaneous analysis of these two agents in pharmaceutical preparations. Results obtained indicate that the derivative spectroscopy is as efficient as HPLC method in quantitative analysis. Retention of ellagic acid can be increased using PEG bonded column which is poorly retained on C(18) column. PEG column can be used for rapid simultaneous analysis of EA and CoQ(10), which are having diverse physicochemical properties. PMID:18970780

  10. Synthesis of novel (1-alkanoyloxy-4-alkanoylaminobutylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic acid derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vepsäläinen Jouko J; Turhanen Petri A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A novel strategy for the synthesis of (1-alkanoyloxy-4-alkanoylaminobutylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic acid derivatives (1a-d) via (1-hydroxy-4-alkanoylaminobutylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic acid derivatives (2a-d), starting from alendronate has been developed with reasonable 51–77% overall yields. Intermediate products, (1-hydroxy-4-alkanoylaminobutylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic acid derivatives (2a-d), were prepared in water with reasonable to high yields (52–94%).

  11. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3, a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01. Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01. A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.

  12. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Motahareh; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed F.; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01). Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01). A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning. PMID:27606109

  13. The Synthesis of Some Novel N-[a-(Isoflavone-7-O-)Acetyl ] Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of novel N-[(α)-(isoflavone-7-O-)acetyl] amino acid methyl esters were prepared from the efficient and regioselective alkylation of isoflavones with chloroacetyl amino acid derivatives under mild condition.

  14. Probabilistic drought intensification forecasts using temporal patterns of satellite-derived drought indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sumin; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyeong

    2016-04-01

    A drought occurs when the condition of below-average precipitation in a region continues, resulting in prolonged water deficiency. A drought can last for weeks, months or even years, so can have a great influence on various ecosystems including human society. In order to effectively reduce agricultural and economic damage caused by droughts, drought monitoring and forecasts are crucial. Drought forecast research is typically conducted using in situ observations (or derived indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)) and physical models. Recently, satellite remote sensing has been used for short term drought forecasts in combination with physical models. In this research, drought intensification was predicted using satellite-derived drought indices such as Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI), Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI), and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) generated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products over the Korean Peninsula. Time series of each drought index at the 8 day interval was investigated to identify drought intensification patterns. Drought condition at the previous time step (i.e., 8 days before) and change in drought conditions between two previous time steps (e.g., between 16 days and 8 days before the time step to forecast) Results show that among three drought indices, SDCI provided the best performance to predict drought intensification compared to NDDI and NMDI through qualitative assessment. When quantitatively compared with SPI, SDCI showed a potential to be used for forecasting short term drought intensification. Finally this research provided a SDCI-based equation to predict short term drought intensification optimized over the Korean Peninsula.

  15. Analysis of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in the Mediterranean Basin using MODIS Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; San Miguel, Jesus; Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin region is highly susceptible to wildfire, with approximately 60,000 individual fires and half a million ha of natural vegetation burnt per year. Of particular concern in this region is the impact of repeated wildfires on the ability of natural lands to return to a pre-fire state, and of the possibility of desertification of semi-arid areas. Given these concerns, understanding the temporal patterns of vegetation recovery is important for the management of environmental resources in the region. A valuable tool for evaluating these recovery patterns are vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Previous research on post-fire vegetation recovery conducted in this region has found significant variability in recovery times across different study sites. It is unclear what the primary variables are affecting the differences in the rates of recovery, and if any geographic patterns of behavior exist across the Mediterranean basin. This research has primarily been conducted using indices derived from Landsat imagery. However, no extensive analysis of vegetation regeneration for large regions has been published, and assessment of vegetation recovery on the basis of medium-spatial resolution imagery such as that of MODIS has not yet been analyzed. This study examines the temporal pattern of vegetation recovery in a number of fire sites in the Mediterranean basin, using data derived from MODIS 16 -day composite vegetation indices. The intent is to develop a more complete picture of the temporal sequence of vegetation recovery, and to evaluate what additional factors impact variations in the recovery sequence. In addition, this study evaluates the utility of using MODIS derived vegetation indices for regeneration studies, and compares the findings to earlier studies which rely on Landsat data. Wildfires occurring between the years 2000 and 2004 were considered as potential study sites for this research. Using the EFFIS dataset, all wildfires

  16. Association of Jumping Mechanography-Derived Indices of Muscle Function with Tibial Cortical Bone Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verroken, Charlotte; Zmierczak, Hans-Georg; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Lapauw, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Jumping mechanography has been developed to estimate maximum voluntary muscle forces. This study assessed associations of jumping mechanography-derived force and power measurements with tibial cortical bone geometry, compared to other estimates of muscle mass, size, and function. Healthy men (n = 181; 25-45 years) were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling-pair study. Muscle parameters include isokinetic peak torque of the quadriceps, DXA-derived leg lean mass, mechanography-derived peak jump force and power, and pQCT-derived mid-tibial (66 %) muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Mid-tibial cortical bone parameters were assessed by pQCT. In age, height, and weight-adjusted analyses, jump force and power correlated positively with cortical bone area, cortical thickness, and polar strength-strain index (SSIp) (β = 0.23-0.34, p ≤ 0.001 for force; β = 0.25-0.30, p ≤ 0.007 for power) and inversely with endosteal circumference adjusted for periosteal circumference (ECPC) (β = -0.16, p < 0.001 for force; β = -0.13, p = 0.007 for power). Force but not power correlated with cortical over total bone area ratio (β = 0.25, p = 0.002). Whereas leg lean mass correlated with all cortical parameters except cortical over total bone area ratio (β = 0.25-0.62, p ≤ 0.004), muscle CSA only correlated with cortical bone area, periosteal circumference, and SSIp (β = 0.21-0.26, p ≤ 0.001), and quadriceps torque showed no significant correlations with the bone parameters. Multivariate models indicated that leg lean mass was independently associated with overall bone size and strength reflected by periosteal and endosteal circumference and SSIp (β = 0.32-0.55, p ≤ 0.004), whereas jump force was independently associated with cortical bone size reflected by ECPC, cortical thickness, and cortical over total bone area ratio (β = 0.13-0.28; p ≤ 0.002). These data indicate that jumping mechanography provides relevant

  17. O-Anisidine as Indicator in Titrimetric Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, B. S. A.; B.Sreenivas Rao; Som Shankar Dubey; B.Venkata Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Inspite of the beautiful red coloured oxidized product of O-anisidine, the studies on its application in analytical techniques are scanty. So, authors have taken up the investigation on the utility of O-anisidine as a new Analytical reagent in the bromatometric-Indicator reaction. The detailed reaction on the potassium bromate and OAnisidine has enabled the authors to utilize O-Anisidine in titration of Ascorbic Acid and Isonicitonic Acid Hydrazide. Suitable conditions has been established wi...

  18. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar, total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi(Brassica rapa chinensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce(Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  19. Predicting disordered regions in proteins using the profiles of amino acid indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Feng, Zhi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrinsically unstructured or disordered proteins are common and functionally important. Prediction of disordered regions in proteins can provide useful information for understanding protein function and for high-throughput determination of protein structures. Results In this paper, algorithms are presented to predict long and short disordered regions in proteins, namely the long disordered region prediction algorithm DRaai-L and the short disordered region prediction algorithm DRaai-S. These algorithms are developed based on the Random Forest machine learning model and the profiles of amino acid indices representing various physiochemical and biochemical properties of the 20 amino acids. Conclusion Experiments on DisProt3.6 and CASP7 demonstrate that some sets of the amino acid indices have strong association with the ordered and disordered status of residues. Our algorithms based on the profiles of these amino acid indices as input features to predict disordered regions in proteins outperform that based on amino acid composition and reduced amino acid composition, and also outperform many existing algorithms. Our studies suggest that the profiles of amino acid indices combined with the Random Forest learning model is an important complementary method for pinpointing disordered regions in proteins. PMID:19208144

  20. Separation of mandelic acid and its derivatives with new immobilized cellulose chiral stationary phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Qian LIU; Guang-jun FU; Zhen-zhong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the chiral separation of the enantiomers of mandelic acid and their derivatives 2-chloromandelic acid,4-hydroxymandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid.The enantiomers were separated by a CHIRALPAK(R) IC (250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm).Mandelic acid,4-methoxymandelic acid,and 3,4,5-trismethoxymandelic acid were baseline resolved (resolution factor (Rs)=2.21,Rs=2.14,and Rs=3.70,respectively).In contrast,the enantioselectivities between CHIRALPAK(R) IC and 2-chloromandelic acid and 4-hydroxymandelic acid investigated were low.By comparing the chromatographs of mandelic acid enantiomers and mandelic acid spiked with (R)-mandelic acid,it was determined that the first effluent was (R)-mandelic acid.

  1. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Amino Acid Ester Derivatives Containing 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid ester derivatives containing 5-fluorouracil were synthesized using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC•HCl and N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt as a coupling agent. The structures of the products were assigned by NMR, MS, IR etc. The in vitro antitumor activity tests against leukaemia HL-60 and liver cancer BEL-7402 indicated that (R-ethyl 2-(2-(5-fluoro-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H-ylacetamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl propanoate showed more inhibitory effect against BEL-7402 than 5-FU.

  2. A Combined Satellite-Derived Drought Indicator to Support Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Enenkel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Governments, aid organizations and researchers are struggling with the complexity of detecting and monitoring drought events, which leads to weaknesses regarding the translation of early warnings into action. Embedded in an advanced decision-support framework for Doctors without Borders (Médecins sans Frontières, this study focuses on identifying the added-value of combining different satellite-derived datasets for drought monitoring and forecasting in Ethiopia. The core of the study is the improvement of an existing drought index via methodical adaptations and the integration of various satellite-derived datasets. The resulting Enhanced Combined Drought Index (ECDI links four input datasets (rainfall, soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation status. The respective weight of each input dataset is calculated for every grid point at a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees (roughly 28 kilometers. In the case of data gaps in one input dataset, the weights are automatically redistributed to other available variables. Ranking the years 1992 to 2014 according to the ECDI-based warning levels allows for the identification of all large-scale drought events in Ethiopia. Our results also indicate a good match between the ECDI-based drought warning levels and reported drought impacts for both the start and the end of the season.

  3. Pharmaceuticals and Surfactants from Alga-Derived Feedstock: Amidation of Fatty Acids and Their Derivatives with Amino Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacheva, Anastasia; Dosmagambetova, Inkar; Chapellier, Yann; Mäki-Arvela, Päivi; Hachemi, Imane; Savela, Risto; Leino, Reko; Viegas, Carolina; Kumar, Narendra; Eränen, Kari; Hemming, Jarl; Smeds, Annika; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2015-08-24

    Amidation of renewable feedstocks, such as fatty acids, esters, and Chlorella alga based biodiesel, was demonstrated with zeolites and mesoporous materials as catalysts and ethanolamine, alaninol, and leucinol. The last two can be derived from amino acids present in alga. The main products were fatty alkanol amides and the corresponding ester amines, as confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Thermal amidation of technical-grade oleic acid and stearic acid at 180 °C with ethanolamine were non-negligible; both gave 61% conversion. In the amidation of stearic acid with ethanolamine, the conversion over H-Beta-150 was 80% after 3 h, whereas only 63% conversion was achieved for oleic acid; this shows that a microporous catalyst is not suitable for this acid and exhibits a wrinkled conformation. The highest selectivity to stearoyl ethanolamide of 92% was achieved with mildly acidic H-MCM-41 at 70% conversion in 3 h at 180 °C. Highly acidic catalysts favored the formation of the ester amine, whereas the amide was obtained with a catalyst that exhibited an optimum acidity. The conversion levels achieved with different fatty acids in the range C12-C18 were similar; this shows that the fatty acid length does not affect the amidation rate. The amidation of methyl palmitate and biodiesel gave low conversions over an acidic catalyst, which suggested that the reaction mechanism in the amidation of esters was different. PMID:26197759

  4. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  5. Versatile Biodegradable Poly(ester amides Derived from α-Amino Acids for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Karimi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(ester amide (PEA biomaterials derived from α-amino acids, diols, and diacids are promising materials for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery because of their optimized properties and susceptibility for either hydrolytic or enzymatic degradation. The objective of this work was to synthesize and characterize biodegradable PEAs based on the α-amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-methionine. Four different PEAs were prepared using 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, and sebacic acid by interfacial polymerization. High molecular weight PEAs with narrow polydispersity indices and excellent film-forming properties were obtained. The incubation of these PEAs in PBS and chymotrypsin indicated that the polymers are biodegradable. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on PEA films for 48 h and the results showed a well-spread morphology. Porous 3D scaffolds fabricated from these PEAs were found to have excellent porosities indicating the utility of these polymers for vascular tissue engineering.

  6. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Anzai, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junanzai@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Recent progress in electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid (PBA) and its derivatives as recognition components is reviewed. PBAs are known to bind diol compounds including sugars to form cyclic boronate esters that are negatively charged as a result of the addition of OH{sup -} ions from solution. Based on the formation of PBA charged species, sugars and their derivatives can be detected by means of electrochemical and optical techniques. For the development of PBA-based electrochemical sensing systems or sensors, PBA is modified with a redox-active marker, because PBA itself is electrochemically inactive, and ferrocene derivatives are often employed for this purpose. Ferrocene-modified PBAs have been used as redox-active additives in solution for the electrochemical detection of sugars and derivatives. PBA-modified electrodes have also been constructed as reagentless electrochemical sensors, where PBAs are immobilized on the surface of metal and carbon electrodes through mainly two routes: as a self-assembled monolayer film and as a polymer thin film. PBA-modified electrodes can be successfully used to detect sugars and derivatives through potentiometric and voltammetric responses. In addition, PBA-modified electrodes can be used for the immobilization of glycoenzymes on an electrode surface by the formation of boronate esters with carbohydrate chains in the glycoenzymes, thus resulting in enzyme biosensors. For the development of PBA-based optical sensors, a variety of chromophores and fluorophores have been coupled with PBA. Azobenzene dyes have been most frequently used for the preparation of colorimetric sugar sensors, in which the absorption wavelength and intensity of the dye are dependent on the type and concentration of added sugars. The sensitivity of the sensors is significantly improved based on multi-component systems in which alizalin red S, pyrocatechol violet, starch-iodine complex, and cyclodextrin are employed as

  7. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid (PBA) and its derivatives as recognition components is reviewed. PBAs are known to bind diol compounds including sugars to form cyclic boronate esters that are negatively charged as a result of the addition of OH- ions from solution. Based on the formation of PBA charged species, sugars and their derivatives can be detected by means of electrochemical and optical techniques. For the development of PBA-based electrochemical sensing systems or sensors, PBA is modified with a redox-active marker, because PBA itself is electrochemically inactive, and ferrocene derivatives are often employed for this purpose. Ferrocene-modified PBAs have been used as redox-active additives in solution for the electrochemical detection of sugars and derivatives. PBA-modified electrodes have also been constructed as reagentless electrochemical sensors, where PBAs are immobilized on the surface of metal and carbon electrodes through mainly two routes: as a self-assembled monolayer film and as a polymer thin film. PBA-modified electrodes can be successfully used to detect sugars and derivatives through potentiometric and voltammetric responses. In addition, PBA-modified electrodes can be used for the immobilization of glycoenzymes on an electrode surface by the formation of boronate esters with carbohydrate chains in the glycoenzymes, thus resulting in enzyme biosensors. For the development of PBA-based optical sensors, a variety of chromophores and fluorophores have been coupled with PBA. Azobenzene dyes have been most frequently used for the preparation of colorimetric sugar sensors, in which the absorption wavelength and intensity of the dye are dependent on the type and concentration of added sugars. The sensitivity of the sensors is significantly improved based on multi-component systems in which alizalin red S, pyrocatechol violet, starch-iodine complex, and cyclodextrin are employed as indicators

  8. The utility of uric acid assay in dogs as an indicator of functional hepatic mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid was used as a test for liver disease before the advent of enzymology. Three old studies criticised uric acid as a test of liver function. Uric acid, as an end-product of purine metabolism in the liver, deserved re-evaluation as a liver function test. Serumtotal bile acids are widely accepted as the most reliable liver function test. This study compared the ability of serumuric acid concentration to assess liver function with that of serumpre-prandial bile acids in dogs. In addition, due to the renal excretion of uric acid the 2 assays were also compared in a renal disease group. Using a control group of healthy dogs, a group of dogs with congenital vascular liver disease, a group of dogs with non-vascular parenchymal liver diseases and a renal disease group, the ability of uric acid and pre-prandial bile acids was compared to detect reduced functional hepatic mass overall and in the vascular or parenchymal liver disease groups separately. Sensitivities, specificities and predictive value parameters were calculated for each test. The medians of uric acid concentration did not differ significantly between any of the groups, whereas pre-prandial bile acids medians were significantly higher in the liver disease groups compared with the normal and renal disease group of dogs. The sensitivity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 65% while the specificity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 59 %. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting congenital vascular liver disease was 68%and 59 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting parenchymal liver disease was 63%and 60 %, respectively. The overall positive and negative predictive values for uric acid in detecting liver disease were poor and the data in this study indicated uric acid to be an unreliable test of liver function. In dogs suffering from renal compromise serum uric acid concentrations may increase into the

  9. Physico-Chemical and Structural Interpretation of Discrete Derivative Indices on N-Tuples Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Martínez-Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the interpretation of the Graph Derivative Indices (GDIs from three different perspectives (i.e., in structural, steric and electronic terms. It is found that the individual vertex frequencies may be expressed in terms of the geometrical and electronic reactivity of the atoms and bonds, respectively. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the GDIs are sensitive to progressive structural modifications in terms of: size, ramifications, electronic richness, conjugation effects and molecular symmetry. Moreover, it is observed that the GDIs quantify the interaction capacity among molecules and codify information on the activation entropy. A structure property relationship study reveals that there exists a direct correspondence between the individual frequencies of atoms and Hückel’s Free Valence, as well as between the atomic GDIs and the chemical shift in NMR, which collectively validates the theory that these indices codify steric and electronic information of the atoms in a molecule. Taking in consideration the regularity and coherence found in experiments performed with the GDIs, it is possible to say that GDIs possess plausible interpretation in structural and physicochemical terms.

  10. Physico-Chemical and Structural Interpretation of Discrete Derivative Indices on N-Tuples Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santiago, Oscar; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Barigye, Stephen J.; Le Thi Thu, Huong; Torres, F. Javier; Zambrano, Cesar H.; Muñiz Olite, Jorge L.; Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo; Vázquez Infante, Liliana; Artiles Martínez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the interpretation of the Graph Derivative Indices (GDIs) from three different perspectives (i.e., in structural, steric and electronic terms). It is found that the individual vertex frequencies may be expressed in terms of the geometrical and electronic reactivity of the atoms and bonds, respectively. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the GDIs are sensitive to progressive structural modifications in terms of: size, ramifications, electronic richness, conjugation effects and molecular symmetry. Moreover, it is observed that the GDIs quantify the interaction capacity among molecules and codify information on the activation entropy. A structure property relationship study reveals that there exists a direct correspondence between the individual frequencies of atoms and Hückel’s Free Valence, as well as between the atomic GDIs and the chemical shift in NMR, which collectively validates the theory that these indices codify steric and electronic information of the atoms in a molecule. Taking in consideration the regularity and coherence found in experiments performed with the GDIs, it is possible to say that GDIs possess plausible interpretation in structural and physicochemical terms. PMID:27240357

  11. On the Influence of the Data Sampling Interval on Computer-Derived K-Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Armelle; Chambodut, Aude; 10.2481/dsj.IAGA-07

    2012-01-01

    The K index was devised by Bartels et al. (1939) to provide an objective monitoring of irregular geomagnetic activity. The K index was then routinely used to monitor the magnetic activity at permanent magnetic observatories as well as at temporary stations. The increasing number of digital and sometimes unmanned observatories and the creation of INTERMAGNET put the question of computer production of K at the centre of the debate. Four algorithms were selected during the Vienna meeting (1991) and endorsed by IAGA for the computer production of K indices. We used one of them (FMI algorithm) to investigate the impact of the geomagnetic data sampling interval on computer produced K values through the comparison of the computer derived K values for the period 2009, January 1st to 2010, May 31st at the Port-aux-Francais magnetic observatory using magnetic data series with different sampling rates (the smaller: 1 second; the larger: 1 minute). The impact is investigated on both 3-hour range values and K indices data...

  12. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-Derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  13. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, M. T.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  14. Salicylic acid and some of its derivatives as antibacterial agents for viscose fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantouch, A; El-Sayed, A Atef; Salama, M; El-Kheir, A Abou; Mowafi, S

    2013-11-01

    Salicylic acid and three of its derivatives were used to provide antibacterial properties to viscose fabrics. The four bactericides used were bonded to the viscose fabrics using epichlorohydrin or polymer binders. Optimization of the salicylic acid and its derivatives as well as the concentration of polymers was reported. The ability of the polymer binders to attract and bind the four bactericides was observed. The overall results show that the antibacterial reactivity of salicylic acid and its derivatives are in the following order 5-bromosalicylic acid>salicylic acid>5-chlorosalicylic acid>4-chlorosalicylic acid. Using epichlorohydrin as a binding agent, unfortunately, inhibits the bactericidal activity of the four bactericides. The FTIR study concludes that the reaction between salicylic acid as well as its derivatives with epichlorohydrin takes place through the phenolic group of the acids. The unexpected deterioration in the bactericidal properties of salicylic acid and its derivatives as a result of the treatment with epichlorohydrin could be due to the nature of interaction between the epichlorohydrin molecule and the acids molecules. PVP and PU show superior ability to sustain the four bactericides used even after 10 washing cycles.

  15. Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids: Oxidised derivatives of linoleic acid and their role in inflammation associated with metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangaveti, Venkat N; Jansen, Holger; Kennedy, Richard Lee; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-08-15

    Linoleic acid (LA) is a major constituent of low-density lipoproteins. An essential fatty acid, LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which is oxidised by endogenous enzymes and reactive oxygen species in the circulation. Increased levels of low-density lipoproteins coupled with oxidative stress and lack of antioxidants drive the oxidative processes. This results in synthesis of a range of oxidised derivatives, which play a vital role in regulation of inflammatory processes. The derivatives of LA include, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids, oxo-​octadecadienoic acids, epoxy octadecadecenoic acid and epoxy-keto-octadecenoic acids. In this review, we examine the role of LA derivatives and their actions on regulation of inflammation relevant to metabolic processes associated with atherogenesis and cancer. The processes affected by LA derivatives include, alteration of airway smooth muscles and vascular wall, affecting sensitivity to pain, and regulating endogenous steroid hormones associated with metabolic syndrome. LA derivatives alter cell adhesion molecules, this initial step, is pivotal in regulating inflammatory processes involving transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways, thus, leading to alteration of metabolic processes. The derivatives are known to elicit pleiotropic effects that are either beneficial or detrimental in nature hence making it difficult to determine the exact role of these derivatives in the progress of an assumed target disorder. The key may lie in understanding the role of these derivatives at various stages of development of a disorder. Novel pharmacological approaches in altering the synthesis or introduction of synthesised LA derivatives could possibly help drive processes that could regulate inflammation in a beneficial manner. Chemical Compounds: Linoleic acid (PubChem CID: 5280450), 9- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (PubChem CID: 5312830), 13- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (PubChem CID: 6443013), 9-oxo

  16. Polyphosphorous acid catalyzed cyclization in the synthesis of cryptolepine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    11-Oxo-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-indolo[3,2,b]quinoline7-carboxylic acid was obtained specifically by polyphosphorous acid catalyzed cyclization with optimal reaction conditions. Biological assays showed that it potentially inhibits the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity in vitro and suppresses breast cancer cell growth.

  17. Anacardic acid derived salicylates are inhibitors or activators of lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisastra, Rosalina; Ghizzoni, Massimo; Boltjes, Andre; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Lipoxygenases catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, which play a crucial role in inflammatory responses. Selective inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel soybean lipoxyg

  18. Michael addition of thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroamino acid and dehydropeptide derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Paula M.T.; Maia, Hernâni L. S.; Monteiro, Luís S.; Sacramento, Joana

    2001-01-01

    Michael additions of nitrogen heterocycles, thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroalanine derivatives, including a glycyldehydroalanine peptide, were performed in fair to good yields. Dehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives reacted only with the stronger nucleophiles but in considerably lower yields and often no reaction was observed with the corresponding dehydrophenylalanine derivatives. When a tosyl group was bonded to the nitrogen atom of the dehydroamino acid, in some cases the a...

  19. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  20. A New β-Carboline Alkaloid and a New Derivate of Isoferulic Acid from Anemone altaica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Jie ZOU; Yue Sheng DONG; Jun Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    A new β-carboline alkaloid, 4-(9H-β-carbolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutyric acid and a new derivate of isoferulic acid, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid carboxymethyl ester,were isolated from the roots of Anemone altaica. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data.

  1. Stability and interactions in mixed monolayers of fatty acid derivatives on artificial sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Mugele, F.; Duits, M.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the formation and stability of fatty acid and derivatives films on aqueous sub-phases by means of Langmuir trough experiments. Films were prepared from pure stearic acid (SA), stearyl amine (SAm) and 12-phenyldodecanoic acid (PDA), and from binary systems of SA with either SAm or PDA. For

  2. Derivation of indicators for PCDD/PCDF concentration in MSWI ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordsieck, H.O. [Bayerisches Institut fuer Abfallforschung BIfA GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Neuer-Etscheidt, K. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R. [Augsburg Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Both changes in combustion parameters (''t, t, t'': temperature, time, turbulence) and advances in air pollution control allow modern municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) to keep dioxin (PCDD+PCDF) concentrations in the stack gas below low limits such as 0.1 ng/m{sup 3} (I-)TEQ. However, the dioxin load of solid residues still is too high to fulfil stringent limits of total dioxin emission such as the Japanese limit of 5{mu}g TEQ/Mg of waste burned. Apart from APC residues, fly and boiler ashes account for the largest part of total dioxins emitted. Consequently, thermal treatment of the fly ash is implemented in several MSWI plants, most of them situated in Japan. However, thermal ash treatment is expensive both considering costs and energy. Dioxin concentrations in solid residues were found to vary by 2 orders of magnitude. Although variation between different plants is larger than between different samples from the same plant, it should be possible to reduce residual PCDD/PCDF load substantially treating only the higher loaded fraction of the ashes if it is possible to select these on-line. Aim of the research work was to derive on-line detectable indicators for the PCDD/PCDF load of boiler ash and ESP dust of MSWI plants.

  3. Prompt Proxy Mapping of Flood Damaged Rice Fields Using MODIS-Derived Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping, particularly hazard and risk mapping, is an imperative process and a fundamental part of emergency response and risk management. This paper aims to produce a flood risk proxy map of damaged rice fields over the whole of Bangladesh, where monsoon river floods are dominant and frequent, affecting over 80% of the total population. This proxy risk map was developed to meet the request of the government on a national level. This study represents a rapid, straightforward methodology for estimating rice-crop damage in flood areas of Bangladesh during the large flood from July to September 2007, despite the lack of primary data. We improved a water detection algorithm to achieve a better discrimination capacity to discern flood areas by using a modified land surface water index (MLSWI. Then, rice fields were estimated utilizing a hybrid rice field map from land-cover classification and MODIS-derived indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and enhanced vegetation index (EVI. The results showed that the developed method is capable of providing instant, comprehensive, nationwide mapping of flood risks, such as rice field damage. The detected flood areas and damaged rice fields during the 2007 flood were verified by comparing them with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS AVNIR-2 images (a 10 m spatial resolution and in situ field survey data with moderate agreement (K = 0.57.

  4. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  5. Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-03-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Piper heterophyllum and P. aduncum afforded three prenylated hydroxybenzoic acids, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-13-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-14-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,15-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with the known compounds, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(E,E,E-11-formyl-3,7,15-trimethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid (arieianal), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the compounds as racemates. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds were tested against three strains of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid exhibited potent and selective activity against L. braziliensis (IC(50) 6.5 microg/ml), higher that pentamidine used as control. Moreover, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl- 2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid showed moderate antiplasmodial (IC(50) 3.2 microg/ml) and trypanocidal (16.5 microg/ml) activities, respectively. PMID:19361822

  6. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Gu, Yunpeng; Liu, Zhenjun; Qi, Yue; Ma, Gui E; Kang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34- when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  7. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  8. Pyrazine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Dichlorobis(Cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra Dixit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of dichlorobis(cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV with pyrazine carboxylic acids viz. 2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (2-PzCH, 5-methyl-2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (MPzCH and 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (2,3-PzDCH2 were carried out in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the type Cp2Ti(2-PzCCl , Cp2Ti(2-PzC2 ,Cp2Ti(MPzCCl,Cp2Ti(MPzC2, Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCHCl and Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH2 were obtained. These newly synthesized complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral data.

  9. Pyrazine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Dichlorobis(Cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Chandra Dixit; Rohit Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of dichlorobis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV) with pyrazine carboxylic acids viz. 2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (2-PzCH), 5-methyl-2-pyrazine carboxylic acid (MPzCH) and 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (2,3-PzDCH2) were carried out in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the type Cp2Ti(2-PzC)Cl , Cp2Ti(2-PzC)2 ,Cp2Ti(MPzC)Cl,Cp2Ti(MPzC)2, Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH)Cl and Cp2Ti(2,3-PzDCH)2 were obtained. These newly synthesized complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyse...

  10. Analysis of Citric Acid in Beverages: Use of an Indicator Displacement Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Alona P.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Wright, Aaron T.; Blieden, Clifford R.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Tian, Tian; Truong, Jennifer A.; Crumm, Caitlin E.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Lee, Soal; Mosier, Meredith; Nguyen, Chester P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of an indicator displacement assay permits the visualization of binding events between host and guest molecules. An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to demonstrate the technique in the determination of citric acid content in commercially available beverages such as soda pop and fruit juices. Through the technique, students…

  11. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  12. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  13. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  14. Chemical Synthesis of Uncommon Natural Bile Acids: The 9α-Hydroxy Derivatives of Chenodeoxycholic and Lithocholic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takashi; Namegawa, Kazunari; Nakane, Naoya; Iida, Kyoko; Hofmann, Alan Frederick; Omura, Kaoru

    2016-09-01

    The chemical synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivatives of chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids is reported. For initiating the synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivative of chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid was used; for the synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivative of lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid was used. The principal reactions involved were (1) decarbonylation of conjugated 12-oxo-Δ(9(11))-derivatives using in situ generated monochloroalane (AlH2Cl) prepared from LiAlH4 and AlCl3, (2) epoxidation of the deoxygenated Δ(9(11))-enes using m-chloroperbenzoic acid catalyzed by 4,4'-thiobis-(6-tert-butyl-3-methylphenol), (3) subsequent Markovnikov 9α-hydroxylation of the Δ(9(11))-enes with AlH2Cl, and (4) selective oxidation of the primary hydroxyl group at C-24 in the resulting 3α,9α,24-triol and 3α,7α,9α,24-tetrol to the corresponding C-24 carboxylic acids using sodium chlorite (NaClO2) in the presence of a catalytic amount of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl free radical (TEMPO) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra are reported. The 3α,7α,9α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid has been reported to be present in the bile of the Asian bear, and its 7-deoxy derivative is likely to be a bacterial metabolite. These bile acids are now available as authentic reference standards, permitting their identification in vertebrate bile acids. PMID:27319285

  15. Recent Advancements and Biological Activities of Aryl Propionic Acid Derivatives: (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Dhall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aryl propionic acid derivatives belong to an important class of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ibuprofen, chemically called 2-(4-isobutyl phenyl propionic acid, is a well known NSAID. Aryl propionic acid derivatives possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Apart from very potent compounds in the field of analgesics and antipyrectics as Ibuprofen, Oxaprozin, Ketoprofen, Fenoprofen; aryl propionic acid derivatives plays important role to treat other ailments also. Through this review, an attempt has been made to emphasize on recent work done and recent advancements in arena of aryl propionic acid derivatives in view of medicinal chemistry.

  16. Synthesis of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetrahydropyran Derivatives Catalyzed by Tungstophosphoric Acid in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran derivatives catalyzed by tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O4o) were conveniently performed with high yield from the corresponding unsaturated alcohols in ionic liquid. Sufuric acid (H2SO4), trifluoromathanesulfonic acid (TfOH)and p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH) were also explored for preparing these products in ionic liquid.The catalysts and ionic liquid can be easily recovered and reused.

  17. The relationship between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cardiometabolic indices in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Tay, Yi Hang; Lee, Jimmy

    2014-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, has been recently shown to be involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. This study seeks to examine the relationship between BDNF, metabolic indices and cardiovascular (CVD) risk in patients with schizophrenia. Medical histories, demographic information and anthropometric measurements were collected and analyzed from 61 participants with schizophrenia. Fasting glucose and lipids were measured in a central laboratory, and serum BDNF was analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 10-year CVD risk for each participant was computed using the Framingham risk score (FRS). Linear regressions were performed to examine the relationships between serum BDNF with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose. To examine the relationship between serum BDNF and FRS, serum BDNF was categorized into quartiles, and a multiple regression was performed. After adjusting for age, gender and current smoking status, diastolic BP (dBP) (p=0.045) and TG (p=0.015) were found to be significantly associated with serum BDNF. Participants in the highest quartile of serum BDNF had a 3.3 times increase in FRS over those in the lowest quartile. Our findings support the possible regulatory role of BDNF in metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis among patients with schizophrenia similar to that observed among the non-mentally ill. Serum BDNF not only present itself as a candidate biomarker of schizophrenia but also might be a viable marker of metabolic co-morbidities associated with schizophrenia.

  18. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Lucke, Annegret; Harder, Hauke; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Böhm, Josef; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA or 5% LA solutions in a ratio of 1:1.2 (w/v) for 5, 24, or 48 h, and analyzed for multiple mycotoxin metabolites using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method. The analyses showed that treating the feed with CA and LA lowered the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON), whereby 5% LA lowered the original DON concentration in the contaminated feed samples by half, irrespective of the processing time. Similar lowering effects were observed for the concentrations of 15Ac-DON, 5-hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research is required to determine the effect on overall toxicity and to identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27690101

  19. Synthesis and Application of Phenyl Nitrone Derivatives as Acidic and Microbial Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrone has drawn great attention due to its wide applications as a 1,3-dipole in heterocyclic compounds synthesis and the bioactivities. With the special structure, nitrone can also be used as ligand in inorganic chemistry. Based on the current research, the nitrones are anticipated to be effective inhibitors against acidic and microbial corrosion. The aim of this work is to investigate the inhibitory action of nitrones. In this work, a series of phenyl nitrone derivatives (PN was synthesized and used as acidic and microbial corrosion inhibitors. The results indicate that several compounds show moderate to high inhibition efficiency (IE in 3% HCl. Accompanied with HMTA or BOZ, the IEs greatly increase, and the highest efficiency of 98.5% was obtained by using PN4 + BOZ. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oilfield microorganism shows that the nitrone derivatives can inhibit SRB, IB, and TGB with moderate to high efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes them potential to be used as bifunctional oilfield chemicals.

  20. Assessment of spatially distributed values of Kc using vegetation indices derived from medium resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Simoniello, T.; Lanfredi, M.; Russo, A. L.

    2010-09-01

    In the last years, the theme of suitable assessment of irrigation water supply has been raised relevant interest for both general principles of sustainable development and optimization of water resources techniques and management. About 99% of the water used in agriculture is lost by crops as evapotranspiration (ET). Thus, it becomes crucial to drive direct or indirect measurement in order to perform a suitable evaluation of water loss by evapotranspiration (i.e. actual evapotranspiration) as well as crop water status and its effect on the production. The main methods used to measure evapotranspiration are available only at field scale (Bowen ratio, eddy correlation system, soil water balance) confined to a small pilot area, generally due to expense and logistical constraints. This led over the last 50 years to the development of a large number of empirical methods to estimate evapotranspiration through different climatic and meteorological variables as well as combining models, based on aerodynamic theory and energy balance, taking into account both canopy properties and meteorological conditions. Among these, the Penman-Monteith equation seems to give the best results providing a robust and consistent method world wide accepted. Such conventional methods only provide accurate evapotranspiration assessment for a homogeneous region nearby the meteorological gauge station and cannot be extrapolated to other different sites; whereas remote sensing techniques allow for filling up such a gap. Some of these satellite techniques are based on the use of thermal band signals as inputs for energy balance equations. Another common approach is mainly based on the FAO method for estimating crop evapotranspiration, in which evapotranspiration data are multiplied by crop coefficients, Kc, derived from satellite multispectral vegetation indices obtained. The rationale behind such a link considers that Kc and vegetation indices are sensitive to both leaf area index and fractional

  1. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric α-Arylation of α-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan

    2015-07-27

    Available α-amino acids undergo arylation at their α position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the α position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character.

  2. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  3. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour charact

  4. Phenolic acid metabolites as biomarkers for tea- and coffee-derived polyphenol exposure in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Chan, Shin Yee; Puddey, Ian B; Devine, Amanda; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lukito, Widjaja; Burke, Valerie; Ward, Natalie C; Prince, Richard L; Croft, Kevin D

    2004-02-01

    Tea and coffee are rich in polyphenols with a variety of biological activities. Many of the demonstrated activities are consistent with favourable effects on the risk of chronic diseases. 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) and isoferulic acid are potential biomarkers of exposure to polyphenols derived from tea and coffee respectively. 4OMGA is derived from gallic acid in tea, and isoferulic acid is derived from chlorogenic acid in coffee. Our major objective was to explore the relationships of tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid in human subjects. The relationships of long-term usual (111 participants) and contemporaneously recorded current (344 participants) tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid were assessed in two populations. 4OMGA was related to usual (r 0.50, Pcoffee intake. Overall, our present results are consistent with the proposal that 4OMGA is a good biomarker for black tea-derived polyphenol exposure, but isoferulic acid may be of limited usefulness as a biomarker for coffee-derived polyphenol exposure.

  5. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trögl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS. Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99. After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0 to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7, an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications.

  6. Assessment of digital camera-derived vegetation indices in quantitative monitoring of seasonal rice growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Shibayama, Michio; Kimura, Akihiko; Takada, Eiji

    2011-11-01

    A commercially available digital camera can be used in a low-cost automatic observation system for monitoring crop growth change in open-air fields. We developed a prototype Crop Phenology Recording System (CPRS) for monitoring rice growth, but the ready-made waterproof cases that we used produced shadows on the images. After modifying the waterproof cases, we repeated the fixed-point camera observations to clarify questions regarding digital camera-derived vegetation indices (VIs), namely, the visible atmospherically resistant index (VARI) based on daytime normal color images (RGB image) and the nighttime relative brightness index (NRBI NIR) based on nighttime near infrared (NIR) images. We also took frequent measurements of agronomic data such as plant length, leaf area index (LAI), and aboveground dry matter weight to gain a detailed understanding of the temporal relationship between the VIs and the biophysical parameters of rice. In addition, we conducted another nighttime outdoor experiment to establish the link between NRBI NIR and camera-to-object distance. The study produced the following findings. (1) The customized waterproof cases succeeded in preventing large shadows from being cast, especially on nighttime images, and it was confirmed that the brightness of the nighttime NIR images had spatial heterogeneity when a point light source (flashlight) was used, in contrast to the daytime RGB images. (2) The additional experiment using a forklift showed that both the ISO sensitivity and the calibrated digital number of the NIR (cDN NIR) had significant effects on the sensitivity of NRBI NIR to the camera-to-object distance. (3) Detailed measurements of a reproductive stem were collected to investigate the connection between the morphological feature change caused by the panicle sagging process and the downtrend in NRBI NIR during the reproductive stages. However, these agronomic data were not completely in accord with NRBI NIR in terms of the temporal pattern

  7. Biodegradation of novel amino acid derivatives suitable for complexing agents in pulp bleaching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Sirpa; Ronkainen, Erja; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Aksela, Reijo; Sillanpää, Mika

    2007-05-01

    The biodegradability of four novel diethanolamine derivative complexing agents was examined by using two biodegradation tests standardised by OECD (301B and 301F). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were employed as reference substances. Biodegradation of the new complexing agents was studied both with unacclimated and acclimated inocula as well as by simulating wastewater treatment in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). These new complexing agents were of technical grade, and therefore, the results are only indicative but these new compounds hold promise for use as complexing agents in the pulp and paper industry. The novel complexing agents were not readily biodegradable but they showed slight biodegradation. Around 10-30% degradation was found in the SBR where degradation was followed by measurement of concentration. Moreover the novel complexing agents did not have any negative impact on reactor performance as measured by chemical oxygen demand reduction. In the standardised biodegradation tests at best around 50% degradation was observed with the acclimated inoculum and in the prolonged test whereas EDTA and DTPA exhibited no biodegradation. The elevated degradation in acclimated sludge indicates that the water treatment plant microbes are capable of decomposing these molecules under favourable conditions. The total concentration of novel complexing agents decreased slightly during biodegradation tests, while the EDTA and DTPA concentrations remained stable. PMID:17346781

  8. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour characteristics. This thesis focuses on the production of one class of these compounds as a model system: aldehydes, in particular the key-flavour compounds 3-methylbutanal and 2-methyl propanal, which ar...

  9. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution. PMID:27177215

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed C–C Bond Formations via Activation of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Bingrui

    2013-01-01

    Applications of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions regio-selectively forming Csp3-Csp2, and Csp2-Csp2 bonds were explored in this thesis. Several important organic building blocks such as aryl acetates, diaryl acetates, imines, ketones, biaryls, styrenes and polysubstituted alkenes were successfully accessed from carboxylic acids and their derivatives by the means of C–H activation and decarboxylative cross-couplings. An efficient ...

  11. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Novel Benzaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives from Kaurenoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A series of new thiosemicarbazones derived from natural diterpene kaurenoic acid were synthesized and tested against the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi to evaluate their antitrypanosomal potential. Seven of the synthesized thiosemicarbazones were more active than kaurenoic acid with IC50 values between 2-24.0 mM. The o-nitro-benzaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone derivative was the most active compound with IC50 of 2.0 mM. The results show that the structural modifications accomplished enhan...

  12. Structure–anticancer activity relationships among 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesyk R. B.; Kaminskyy D. V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of present research was investigation of anticancer activity of 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives, and studies of structure–activity relationships (SAR) aspects. Methods. Organic synthesis; spectral methods; anticancer screening was performed according to the US NCI protocol (Developmental Therapeutic Program). Results. The data of new 4-thiazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids derivatives in vitro anticancer activity were described. The most active compounds which belong to...

  13. Anti-inflammatory pro-resolving derivatives of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Z. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is a physiological defense reaction of living tissues to injury or infection. An array of mediators, including those derived from omega-6 (ω6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (AA) e.g. prostaglandins and leukotrienes, promote the inflammatory response. Acute inflammation has several programmed fates, including complete resolution or progression to chronic inflammation, scarring, and eventual loss of tissue function. Studies on AA-derived proinflammat...

  14. Agar media that indicate acid production from sorbitol by oral microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalfas, S.; Edwardsson, S

    1985-01-01

    Two varieties of agar medium (Trypticase [BBL Microbiology Systems]-serum-sorbitol-bromcresol purple agar [TSSB] and Trypticase-blood-sorbitol-CaCO3 agar [TBSCa]) indicating microbial acid production from sorbitol were tested. The media were devised for use in studies on the prevalence of sorbitol-fermenting human oral microorganisms incubated in an anaerobic or microaerophilic atmosphere containing 5 to 6% CO2. TSSB contains bromcresol purple as the pH indicator and NaHCO3 as the main buffer...

  15. An Efficient Solid Acid Promoted Synthesis of Quinoxaline Derivatives at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AHMAD,Shaabani; ALI,Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesized in a very short time with excellent yields by the condensation of 1,2-diamines with aliphatic or aromatic 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds or benzilmonoxime in the presence of silica sul-furic acid as a very inexpensive solid acid catalyst at room temperature. The recovery and reuse of the catalyst are also satisfactory.

  16. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    -1269. 13 Barclay, W.R., Meager, K.M. & Abril, J.R., Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae like microorganisms, J. Appl. Phycol., 6(1994) 123-129. 14 Ratledge, C., Microorganisms as sources... with the recognition that certain strains and species of both yeast and filamentous fungi are capable of producing relatively high amounts of fats and oils. There is also particular interest in specific fungal lipid products, such as those having biological...

  17. Enantioselective Recognition of Calix [4] arene Derivative Bearing Bicyclic Guanidinium for D/L Amino Acid Zwitterions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 陆国元; 何卫江; 王震生; 朱龙根

    2001-01-01

    The p-tetra-tert-butyl calix[4]arene derivatives ( 3 and 4 )with(S,S) chiral bicyclic guanidinium, as the receptors of amino acid zwitterions, have been synthesized via a O-alkylation reaction of p-tetra-tert-rutyi calix [4] arene with chloromethly chiral bicyclic guanidinium 2 in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 in acetonitrile.The results obtained from liquid-liquid competitive extraction experiments indicate that the two receptors may selectively recognize L-aromatic amino acids, and that the enantioselective recognizability of the receptor 4 with two chiral bicyclic guanidinium units reachs up to about 90% for L-Phe.

  18. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity of all-trans retinoic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shen; Jing Bo Shi; Fei Hu Chen; Yuan Wang; Jing Jing Ruan; Yua Huang

    2009-01-01

    A series of retinoate and retinamide derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their anti-tumor activities were investigated in NB4 by MTT and flow cytometry assays (FCM). All compounds showed cytotoxicity, especially compounds 1a and 1d exhibited a higher cytotoxicity than other derivatives and all-traus retinoic acid (ATRA). Furthermore, compound ld could induce NB4 cell lines differentiation efficiently.

  19. p-Nitrobenzoic acid promoted synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varala, Ravi; Enugala, Ramu; Adapa, Srinivas R. [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India)]. E-mail: rvarala_iict@yahoo.co.in

    2007-03-15

    p-Nitrobenzoic acid was found to be the versatile Bronsted organic acid promoter among the carboxylic acids tested for the preparation of 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives from a wide range of substituted o-phenylenediamines and ketones. The corresponding products were obtained in good isolated yields (62-92%) under mild conditions using acetonitrile as solvent at ambient temperature. Further, the reagent could be easily recovered and reused. (author00.

  20. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric ...

  1. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references

  2. Two New Cholic Acid Derivatives from the Marine Ascidian-Associated Bacterium Hasllibacter halocynthiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of secondary metabolites in liquid cultures of a recently discovered marine bacterium, Hasllibacter halocynthiae strain KME 002T, led to the isolation of two new cholic acid derivatives. The structures of these compounds were determined to be 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-ketocholanic acid (1 and 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-deoxycholanic acid (2 through HRFABMS and NMR data analyses.

  3. Amino acid size, charge, hydropathy indices and matrices for protein structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro JC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein folding and specific interactions from only the sequence (ab initio is a major challenge in bioinformatics. It is believed that such prediction will prove possible if Anfinsen's thermodynamic principle is correct for all kinds of proteins, and all the information necessary to form a concrete 3D structure is indeed present in the sequence. Results We indexed the 200 possible amino acid pairs for their compatibility regarding the three major physicochemical properties – size, charge and hydrophobicity – and constructed Size, Charge and Hydropathy Compatibility Indices and Matrices (SCI & SCM, CCI & CCM, and HCI & HCM. Each index characterized the expected strength of interaction (compatibility of two amino acids by numbers from 1 (not compatible to 20 (highly compatible. We found statistically significant positive correlations between these indices and the propensity for amino acid co-locations in real protein structures (a sample containing total 34630 co-locations in 80 different protein structures: for HCI: p We tried to predict or reconstruct simple 2D representations of 3D structures from the sequence using these matrices by applying a dot plot-like method. The location and pattern of the most compatible subsequences was very similar or identical when the three fundamentally different matrices were used, which indicates the consistency of physicochemical compatibility. However, it was not sufficient to choose one preferred configuration between the many possible predicted options. Conclusion Indexing of amino acids for major physico-chemical properties is a powerful approach to understanding and assisting protein design. However, it is probably insufficient itself for complete ab initio structure prediction.

  4. Modification of oligo-Ricinoleic Acid and Its Derivatives with 10-Undecenoic Acid via Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claudia Montiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipases were employed under solvent-free conditions to conjugate oligo-ricinoleic acid derivatives with 10-undecenoic acid, to incorporate a reactive terminal double bond into the resultant product. First, undecenoic acid was covalently attached to oligo-ricinoleic acid using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL at a 30% yield. Thirty percent conversion also occurred for CAL-catalyzed esterification between undecenoic acid and biocatalytically-prepared polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR, with attachment of undecenoic acid occurring primarily at free hydroxyls of the polyglycerol moiety. The synthesis of oligo-ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl- structured triacylglycerols comprised two steps. The first step, the 1,3-selective lipase-catalyzed interesterification of castor oil with undecenoic acid, occurred successfully. The second step, the CAL-catalyzed reaction between ricinoleyl-, undecenoyl structured TAG and ricinoleic acid, yielded approximately 10% of the desired structured triacylglycerols (TAG; however, a significant portion of the ricinoleic acid underwent self-polymerization as a side-reaction. The employment of gel permeation chromatography, normal phase HPLC, NMR, and acid value measurements was effective for characterizing the reaction pathways and products that formed.

  5. Unsaturated amino acids derived from isoleucine trigger early membrane effects on plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Gabriel; Laduranty, Joëlle; Bonmort, Janine; Aidene, Mohand; Chollet, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Unsaturated amino acids (UnsAA) have been shown to affect the activity of various biological processes. However, their mode of action has been investigated poorly thus far. We show in this work that 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentenoic acid (C2) and 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentynoic acid (C3) structurally derived from isoleucine (Ile) exhibited a multisite action on plant cells. For one, C2 and C3 induced early modifications at the plasma membrane level, as shown by the hyperpolarization monitored by microelectrode implantation in the pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica, indicating that these compounds are able to modify ionic fluxes. In particular, proton (H(+)) fluxes were modified, as shown by the pH rise monitored in the bathing medium of pulvinar tissues. A component of this effect may be linked to the inhibitory effect observed on the proton pumping and the vanadate-sensitive activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase monitored in plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified from pulvinar tissues of M. pudica and leaf tissues of Beta vulgaris. This effect may explain, in part, the inhibitory effect of the compounds on the uptake capacity of sucrose and valine by B. vulgaris leaf tissues. In contrast, an unexpected action was observed in cell reactions, implicating ion fluxes and water movement. Indeed, the osmocontractile reactions of pulvini induced either by a mechanical shock in M. pudica or by dark and light signals in Cassia fasciculata were increased, indicating that, compared to Ile, these compounds may modify in a specific way the plasma membrane permeability to water and ions. PMID:27254795

  6. Agar media that indicate acid production from sorbitol by oral microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfas, S; Edwardsson, S

    1985-12-01

    Two varieties of agar medium (Trypticase [BBL Microbiology Systems]-serum-sorbitol-bromcresol purple agar [TSSB] and Trypticase-blood-sorbitol-CaCO3 agar [TBSCa]) indicating microbial acid production from sorbitol were tested. The media were devised for use in studies on the prevalence of sorbitol-fermenting human oral microorganisms incubated in an anaerobic or microaerophilic atmosphere containing 5 to 6% CO2. TSSB contains bromcresol purple as the pH indicator and NaHCO3 as the main buffering salt. TBSCa contains CaCO3 as both the buffering salt and the indicator of acid production. The growth yield of pure cultures of oral microorganisms on TBSCa was shown to equal that on blood agar incubated under similar conditions. TSSB inhibited the growth of several bacteria to various extents. The recovery of sorbitol-fermenting microorganisms from oral specimens was the greatest when the specimens were assayed with TBSCa. The poorer results obtained with TSSB were mainly due to the decoloration of the pH indicator in this medium and the presence of greater numbers of sorbitol false-positive colonies.

  7. Angular sensitivity of vegetation indices derived from CHRIS/PROBA data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Kötz, B.; Kneubühler, M.

    2008-01-01

    View angle effects present in spectral vegetation indices can either be regarded as an added source of uncertainty for variable retrieval or as a source of additional information, enhancing the variable retrieval; however, the magnitude of these angular effects remains for most indices unknown or un

  8. Photosensitization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrode Modifiedwith C60 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 史亚茹; 甘良兵; 黄春辉; 王艳琴; 虎民

    2001-01-01

    C60 carboxylic acid derivatives can be readily adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 films act as charge-transfer sensitizer. The electron transport from TiO2 to the C60 derivatives results in the generation of the cathodic photocurrent. The short-circuit photocurrent of a C60 tetracarboxylic acid is 0.45 μA/cm2 under 464 um light illumination. The photoelectric behaviour of ITO electrodes modified by the same C60 carboxylic acids is different from that of the modified TiO2 electrodes, and shows anodic photocurrent.

  9. Synthesis of tyrosine derivatives containing boric acid moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, M.; Yoshino, Kazuo [Shinshu Univ., Faculty of Science, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Kimura, M.

    1998-12-01

    While p-boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) is known as a useful pharmaceutical for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), it is also reported that the boron content after it is accumulated in melanomas decreases gradually with time. 2-hydroxy-5-(2' carboxy-2'-aminoethyl) phenyl boric acid (HBPA) is suggested for alternative candidate to be used, as the compound (HBPA) resembles more in chemical nature to tyrosine and is more difficult to be oxidized by tyrosinase than p-BPA. The authors tried to synthesize HBPA via isocyanoethylacetate, employing 1-bromo-2-methoxy-5-methylbenzene as a starting material. The structure of the synthesized compounds at each steps in the course of the scheme was determined using {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 11}B NMR spectrometer. (S. Ohno)

  10. Percutaneous absorption of nicotinic acid derivatives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, A; Donzelli, G; Liggeri, E; Rodriguez, L

    1991-01-01

    The permeation rates through isolated epidermis of a homologous series of glycol, polyglycol, and alkyl esters of nicotinic acid were measured in vitro in a two-compartment diffusion cell assembly, using an isotonic buffered solution as the receiving phase. The esters were applied from aqueous solutions and also as the pure liquids. The results were consistent with those reported by other using compounds of equal or different structures either in vitro or in vivo. The experiments are compared in terms of partition equilibrium between vehicle and tissue and distribution from tissue to the receiving phase. It was demonstrated that the plateau observed in skin permeabilities of the compounds beyond a certain degree of lipophilicity is the result of the effect of water when used as the vehicle in the laboratory models. PMID:2013851

  11. Nucleic-Acid-Binding Chromophores as Efficient Indicators of Aptamer-Target Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Sarpong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding affinity and specificity of nucleic acid aptamers have made them valuable candidates for use as sensors in diagnostic applications. In particular, chromophore-functionalized aptamers offer a relatively simple format for detection and quantification of target molecules. We describe the use of nucleic-acid-staining reagents as an effective tool for detecting and signaling aptamer-target interactions. Aptamers varying in size and structure and targeting a range of molecules have been used in conjunction with commercially available chromophores to indicate and quantify the presence of cognate targets with high sensitivity and selectivity. Our assay precludes the covalent modification of nucleic acids and relies on the differential fluorescence signal of chromophores when complexed with aptamers with or without their cognate target. We also evaluate factors that are critical for the stability of the complex between the aptamer and chromophore in presence or absence of target molecules. Our results indicate the possibility of controlling those factors to enhance the sensitivity of target detection by the aptamers used in such assays.

  12. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  13. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and biological applications of α-fluorinated β-amino acids and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Taryn L; Johnston, Martin R; Duggan, Peter J; Gardiner, James

    2012-11-01

    This review gives a broad overview of the state of play with respect to the synthesis, conformational properties, and biological activity of α-fluorinated β-amino acids and derivatives. General methods are described for the preparation of monosubstituted α-fluoro-β-amino acids (Scheme 1). Nucleophilic methods for the introduction of fluorine predominantly involve the reaction of DAST with alcohols derived from α-amino acids, whereas electrophilic sources of fluorine such as NFSI have been used in conjunction with Arndt-Eistert homologation, conjugate addition or organocatalyzed Mannich reactions. α,α-Difluoro-β-amino acids have also been prepared using DAST; however, this area of synthesis is largely dominated by the use of difluorinated Reformatsky reagents to introduce the difluoro ester functionality (Scheme 9). α-Fluoro-β-amino acids and derivatives analyzed by X-ray crystal and NMR solution techniques are found to adopt preferred conformations which are thought to result from stereoelectronic effects associated with F located close to amines, amides, and esters (Figs. 2-6). α-Fluoro amide and β-fluoro ethylamide/amine effects can influence the secondary structure of α-fluoro-β-amino acid-containing derivatives including peptides and peptidomimetics (Figs. 7-9). α-Fluoro-β-amino acids are also components of a diverse range of bioactive anticancer (e.g., 5-fluorouracil), antifungal, and antiinsomnia agents as well as protease inhibitors where such fluorinated analogs have shown increased potency and spectrum of activity.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast to Produce Fatty Acid-derived Biofuels: Bottlenecks and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan eSheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  16. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Earnest

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct.

  17. Energy measures and indices of Dirichlet forms, with applications to derivatives on some fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of index for regular Dirichlet forms by means of energy measures, and discuss its properties. In particular, it is proved that the index of strong local regular Dirichlet forms is identical with the martingale dimension of the associated diffusion processes. As an application, a class of self-similar fractals is taken up as an underlying space. We prove that first-order derivatives can be defined for functions in the domain of the Dirichlet forms and their total energ...

  18. Ent-kauren-19-oic acid derivatives from the stem bark of Croton pseudopulchellus Pax

    OpenAIRE

    Langat, MK; Mulholland, DA; Crouch, NR; Tammela, P; Pohjala, L; Smith, PJ

    2012-01-01

    Two new ent-kauren-19-oic acid derivatives, ent-14S*-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid and ent-14S*,17-dihydroxykaur-15-en-19-oic acid together with eleven known compounds ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-kaur-16-en-19-al, ent-12β-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-12β-acetoxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8R,13R-epoxylabd-14-ene, eudesm-4(15)-ene-1β,6α-diol, (-)-7-epivaleran-4-one, germacra-4(15), 5E,10(14)-trien-9β-ol, acetyl aleuritolic acid, β-amyrin, and stigmasterol were isolated from the stem bark...

  19. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids. PMID:24922334

  20. Synthesis and pharmacology of N-alkylated derivatives of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Dumpis, M A; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans;

    1998-01-01

    Three amino-alkylated derivatives of the naturally occurring excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor agonist ibotenic acid (Ibo) have been synthesized and tested pharmacologically. N-Methyl-Ibo (1a) and N-ethyl-Ibo (1b) were shown to be agonists at NMDA receptors (EC50 = 140 and 320 microM, respecti......Three amino-alkylated derivatives of the naturally occurring excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor agonist ibotenic acid (Ibo) have been synthesized and tested pharmacologically. N-Methyl-Ibo (1a) and N-ethyl-Ibo (1b) were shown to be agonists at NMDA receptors (EC50 = 140 and 320 micro......-c and the potent NMDA agonist 2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid (AMAA) in order to elucidate the observed structure-activity data....

  1. Effect of the structure of gallic acid and its derivatives on their interaction with plant ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunqun; Zhou, Kai; Ning, Yong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-12-15

    Gallic acid and its derivatives co-exist with protein components in foodstuffs, but there is few report on their interaction with proteins. On the other hand, plant ferritin represents not only a novel class of iron supplement, but also a new nanocarrier for encapsulation of bioactive nutrients. However, plant ferritin is easy to be degraded by pepsin in the stomach, thereby limiting its application. Herein, we investigated the interaction of gallic acid and its derivatives with recombinant soybean seed H-2 ferritin (rH-2). We found that these phenolic acids interacted with rH-2 in a structure-dependent manner; namely, gallic acid (GA), methyl gallate (MEGA) and propyl gallate (PG) having three HO groups can bind to rH-2, while their analogues with two HO groups cannot. Consequently, such binding largely inhibited ferritin degradation by pepsin. These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of phenolic acids. PMID:27451180

  2. Irbic acid, a dicaffeoylquinic acid derivative from Centella asiatica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, Fabiana; Perellino, Nicoletta Crespi; Crippa, Sergio; Dal Toso, Roberto; Danieli, Bruno; Minghetti, Anacleto; Poli, Ferruccio; Pressi, Giovanna

    2011-10-01

    3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid (1) (irbic acid) has been isolated for the first time from cell cultures of Centella asiatica and till now it has never been reported to be present in the intact plant. Evidence of its structure was obtained by spectroscopic analyses (MS/NMR). Besides 1, cell cultures produce also the known 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and the triferulic acid 2 (4-O-8'/4'-O-8″-didehydrotriferulic acid). Biological activities were evaluated for compound 1, which showed to have a strong radical scavenging capacity, together with a high inhibitory activity on collagenase. This suggests a possible utilization of this substance as a topical agent to reduce the skin ageing process. PMID:21635941

  3. Spectrophotometric study into complexing of vanadium(3) with salicylic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexing of vanadium (3) with 5 amino-salicylic acid and amide of salicylhydroxamic acid has been studied. It has been shown that in acidic medium V3+ forms yellow complexes of the composition 1:1 with instability constants 2.2x10-19, 7.8x10-11, and 2.2x10-12, respectively. Complexes of V3+ with derivatives of salicylic acid can be used for determining V(3) content in the presence of V(4)

  4. Development of procedures for determining the amino acid requirements of chickens by the indicator amino acid oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    2001-02-01

    To better understand the amino acid requirements of chickens, a method is needed to determine a point estimate of the requirement. A method developed to determine the amino acid requirements of piglets and human infants by using the oxidation rate of an indicator amino acid as the test parameter was adapted for use in growing chickens. Polycarbonate chambers measuring 30 x 40 x 30 (L x W x H) were constructed to house one small mature chicken or several small immature chickens and to trap exhaled CO2. In the first experiment, 10-d-old chicks (250 to 300 g each) were feed deprived for 12 h and given 1 g of a methionine-deficient diet (gavage) with L-[1-C14]phenylalanine. Peak oxidation of L-[1-C14]phenylalanine occurred between 30 and 90 min (-200 dpm/g). A linear rate of oxidation (slope = -1.84; r2 = 0.96) was achieved by 120 min after feeding until after 180 min, when oxidation stabilized at a low rate. The second experiment tested different chambers and chicks with the same treatment to show repeatability. There were four chicks (250 to 300 g each) in each of three apparently identical chambers. Chicks were given two meals labeled with L-[1-C14]phenylalanine, 2 h apart. The CV for the 0- and 30-min collections were 17 and 10%, respectively. The CV for the remaining collections remained at <4%. These data supported a system of two feedings, 2 h apart to reduce variability and a collection period that included up to 3 h after the second feeding.

  5. Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten-H

    2016-08-15

    Recent years have seen the description and elucidation of a new class of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. The arachidonic acid (AA)-derived compounds in this class are called lipoxins and have been described in great detail since their discovery thirty years ago. The new players are mediators derived from fish oil omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Taken together, these mediators are also called specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). As compared to the AA/EPA/DHA-derived compounds, research regarding mediators formed from the n-3 and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids (DPAn-3 and DPAn-6) is sparse. However, mono- di- and trihydroxy derivates of the DPAs have anti-inflammatory properties as well, even though mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory action have not been fully elucidated. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the DPA-derived SPMs and their actions. PMID:26546723

  6. Global quantitative indices reflecting provider process-of-care: data-base derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Patricia J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. There would be advantage in the establishment, at the data-base level, of global quantitative indices subsuming the diversity of process-of-care. Methods A retrospective, cohort study of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 1993-2003, at the level of geographic and ICU-level descriptors (n = 35, for both hospital survivors and non-survivors. Process-of-care indices were established by analysis of: (i the smoothed time-hazard curve of individual patient discharge and determined by pharmaco-kinetic methods as area under the hazard-curve (AUC, reflecting the integrated experience of the discharge process, and time-to-peak-hazard (TMAX, in days, reflecting the time to maximum rate of hospital discharge; and (ii individual patient ability to optimize output (as length-of-stay for recorded data-base physiological inputs; estimated as a technical production-efficiency (TE, scaled [0,(maximum1], via the econometric technique of stochastic frontier analysis. For each descriptor, multivariate correlation-relationships between indices and summed mortality probability were determined. Results The data-set consisted of 223129 patients from 99 ICUs with mean (SD age and APACHE III score of 59.2(18.9 years and 52.7(30.6 respectively; 41.7% were female and 45.7% were mechanically ventilated within the first 24 hours post-admission. For survivors, AUC was maximal in rural and for-profit ICUs, whereas TMAX (≥ 7.8 days and TE (≥ 0.74 were maximal in tertiary-ICUs. For non-survivors, AUC was maximal in tertiary-ICUs, but TMAX (≥ 4.2 days and TE (≥ 0.69 were maximal in for-profit ICUs. Across descriptors, significant differences in indices were demonstrated (analysis-of-variance, P ≤ 0.0001. Total explained variance, for survivors (0.89 and non-survivors (0.89, was maximized by

  7. Structure–anticancer activity relationships among 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyk R. B.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was investigation of anticancer activity of 4-azolidinone-3-carboxylic acids derivatives, and studies of structure–activity relationships (SAR aspects. Methods. Organic synthesis; spectral methods; anticancer screening was performed according to the US NCI protocol (Developmental Therapeutic Program. Results. The data of new 4-thiazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids derivatives in vitro anticancer activity were described. The most active compounds which belong to 5-arylidene-2,4- thia(imidazolidinone-3-alkanecarboxylic acids; 5-aryl(heterylidenerhodanine-3-succinic acids derivatives were selected. Determination of some SAR aspects which allowed to determine directions in lead- compounds structure optimization, as well as desirable molecular fragments for design of potential anticancer agents based on 4-azolidinone scaffold were performed. 5-Arylidenehydantoin-3-acetic acids amides were identified as a new class of significant selective antileukemic agents. Possible pharmacophore scaffold of 5-ylidenerhodanine-3-succinic acids derivatives was suggested. Conclusions. The series of active compounds with high anticancer activity and/or selectivity levels were selected. Some SAR aspects were determined and structure design directions were proposed.

  8. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy;

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two p-substituted benzoic acid derivates were used to prepare salts of N-methylbenzylamine (II) and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (III), respectively. Only five salts of (II) and two salts of (III) were obtained in a crystalline state. The solubility of these salts was orders of magnitude higher...... than those reported for the corresponding salts of benzylamine (I). Thermal analysis indicated that the increased solubility was caused by reduced crystal lattice energy, which was most likely due to the reduced number of strong hydrogen bonds of the salt of (II) and (III). X-ray crystallographic...... analysis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid salt of (I), (II) and (III) suggested that the reduced number of hydrogen bonds caused the apparent higher solubility. Further analyses of seven salts of (I) were performed. It was not possible to identify any relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds...

  9. Theophylline-7-acetic acid derivatives with amino acids as anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynikov, Yulian; Valcheva, Violeta; Momekov, Georgi; Peikov, Plamen; Stavrakov, Georgi

    2014-07-15

    A series of amides were synthesized by condensation of theophylline-7-acetic acid and eight commercially available amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides. Consecutive hydrolysis of six of the amido-esters resulted in the formation of corresponding amido-acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The activity varied depending on the amino acid fragments and in seven cases exerted excellent values with MICs 0.46-0.26 μM. Assessment of the cytotoxicity revealed that the compounds were not cytotoxic against the human embryonal kidney cell line HEK-293T. The theophylline-7-acetamides containing amino acid moieties appear to be promising lead compounds for the development of antimycobacterial agents.

  10. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A

  11. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of platelet-derived indices for the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hernando Aponte-Barrios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Platelet-derived indices have a well-established correlation with the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia in adult-based research. These indices include mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and platelet-large cell ratio. Objective. To determine the values of platelet-derived indices in a pediatric population with diagnoses of thrombocytopenia and their etiologic correlation. Materials and methods. Analytic observational diagnostic-test study. The population for this analytical study was pediatric patients between 6 months and 18 years of age who had thrombocytopenia (<100x10(9/L. The study period was 18 months long. Results. Of 54 subjects, 18 (33.3% were diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and 36 (66.7% were diagnosed with acute leukemia. Mean age was 7.4 years and 6.8 years for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia, respectively. Mean platelet distribution width values for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia were 15.08 fL and 10.73, respectively. Mean MPV for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia was 11.7 fL and 9.8 fL, respectively. Mean platelet-large cell ratio was 38.26% and 24.97% for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia, respectively. Differences in these three distinct platelet indices between idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia were statistically significant (p=0.00. The area under the ROC curve for platelet-derived indices showed that they were adequate for defining the causes of thrombocytopenia. MPV and platelet-large cell ratio had an area under the curve of 0.89 and 0.88, respectively, while platelet size deviation width had an area under the curve of 0.903. Conclusions. Platelet-derived indices could be useful in the initial approach for the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with thrombocytopenia.

  12. Derivation of sky quality indicators from photometrically calibrated all-sky image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.; Moore, Chadwick A.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    A large database of high resolution all-sky measurements of V-band night sky brightness at sites in U.S. National Parks and astronomical observatories is utilized to describe sky quality over a wide geographic area. Mosaics of photometrically calibrated V-band imagery are processed with a semi-automated procedure to reveal the effects of artificial sky glow through graphical presentation and numeric indicators of artificial sky brightness. Comparison with simpler methods such as the use of the Unihedron SQM and naked eye limiting magnitude reveal that areas near the horizon, which are not typically captured with single-channel measurements, contribute significantly to the indicators maximum vertical illuminance, maximum sky luminance, and average all-sky luminance. Distant sources of sky glow may represent future threats to areas of the sky nearer the zenith. Timely identification and quantification of these threats may allow mitigating strategies to be implemented.

  13. INTRO - Intelligent Road, Performance Indicators needs and derivation : Single and multisource solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, M.; ESPIE, S; EL-FAOUZI, NE; De Mouzon, O.; SEIDOWSKY, R; Chung, E; MRAKOTSKY, E; Nowotny, B; Bhaskar, A.; KARKOWSKI, M; MORIN, JM; AYMAMI, JM; Perarnau, J.; TORDAY, A; Karlsson, R

    2006-01-01

    Work Package 4 of the INTRO project focuses on developing methodologies for predicting traffic conditions and for monitoring traffic safety using data measured from traffic sensors and floating car data. Data fusion methodologies on combining data from multi sources to predict travel time and traffic safety are investigated. The effect of weather on traffic conditions is also an important factor; and the development of safety indicators to monitor traffic safety using traffic sensor data are ...

  14. Characterization of Pan-Mediterranean Riparian Areas by Remote Sensing Derived Phenological Indices

    OpenAIRE

    IVITS-WASSER Eva; Cherlet, Michael; Sommer, Stefan; MEHL Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    This report aimed at inventorying characteristics of Mediterranean riparian-use zones using statistical analysis of some phenological indices calculated from remote sensing time series. Riparian areas are focused because of their prime importance in offering potential for adapted agricultural landuse and their ecosystem services. The quantity of vegetation cover present in these wider riparian-use zones has been proven to be directly dependent to adjacent landuse and related to the functionin...

  15. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  16. New Biocompatible Polyesters Derived from α-Amino Acids: Hydrolytic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoshua Katzhendler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New polymers were synthesized from α-hydroxy acids derived from the natural amino acids Ile, Leu, Phe, and Val, combined with lactic acid, glycolic acid and 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid by direct condensation. The toxicity was determined and the degradation process of these polyesters was investigated under physiological conditions by analyzing the composition of the degraded polymers and the oligomers cleaved in the buffer medium. The polymers were found to be non toxic to two cell lines. Polymers displayed a biphasic degradation behavior. In most cases, a linear relationship was found between the weight loss constant and the hydrophobicity of the polymers, Log P. Regarding the second stage of weight loss, it is apparent that polymers derived from α-hydroxy(Lisoleucine ((LHOIle and α-hydroxy(LValine ((LHOVal degraded much faster than those derived from α-hydroxy(Lleucine ((LHOLeu and α-hydroxy(Lphenylalanine ((LHOPhe, probably due to different spatial orientation of the side chains. Copolymers of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid displayed slow degradation rates as expected, whereas the degradation profile of copolymers of lactic acid was similar to the other homopolymers. These new polyesters may serve as potential biocompatible materials for medical applications.

  17. Evaluation of the Protein Requirement in Chinese Young Adults Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; ZHANG Yu Hui; WANG Zhi Ling; GOU Ling Yan; LI Wei Dong; TIAN Yuan; HU Yi Chun; WANG Rui; PIAO Jian Hua; YANG Xiao Guang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To accurately calculate the protein requirements in Chinese young adults using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Methods Nine women and ten men received a restricted daily level of protein intake (0.75, 0.82, 0.89, 0.97, and 1.05 g/kg), along with L-[1-13C]-leucine. Subjects’ protein requirement was determined by a biphasic linear regression crossover analysis of F13CO2 data. In doing so, a breakpoint at the minimal rate of appearance of 13CO2 expiration specific to each level of dietary protein was identified. This trial was registered with the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-ONC-11001407. Results The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of protein for healthy Chinese young adults were determined to be 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d), respectively, based on the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Conclusion The EAR and RNI of mixed protein are 5% and 16% that are lower than the current proposed EAR and RNI (0.92 and 1.16 g/(kg·d), respectively), as determined by the nitrogen balance method. The respective EAR and RNI recommendations of 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d) of mixed protein are estimated to be reasonable and suitable for Chinese young adults.

  18. Inter-comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple precipitation datasets in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Dutra, Emanuel; Barbosa, Paulo; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of implementing different drought indicators to improve drought monitoring capabilities at continental scale. Several global and continental datasets based on re-analysis, gridded observation, and remote sensing data were tested. At regional level the capabilities of each indicator and dataset on five regions on the African continent (Oum er-rbia, Blue Nile, Upper Niger, Limpopo and the Great Horn of Africa) were compared. The five precipitation datasets used were the ERA - Interim reanalysis (0.5°x0.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25° resolution from 1998 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (1°x1° resolution from 1901 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, 2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010). The set of indicators proposed included Standardized Precipitation index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI), Standardized Run-off index (SRI), Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMA). A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a general agreement in the timing of the peaks including the Great Horn of Africa where there are two rainy seasons. The main differences are observed thus in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas that are under drought, all the datasets agree with the certain time of onset and recovery but there are sometimes disagreements on the area affected. The agreement between datasets depends on the threshold selected to define the drought conditions. The comparison between SPI estimations suggest that the main sources of uncertainties (due by lack of ground information

  19. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased from 45 to 145 nm g-1. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r2 = 0.68, P < 0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry.

  20. Solution properties and emulsification properties of amino acid-based gemini surfactants derived from cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Sakato, Ayako; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid-based anionic gemini surfactants (2C(n)diCys, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 12, or 14 carbons and "di" and "Cys" indicate adipoyl and cysteine, respectively) were synthesized using the amino acid cysteine. Biodegradability, equilibrium surface tension, and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the properties of gemini surfactants. Additionally, the effects of alkyl chain length, number of chains, and structure on these properties were evaluated by comparing previously reported gemini surfactants derived from cystine (2C(n)Cys) and monomeric surfactants (C(n)Cys). 2C(n)diCys shows relatively higher biodegradability than does C(n)Cys and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants. Both critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension decrease when alkyl chain length is increased from 10 to 12, while a further increase in chain length to 14 results in increased CMC and surface tension. This indicates that long-chain gemini surfactants have a decreased aggregation tendency due to the steric hindrance of the bulky spacer as well as premicelle formation at concentrations below the CMC and are poorly packed at the air/water interface. Formation of micelles (measuring 2 to 5 nm in solution) from 2C(n)diCys shows no dependence on alkyl chain length. Further, shaking the mixtures of aqueous 2C(n)diCys surfactant solutions and squalane results in the formation of oil-in-water type emulsions. The highly stable emulsions are formed using 2C₁₂diCys or 2C₁₄diCys solution and squalane in a 1:1 or 2:1 volume ratio.

  1. Avian prostatic acid phosphatase: estrogen regulation in the oviduct and epithelial cell-derived ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyocheol; Lim, Whasun; Bae, Seung-Min; Bazer, Fuller W; Choi, Youngsok; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) is a glycoprotein that is mainly synthesized and secreted by glandular epithelial cells (GE) of the prostate, and it is well known as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Although ACPP was used as prognostic/diagnostic indicator and studied to elucidate regulatory mechanism(s) during several decades in humans, its role is not clearly understood. Gene profiling data using a chicken DNA microarray revealed that ACPP increased significantly during remodeling and recrudescence of the oviduct in response to estrogen. Thus, in this study, we investigated the expression and hormonal regulation of ACPP gene in the reproductive tracts of chickens. ACPP was specifically detected in the luminal cells (LE) and GE of chicken oviduct, and diethylstilbestrol (a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen) stimulated its expression during development of the oviduct. In addition, ACPP mRNA and protein were localized to LE and GE during the regeneration phase of the oviduct of laying hens during induced molting. Furthermore, ACPP mRNA and protein were abundant in GE of ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal ovaries. Moreover, strong expression of ACPP protein was detected in epithelial cells of cancerous ovaries from women. Collectively, results of the present study are the first to show that ACPP is a novel estrogen-stimulated gene in the oviductal epithelial cells of the chicken and that its expression increases significantly in epithelial cells of ovarian carcinoma, which indicates that it may be a candidate biomarker for diagnosis of epithelia-derived ovarian cancer in women. PMID:24829029

  2. The relationship between satellite-derived indices and species diversity across African savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapfumo, Ratidzo B.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi; Andriani, R.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to use remotely sensed diversity is important for the management of ecosystems at large spatial extents. However, to achieve this, there is still need to develop robust methods and approaches that enable large-scale mapping of species diversity. In this study, we tested the relationship between species diversity measured in situ with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Coefficient of Variation in the NDVI (CVNDVI) derived from high and medium spatial resolution satellite data at dry, wet and coastal savanna woodlands. We further tested the effect of logging on NDVI along the transects and between transects as disturbance may be a mechanism driving the patterns observed. Overall, the results of this study suggest that high tree species diversity is associated with low and high NDVI and at intermediate levels is associated with low tree species diversity and NDVI. High tree species diversity is associated with high CVNDVI and vice versa and at intermediate levels is associated with high tree species diversity and CVNDVI.

  3. Crystal Structure and Properties of the Carboxylic Acid Derivatives of Schizonpeta mulifida (L.) Briq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Ju-Tao; YU,Ji-Cheng; JIANG,Hui-Ming; ZHANG,Li-Ying; ZHAO,Xiao-Jing; FAN,Sheng-Di

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the carboxylic acid derivatives from the ear of Schizonepeta were investigated,1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the carboxylic acid derivatives were accurately assigned.Two carboxylic acid derivative constituents were separated by a silica gel column.The structures were elucidated by the physical and chemical properties,IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MALDI-TDF-MS and X-ray single crystal diffractometry.They were identified as 3-imino-N-(a-imidoethylamino)butyrolactam and neononane tetracid,respectively.The antitumoral activity on liver tumor ceils SMMC-7721 was determined in vitro.The experimental results showed that the former was better than the latter,and with increasing the concentration of the former the inhibitory activity was increased.

  4. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Novel Benzaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives from Kaurenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. A. de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new thiosemicarbazones derived from natural diterpene kaurenoic acid were synthesized and tested against the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi to evaluate their antitrypanosomal potential. Seven of the synthesized thiosemicarbazones were more active than kaurenoic acid with IC50 values between 2-24.0 mM. The o-nitro-benzaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone derivative was the most active compound with IC50 of 2.0 mM. The results show that the structural modifications accomplished enhanced the antitrypanosomal activity of these compounds. Besides, the thiocyanate, thiosemicarbazide and the p- methyl, p-methoxy, p-dimethylamine, m-nitro and o-chlorobenzaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone derivatives displayed lower toxicity for LLMCK2 cells than kaurenoic acid, exhibing an IC50 of 59.5 mM.

  5. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An automated system for access to derived climate indices in support of ecological impacts assessments and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Morisette, J. T.; Talbert, C.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.

    2012-12-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey team is working with several providers to establish standard data services for the climate projection data they host. To meet the needs of climate adaptation science and landscape management communities, the team is establishing a set of climate index calculation algorithms that will consume data from various providers and provide directly useful data derivatives. Climate projections coming from various scenarios, modeling centers, and downscaling methods are increasing in number and size. Global change impact modeling and assessment, generally, requires inputs in the form of climate indices or values derived from raw climate projections. This requirement puts a large burden on a community not familiar with climate data formats, semantics, and processing techniques and requires storage capacity and computing resources out of the reach of most. In order to fully understand the implications of our best available climate projections, assessments must take into account an ensemble of climate projections and potentially a range of parameters for calculation of climate indices. These requirements around data access and processing are not unique from project to project, or even among projected climate data sets, pointing to the need for a reusable tool to generate climate indices. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a pilot application and supporting web service framework that automates the generation of climate indices. The web service framework consists of standards-based data servers and a data integration broker. The resulting system allows data producers to publish and maintain ownership of their data and data consumers to access climate derivatives via a simple to use "data product ordering" workflow. Data access and processing is completed on enterprise "cloud" computing resources and only the relatively small, derived climate indices are delivered to the scientist or land manager. These services will assist the scientific and land

  7. Highly sensitive image-derived indices of water-stressed plants using hyperspectral imaging in SWIR and histogram analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David M.; Zhang, Hairong; Zhou, Haiying; Du, Tommy; Wu, Qian; Mockler, Todd C.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2015-11-01

    The optical signature of leaves is an important monitoring and predictive parameter for a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought. Such signatures derived from spectroscopic measurements provide vegetation indices - a quantitative method for assessing plant health. However, the commonly used metrics suffer from low sensitivity. Relatively small changes in water content in moderately stressed plants demand high-contrast imaging to distinguish affected plants. We present a new approach in deriving sensitive indices using hyperspectral imaging in a short-wave infrared range from 800 nm to 1600 nm. Our method, based on high spectral resolution (1.56 nm) instrumentation and image processing algorithms (quantitative histogram analysis), enables us to distinguish a moderate water stress equivalent of 20% relative water content (RWC). The identified image-derived indices 15XX nm/14XX nm (i.e. 1529 nm/1416 nm) were superior to common vegetation indices, such as WBI, MSI, and NDWI, with significantly better sensitivity, enabling early diagnostics of plant health.

  8. A Molecular Necklace: Threading β-Cyclodextrins onto Polymers Derived from Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Malveau, Cedric; Mezour, Mohamed A; Perepichka, Dmitrii F; Zhu, X X

    2016-09-19

    A molecular necklace of polypseudorotaxanes was prepared by threading β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) onto biodegradable and thermoresponsive polyurethanes derived from bile acids. These polyurethanes were synthesized via a simple step condensation of bile acid-based dicarbonate with poly(ethylene glycol)-diamine. The β-CD rings slide onto the poly(ethylene glycol) segments and selectively recognize the bile acid units of the polyurethane chains, whereas the poly(ethylene glycol) segments remain crystalline with a lower crystallinity. This bio-compound-derived molecular necklace can be visualized by scanning tunneling microscopy. The polypseudorotaxanes show thermosensitivity in water and the phase transition temperature may be fine-tuned by varying the molar ratios of β-CD to the bile acid units. Such an interesting necklace model of polypseudorotaxane constructed from natural compounds may lead to the further exploration of their applications, such as as an enzyme model, due to their biological nature. PMID:27558980

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Hansen Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of polyester via polycondensation between glycerol and phthalic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate is reported. Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC indicated no crystallinity, although the XRD plots indicate a very incipient crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. Scanning electron microscopy results indicates high homogeneity for all the polymers prepared.

  10. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  11. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  12. Novel self-associative and multiphase nanostructured soft carriers based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne; Vaccaro, Andrea; Delie, Florence;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical properties in aqueous media of amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives obtained by reaction of HA’s hydroxyl groups with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The self-associative properties of the resulting octenyl succinic...... anhydridemodified hyaluronic acid (OSA-HA) derivatives were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy using Nile Red as fluorophore. The morphology, size and surface charge of the OSA-HA assemblies were determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and by measuring their electrophoretic...

  13. Promise of Retinoic Acid-Triazolyl Derivatives in Promoting Differentiation of Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ali Mohd; Dar, Nawab John; Hamid, Abid; Shah, Wajaht Amin; Ahmad, Muzamil; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-20

    Retinoic acid induces differentiation in various types of cells including skeletal myoblasts and neuroblasts and maintains differentiation of epithelial cells. The present study demonstrates synthesis and screening of a library of retinoic acid-triazolyl derivatives for their differentiation potential on neuroblastoma cells. Click chemistry approach using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was adopted for the preparation of these derivatives. The neurite outgrowth promoting potential of retinoic acid-triazolyl derivatives was studied on neuroblastoma cells. Morphological examination revealed that compounds 8a, 8e, 8f, and 8k, among the various derivatives screened, exhibited promising neurite-outgrowth inducing activity at a concentration of 10 μM compared to undifferentiated and retinoic acid treated cells. Further on, to confirm this differentiation potential of these compounds, neuroblastoma cells were probed for expression of neuronal markers such as NF-H and NeuN. The results revealed a marked increase in the NF-H and NeuN protein expression when treated with 8a, 8e, 8f, and 8k compared to undifferentiated and retinoic acid treated cells. Thus, these compounds could act as potential leads in inducing neuronal differentiation for future studies.

  14. Effect of vanillin and its acid and alcohol derivatives on the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Bagheri-Kalmarzi; Sajedi, Reza H.; Elham Asadollahi; Nosrat O. Mahmoodi; Reza Haji-Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the present study the effects of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, as well as the newly synthesized vanillin derivative, bis-vanillin, were investigated on the oxidation of dopamine hydrochloride by mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, vanillin and bis-vanillin act as activators, while vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid exhibited inhibitory effects, the IC50 values being estimated 1.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. These compounds were mixed inhibitors. The presence of a...

  15. Cytotoxicity of Coprinopsis atramentaria extract, organic acids and their synthesized methylated and glucuronate derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Esteves, Ana P.; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Coprinopsis atramentaria is a wild edible mushroom whose methanolic extract revealed a marked antioxidant activity; p-hydroxybenzoic (HA), p-coumaric (CoA) and cinnamic (CA) acids were identified in the extract. In the present work, the cytotoxicity of C. atramentaria extract, previously identified organic acids and their synthesized derivatives (methylated compounds and protected glucuronides) was evaluated. Among all the tested cell lines (MCF-7—breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H460—non-small cel...

  16. Synthesis and Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships of Side Chain-Modified Hyodeoxycholic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Antimo Gioiello; Antonio Macchiarulo; Roberto Pellicciari; Roberto Nuti; Roccaldo Sardella; Benedetto Natalini; Paola Sabbatini; Paolo Filipponi

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids have emerged as versatile signalling compounds of a complex network of nuclear and membrane receptors regulating various endocrine and paracrine functions. The elucidation of the interconnection between the biological pathways under the bile acid control and manifestations of hepatic and metabolic diseases have extended the scope of this class of steroids for in vivo investigations. In this framework, the design and synthesis of novel biliary derivatives able to modulate a specific...

  17. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Statistical & Financial – Accounting Statements and Systems Of Statistical Indicators Derived

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Iorga Simăn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available he type of management based on a complex system of indicators is now being applied as a logical and systematic approach to identifying, assessing, analyzing and communicating decisions, to enacting and monitoring the implementation of those decisions, being associated to any activity, function or business process in a way that enables organizations and companies to minimize the impact of threats and maximize opportunities. This type of management has been, and remains interdisciplinary and analytical in point of generating indicators, and finally it should treat all the activities in the organization or company in a holistic and synthetic manner. How much can a book, a course book, or a professor contribute to achieving such a vast and important goal, was the most difficult question throughout the process of writing book. We remembered, with a strange kind of joy, a passage from Leo Frobenius, dedicated to his own teachers, and we share it with our prospective readers for its sheer sincerity, freshness and candour: „From among the number of teachers I had during my years of education, two I will always keep in my memory… From the former (whose name did not even appear in the author’s account – n.m. I brought home a full notebook, in a clear and methodical style, and obtained an ordered system of knowledge, which would certainly have allowed me to pass any exam. Professor Heusler’s course of lectures failed to bring forth anything like this [… ]. On the contrary, after each of his classes I hurried back home in an infinitely elevated mood, full of creative impulses and the willingness to use the sharp weapons I had been given…”

  19. The Effect of the Serum Amino Acid Levels Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives and its Metal Complexes on Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Mustafa; Kaman, Dilara

    2013-01-01

    Advers biological activities of Thiosemicarbazone (TSC) and Schiff base (SB) derivatives have been widely studied in rats and in other animal species using different doses, times and routes of administration. To date, no attempt has been made to study alterations occurring in the amino acid profile in the effects of the thiosemicarbazone derivative and its metal complexes on the rats. At this study, the rats were injected subcutaneously with a new thiosemicarbazone and its LH-Zn and LH-Cu com...

  20. Cyclic derivatives of D-glucose and tartaric acid as building blocks for renewable polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Japu, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Three series of aromatic copolyesters derived from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(hexamethylene terephthalate) (PHT) have been synthesized by melt polycondensation in which the terephthalate and oxyalkylene units have been partially or totally replaced by monocyclic and bicyclic diacids and diols obtained by derivatization of renewable monomers such as tartaric acid and D-glucose respectively. Another series of aliphatic copolyesters derived f...

  1. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  2. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Blondin, Stacy A.; Mueller, Megan P.; Bakun, Peter J.; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Economos, Christina D

    2015-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived ...

  3. Assessment of acid sulfate soil mapping utilizing chemical indicators in recipient waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beucher, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland, poor water quality and associated ecological damage in the coastal streams related to land use on acid sulfate (a.s. soils has been drawing a considerable amount of attention since the 1950’s. These soils originate from sulfide-bearing marine sediments mostly occurring in the coastal areas located below the highest shoreline of the former Litorina Sea. Of the many previous studies carried out on soil or water data, quite few gathered both and their geographic extent was relatively limited. This study aimed at assessing a.s. soil probability maps using two chemical indicators measured in the recipient waters (i.e. sulfate content and sulfate/chloride ratio for 24 catchments along the Finnish coast. All the available data was compiled for these catchments, which were surveyed using different methods (i.e. conventional mapping and two spatial modeling techniques: fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. High sulfate contents and sulfate/ chloride ratios measured in these rivers were controlled by a.s. soils in the corresponding catchments. The extent of the most probable areas for a.s. soils in the surveyed catchments correlated with the two chemical indicators measured in the recipient waters, suggesting that the probability maps created with different methods are reliable and comparable. The use of a.s. soil related chemical indicators in water, thus, constitutes a complementary, independent and straightforward tool to assess a.s. soil probability maps.

  4. Implications for eicosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins as therapeutics for arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patricia R; Norling, Lucy V

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for health and are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties, improving cardiovascular health as well as benefiting inflammatory diseases. Indeed, dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has proved efficacious in reducing joint pain, morning stiffness and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the mechanisms by which omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their beneficial effects have not been fully explored. Seminal discoveries by Serhan and colleagues have unveiled a novel class of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically biosynthesized in vivo from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), termed resolvins, protectins and maresins. These bioactive pro-resolving lipid mediators provide further rationale for the beneficial effects of fish-oil enriched diets. These endogenous lipid mediators are spatiotemporally biosynthesized to actively regulate resolution by acting on specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals that terminate inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of actions of these molecules, including their analgesic and bone-sparing properties making them ideal therapeutic agonists for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26165764

  5. Lightning potential forecast over Nanjing with denoised sounding-derived indices based on SSA and CS-BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Sheng, Zheng; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-02-01

    The method of using the back propagation neural network improved by cuckoo search algorithm (hereafter CS-BP neural network) to forecast lightning occurrence from sounding-derived indices over Nanjing is presented. The general distribution features of lightning activities over Nanjing area are summarized and analyzed first. The sounding data of 156 thunderstorm days and 164 fair-weather days during the years 2007-2012 are used to calculate the values of sounding-derived indices. The indices are pre-filtered using singular spectrum analysis (hereafter SSA) as preprocessing technique and 4 most pertinent indices (namely CAPE, K, JI and SWEAT) are determined as inputs of CS-BP network by a linear bivariate analysis and selection algorithm. The cases of 2007-2010 are used to train CS-BP network and the cases of 2011-2012 are used as an independent sample to test the forecast performance. Some statistical skill score parameters (namely POD, SAR, CSI, et.al.) indicate that the CS-BP model excels in lightning forecasting and has a better performance compared with the traditional BP neural network and linear multiregression method.

  6. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. PMID:27060831

  7. Study on reduction and back extraction of Pu(IV) by urea derivatives in nitric acid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, G.A.; Xiao, S.T.; Yan, T.H.; Lin, R.S.; Zhu, Z.W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275(26), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) by hydroxyl-semicarbazide (HSC), hydroxyurea (HU) and di-hydroxyurea (DHU) in nitric acid solutions were investigated separately with adequate kinetic equations. In addition, counter-current cascade experiments were conducted for Pu split from U in nitric acid media using three kinds of reductant, respectively. The results show that urea derivatives as a kind of novel salt-free reductant can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) rapidly in the nitric acid solutions. The stripping experimental results showed that Pu(IV) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by the urea derivatives, and the separation factors of plutonium /uranium can reach more than 10{sup 4}. This indicates that urea derivatives is a kind of promising salt-free agent for uranium/plutonium separation. In addition, the complexing effect of HSC with Np(IV) was revealed, and Np(IV) can be back-extracted by HSC with a separation factor of about 20.

  8. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  9. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  10. Synthesis and Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships of Side Chain-Modified Hyodeoxycholic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Gioiello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids have emerged as versatile signalling compounds of a complex network of nuclear and membrane receptors regulating various endocrine and paracrine functions. The elucidation of the interconnection between the biological pathways under the bile acid control and manifestations of hepatic and metabolic diseases have extended the scope of this class of steroids for in vivo investigations. In this framework, the design and synthesis of novel biliary derivatives able to modulate a specific receptor requires a deep understanding of both structure-activity and structure-property relationships of bile acids. In this paper, we report the preparation and the critical micellization concentration evaluation of a series of hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives characterized by a diverse side chain length and by the presence of a methyl group at the alpha position with respect to the terminal carboxylic acid moiety. The data collected are instrumental to extend on a quantitative basis, the knowledge of the current structure-property relationships of bile acids and will be fruitful, in combination with models of receptor activity, to design and prioritize the synthesis of novel pharmacokinetically suitable ligands useful in the validation of bile acid-responsive receptors as therapeutic targets.

  11. Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

    2014-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment.

  12. Liver free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation as an indicator of ischemic injury during cold preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, E.M.; Kang, Y.; DeWolf, A.M.; Lin, M.R.; Bleyaert, A.L.; Winter, P.M.

    1987-05-01

    Reliable assessment of hepatic viability prior to harvest and transplant could improve graft success and aid in evaluating the efficacy of liver preservation techniques. Hepatic tissue metabolites, protein (Pr) synthesis, and ATP have been studied, but none reliably correlate with hepatic viability. Therefore, they studied changes in liver FFA relative to changes in ATP and Pr synthesis during cold ischemic preservation. Rats mechanically ventilated on 0.5% isoflurane/70% N/sub 2/O/30% O/sub 2/ were heparinized and their livers perfused with air-equilibrated Euro-Collins solution (ECS) at 0-4/sup 0/C and kept on ice. A piece of the liver was removed after 0, 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of preservation for ATP and FFA analysis. A portion of the liver was sliced (250 ..mu..m thick) and incubated in vitro for /sup 14/C-lysine incorporation in albumin. ATP, FFA and Pr synthesis were unchanged in the first 8 h, but markedly decreased between 8 and 12 h with little change thereafter. In contrast, between 8 and 48 h, arachidonic and stearic acids increased by 5 and 2-fold, respectively. Changes in ATP and Pr synthesis correlate with the empirically derived clinical maximum of 8 to 12 h preservation. FFA accumulation appears to reflect hepatic ischemic injury and may be a means of evaluating the quality of a donor liver.

  13. Bile acid derivatives as ligands of the farnesoid x receptor: molecular determinants for bile acid binding and receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioiello, Antimo; Cerra, Bruno; Mostarda, Serena; Guercini, Chiara; Pellicciari, Roberto; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are a peculiar class of steroidal compounds that never cease to amaze. From being simple detergents with a primary role in aiding the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, bile acids are now widely considered as crucial hormones endowed with genomic and non-genomic functions that are mediated by their interaction with several proteins including the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). Taking advantages of the peculiar properties of bile acids in interacting with the FXR receptor, several biliary derivatives have been synthesized and tested as FXR ligands. The availability of these compounds has contributed to characterize the receptor from a structural, patho-physiological and therapeutic standpoint. Among these, obeticholic acid is a first-in-class FXR agonist that is demonstrating hepatoprotective effects upon FXR activation in patients with liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This review provides an historical overview of the rationale behind the discovery of obeticholic acid and chemical tools generated to depict the molecular features and bio-pharmacological relevance of the FXR receptor, as well as to summarize structure-activity relationships of bile acid-based FXR ligands so far reported. PMID:25388535

  14. Identification of genes and pathways involved in the synthesis of Mead acid (20:3n-9), an indicator of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichi, Ikuyo; Kono, Nozomu; Arita, Yuka; Haga, Shizuka; Arisawa, Kotoko; Yamano, Misato; Nagase, Mana; Fujiwara, Yoko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid, 20:3n-9) is synthesized from oleic acid during a state of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Mead acid is thought to be produced by the same enzymes that synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but the genes and the pathways involved in the conversion of oleic acid to Mead acid have not been fully elucidated. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cultured cells are generally very low compared to those in mammalian tissues. In this study, we found that cultured cells, such as NIH3T3 and Hepa1-6 cells, have significant levels of Mead acid, indicating that cells in culture are in an EFAD state under normal culture conditions. We then examined the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of fatty acid desaturases and elongases on the level of Mead acid, and found that knockdown of Elovl5, Fads1, or Fads2 decreased the level of Mead acid. This and the measured levels of possible intermediate products for the synthesis of Mead acid such as 18:2n-9, 20:1n-9 and 20:2n-9 in the knocked down cells indicate two pathways for the synthesis of Mead acid: pathway 1) 18:1n-9→(Fads2)→18:2n-9→(Elovl5)→20:2n-9→(Fads1)→20:3n-9 and pathway 2) 18:1n-9→(Elovl5)→20:1n-9→(Fads2)→20:2n-9→(Fads1)→20:3n-9. PMID:24184513

  15. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Spilioti

    Full Text Available The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey. We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3 and breast cancer (MCF-7 cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC. ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01, vanillic acid (p<0.05, caffeic acid (p<0.01, p-coumaric acid (p<0.001 and their total phenolic content (p<0.001. Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively. Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively. In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  16. Free and bound cinnamic acid derivatives in corsica sweet blond oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Eric; El Kebir, Mohamed Vall Ould; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, François; Lozano, Yves; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-03-01

    Total determination of cinnamic acids (CA), including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives is generally not accurate since, during hydrolysis, a possible degradation of dihydroxy CA such as caffeic acid could occur. Evaluations of CA (ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, cinnamic and caffeic acids) before and after hydrolysis have been undertaken using standards and either with or without addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA. The method was then applied to the determination of free and bound CA in five blond cultivars (Navelina, Washington navel, Pera, Salustiana and Valencia late) of sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Four parts of the fruits (peel juice, flavedo, albedo and juice) have been investigated. Results show that CA are mainly bound (86% up to 92%) in the four fruit parts. The mean of total CA contents was found to be higher in peel juice (1.5 g kg(-1)) in comparison with flavedo (0.7 g kg(-1)), albedo (0.1 g kg(-1)) and juice (0.6 g kg(-1)). Free and bound ferulic acid represented 55-70% of CA in juices, followed by p-coumaric acid (20%), sinapic acid (10%) and caffeic acid (9%). Total contents of each CA in the four fruit parts are discussed and show the potential interest in orange peel wastes. PMID:20420324

  17. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with Δλ = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 μg/mL for BNOA and 0.012 μg/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 μm membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

  18. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  19. Silica Sulfuric Acid: An Eco-Friendly and Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid (SiO2-OSO3H as an eco-friendly, readily available, and reusable catalyst is applied to benzimidazole derivatives synthesis under reflux in ethanol. The procedure is very simple and the products are isolated with an easy workup in good-to-excellent yields.

  20. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel nitric oxide-releasing ursolic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Wen Qiu; Jia Tang; Zhi Feng Wang; Shu Ying He

    2011-01-01

    A series of furoxan-based novel nitric oxide-donating ursolic acid (UA) derivatives (7a-f) were synthesized, and their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells in vitro were evaluated by MTT method. It was found that 7a-d and 7f showed more potent cytotoxic activities than control 5-fluorouracil and UA.

  1. Multilayer Film Fabrication and Photoelectric Conversion Property of Two Pyrrolidinofullerene Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two multilayer films of pyrrolidinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives, which exhibit photoelectric conversion property, are reported here. The first monolayers were fabricated on hydrophilic indium-tin-oxide (ITO), quartz, and mica by esterification reaction. The multilayers were characterized by contact angle and UV spectrum. The photoelectric conversion properties of both multilayer films were studied.

  2. An Unexpected and Efficient Synthesis of Open-chain Derivatives of Bistetronic Acid under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Feng; MA Ning; ZHOU Dianxiang; ZHANG Ge; JIANG Bo; TU Shujiang

    2009-01-01

    An unexpected and efficient synthesis of novel open-chain derivatives of bistetronic acid has been successfully achieved in glyclol under microwave irradiation (MW).This method has the prominent advantages of short reaction time,high yield,operational simplicity as well as environmental friendliness.

  3. Nonmetal catalyzed insertion reactions of diazocarbonyls to acid derivatives in fluorinated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Lidia; Azzouzi-Zriba, Kaouther; Bonnet-Delpon, Danièle; Crousse, Benoit

    2011-02-18

    The insertion reaction of diazocarbonyls to acids could be performed smoothly in fluorinated alcohols in the absence of metal catalyst. This new procedure allowed the chemoselective preparation of various functionalized compounds such as acyloxyesters, depsipeptides, and sulfonate, phosphonate, or boronate derivatives.

  4. Aggregation behavior of cholic acid derivatives in organic solvents and in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis various cholic acid derivatives are reported that display aggregation in water or in organic solvents. Spontaneous aggregation of single molecules into larger, ordered structures occurs at the borderline of solubility. Amphiphilic compounds, or surfactants, which possess a hydrophobic

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  6. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of p-coumaric acid derivatives in aluminium hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deterioration of pharmaceutical preparations due to growth of microorganisms is a great challenge and need of preservation becomes very important. Literature reports about various problems associated with the existing synthetic preservatives such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side effects. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring p-coumaric acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of p-coumaric acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, (aluminium hydroxide gel-USP against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized p- coumaric acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of gallic acid derivatives in aluminum hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives are added to most of the pharmaceutical preparations to prevent them from deterioration throughout their shelf life. Literature reveals that the common synthetic preservatives have many limitations, such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side-effects. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring gallic acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of gallic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, {aluminum hydroxide gel-USP (United States Pharmacopoeia} against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized gallic acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  8. Amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives toward the design of micelles for the sustained delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, Laura; Biondi, Marco; Russo, Luisa; Malle, Birgitte M; Schwach-Abdellaoui, Khadija; Borzacchiello, Assunta

    2014-02-15

    The idea of this study was to combine hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation and a local/controlled delivery of a hydrophobic anti-inflammatory drug. To this aim, we investigated the ability of an octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified HA (OSA-HA), to act as a solubility enhancer and as a platform for slow release of hydrophobic drug(s). This novel HA derivative could act as a viscosupplementation agent and, for this reason, a rheological study was conducted along with calorimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results revealed that the ability of HA to sequester water is enhanced by the introduction of lipophilic functions within HA molecules, resulting in a decrease of the fraction of free water able to freeze compared to the unmodified HA. Moreover, OSA-HA solutions appear to be an appropriate tool to be used in viscosupplementation therapy owing to their suitable viscoelastic features. Our results indicate that OSA-HA is able to self-assemble into micelles, load a hydrophobic drug and release the active molecule with controlled kinetics. In particular, the analysis of release profiles showed that, in all cases, drug diffusion into the gel is faster compared to gel/drug dissolution, being the dissolution contribution more relevant as the OSA-HA concentration increases. PMID:24507262

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanosized Uranyl Coordination Polymers derived from Terephthalic acid and Azoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged S.Al-Fakeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the complexes [UO2(TPA(Azole(H2O].xH2O, TPA = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and azoles = 2-aminobenzothiazole, 2-aminothiazole, 2-amino-4-methylthiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole has been prepared and characterized. The structure of the complexes has been assigned based on elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectral studies, magnetic measurement, molar conductance, Scanning electron microscope (S.E.M, X-ray powder diffraction techniques investigations and thermogravimetric analysis complete the characterization of the compound. Thermogravimetry(TG, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA have been used to study the thermal decomposition of the complexes. The kinetic parameters have been calculated making use of the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger. The scanning electron microscope SEM photographs and particle size calculations from the powder XRD data indicate the average size of the prepared UO2(II (28-56 nm supramolecular coordination polymers in the nanoscale range. The biological screening of the compounds was also tested.

  10. Curcumin Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for α-Brass in Nitric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A. S.; Elattar, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    1,7- Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-4-arylazo-3,5-dione I-V have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for α-brass in 2 M nitric acid solution using weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with the increase in the inhibitor concentration but decreases with a rise in temperature. The conjoint effect of the curcumin derivatives and KSCN has also been studied. The apparent activation energy ( E a*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process have also been calculated. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The slopes of the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines ( b c and b a) are maintained approximately equal for various inhibitor concentrations. However, the value of the Tafel slopes increases together as inhibitor concentration increases. The adsorption of these compounds on α-brass surface has been found to obey the Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  11. In situ forming hydrogels of hyaluronic acid and inulin derivatives for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio S; Fiorica, Calogero; Di Stefano, Mauro; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Gulino, Alessandro; Agnello, Stefano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2015-05-20

    An in situ forming hydrogel obtained by crosslinking of amino functionalized hyaluronic acid derivatives with divinylsulfone functionalized inulin (INU-DV) has been here designed and characterized. In particular two hyaluronic acid derivatives bearing respectively a pendant ethylenediamino (EDA) portion (HA-EDA) and both EDA and octadecyl pendant groups (HA-EDA-C18) were crosslinked through an azo-Michael reaction with INU-DV. Gelation time and consumption of DV portions have been evaluated on hydrogel obtained using HA-EDA and HA-EDA-C18 derivatives with a concentration of 3% w/v and a ratio 80/20 w/w respect to the crosslinker INU-DV. The presence of pendant C18 chains improves mechanical performances of hydrogels and decreases the susceptibility to hyaluronidase hydrolysis. Bovine chondrocytes, encapsulated during crosslinking, sufficiently survive and efficiently proliferate until 28 days of analysis.

  12. Synthesis, structure and cytotoxic activity of acetylenic derivatives of betulonic and betulinic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bębenek, Ewa; Chrobak, Elwira; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kadela, Monika; Chrobak, Artur; Kusz, Joachim; Książek, Maria; Jastrzębska, Maria; Boryczka, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    A series of acetylenic derivatives of betulonic and betulinic acids has been synthesized and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectroscopy. The structure of propargyl betulonate 4 and propargyl betulinate-DMF solvate 8A was solved by X-ray diffraction. Thermal properties were examined using a DSC technique. The resulting alkynyl derivatives, as well as betulin 1 and betulinic acid 3, were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human T47D breast cancer, CCRF/CEM leukemia, SW707 colorectal, murine P388 leukemia and BALB3T3 normal fibroblasts cell lines. Several of the obtained compounds have a favorable cytotoxic profile than betulin 1. Propargyl betulinate 8 was the most active derivative, being up to 3-fold more potent than betulin 1 against the human leukemia (CCRF/CEM) cell line, with an IC50 value of 3.9 μg/mL.

  13. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  14. Multicomponent click synthesis of new 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of pyrimidine nucleobases: promising acidic corrosion inhibitors for steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Olvera, Rodrigo; Espinoza-Vázquez, Araceli; Negrón-Silva, Guillermo E; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel E; Romero-Romo, Mario A; Santillan, Rosa

    2013-12-06

    A series of new mono-1,2,3-triazole derivatives of pyrimidine nucleobases were synthesized by one-pot copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between N-1-propargyluracil and thymine, sodium azide and several benzyl halides. The desired heterocyclic compounds were obtained in good yields and characterized by NMR, IR, and high resolution mass spectrometry. These compounds were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results indicate that these heterocyclic compounds are promising acidic corrosion inhibitors for steel.

  15. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  16. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  17. Gastroprotective Mechanisms of Action of Semisynthetic Carnosic Acid Derivatives in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Theoduloz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnosic acid (CA and its semisynthetic derivatives display relevant gastroprotective effects on HCl/ethanol induced gastric lesions in mice. However, little is known on the mechanisms of action of the new compounds. The aim of the present work was to assess the gastroprotective action mechanisms of CA and its derivatives using human cell culture models. A human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 were used to reveal the possible mechanisms involved. The ability of the compounds to protect cells against sodium taurocholate (NaT-induced damage, and to increase the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 content was determined using AGS cells. Stimulation of cell proliferation was studied employing MRC-5 fibroblasts. Carnosic acid and its derivatives 10–18 raised GSH levels in AGS cells. While CA did not increase the PGE2 content in AGS cells, all derivatives significantly stimulated PGE2 synthesis, the best effect being found for the 12-O-indolebutyrylmethylcarnosate 13. A significant increase in MRC-5 fibroblast proliferation was observed for the derivatives 7 and 16–18. The antioxidant effect of the compounds was assessed by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte membranes, scavenging of superoxide anion and DPPH discoloration assay. The new CA derivatives showed gastroprotective effects by different mechanisms, including protection against cell damage induced by NaT, increase in GSH content, stimulation of PGE2 synthesis and cell proliferation.

  18. Effect of root derived organic acids on the activation of nutrients in the rhizosphere soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Four types of soils, including brown coniferous forest soil, dark brown soil, black soil, and black calic soil, sampled from three different places in northeast China were used in this test. The functions of two root-derived organic acids and water were simulated and compared in the activation of mineral nutrients from the rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the organic acids could activate the nutrients and the activated degree of the nutrient elements highly depended on the amount and types of the organic acid excreted and on the physiochemical and biochemical properties of the soil tested. The activation effect of the citric acid was obviously higher than that of malic acid in extracting Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn for all the tested soil types. However, the activation efficiencies of P, K, Ca, and Mg extracting by the citric acid were not much higher, sometimes even lower, than those by malic acid. The solution concentration of all elements increased with increase of amount of the citric acid added.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of enantiopure alpha- and beta-amino acids by phenylalanine aminomutase-catalysed amination of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wietzes, Piet; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Feringa, Ben L; Janssen, Dick B

    2009-01-26

    The phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis catalyses the conversion of alpha-phenylalanine to beta-phenylalanine, an important step in the biosynthesis of the N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side-chain of the anticancer drug taxol. Mechanistic studies on PAM have suggested that (E)-cinnamic acid is an intermediate in the mutase reaction and that it can be released from the enzyme's active site. Here we describe a novel synthetic strategy that is based on the finding that ring-substituted (E)-cinnamic acids can serve as a substrate in PAM-catalysed ammonia addition reactions for the biocatalytic production of several important beta-amino acids. The enzyme has a broad substrate range and a high enantioselectivity with cinnamic acid derivatives; this allows the synthesis of several non-natural aromatic alpha- and beta-amino acids in excellent enantiomeric excess (ee >99 %). The internal 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) cofactor is essential for the PAM-catalysed amination reactions. The regioselectivity of amination reactions was influenced by the nature of the ring substituent.

  20. Synthesis of 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolin derivatives are a group of compounds known to possess a wide range of biological activities. The chemistry of quinolines together with their corresponding aldehydes were dealt with in chapter one of this study. Special emphasis was given to the chemistry of benzaldehyde. Twenty five 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid derivatives together with their corresponding intermediates were prepared in this work. Basically, the synthetic design of these compounds arise from the appropriate disconnections of the target 2-phenyl and 2,3-diphenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acids. The retro synthesis analysis of these compounds reveals pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde or phenyl pyruvic acid, aromatic amine and benzaldehyde as possible logical precursors for 2-phenyl-and 2,3-diphenyl- quinoline-4-carboxylic acids respectively. The purity and identities of the synthesized compounds were elucidated through chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds were heavily subjected to spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, GC/MS, 1H-and 13C- NMR). The appropriate disconnections and the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions were given and discussed in chapter three. The spectral data were interpreted and correlated with the target structures. The prepared 2-phenyl- and 2,3-diphenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were screened for their antibacterial activity. The compounds were tested against the standard bacterial organisms B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. vulgaris. Some of these compounds were devoid of antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. vulgaris, while others showed moderate activity. All of the tested compounds showed an activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. 2,3-diphenyl -6-sulphanilamide-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid showed the highest activity against the four standard tested organisms.(Author)

  1. Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    folate-boron clusters was straightforward. At first, a linker molecule based on maleic acid was synthesized, which was coupled to the boron cluster via Michael Addition of a thiol and alkene and subsequently coupled to the targeting moiety using CuAAC. The new conjugates of folate and boron clusters led to a significant increase of boron concentration in the cell of about 5-times compared to currently used and approved boron pharmaceuticals. Moreover, azido-folate derivatives were coupled to macromolecular carrier systems (pHPMA), which showed an enhanced and specific accumulation at target sites (up to 2.5-times) during in vivo experiments. A specific blockade could be observed up to 30% indicating an efficient targeting effect. A new kind of nanoparticles consisting of a PDLLA core and p((HPMA)-b-(LMA)) as surfactants were developed and successfully radiolabeled via 18F-click chemistry in good RCYs of 8±3%. The nanoparticles were obtained via the miniemulsion technique in combination with solvent evaporation. The 18F-labeled nanoparticles were applied to in vivo testing using a mouse model. PET imaging showed a ''mixed'' biodistribution of low molecular weight as well as high molecular weight systems, indicating a partial loss of the 18F-labeled surfactant. In conclusion, the presented work successfully utilized the FR-targeting concept in both, the diagnostic field (PET imaging) and for therapeutic approaches (BNCT, drug delivery systems). As a result, the high potential of FR-targeting in oncological applications has been shown and was confirmed by small animal PET imaging.

  2. Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieferstein, Hanno

    2013-07-01

    conducted. The synthesis of the folate-boron clusters was straightforward. At first, a linker molecule based on maleic acid was synthesized, which was coupled to the boron cluster via Michael Addition of a thiol and alkene and subsequently coupled to the targeting moiety using CuAAC. The new conjugates of folate and boron clusters led to a significant increase of boron concentration in the cell of about 5-times compared to currently used and approved boron pharmaceuticals. Moreover, azido-folate derivatives were coupled to macromolecular carrier systems (pHPMA), which showed an enhanced and specific accumulation at target sites (up to 2.5-times) during in vivo experiments. A specific blockade could be observed up to 30% indicating an efficient targeting effect. A new kind of nanoparticles consisting of a PDLLA core and p((HPMA)-b-(LMA)) as surfactants were developed and successfully radiolabeled via {sup 18}F-click chemistry in good RCYs of 8±3%. The nanoparticles were obtained via the miniemulsion technique in combination with solvent evaporation. The {sup 18}F-labeled nanoparticles were applied to in vivo testing using a mouse model. PET imaging showed a ''mixed'' biodistribution of low molecular weight as well as high molecular weight systems, indicating a partial loss of the {sup 18}F-labeled surfactant. In conclusion, the presented work successfully utilized the FR-targeting concept in both, the diagnostic field (PET imaging) and for therapeutic approaches (BNCT, drug delivery systems). As a result, the high potential of FR-targeting in oncological applications has been shown and was confirmed by small animal PET imaging.

  3. MOF-Derived Tungstated Zirconia as Strong Solid Acids toward High Catalytic Performance for Acetalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Feng, Jian; Zhao, Yupei; Wang, Shaobin; Liu, Jian

    2016-09-14

    A strong solid acid, tungstated zirconia (WZ), has been prepared first using tungstate immobilized UiO-66 as precursors through a "double-solvent" impregnation method under mild calcination temperature. With moderate W contents, the as-synthesized WZ catalysts possess a high density of acid sites, and the proper heat treatment also has facilely led to a bunch of oligomeric tungsten clusters on stabilized tetragonal ZrO2. The resultant solid acids show an improved catalytic performance toward the benzaldehyde's acetalization in comparison with traditional zirconium hydroxide-prepared WZ. Notably, due to large surface area and additionally introduced strong acid sites, the MOF-derived WZ catalysts afforded conversion up to 86.0%. The facile method endows the WZ catalysts with superior catalytic activities and excellent recyclability, thus opening a new avenue for preparation of metal oxide-based solid superacids and superbases. PMID:27557351

  4. Chiral trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane derivatives as chiral solvating agents for carboxylic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariappan Periasamy; Manasi Dalai; Meduri Padmaja

    2010-07-01

    Efficient use of the readily accessible chiral 2-symmetric acyclic diamines (1-2) as well as macrocyclic amines (3-5) containing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl moiety as chiral solvating agents (CSA) for the determination of enantiomeric excess of representative carboxylic acids (6-7) and an amino acid derivative (8) is illustrated. The enantiomeric composition of different carboxylic acids estimated here by the 1H NMR method, based on the integration of the corresponding methine proton signals are in good correlation with that determined using HPLC method. The data are in accordance with the formation of multimolecular diastereomeric complexes in solution, which render good splitting of NMR signals for the enantiomers of representative carboxylic acids as well as for -Ts-phenylglycine (up to = 0.295 ppm, 118 Hz).

  5. 2,5-PRODAN Derivatives as Highly Sensitive Sensors of Low Solvent Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Yoon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two 5-acyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene derivatives, one with a propionyl group and the other with a fused cyclohexanone ring, are investigated as sensors of H-bond-donating ability in protic solvents of low solvent acidity. Their fluorescence is highly quenched in protic solvents, and the quenching order of magnitude is linearly related to the H-bond-donating ability of the solvent as quantified by the solvent acidity (SA scale. As the solvent acidity increases from 0.15 to 0.40, the fluorescence for both is quenched by more than a factor of ten; thus, they are extremely sensitive sensors of the hydrogen-bond-donating ability in this weakly acidic range. Preferential solvation studies suggest that quenching occurs from a doubly H-bonded excited state.

  6. Two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates from avocado seeds (Persea americana Mill. Lauraceae cv. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Refugio Ramos, María; Jerz, Gerold; Villanueva, Socorro; López-Dellamary, Fernando; Waibel, Reiner; Winterhalter, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of avocado seed material (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) resulted in the isolation of two glucosylated abscisic acid derivates. One of these was not known as a natural product and can be regarded as a potential 'missing link' in abscisic acid metabolism in plants. After fractionation by high-speed countercurrent chromatography, and multiple steps of column chromatography, structures were elucidated by 1D-, 2D-NMR, electrospray-MS to be the novel beta-d-glucoside of (1'S,6'R)-8'-hydroxyabscisic acid, and (1'R,3'R,5'R,8'S)-epi-dihydrophaseic acid beta-d-glucoside. Absolute configuration was determined by circulardichroism, optical rotation, and by NOE experiments.

  7. QPO frequency derivative - frequency correlation indicates non-Keplerian boundary layer with a maximum in rotation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Alpar, M Ali

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the frequency and the absolute value of the frequency derivative of the kilohertz QPOs observed for the first time from 4U 1636-53 is a simple consequence and indicator of the existence of a non-Keplerian rotation rate in the accretion disk boundary layer. This paper interprets the observed correlation, showing that the observations provide strong evidence in support of the fundamental assumption of disk accretion models around slow rotators, that the boundary layer matches the Keplerian disk to the neutron star magnetosphere.

  8. Radiopharmacology of iminodiacetic acid N-derivatives analysis in biological models and comparison to human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the influence of chemical structures and molecular weight in the distribution of several iminodiacetic acid N-derivatives and to determine the potential use of these radiopharmaceuticals in humans. The study was performed with the following derivatives: N-(2,6 dimetyphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N(2.6 dietylphenyl-carbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid, N-(2,6 diisopropylphenylcarbamoylmethy) iminodiacetic acid and the previously unknown N-derivative N-(2,6 diisopropyl, phenylcarbamoylethyl) iminodiacetic aced. These were sinthesized by a modified procedure by MITTA et al. and controlled by NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental composition and also toxicity pirogens, lethal dose and the chelate's radiochemical dose were determined. Liver gallbladder, intestinal and renal kinetics were studied in mice. In order to evaluate the metabolic pathways of the radiopharmaceuticals, the content of gallbladder and the urine were reinjected. Plasma kinetics and the plasmatic half life was determined by extracorporeal circulation in Wistar rats. For the use in human beings, test were carried out in different branches of nuclear medicine, in normal volunteers and carriers of different pathologic disorders. The patients were divided into four groups: acute and chronic cholecystitis, cirrhosis and jaundice. It was obtained the liver/heart activity ratio and estimated the appearance times of the intrahepatic ducts, gallbladder, duodenum and renal persistence. (M.E.L.)

  9. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-05-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψm) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives.

  10. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  11. Derivation of an amino acid similarity matrix for peptide:MHC binding and its application as a Bayesian prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts in peptide:MHC binding studies are often able to estimate the impact of a single residue substitution based on a heuristic understanding of amino acid similarity in an experimental context. Our aim is to quantify this measure of similarity to improve peptide:MHC binding prediction methods. This should help compensate for holes and bias in the sequence space coverage of existing peptide binding datasets. Results Here, a novel amino acid similarity matrix (PMBEC is directly derived from the binding affinity data of combinatorial peptide mixtures. Like BLOSUM62, this matrix captures well-known physicochemical properties of amino acid residues. However, PMBEC differs markedly from existing matrices in cases where residue substitution involves a reversal of electrostatic charge. To demonstrate its usefulness, we have developed a new peptide:MHC class I binding prediction method, using the matrix as a Bayesian prior. We show that the new method can compensate for missing information on specific residues in the training data. We also carried out a large-scale benchmark, and its results indicate that prediction performance of the new method is comparable to that of the best neural network based approaches for peptide:MHC class I binding. Conclusion A novel amino acid similarity matrix has been derived for peptide:MHC binding interactions. One prominent feature of the matrix is that it disfavors substitution of residues with opposite charges. Given that the matrix was derived from experimentally determined peptide:MHC binding affinity measurements, this feature is likely shared by all peptide:protein interactions. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of the matrix as a Bayesian prior in an improved scoring-matrix based peptide:MHC class I prediction method. A software implementation of the method is available at: http://www.mhc-pathway.net/smmpmbec.

  12. A Strong Correlation Between Geochemical Indicators of Slab-Derived Fluids and Elevated Oxidation States of Mantle-Derived Arc Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, M.; Waters, L.

    2012-12-01

    There has been debate in the literature as to whether the relatively high oxidation state of subduction-related lavas relative to mid-ocean ridge basalts is related to the influx of slab-derived fluids that trigger partial melting in the arc mantle wedge, or alternatively is the result of secondary effects such as differentiation and/or volatile degassing. In this study, we use a suite of 32 high-MgO (8-16 wt%) basalts, absarokites and minettes from across the Mexican volcanic arc (all erupted in the last 1 Myr) to evaluate whether indices of slab-derived fluids (e.g., Sr, Ba and K2O concentrations) correlate with oxidation state (ΔNNO = log10fO2 units relative to the Ni-NiO buffer). By restricting the data set to high-MgO lavas, the effect of differentiation is removed. Moreover, because all samples contain olivine, the presence or absence of iddingsite along olivine rims is used to distinguish samples that have experienced any post-eruptive alteration. Initially, a larger data set of 54 lavas was considered, for which ferrous iron was measured by titration (using the Wilson 1960 method, which recovers three USGS and one Canadian Survey standards), thereby allowing the bulk ferric-ferrous ratio of the sample to be determined and thus the ΔNNO value using the calibration of Kress and Carmichael (1991). These samples were then placed into three categories: (1) no iddingsite anywhere in the sample, (2) sparse iddingsite along some olivine rims, and (3) thick iddingsite rims on most olivine phenocryts. For medium-K2O basalts, the average ΔNNO value for group (1) and (3) is +0.2 and +1.3, respectively, which suggests the effect of extensive post-eruptive alteration is to increase the calculated ΔNNO value by ~1.1 log unit. For the rest of the study, only group (1) lavas were considered, namely those for which no sign of any iddingsite on any olivine crystal was observed. This narrowed the group of lavas to 32 pristine samples, which ranged over an order of

  13. Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Investigating the Effect of Fatty Acid and Its Derivatives on Low Sulfur Diesel Lubricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Hui; Fan Weiyu; Li Yang; Zhao Pinhui; Nan Guozhi

    2013-01-01

    In this work, fatty acid and its derivatives were adopted as lubricity additives for low sulfur diesel. Tribological evaluation obtained from the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) apparatus showed that the lubricating performance of the additives increased in the following order:stearic acid>glycol monopalmitate>stearyl alcohol>ethyl palmitate>cetyl ethyl ether. The adsorption behavior of the additives on Fe (110) surface and Fe2O3 (001) surface was investigated by mo-lecular dynamics (MD) simulations to verify their lubricity performance. The results suggested that adsorption energies of the additives on Fe (110) surface are determined by the van der Waals forces, while adsorptions on Fe2O3 (001) surface are signiifcantly attributed to the electrostatic attractive forces. Higher values of adsorption energy of the additives on Fe2O3 (001) surface indicate that the additive has more efifcient lubricity enhancing properties.

  14. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains. PMID:27440161

  15. Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects observed in mice following treatment with an ester derivative of ferulic acid: Isopentyl ferulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; Machado, Kátia C; Islam, Md Torequl; Junior, Antonio Luiz G; De Sousa, Damião P; Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant effect of isopentyl ferulate, a new ester derived from ferulic acid in mice (Mus musculus) subjected to two models of induced seizures. According to the results obtained, the IF at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg (i.p.) showed protective effect against induced seizures by pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, i.p.). In the two animal models of seizures, the pretreatment of the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) with flumazenil blocked the anticonvulsant effect, suggesting that the mechanism of action of this ester derived of ferulic acid may be related to activity in the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABAA receptor (γ-aminobutyric acid, type A). In addition to the anticonvulsant effect, behavioral changes as neurotoxicity indication were assessed by using the rota rod and open field tests. The results obtained showed that the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) does not induce significant changes in locomotor activity and motor coordination when compared with the control group, unlike the results presented by diazepam. Thus, these results demonstrate a new pharmacological knowledge of IF with potential application against epileptic seizures. However, further studies are needed to elucidate other neurobiological mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  16. Inclusion Behavior of Dimer b-Cyclodextrin Bridged with Aspartic Acid Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The b-cyclodextrin (CD) dimer bridged with aspartic acid (ASP) derivative, FITC-ASP(NH-b-CD)2 (Host, FITC=fluorescein-4-isothiocyanate), was synthesized. Fluorescence polarization study showed that the novel host formed an inclusion compound, [FITC-ASP(NH-b-CD)2]ATA, for which Kd was determined to be 5.0×10-6 mol/L by Beacon 2000 Analyzer, when ATA (Guest) = Adm-Trp-Arg-Arg-NH2 (Adm = 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid, Trp = tryptophan, Arg = arginine), where Kd is the dissociation constant in aqueous solution at 298 K.

  17. Synthesis of some salicylic acid derivatives and studies of their interaction with uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some unsubstituted and substituted bis-derivatives of salicylic acid were synthesized and their acidity constants determined spectrophotometrically in 61.10% aqueous ethanol. The stability constants of complexes which these compounds form with the UO22+ ion were determined spectrophotometrically using the method of continuous variation under the following conditions: pH 3.58 and 3.98, 61.10% aqueous ethanol, μ=0.5 (LiCl), 25±1 degC. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  18. Potential antibacterial activity of coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Fauzia Anjum; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Nisa, Mehrun; Ashraf, Mohammad; Kousar, Samina; Arshad, Shafia

    2015-05-01

    Coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives were synthesized by reacting phenols with malic acid, ethyl acetoacetate and ethyl acetylsuccinate in appropriate reaction conditions. All synthesized compounds were subjected to test for their antimicrobial activities against variety of gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacterial stains (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli) by agar dilution method. Several of them exhibited appreciable good antibacterial activity against the different strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial agents for further studies with a battery of bacteria.

  19. A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Rapado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, “in silico” studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

  20. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI TaiBao; ZHANG YouMing; WU JiaWei

    2001-01-01

    @@ A series of 1,4-disubstitued thiosemicarbazides and their related heterocyclic compounds have been found to possess important biological activities[1]. Some thiosemicarbazides have been found to be useful as herbicides, insecticides and plant-growth regulators [1]. In view of these and in continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and biological activity of thiosemicarbaides derivatives [2], we now report a convenient and efficient method for the preparation of thiosemicarbazides derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using PEG-400 as the catalyst.

  1. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; TaiBao

    2001-01-01

    A series of 1,4-disubstitued thiosemicarbazides and their related heterocyclic compounds have been found to possess important biological activities[1]. Some thiosemicarbazides have been found to be useful as herbicides, insecticides and plant-growth regulators [1]. In view of these and in continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and biological activity of thiosemicarbaides derivatives [2], we now report a convenient and efficient method for the preparation of thiosemicarbazides derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using PEG-400 as the catalyst.  ……

  2. The First General Electron Transfer Reductions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Using Samarium Diiodide

    OpenAIRE

    Spain, Malcolm Peter

    2014-01-01

    The development of new methods for the reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives is described. The ability to reduce these carbonyl derivatives through radical intermediates provides an orthogonal approach as compared with hydride based reductions.Initial experiments focused on the development of the SmI2–H2O system, where we have shown that chelation effects can be utilised to facilitate reduction of cyclic esters. Furthermore, a revised mechanism for the SmI2–H2O mediated reduction of lacton...

  3. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soon Hee; Yang, Sung Yun [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac{sub 2}O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac{sub 2}O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method.

  4. Lipid Peroxidation Inhibitation Activity of Maillard Reaction Products Derived from Sugar-amino Acid Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjing Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the lipid peroxidation inhibitation activity of Maillard Reaction Products (MRPs derived from sugar (glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose and 18 amino acid model systems in soybean oil. MRPs were produced by heating at 130°C for 2 h. Of the 18 amino acids-fructose model systems studied, MRPs derived from fructose-leucine, fructose-methionine, fructose-phenylalanine and fructose-isoleucine model sytems showed high lipid peroxidation inhibitation activity and best performance was observed from fructose-phenylalanine MRPs. Interestingly, glucose-phenylalanine MRPs also exhibited high inhibitation activity and inhibitation activity of both glucose-phenylalanine and fructose-phenylalanine MRPs exceeded 87% even with concentration at 1.1 wt % after 8 days storage.

  5. N-heterocyclic Amine Derivatives as Efficient Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Acidic Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel heterocyclic amine derivatives, namely N, N'-substituted pyridinyl ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid sodium salt (A) and ethylene diamine N, N'-diacetic acid di (2-methylene tetra hydro furfuryl) acetate (B) were synthesized and their structure confirmations were performed by FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectra. The inhibition effectiveness was evaluated against the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by weight loss and polarization techniques. The results showed that the synthesized derivatives are good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium, their inhibition efficiency, increased with inhibitor concentration, and (A) is slightly more effective than (B). The potentiostatic polarization study showed that (A) and (B) are mixed-type inhibitors in 1 M HCl. These compounds prevent carbon steel from corrosion by adsorption to the steel surface and forming insoluble complexes with ferrous species. The weight loss results and potentiostatic polarization studies were in reasonable agreement. (author)

  6. HPLC Enantioseparation of Phenylcarbamic Acid Derivatives by Using Macrocyclic Chiral Stationary Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroboňová Katarína

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The HPLC by using chiral stationary phases based on macrocyclic antibiotics, dimethylphenyl carbamate cyklofructan 7 and β-cyclodextrin in terms of polar-organic separation mode (mobile phase methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/triethylamine were used for enantioseparation of alkoxy derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid. The effect of the analyte structures on the efficiency of enantioseparation was investigated. The most suitable stationary phase was teicoplanin aglycone, where the separations of the enantiomers were obtained (the resolution value from 0.65 to 2.90, depending on the structure of the analyte. Significant effect on the resolution of the enantiomers has position of alkoxy substituent in the hydrophobic part of the molecule. The enantiorecognition was achieved for 3-alkoxysubstituted derivatives.

  7. Stereoselective Synthesis of α-Amino-C-phosphinic Acids and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Viveros-Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives are an important group of compounds of synthetic and medicinal interest and particular attention has been dedicated to their stereoselective synthesis in recent years. Among these, phosphinic pseudopeptides have acquired pharmacological importance in influencing physiologic and pathologic processes, primarily acting as inhibitors for proteolytic enzymes where molecular stereochemistry has proven to be critical. This review summarizes the latest developments in the asymmetric synthesis of acyclic and phosphacyclic α-amino-C-phosphinic acids and derivatives, following in the first case an order according to the strategy used, whereas for cyclic compounds the nitrogen embedding in the heterocyclic core is considered. In addition selected examples of pharmacological implications of title compounds are also disclosed.

  8. Fast repair of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pulse radiolytic techniques, it has been demonstrated that the interactions of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), polyA and polyG with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceed via an electron transfer process (k=5-30x108 dm3 mol-1 s-1). In addition, the rates for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP, polyA and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rates for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents. The slower rates for repair of oxidizing OH adducts of dAMP may be the rate determining step during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adducts of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA constituents

  9. Supramolecular chiral host-guest nanoarchitecture induced by the selective assembly of barbituric acid derivative enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien; Maurel, Francois; Dong, Changzhi

    2016-10-01

    Barbituric acid derivatives are prochiral molecules, i.e. they are chiral upon adsorption on surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that barbituric acid derivatives self-assemble into a chiral guest-host supramolecular architecture at the solid-liquid interface on graphite. The host nanoarchitecture has a sophisticated wavy shape pattern and paired guest molecules are nested insides the cavities of the host structure. Each unit cell of the host structure is composed of both enantiomers with a ratio of 1:1. Furthermore, the wavy patterns of the nanoarchitecture are formed from alternative appearance of left- and right-handed chiral building blocks, which makes the network heterochiral. The functional guest-host nanoarchitecture is the result of two-dimensional chiral amplification from single enantiomers to organizational heterochiral supramolecular self-assembly.

  10. Design and Synthesis of p/m-[p-(un)Substituted Phenylsulfonamido]phenyl β-Diketo Acids and Quinoxalone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG,Cheng-Chu; LI,Xue-Mei; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Diketo acid derivatives are potent and selective HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. To investigate the detailed synthesis of those derivatives, a series of p/m-[p-(un)substituted phenylsulfonamido]phenyl β-diketo acid derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The quinoxalone derivatives as the potential bioisosteres of the biologically labile β-diketoacid pharmacophores have also been synthesized from reactions of the corresponding diketo acids with o-phenylenediamine. The structures of all diketo acid (ester) and quinoxalone derivatives were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, HRMS and/or MS (ESI). X-ray crystallographic analysis of 11b demonstrates a similar arrangement of the side chain of quinoxalone derivatives with the parent diketoacids due to the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O…H-N) and the sp2 hybridization configuration of the two nitrogen atoms of the quinoxalone ring.

  11. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Meimei Chen; Xuemei Yang; Xinmei Lai; Jie Kang; Huijuan Gan; Yuxing Gao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD) newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR) studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field an...

  12. Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acid derivatives: history, advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Filonenko, Georgy A; van Putten, Robbert; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A

    2015-06-01

    The catalytic reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives has witnessed a rapid development in recent years. These reactions, involving molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent, can be promoted by heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. The milestone achievements and recent results by both approaches are discussed in this Review. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic aspects of the catalytic hydrogenation and highlight the bifunctional nature of the mechanism that is preferred for supported metal catalysts as well as homogeneous transition metal complexes.

  13. Coral cavity sponges depend on reef-derived food resources: stable isotope and fatty acid constraints

    OpenAIRE

    van Duyl, F.C.; Moodley, L; Nieuwland, G.; IJzerloo, L. van; van Soest, R.W.M.; Houtekamer, M.; Meesters, E.H.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of cavity sponges on the narrow fringing reefs of Cura double dagger ao, Caribbean was studied. The origin and resources of the bulk food of these sponges, i.e., dissolved organic matter (DOM), were identified using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and fatty acid biomarkers. We found that phytoplankton and its derived DOM from the adjacent open sea and from reef overlying water is not the main source of food for most of the sponges examined nor is bacterioplankton. Interestingly, ...

  14. Synthesis and Application of Phenyl Nitrone Derivatives as Acidic and Microbial Corrosion Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Shijun Chen; Kang Zhao; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Nitrone has drawn great attention due to its wide applications as a 1,3-dipole in heterocyclic compounds synthesis and the bioactivities. With the special structure, nitrone can also be used as ligand in inorganic chemistry. Based on the current research, the nitrones are anticipated to be effective inhibitors against acidic and microbial corrosion. The aim of this work is to investigate the inhibitory action of nitrones. In this work, a series of phenyl nitrone derivatives (PN) was synthesiz...

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of Dipeptide Derivatives Containing Noncoded Amino Acids in Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Hong(杨洪); ZHOU,Chuang(周闯); TIAN,Gui-Ling(田桂玲); YE,Yun-Hua(叶蕴华)

    2002-01-01

    A series of dipeptide derivatives containing non-coded amino acis, N-Boc-4-X-Phe-Ala-NHNHNHPh (X= Cl, Br, I, NO2),were synthesized by using thermoase in organic solvents. The physical data were consistent with the same samples prepared by 3-( diethoxyphosphoryloxy)-1, 2, 3-benzotriazin-4 (3H)-one (DEPBT). Influence of different substituted groups of the non-coded amino acids and different organic solvents on the enzymatic peptide synthesis was studied.

  16. Aggregation behavior of cholic acid derivatives in organic solvents and in water

    OpenAIRE

    Willemen, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis various cholic acid derivatives are reported that display aggregation in water or in organic solvents. Spontaneous aggregation of single molecules into larger, ordered structures occurs at the borderline of solubility. Amphiphilic compounds, or surfactants, which possess a hydrophobic as well as a hydrophilic part, have a high tendency to form aggregates to minimize unfavorable polar-apolar interactions with the surrounding solvent. There are different types of aggregates in wa...

  17. Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of farnesylthiosalicylic acid derivatives as anti-tumor carcinoma agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ling; You An Xiao; Guang Tong Chen; Dong Geng Wang; Yu Qin Li; Xin Yang Wang; Heng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Novel farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTA) derivatives 5a-m with different substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were synthesized.Compounds 5b,5c,5e and 5f displayed anti-tumor activities superior to FTA in most cancer cells tested.Furthermore,5e induced tumor cell apoptosis,which was accompanied by lower Bcl-2 expression,but with higher Bax and caspase 3 expression activities in cancer cells.

  18. Severe Acute Local Reactions to a Hyaluronic Acid-derived Dermal Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, Susan Van; Hays, Geoffrey P.; Caglia, Anthony E.; Caglia, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Injectable fillers are normally well tolerated by patients with little or no adverse effects. The most common side effects include swelling, redness, bruising, and pain at the injection site. This report describes three cases in which patients injected with a hyaluronic acid-derived injectable filler that is premixed with lidocaine developed adverse reactions including persistent swelling, pain, and nodule formation. Two of the three patients' abscesses were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic...

  19. Local Solvent Acidities in β-Cyclodextrin Complexes with PRODAN Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Hannah R.; Christopher J. Abelt

    2013-01-01

    The local solvent acidities (SA scale) of six 6-carbonyl-2-aminonaphthalene derivatives as β-cyclodextrin complexes in water are determined through fluorescence quenching. The local polarities (ETN scale) are determined through the shift of the emission center-of-mass. The apparent SA values reflect the solvent structure surrounding the guest’s carbonyl group, whereas the apparent ETN values reveal the net polarity of the entire guest molecule. Comparison of these values affords greater insig...

  20. INFLUENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES ON THE LEVELS OF IMMUNE COMPLEXES UNDER IONIZED RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Boyajyan; S. A. Bajinyan; M. H. Malakyan; L. A. Manukyan; E. A. Arakelova; D. E. Yeghiazaryan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. In the present study, blood levels of circulating immune complexes and of their pathogenic subpopulations were determined in rats following ionizing irradiation. Experimental animals were treated with synthetic Schiff base aromatic amino acid derivatives, nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate or nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate, before irradiation, whereas untreated irradiated rats served as controls. The results obtained demonstrate significantly increased levels of immune complexes, as well as presence...

  1. Simultaneous derivative and multi-component spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and mefenamic acid in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahivelkar P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new, simple, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and mefenamic acid in two-component tablet formulation. The methods employed are, first derivative spectrophotometry, using zero crossing technique and multicomponent analysis. Both the drugs obey the Beer′s law in the concentration range employed for these methods. The results of analysis are validated by statistical evaluation and recovery studies.

  2. Effect of temperature on density, sound velocity, refractive index and their derived properties for the binary systems (heptanoic acid + propanoic or butanoic acids)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Densities (ρ), sound velocities (u) and refractive index (n) were measured for carboxylic acid mixture. • Derived properties were calculated from measured ρ, u and n, respectively. • Redlich–Kister polynomial was used to fit the results. • Lorentz–Lorenz equation was used to predict the density or refractive index. • Sound velocity mixing rules were applied to the experimental sound velocity. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of temperature on density (ρ), sound velocity (u), refractive index (n) and their derived properties for carboxylic acid mixtures was studied. The thermophysical properties: density, sound velocity and refractive index were measured over the entire composition range at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K and at p = 0.1 MPa for the binary systems (heptanoic acid + propanoic or butanoic acids). The mass fraction of water was found to be unusually large and could not be reduced further. The Lorentz–Lorenz approximation was used to predict the density from refractive index or the refractive index from density of the binary mixtures. Sound velocity mixing rules were applied to the experimental sound velocity data. Excess molar volumes, VmE, isentropic compressibilities, κs, excess isentropic compressibilities, κsE, and deviation in refractive indices, Δn, were also calculated from the experimental data. The Redlich–Kister polynomial equation was fitted to the excess properties and the deviation in refractive index data. Thermophysical properties are useful in understanding the intermolecular interactions between the components of mixtures

  3. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment. PMID:24398148

  4. Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Ferroceneboronic Acid and Its Derivatives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of electrochemical biosensors based on ferroceneboronic acid (FcBA and ferrocene (Fc-modified boronic acids. These compounds can be used to construct electrochemical biosensors because they consist of a binding site (i.e., a boronic acid moiety and an electrochemically active part (i.e., an Fc residue. By taking advantage of the unique properties of FcBA and its derivatives, electrochemical sensors sensitive to sugars, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fluoride (F− ions, and so forth have been widely studied. FcBA-based sugar sensors rely on the selective binding of FcBA to 1,2- or 1,3-diol residues of sugars through the formation of cyclic boronate ester bonds. The redox properties of FcBA-sugar adduct differ from those of free FcBA, which forms the basis of the electrochemical determination of sugars. Thus, non-enzymatic glucose sensors are now being actively studied using FcBA and Fc-modified boronic acids as redox markers. Using a similar principle, HbA1c can be detected by FcBA-based electrochemical systems because it contains hydrocarbon chains on the polypeptide chain. HbA1c sensors are useful for monitoring blood glucose levels over the preceding 8–12 weeks. In addition, FcBA and Fc-modified boronic acids have been used for the detection of F− ions due to the selective binding of boronic acid to F− ions. F−-ion sensors may be useful alternatives to conventional ion-selective electrodes sensitive to F− ion. Furthermore, FcBA derivatives have been studied to construct lectin; steroids; nucleotides; salicylic acid; and bacteria sensors. One of the limitations of FcBA-based sensors comes from the fact that FcBA derivatives are added in sample solutions as reagents. FcBA derivatives should be immobilized on the surface of electrodes for developing reagentless sensors.

  5. No indications for altered essential fatty acid metabolism in two murine models for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, A; Bongers, MEJ; Bijvelds, MJ; de Jonge, HR; Verkade, HJ

    2004-01-01

    A deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA) is frequently described in cystic fibrosis (CF), but whether this is a primary consequence of altered EFA metabolism or a secondary phenomenon is unclear. It was suggested that defective long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) synthesis contributes

  6. Library of Antifouling Surfaces Derived From Natural Amino Acids by Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Min; Liu, Xiao-Jiu; Xie, Bin-Bin; Yao, Chen; Li, Yi; Li, Xin-Song

    2015-08-12

    Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from ophthalmological implants to catheters, and from bioseparation to biosensors. In this report, a general and facile strategy to combat surface fouling is developed by grafting of amino acids onto polymer substrates to form zwitterionic structure through amino groups induced epoxy ring opening click reaction. First of all, a library of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) hydrogels with zwitterionic surfaces were prepared, resulting in the formation of pairs of carboxyl anions and protonated secondary amino cations. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of amino acids on the hydrogel surfaces. After that, the contact angle and equilibrium water content of the modified hydrogels showed that the hydrogels exhibited improved hydrophilicity compared with the parent hydrogel. Furthermore, the protein deposition was evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme as models. The results indicated that the performance of the hydrogels was determined by the nature of incorporated amino acid: the hydrogels incorporated with neutral amino acids had nonspecific antiadsorption capability to both BSA and lysozyme; the hydrogels incorporated with charged amino acids showed antiadsorption behaviors against protein with same charge and enhanced adsorption to the protein with opposite charge; the optimal antiadsorption performance was observed on the hydrogels incorporated with polar amino acids with a hydroxyl residual. The improvement of antiprotein fouling of the neutral amino acids grafted hydrogels can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic surfaces. Finally, a couple of soft contact lenses grafted with amino acids were fabricated having improved antifouling property and hydrophilicity. The result demonstrated the success of

  7. All-trans retinoic acid promotes smooth muscle cell differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhong-yuan; Ying LI; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells, an attractive resource for regenerative medicine. Accumulating evidence suggests that all-trans retinoic acid plays a key role in the development and differentiation of smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into smooth muscle cells upon the treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. All-trans retinoic acid increased t...

  8. Protective effects of catecholomic acid derivatives on radiation-induced damage of rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of catecholomic acid derivatives 9501, 9502 and 7601 (CBMIDA) against radiation-induced injury of rat liver mitochondria in vitro. Methods: The injury of rat liver mitochondria was induced by γ-irradiation in vitro. The contents of MDA were assayed by spectrophotometry of TBA. The absorption value at 520 nm was measured to detect swelling of mitochondria. The electron microscopic samples of mitochondria were prepared. Results: All 9501 (5 x 10-6 mol/L), 9502(10-5 mol/L), and 7601 (10-5 mol/L) significantly inhibited radiation-induced increase of MDA information.The swelling of mitochondria induced by irradiation was also prevented by 9501, 7601. The electron micrographs also showed that 9501 markedly reduced the pathological damage of mitochondria induced by γ-irradiation. The mechanisms of anti-oxidative action of catecholomic acid derivatives was discussed. Conclusion: Injurious effect of radiation on rat liver mitochondria can be prevented by catecholomic acid derivatives 9501, 9502 and 7601 (CBMIDA)

  9. [Possible ways of regulating detoxifying processes in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction with pantothenic acid derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikevich, I P; Dorofeev, B F; Moĭseenok, A G

    1993-01-01

    Oxidation of derivatives and precursors of pantothenic acid was studied in alcohol dehydrogenase reactions. Despite the presence of free hydroxymethyl groups in a number of pantothenic acid derivatives only panthenol with Km = 8 x 10(-3) M was shown to serve as a substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver tissue (EC 1.1.1.1) Pantethine, sodium phosphopantothenate, CoA and acetyl-CoA decreased the rate of ethanol oxidation, where pantethine and sodium phosphopantothenate were competitive inhibitors, while CoA and acetyl-CoA inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively Ki = 1.2 x 10(-2) M, 2.1 x 10(-2) M, 4.4 x 10(-4) M and 5.1 x 10(-4) M, respectively. Metabolic precursors, which were different from pantothenic acid in their structure, were not involved in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. Possible regulation of alcohol intoxication using derivatives and precursors of vitamin B3 is discussed. PMID:8511887

  10. A newly synthesized sinapic acid derivative inhibits endothelial activation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Jinhong; Fu, Chenglai; Su, Hang; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xuesi; Hou, Yingjian; Zhu, Yi

    2013-05-01

    Inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) may represent a new therapeutic strategy against endothelial activation. Sinapic acid (SA), a phenylpropanoid compound, is found in natural herbs and high-bran cereals and has moderate antioxidant activity. We aimed to develop new SA agents with the properties of antioxidation and blocking EC activation for possible therapy of cardiovascular disease. We designed and synthesized 10 SA derivatives according to their chemical structures. Preliminary screening of the compounds involved scavenging hydroxyl radicals and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(⋅)), croton oil-induced ear edema in mice, and analysis of the mRNA expression of adhesion molecules in ECs. 1-Acetyl-sinapic acyl-4-(3'-chlorine-)benzylpiperazine (SA9) had the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the effect of SA9 was further studied. SA9 inhibited tumor necrosis factor α-induced upregulation of adhesion molecules in ECs at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as the consequent monocyte adhesion to ECs. In vivo, result of face-to-face immunostaining showed that SA9 reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in mouse aortic intima. To study the molecular mechanism, results from luciferase assay, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and Western blot indicated that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of SA9 might be suppression of intracellular generation of ROS and inhibition of NF-κB activation in ECs. SA9 is a prototype of a novel class of antioxidant with anti-inflammatory effects in ECs. It may represent a new therapeutic approach for preventing endothelial activation in cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23470287

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of antimicrobial fatty acids and derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHANG; Lu ZHANG; Li-juan PENG; Xiao-wu DONG; Di WU; Vivian Chi-Hua WU; Feng-qin FENG

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids and derivatives (FADs) are resources for natural antimicrobials.In order to screen for additional potent antimicrobial agents,the antimicrobial activities of FADs against Staphylococcus aureus were examined using a microplate assay.Monoglycerides of fatty acids were the most potent class of fatty acids,among which monotridecanoin possessed the most potent antimicrobial activity.The conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were performed to establish two statistically reliable models (conventional QSAR:R2=0.942,Q2LOO=0.910; CoMFA:R2=0.979,Q2=0.588,respectively).Improved forecasting can be achieved by the combination of these two models that provide a good insight into the structureactivity relationships of the FADs and that may be useful to design new FADs as antimicrobial agents.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of sophocarpinic acid derivatives as anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a major public health burden worldwide. Twenty-two sophocarpinic acid or matrine derivatives were synthesized and their anti-HCV activities were evaluated in vitro. The structure-activity analysis revealed that (i sophocarpinic acids with a D-seco 3-ring structure scaffold were more favorable than matrines with a 4-ring scaffold; (ii the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group on the phenyl ring in 12-N-benzenesulfonyl Δβγ sophocarpinic acids was beneficial for the antiviral activity against HCV. Among them, compounds 9h and 9j exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities on HCV replication with selectivity indies of 70.3 and 30.9, respectively. Therefore, both were selected as antiviral candidates for further investigation.

  13. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cells of Novel Isoquinolinequinone-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jaime A; Delgado, Virginia; Sepúlveda, Sandra; Benites, Julio; Theoduloz, Cristina; Buc Calderon, Pedro; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-09-08

    A variety of aminoisoquinoline-5,8-quinones bearing α-amino acids moieties were synthesized from 3-methyl-4-methoxycarbonylisoquinoline-5,8-quinone and diverse l- and d-α-amino acid methyl esters. The members of the series were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against normal and cancer cell lines by using the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. From the current investigation, structure-activity relationships demonstrate that the location and structure of the amino acid fragment plays a significant role in the cytotoxic effects. Moderate to high cytotoxic activity was observed and four members, derived from l-alanine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and d-phenylalanine, were selected as promising compounds by their IC50 ranging from 0.5 to 6.25 μM and also by their good selectivity indexes (≥2.24).

  14. Naturally occurring amino acid derivatives with herbicidal, fungicidal or insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Several naturally occurring amino acid derivatives display significant activities against weeds, fungi and insects: some of them have been even commercialized and are applied as crop protection agents. The 53 most important amino acid natural products with such efficacy are presented in this review together with their natural source, mode of action and biological activity. The diversity of the manifold bacterial, fungal and plantal sources of these compounds is impressive as well as their completely different structural scaffolds, ranging from cyclopeptides via unique non-proteinogenic amino acids to peptidyl nucleosides, the broad range of target enzymes from several different biochemical pathways, which they inhibit and also the plethora of different weeds, fungi and insects they are able to control. PMID:26801938

  15. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  16. Effect of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Drug Derivatives of Anthranilic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Pobudkowska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Guest-host complex formation of three drug derivatives of anthranilic acid, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, and flufenamic acid with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD in aqueous solutions was investigated using “Phase solubility study” with UV-vis spectrophotometry. Solubility of sparingly soluble drugs has been improved by addition of 2HP-β-CD at two temperatures 298.15 K and 310.15 K and two pH values 2 and 7. The influence of different 2HP-β-CD concentration on solubility of drugs at different pH and temperatures has been investigated. The 2HP-β-CD-drug complex stability constants (Ks, and dissociations constants (Kd, as well as the thermodynamic parameters of reaction, i.e., the free energy change (ΔG, the enthalpy change (ΔH and the entropy change (ΔS, were determined. The experimental data indicated formation of 1:1 inclusion complexes, which were found effective binders increasing the solubility of drugs.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of linoleic acid peroxide-derived radicals using electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, H

    2000-12-29

    High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) was applied to detect 13-hydroperoxide octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE)-derived radicals such as the pentyl radical and octanoic acid radical. The 13-HPODE-derived radicals were successfully detected using HPLC-ED by the combined use of the spin-trapping technique with alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN). The 4-POBN-pentyl radical adduct was detected at the retention time of 18.2 +/- 0.3 min on the elution profile of HPLC-ED with an ODS column (15 cm x 4.6 mm I.D.) using a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min with 50 mM ammonium acetate in 29% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile. The 4-POBN-octanoic acid radical adduct was also detected at the retention time of 13.7 +/- 0.7 min using a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min with 50 mM ammonium acetate in 14% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile. The concentrations of the 4-POBN radical adducts were determined using HPLC-ED without an internal standard. HPLC-ED is 100 times as sensitive as HPLC-electron spin resonance (ESR) under the ESR and ED conditions employed here. Even 1.8 pmol of the 4-POBN-pentyl (or octanoic acid) radical adduct was detectable using PMID:11204234

  18. Optical and thermal properties of azo derivatives of salicylic acid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M. M.; El-Ghamaz, N. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Serag, L. S.

    2015-02-01

    N-acryloyl-4-aminosalicylic acid (4-AMSA), monomer (HL) and 5-(4‧-alkyl phenylazo)-N-acryloyl-4-aminosalicylic acid (HLn) are synthesized and characterized with various physico-chemical techniques. Thin films of 5-(4‧-alkyl phenylazo)-N-acryloyl-4-aminosalicylic acid (HLn) are prepared by spin coating technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) and its derivatives are investigated in powder and thin film forms. Thermal properties of the compounds are investigated by thermogravemetric analysis (TGA). The optical energy gap and the type of optical transition are investigated in the wavelength range (200-2500 nm) for 4-ASA, HL and HLn. The values of fundamental energy gap (Eg) are in the range 3.60-3.69 eV for all compounds and the type of optical transition is found to be indirect allowed. The onset energy gap Eg∗ appeared only for azodye compounds is found to be in the range 0.95-1.55 eV depending on the substituent function groups. The refractive index, n, shows a normal dispersion in the wavelength range 650-2500 nm, while shows anomalous dispersion in the wavelength rang 200-650 nm. The dispersion parameters ε∞, εL, Ed, Eo and N /m∗ are calculated. The photoluminescence phenomena (PL) appear for thin films of 4-ASA and its derivatives show three main emission transitions.

  19. Ring-extended derivatives of gramicidin S with furanoid sugar amino acids in the turn region have enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, A.D.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2009-01-01

    (Chemical Equation Presented) A series of ring-extended gramicidin S (GS) derivatives containing furanoid sugar amino acids were evaluated. Although the extended GS derivatives have a less well-defined secondary structure as determined by NMR and CD, some derivatives show an improved biological prof

  20. Quantitative structure activity relationships of some pyridine derivatives as corrosion inhibitors of steel in acidic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H; El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G DFT) and semi-empirical AM1 methods were performed on ten pyridine derivatives used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their inhibition efficiencies. Quantum chemical parameters such as total negative charge (TNC) on the molecule, energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (E (HOMO)), energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E (LUMO)) and dipole moment (μ) as well as linear solvation energy terms, molecular volume (Vi) and dipolar-polarization (π) were correlated to corrosion inhibition efficiency of ten pyridine derivatives. A possible correlation between corrosion inhibition efficiencies and structural properties was searched to reduce the number of compounds to be selected for testing from a library of compounds. It was found that theoretical data support the experimental results. The results were used to predict the corrosion inhibition of 24 related pyridine derivatives.

  1. Characteristic of hyaluronic acid derivative films cross-linked by polyethylene glycol of low water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jinghua; Chen Jingtao; Xu Zheng; Gu Qisheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the characteristics of byaluronic acid (HA) derivative cross-linked by polyethylene glycol films of low water content. Methods: The cross-linked HA film with 200 μm thickness was got at atmospheric pressure at 25℃ for 5 d. After dried, cross-linked films of 10 mm×10 mm were weighed and immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS pH 7.45) at 37℃ for 24 h. Then the solution fraction and water content were estimated. Meanwhile, cross-linked HA derivative films were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: pH 7.45) at 37℃ for determined time and then implanted subcutaneously in the back of white rats to test in vitro or in vivo degradation characteristic. Results and Conclusion: HA hydrogel cross-linked by polyethylene glycol with water content is as low as 60% and this kind of HA derivative has a slow degradation rate.

  2. [Influence of GABA derivatives on some indices of lipid peroxidation in immunocompetent organs under experimental immunopathology conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samotrueva, M A; Magomedov, M M; Khlebtsova, E B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GABA derivatives phenotropil (25 mg/kg), phenibut (25 mg/kg), and baclofen (2 mg/kg) on the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as manifested by the initial level of malonic dialdehyde, velocity of spontaneous and ascorbate-dependent LPO, and the catalase activity in the homogenates of thymus and spleen, have been studied on rats of the Wistar line with cyclophosphamide (CPHA) immunodepression and lipopolysacharide (LPS) immune stress. It is established that, under the action of CPHA and LPS, activation of the LPO processes takes place in the immune organs. Under these conditions, changes of the catalase activity exhibited some specific features: in the animals under LPS action, the catalase activity increased in the spleen, while being decreased in the thymus; under the influence of CPHA, the activity of this enzyme decreased in both organs. An analysis of the antioxidant activity of GABA derivatives under the conditions of CPHA-induced immunodepression showed that all substances upon intraperitoneal introduction for 5 days favored the elimination of disturbances by suppressing the LPO processes and increasing the antioxidant protection activity. On the background of LPS-induced immune stress, all the tested substances showed a correcting action with respect to indicated biochemical processes in the thymus, while only phenibut activated the antioxidant system in the spleen. PMID:22232912

  3. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallard Simonette R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d. If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37% of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d. Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed

  4. Selective Michael-type addition of a D-glucuronic acid derivative in the synthesis of model substances for uronic acid containing polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A flexible protocol for the preparation of model substances for uronic acid containing polysaccharides is presented. We have synthesized a D-glucuronic acid derivative which is designed so that it easily can be conjugated with different structures and architectures by selective Michael-type addition. By successful coupling of the glucuronic acid derivative to polyethylene glycol with high degree of conversion, products were obtained that were easily characterized and which resembled polysaccharides in terms of solubility and purification methods that could be employed. The model substance can potentially be used to facilitate optimization of low-degree modification reactions of high molecular weight D-glucuronic acid containing polysaccharides.

  5. A New Nanocatalytic Spectrophotometric Assay for Cationic Surfactant Using Phosphomolybdic Acid-Formic Acid-Nanogold as Indicator Reaction%A New Nanocatalytic Spectrophotometric Assay for Cationic Surfactant Using Phosphomolybdic Acid-Formic Acid-Nanogold as Indicator Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋治良; 覃惠敏; 梁爱惠

    2012-01-01

    In the pH 7.4 Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer solution, the cationic surfactant (CS) interacted with nanogold particles (NG) to form NG aggregations (NGA) that resulted in its color changing from wine red to blue-violet. NG has a strong catalysis on the formic acid-phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) colored reaction, but that of the NGA catalysis is weak. With the increase of CS concentration, the NGA increased and the NG decreased, the catalysis decreased and the absorption value at 700 nm decreased linearly. The concentrations of 6.25-250 nmol/L tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (TDBAC), 0.625-250 nmol/L cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) and 12.5 -500 nmol-L 1 dodecyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC) had good linear responses to the decreased absorption value (AA70o nm), with molar absorption coefficients of 2.2 × 106, 2.1 × 106 and 9 ×105 Lomol 1.cm 1 respectively. This method was simple, highly sensitive and low-cost.

  6. Production of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in hairy root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Yin, Zhong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Peng, Da-Yong

    2015-01-14

    Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (CADs) are valuable bioactive plant secondary metabolites with many health benefits. In the present study, Stevia rebaudiana hairy root cultures were established, and the culture conditions for the production of CADs were optimized. The hairy roots were induced by coculture of S. rebaudiana leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (C58C1) after infection, which were further verified by PCR detection of rolB and rolC genes. HPLC-MS and HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-CQA) were the major CADs in the hairy roots. Eight single roots with rapid growth rate were selected. Among them, T3 had the highest yield of CADs. B5 medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose was more suitable for the production of CADs than others. Under optimal culture conditions, the total content of these three compounds reached 105.58 mg/g and total yield was 234.40 mg/100 mL. PMID:25548875

  7. Production of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives in hairy root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Yin, Zhong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguan, Xin-Chen; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Peng, Da-Yong

    2015-01-14

    Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives (CADs) are valuable bioactive plant secondary metabolites with many health benefits. In the present study, Stevia rebaudiana hairy root cultures were established, and the culture conditions for the production of CADs were optimized. The hairy roots were induced by coculture of S. rebaudiana leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (C58C1) after infection, which were further verified by PCR detection of rolB and rolC genes. HPLC-MS and HPLC analysis showed that chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-CQA) were the major CADs in the hairy roots. Eight single roots with rapid growth rate were selected. Among them, T3 had the highest yield of CADs. B5 medium supplemented with 40 g/L sucrose was more suitable for the production of CADs than others. Under optimal culture conditions, the total content of these three compounds reached 105.58 mg/g and total yield was 234.40 mg/100 mL.

  8. Characteristics of Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Cross-linked by Polyethylene Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Characteristic and dynamic viscosities of Hyaluronic acid ( HA ) derivative modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) were tested with different reaction times (6 h,12 h,18 h and 24 h ) , different molar ratio of HA/PEG ( 1/10,1/5,1/3 and 1/2), different molecular weight of PEG(400,6 000 and 20 000) and mass fraction is 0.4% by Wushi Viscosimeter and L- 90 Rheometer at 25 ℃. Characteristic viscosity of HA derivative had the largest value in 12 h, which decreased with increasing of PEG molecular weight, but its aqueous dynamic viscosity increased with increment of PEG molecular weight. Meanwhile, we tested dynamic mechanic properties of HA derivative by 3ARES3 Rheometer at 25 ℃ to study viscoelastic changes and to compare change difference from viscosity to elasticity with the changes of vibration frequency between unmodified HA and HA derivative.Change from low vibrated frequency to high one of solution resulted in change from viscosity to elasticity of solution. In conclusion, as to the rheological properties, structure-modified HA derivative meets the requirement of biomnterial .

  9. Compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids as indicators of trophic interactions in the East China Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Na; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Ruijing; Dai, Fangqun; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-09-01

    The composition and compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids were studied within food webs in the East China Sea. Lipid-normalized stable carbon isotopes of total organic carbon had a good correlation with trophic level. Variations in fatty acid compositions among diff erent species were observed but were unclear. Diff erent dietary structures could be traced from molecular isotopes of selected fatty acids in the Shiba shrimp ( Matapenaeus joyneri), the coastal mud shrimp ( Solenocera crassicornis) and the northern Maoxia shrimp ( Acetes chinensis). Both M. joyneri and S. crassicornis are mainly benthos feeders, while A. chinensis is a pelagic species, although they have a similar fatty acid composition. There was a good correlation for isotopes of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) among pelagic species from higher trophic levels. The isotopic compositions of DHA in benthic species were more negative than those of pelagic species at the same trophic level. The fact that the diet of benthic species contains more degraded items, the carbon isotopes of which are derived from a large biochemical fraction, may be the reason for this variation. A comparative study of benthic and pelagic species demonstrated the diff erent carbon sources in potential food items and the presence of a more complex system at the water-sediment interface.

  10. Formation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Phenylboronic Acid Derivative Monolayers toward Developing Monosaccaride Sensing-Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangnak Koh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We designed and synthesized phenylboronic acid as a molecular recognitionmodel system for saccharide detection. The phenylboronic acid derivatives that haveboronic acid moiety are well known to interact with saccharides in aqueous solution; thus,they can be applied to a functional interface of saccharide sensing through the formation ofself-assembled monolayer (SAM. In this study, self-assembled phenylboronic acidderivative monolayers were formed on Au surface and carefully characterized by atomicforce microscopy (AFM, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy(FTIR-RAS, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, and surface electrochemicalmeasurements. The saccharide sensing application was investigated using surface plasmonresonance (SPR spectroscopy. The phenylboronic acid monolayers showed goodsensitivity of monosaccharide sensing even at the low concentration range (1.0 × 10-12 M.The SPR angle shift derived from interaction between phenylboronic acid andmonosaccharide was increased with increasing the alkyl spacer length of synthesizedphenylboronic acid derivatives.

  11. Analysis of tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives in heavy gas oil from Brazilian naphthenic acids by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz de Campos, Maria Cecília; Oliveira, Eniz Conceição; Filho, Pedro José Sanches; Piatnicki, Clarisse Maria Sartori; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2006-02-10

    Naphthenic acids, C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are a complex mixture of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycle-aliphatic carboxylic acids. The content of naphthenic acids and their derivatives in crude oils is very small, which hinders their extraction from matrixes of wide and varied composition. In this work, liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid phase extraction with an ion exchange resin (Amberlyst A-27) and ultrasound desorption were used to isolate the acid fraction from heavy gas oil of Marlim petroleum (Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The analysis was accomplished through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization, after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoracetamide (MTBDMSTFA). The results indicate the presence of carboxylic acids belonging to families of alicyclic and naphthenic compounds which contain up to four rings in the molecule. PMID:16439253

  12. Catalytic Kinetic Determination of Micro Amounts of Oxalic Acid by Second-Order Derivative Oscillopolarography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It was found that micro amounts of oxalate showed a very strong catalytic effect on the slow reaction between K2Cr2O7 and Orange Ⅳ in a diluted sulfuric acid medium in a water bath at 70 ℃. Orange Ⅳ exhibited a sensitive second-order derivative polarographic wave at -0.50 V(vs. SCE). This provides the basis for a sensitive and selective catalytic kinetic method for oxalate determination with second-order derivative oscillopolarography. The effects of sulphuric acid, K2Cr2O7, and orange Ⅳ concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated. A calibration curve of oxalate in the range of 0.1—2.0 μg/mL was obtained by the fixed-time procedure. The detection limit was 0.03 μg/ mL. The possible interference from co-existing substances or ions was examined. The new method has a high sensitivity and a good selectivity compared to other existing methods for oxalic acid determination. It has been applied to the determination of micro amounts of oxalate in real urine samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  14. [Antithrombotic therapy after myocardial infarction: arguments for the use of acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskowsky, W M; Brouwer, A; Verheugt, F W A

    2005-01-01

    Patients who survived myocardial infarction and who are being treated with the current optimal therapy (antithrombotics, statins and beta-blockers), have a 10-20% chance of death, re-infarction and stroke within in the first year. A possible explanation for this could be an increased activation and generation ofthrombin for at least 6 months following the cardiovascular event preceding preventative therapy. Acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel do not affect activation by thrombin of the platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. The additional use of cumarin derivatives could therefore reduce the chance of recurring thrombotic events, and subsequently improve prognosis. Since the nineteen-nineties several randomised trials have been conducted to study the clinical relevance ofcumarin derivatives both with and without acetylsalicylic acid, in patients who had had a myocardial infarction. The conclusions of these studies were not unambiguous. If the international normalized ratio (INR) was kept > 2 for a long period, by means of frequent check-ups and effective dosage adjustment, the chance of death, recurrent myocardial infarction or stroke was 30-50% lower than when acetylsalicylic acid only was used. The risk of bleeding was raised by 2-4 times, but there were no life-threatening episodes of bleeding. In view of the recent development of anticoagulant agents, for which monitoring seems to be becoming unnecessary, identification of patients who would benefit most from a combined antithrombotic strategy is warranted. PMID:15688836

  15. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l(-1) of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l(-1)) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l(-1)), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value.

  16. Nutritional stability of various naturally occurring monoglutamate derivatives of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Broin, J D; Temperley, I J; Brown, J P; Scott, J M

    1975-05-01

    The nutritional stabilities of four major dietary folates were studied as their corresponding monoglutamates and were compared to pteroylglutamate (folic acid) itself. The study of the monoglutamyl rather than polyglutamyl forms was justified since the former are formed during the course of digestion and also addition of extra glutamyl residues is unlikely to affect the types of nutritional instability associated with these derivatives. Since ability to support growth in Lactobacillus casei is known to reflect nutritional activity in man this organism was used in the stability studies. It was found that pteroylglutamate and 5-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate had nutritional stabilities of the order of weeks although the stability of the former was decreased by phosphate. Surprisingly 10-formyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was nutritionally more stable than expected, possibly due to its conversion to the more stable oxidized 10-formylpteroylglutamate or to the reduced 5-formyl derivative. In contrast 5-methyltetrahydropteroylglutamate was much less stable nutritionally than expected.Unsubstituted tetrahydropteroylglutamate was most unstable nutritionally but in contrast to the other derivatives examined it was more stable under acidic than basic conditions. Ascorbate was found to be a far superior stabilizing agent than 2-mercaptoethanol at comparable concentrations. PMID:236647

  17. Serum Uric Acid Correlation with Echocardiographic Indices in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Rajaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP is a myocardial disease characterized by dilated left ventricle or both ventricles and reduced contractility of the myocardium. In patients suffering from DCMP, the serum level of uric acid may increase. This research was designed to evaluate the effect of the serum level of uric acid on systolic and diastolic functions in patients with DCMP.Methods: This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with DCMP aged between 1 month and 12 years who were consistent with a control group in terms of age and gender. Patients suffering from congenital and acquired cardiac, renal, metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurologic, vascular, and hematologic diseases were excluded. After physical examination, chest X-ray, and electrocardiography, systolic and diastolic parameters were measured via echocardiography, and fasting serum uric acid level was measured. The data were analyzed using the t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The average age of the patients in the case and control groups was 7.28 and 7.13 years, respectively. There were 15 boys, and the rest were girls. The serum uric acid level in the case and control groups was 6.22 and 3.31 mg/dl, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P value <0.01. There was a significant correlation between serum uric acid level and left ventricular isovolumic contraction, interventricular septal diameter, left ventricular septal diameter in diastole, and fractional shortening (P value <0.05.Conclusion: In children with DCMP, the serum level of uric acid increases significantly and this increase is significantly correlated with some of left heart echocardiographic parameters. This test is of predictive value for disease progression.

  18. Relative tectonics and debris flow hazards in the Beijing mountain area from DEM-derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shangmin

    2016-03-01

    The geomorphic setting of the tectonically active area around Beijing is a result of complex interactions involving Yanshan neotectonic movements and processes of erosion and deposition. The Beijing Mountain study area contains the junction of two mountain ranges (the Yanshan Mountains and the Taihang Mountains). Tectonic activity has significantly influenced the drainage system and the geomorphic situation in the area, leading to a high probability of the development of debris flows, which is one of the major abrupt geological disasters in the region. Based on 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM data, a total of 752 drainage basins were extracted using ArcGIS software. A total of 705 debris flow valleys were visually interpreted from ALOS satellite images and published documents. Seven geomorphic indices were calculated for each basin including the relief amplitude, the hypsometric integral, the stream length gradient, the basin shape indices, the fractal dimension, the asymmetry factor, and the ratio of the valley floor width to the height. These geomorphic indices were divided into five classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins for each geomorphic index was computed and analyzed for every class. Average class values of the seven indices were used to derive an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT). The ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins was computed for every class of IRAT. The degree of probable risk level was then defined from the IRAT classes. Finally, the debris flow hazard was evaluated for each drainage basin based on the combined effect of probable risk level and occurrence frequency of the debris flows. The result showed a good correspondence between IRAT classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins. Approximately 65% of the drainage basins with occurred debris flow valleys are at a high risk level

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Spectral, Tautomerism and Acid-Base Properties of Schiff Bases Derived from Some Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebead, Y. H.; Salman, H. M. A.; Abdellah, M. A. [South Valley University, Qena (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    The electronic absorption spectra of five Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with glycine, alanine, leucine, valine and phenylalanine have been measured in various solvents. The observed bands were assigned to the proper electronic transitions and compared with the predicted transitions at the semiempirical level of theory. The calculated equilibrium constants are in agreement with the experimental results, predicting the existence of all studied compounds predominantly or completely in keto-imine tautomerism. On the other hand, a correlation between ν (cm{sup -1}) (main frequency of each compound) and the well known solvent parameters E{sub T} (30), ε{sub r}, π* has been made. Furthermore, the acid dissociation constants, pK{sub a}, were determined by using three different spectrophotometric methods.

  20. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  1. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

  2. Colour indicator for enantiomeric excess and assignment of the configuration of the major enantiomer of an amino acid ester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, R.A.van; Feringa, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    A colour indicator for the full range of enantiomeric excess (-100% --> 100% ee) is presented which is based on visual colour inspection of a liquid crystal doped with the analyte, i.e. the methyl ester of amino acid phenylglycine, providing the enantiomeric excess and allowing the assignment of the

  3. Effects of amino acid derivatives on physical, mental, and physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Radhakrishna, Kolpe

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids have been in use for a long time to enhance exercise and sports performance. Dietary components that exhibit ergogenic activity are numerous and their consumption is common and popular among athletes. They often come under scrutiny by legal authorities for their claimed benefits and safety concerns. Amino acid derivatives are propagated as being effective aids to enhance physical and mental performance in many ways, even though studies have pointed out that individuals who are deficient are more likely to benefit from dietary supplementation of amino acid derivatives than normal humans. In this review, some of the most common and widely used amino acids derivatives in sports and athletics namely creatine, tyrosine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine have been discussed for their effects on exercise performance, mental activity as well as body strength and composition. Creatine, carnitine, HMB, and taurine are reported to delay the onset of fatigue, improve exercise performance, and body strength. HMB helps in increasing fat-free mass and reduce exercise induced muscle injury. Taurine has been found to reduce oxidative stress during exercise and also act as an antihypertensive agent. Although, studies have not been able to find any favorable effect of tyrosine administration on exercise performance, it has been proved to be very effective in fighting stress, improving mood and cognitive performance particularly in sleep-deprived subjects. While available data from published studies and findings are equivocal about the efficacy of creatine, tyrosine, and HMB, more comprehensive researches on carnitine and taurine are necessary to provide evidence for the theoretical basis of their ergogenic role in nutritional modification and supplementation. PMID:24279396

  4. Bioactive 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives prevent oxidative damage of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovic, Suzana; Tirzitis, Gunars; Tirzite, Dace; Cipak, Ana; Khoschsorur, Gholam A; Waeg, Georg; Tatzber, Franz; Scukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Zarkovic, Neven

    2006-05-10

    1,4-Dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives (1,4-DHINA) are compounds closely related to derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine, a well-known calcium channel antagonists. 1,4-DHINA we used were derived from a well-known antioxidant Diludin. Although some compounds have neuromodulatory or antimutagenic properties, their activity mechanisms are not well known. This study was performed to obtain data on antioxidant and bioprotective activities of: 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid (Ia); sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)glutamate (Ib) and sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)ethane-sulphate (Ic). 1,4-DHINA's activities were studied in comparison to Trolox by: N,N-Diphenyl-N'-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), deoxyribose degradation, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging and antioxidative capacity assays; copper-induced lipid peroxidation of cultured rat liver cells (malondialdehyde determination by high performance liquid chromatography and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates by dot-blot); (3)H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue assay for liver cells growth and viability. In all assays used Ia was the most potent antioxidant. Ia was also a potent antioxidant at non-toxic concentrations for liver cell cultures. It completely abolished, while Ic only slightly decreased copper-induced lipid peroxidation of liver cells. Thus, antioxidant capacities are important activity principle of Ia, which was even superior to Trolox in the cell cultures used, while activity principles of Ic and Ib remain yet to be determined. PMID:16600211

  5. Hydrogels formed by enantioselective self-assembly of histidine-derived amphiphiles with tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanjun; Xu, Zhenghu; Dong, Shuli; Feng, Lei; Song, Aixin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-07-21

    Two chiral enantiomers of histidine-derived amphiphilic gelators, (4R,6S)-UIPCA and (4S,6R)-UIPCA, were synthesized through Pictet-Spengler reaction and their gelation behaviors with different organic acids were investigated. Interestingly, the chiral enantiomers of UIPCA showed smart enantioselectivity for gelating tartaric acid enantiomers to form hydrogels with excellent mechanical strength. The TEM and SEM images demonstrated that the hydrogels were composed of networks by physical entanglement of nanofibers with high aspect ratios. The formation of nanofibers was considered to be driven by the interplay of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attraction, and hydrophobic interaction, which was supported by XRD and FT-IR spectra. The hydrogels exhibited sensitive response to a series of external stimuli, such as temperature, metal ions, and host-guest interactions, to realize the reversible gel-sol transition. The property of the gelation was elaborated and the gelators were expected to find their applications in chiral discrimination. PMID:24865976

  6. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bento

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10 are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2nCO2R by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultinuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, MS spectrometry and elemental analysis; theNMR spectroscopic data were used for structural assignment of the N-1 and N-2 isomers.The molecular structure of indazol-2-yl-acetic acid (5b was determined by X-raydiffraction, which shows a supramolecular architecture involving O2-H...N1intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  7. Molecular interaction of acetylcholinesterase with carnosic acid derivatives: a neuroinformatics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merad, M; Soufi, W; Ghalem, S; Boukli, F; Baig, M H; Ahmad, K; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain marked by gradual and irreversible declines in cognitive functions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a biological role in the termination of nerve impulse transmissions at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of its substrate, "acetylcholine". The deficit level of acetylcholine leads to deprived nerve impulse transmission. Thus the cholinesterase inhibitors would reverse the deficit in acetylcholine level and consequently may reverse the memory impairments, which is characteristic of the Alzheimer's disease. The molecular interactions between AChE and Carnosic acid, a well known antioxidant substance found in the leaves of the rosemary plant has always been an area of interest. Here in this study we have performed in silico approach to identify carnosic acid derivatives having the potential of being a possible drug candidate against AChE. The best candidates were selected on the basis of the results of different scoring functions. PMID:24059305

  8. Design, synthesis and antitumor activity of novel D-glucuronic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nezhawy, Ahmed O H; Adly, Frady G; Eweas, Ahmed F; Hanna, Atef G; el-Kholy, Yehya M; el-Syed, Shahenaz H; el-Naggar, Tarek B A

    2011-11-01

    A series of D-glucuronic acid derivatives were chemically synthesized including acetylated and deacetylated glucuronamides, as well as N-glucuronides starting from the D-glucuronic acid itself by means of protection/deprotection, activation and condensation protocols. Structure elucidation of all products along with optimization of the synthetic steps is described. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against MCF-7, TK-10 and UACC-62 cell lines. The compounds 4, 5, 7, 8, 14, 16 and 18 were the most active against TK-10 cell line. On the other hand, the most active compounds against the MCF-7 cell line were 9, 18 and 20. However, compounds 7-10 13-15 and 17 were the most active against the UACC-62 cell line.

  9. Solution structure of human acidic fibroblast growth factor and interaction with heparin-derived hexasaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) bind to extracellular matrices, especially heparin-like carbohydrates of heparansulfate proteoglycans which stabilize FGFs to protect against inactivation by heat, acid, proteolysis and oxidation. Moreover, binding of FGFs to cell surface proteoglycans promotes to form oligomers, which is essential for receptor oligomerization and activation. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of acidic FGF using a series of triple resonance multi-dimensional NMR experiments and simulated annealing calculations. Furthermore, we prepared the sample complexed with a heparin-derived hexasaccharide which is a minimum unit for aFGF binding. From the chemical shift differences between free aFGF and aFGF-heparin complex, we concluded that the major heparin binding site was located on the regions 110-131 and 17-21. The binding sites are quite similar to those observed for bFGF-heparin hexasaccharide complex, showing that both FGFs recognize heparin- oligosaccharides in a similar manner

  10. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  11. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA improves learning impairment in SAMP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Iso, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-23

    In the water-maze test, the linoleic acid derivative, 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), significantly shortened the prolonged latency for accelerated-senescence-prone mice 8 (SAMP8), reaching a level similar to the latency for accelerated-senescence-resistant mice 1 (SAMR1) as control. In the open-field test to assess motor activity, it was confirmed that the DCP-LA effect is not due to increased motor activity. In the passive avoidance test to assess fear memory, DCP-LA had no effect on the latency of acquisition and retention for SAMP8. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that DCP-LA could improve age-related learning impairment by enhancing cognitive functions.

  12. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Fernanda N N; Ferreira, M João; Knittel, Ana S O; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Costa Pessoa, João; Herrmann, Rudolf; Wagner, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O), reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine) to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2) which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR) and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a -N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states. PMID:27340465

  13. Amino-modified tetraphenylethene derivatives as nucleic acid stain: relationship between the structure and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhu, Zece; Wei, Danqing; Zhou, Xiang; Qin, Jingui; Yang, Chuluo

    2014-10-22

    A series of new amino-functionalized tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivatives were designed and synthesized to study the effect of molecular structures on the detection of nucleic acid. Contrastive studies revealed that the number of binding groups, the length of hydrophobic linking arm and the configuration of TPE molecule all play important roles on the sensitivity of the probes in nucleic acid detection. Z-TPE3 with two binding amino groups, long linking arms, and cis configuration was found to be the most sensitive dye in both solution and gel matrix. Z-TPE3 is able to stain dsDNA with the lowest amount of 1 ng and exclusively stain 40 ng of short oligonucleotide with only 10 nt. This work is of important significance for the further design of TPE probes as biosensors with higher sensitivity. PMID:25279446

  14. N-( p-Ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives of amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters - Synthesis and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eißmann, Frank; Weber, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    A series of N-( p-ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives ( 1-4) of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine as well as the dipeptides glycylglycine and L-alanylglycine has been synthesized via a two-step reaction sequence including the reaction of an appropriate N-( p-bromobenzoyl) precursor with trimethylsilylacetylene followed by deprotection of the trimethylsilyl protecting group, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of the amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters 1-4 are reported. The amide and peptide bonds within each molecular structure are planar and adopt the trans-configuration. The packing structures are governed by N sbnd H⋯O interactions leading to the formation of characteristic strand motifs. Further stabilization results from weaker C sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯π contacts.

  15. Wittig reaction (with ethylidene triphenylphosphorane) of oxo-hydroxy derivatives of 5β-cholanic acid: Hydrophobicity, haemolytic potential and capacity of derived ethylidene derivatives for solubilisation of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Bjedov, Srđan; Sebenji, Ana; Sakač, Marija

    2014-08-01

    Bile acid salts are biosurfactants which form mixed micelles with phospholipids in vertebrates. These mixed micelles are suitable for solubilisation of cholesterol. For therapeutic purposes some bile acid salts as sodium ursocholate are used. However, bile acid anions possess low capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol. Thus, synthesis of more hydrophobic and less membranotoxic bile acid derivatives is of the great interest. In this paper Wittig reaction between ethylidene triphenylphosphorane and different bile acids oxo derivatives is examined. Wittig reaction of bile acids has not been studied much. C12 oxo group is inert in this reaction. If Wittig reaction happens on C7 oxo group stereospecifically E ethylidene stereoisomer is obtained, while the same reaction on C3 oxo group leads to more reactive not sterospecific product. In this paper stereochemical course of investigated Wittig reactions is thoroughly analysed. Hydrophobicity of derived products is determined over the temperature (T) dependence on retention coefficients (k) in reversed phase high resolution chromatography. Using method of principle components on k=f(T) matrix it is found that values of first principle components best describe hydrophobicity of analysed bile acids, while the second principal component is responsible for their hydrophilicity. By in silico molecular descriptors: valence connectivity index of order 3 (X3v) and packing density index (PDI), linear regression equations are obtained that can be used to predict hydrophobicity (over retention coefficient) of bile acids that belong to set of more congeneric groups. Membranotoxicity is determined by haemolytic potential. Monoethylidene derivatives of bile acids (in the form of anions) have lower membranotoxicity than deoxycholic acids anion. Sodium salt of deoxycholic acid 7-ethylidene derivative has 11% greater capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol monohydrate than sodium salt of deoxycholic acid. PMID:24819990

  16. Synthesis, structural, spectroscopic and thermal characteristics of disubstituted biphenyl derivative: Biphenyl-4,4‧-diacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, Justyna; Głuchowska, Halina; Tarasiuk, Bogdan; Mazur, Liliana; Rzączyńska, Zofia

    2014-07-01

    A novel 4,4‧-disubstituted biphenyl derivative featuring two acetic acid side arms symmetrically attached to a biphenyl system, that is biphenyl-4,4‧-diacetic acid (H2bpda), has been successfully synthesized by means of the three-stage organic strategy. The synthesis product was characterized by elemental analysis, various spectroscopic techniques including FT-IR, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR as well as thermogravimetric and TG-FT-IR coupled measurements. The phase purity of material was verified on the basis of the X-ray powder diffraction. The studied compound crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group with half of the molecule in the asymmetric unit. Structural studies indicate intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups of the adjacent molecules of H2bpda. The occurrence of intermolecularly associated carboxylic groups can also be clearly seen in the vibrational spectra of the acid. On thermal analysis both in air and nitrogen an anhydrous compound demonstrates considerable thermal stability.

  17. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Camara-Lemarroy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD. This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise.

  18. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Moreno, Emmanuel Irineo; Guzman-de la Garza, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Garza, Nancy Esthela

    2012-01-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD). This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise. PMID:22997489

  19. Evolution in medicinal chemistry of ursolic acid derivatives as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Ailan; Zhou, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yunquan; Zhou, Jia

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a renewed interest in common dietaries and plant-based traditional medicines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the search for potential anticancer agents from natural sources, ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in various medicinal herbs and fruits, exhibits powerful biological effects including its attractive anticancer activity against various types of cancer cells. However, the limited solubility, rapid metabolism and poor bioavailability of UA restricted its further clinical applications. In the past decade, with substantial progress toward the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of cancer, numerous UA derivatives have been designed and prepared to overcome its disadvantages. Despite extensive effort, discovery of effective UA derivatives has so far met with only limited success. This review summarizes the current status of the structural diversity and evolution in medicinal chemistry of UA analogues and provides a detailed discussion of future direction for further research in the chemical modifications of UA.

  20. Synthesis and Anti-tumor Activity of Novel Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Yan-qiu; DING Jia-qi; LIU Yuan; NIE Hui-hui; GUAN Sai; ZOU Chao; ZHAO Na; CHEN Hong; CAO Bo

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-five derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid(GA)modified on the A-ring,at C30 and C11 positions were synthesized.Their in vitro cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines[henrietta lacks strain of cancer cells(HeLa),human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells(HepG2)and human gastric carcinoma cells(BGC-823)]was evaluated by standard MTT[3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide]assay.All the tested derivatives were found to have stronger cell growth inhibitory than their parent compound GA.Among them,compounds 3a,5a,and 8d have similar activity on HeLa cell line,and compound 8a has similar activity on HeLa,HepG2 and BGC-823 cell lines as Gefitinib.

  1. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  2. Green Synthesis and Urease Inhibitory Activity of Spiro-Pyrimidinethiones/Spiro-Pyrimidinones-Barbituric Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Asadi, Shima; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H) with pore size 6 nm as an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity in the Biginelli-like reaction in the synthesis of spiroheterobicyclic rings with good yield and good recyclability. Spiro-pyrimidinethiones/spiro-pyrimidinones-barbituric acid derivatives were synthesized in a simple and efficient method using the one-pot three-component reaction of a cyclic 1,3- dicarbonyl compounds (barbituric acid), an aromatic aldehyde and urea or thiourea in the presence of nanoporous silica SBA-Pr-SO3H under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of spiro compounds were tested against Jack bean urease using Berthelot alkaline phenol-hypochlorite method. Five of 13 compounds were inhibitor and two of them were enzyme activators. Analysis of the docking results showed that, in most of the spiro molecules, one of the carbonyl groups is coordinated with both nickel atoms, while the other one is involved in the formation of hydrogen bonds with important active-site residues. The effect of inserting two methyl groups on N atoms of barbiturate ring, S substituted, ortho, meta and para substituted compounds were investigated too. PMID:26664377

  3. Recent progress in electrochemical biosensors based on phenylboronic acid and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Jun-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of recent progress made in the development of electrochemical biosensors based on phenylboronic acid (PBA) and its derivatives. PBAs are known to selectively bind 1,2- and 1,3-diols to form negatively charged boronate esters in neutral aqueous media and have been used to construct electrochemical glucose sensors because of this selective binding. PBA-modified metal and carbon electrodes have been widely studied as voltammetric and potentiometric glucose sensors. In some cases, ferroceneboronic acid or ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used as sugar-selective redox compounds. Another option for sensors using PBA-modified electrodes is potentiometric detection, in which the changes in surface potential of the electrodes are detected as an output signal. An ion-sensitive field effect transistor (FET) has been used as a signal transducer in potentiometric sensors. Glycoproteins, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), avidin, and serum albumin can also be detected by PBA-modified electrodes because they contain hydrocarbon chains on the surface. HbA1c sensors are promising alternatives to enzyme-based glucose sensors for monitoring blood glucose levels over the preceding 2-3months. In addition, PBA-modified electrodes can be used to detect a variety of compounds including hydroxy acids and fluoride (F(-)) ions. PBA-based F(-) ion sensors may be useful if reagentless sensors can be developed. PMID:27287174

  4. Uptake of acidic and basic sugar derivatives in Lemna gibba G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, A.; Ullrich, C.I. (Universidad de Valencia (Spain) Institut fuer Botanik, Darmstadt (West Germany))

    1989-08-01

    The uptake of acidic and basic sugar derivatives in Lemna gibba L. was studied. Uronic acids applied to the experimental solution induced a small decrease of the membrane potential. After incubation of the plants in a 0.1 millimolar solution of these substrates, no decrease in the concentration of reducing groups in the external solution was detected. Respiration increased by 31% with 50 millimolar galacturonic acid, whereas no effect was found with the same concentration of glucuronic acid. Glucosamine caused a considerable concentration-dependent membrane depolarization. ({sup 14}C)glucosamine uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics together with a linear component. Influx of this substrate was inhibited by glucose but the type of competition could not be clearly distinguished. Glucosamine, 50 millimolar, inhibited the respiration rate by 30%. The glucosamine uptake was pH-dependent, with maximum uptake at around pH 7. Lack of enhancement of uptake by low pH as well as the permanent membrane depolarization suggest a uniport mechanism for the charged species of the substrate and an electroneutral diffusion of the uncharged species.

  5. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation. PMID:24787316

  6. N-Hydroxypyrazolyl glycine derivatives as selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius; Christensen, Caspar; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2008-01-01

    glycine (NHP5G) derivatives are selectively recognized by N-methyl- d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors and that the ( R)-enantiomers are preferred. Moreover, several of the compounds are able to discriminate between individual subtypes among the NMDA receptors, providing new pharmacological tools. For......A series of analogues based on N-hydroxypyrazole as a bioisostere for the distal carboxylate group of aspartate have been designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically characterized. Affinity studies on the major glutamate receptor subgroups show that these 4-substituted N-hydroxypyrazol-5-yl...

  7. Visible-Light-Induced Decarboxylative Functionalization of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Guo; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2015-12-21

    Visible-light-induced radical decarboxylative functionalization of carboxylic acids and their derivatives has recently received considerable attention as a novel and efficient method to create CC and CX bonds. Generally, this visible-light-promoted decarboxylation process can smoothly occur under mild reaction conditions with a broad range of substrates and an excellent functional-group tolerance. The radical species formed from the decarboxylation step can participate in not only single photocatalytic transformations, but also dual-catalytic cross-coupling reactions by combining photoredox catalysis with other catalytic processes. Recent advances in this research area are discussed herein. PMID:26509837

  8. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Bento; Teresa Duarte, M.; M. João M. Curto; Inês F. Antunes; Hélène Ramos; Fátima C. Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2)nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10) are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2)nCO2R) by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultin...

  9. Further exploration of antimicrobial ketodihydronicotinic acid derivatives by multiple parallel syntheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Nielsen, Janne; Haack, T.;

    2006-01-01

    synthetic manner and these were examined in vitro for their antimicrobial potential. Several compounds demonstrated significant broad-spectrum activity against clinically derived bacterial strains but previously known 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-4-pyridone-3-carboxylic acid (7) remained...... the most potent compound in this class. Cross-resistance with ciprofloxacin supported a commonality of mode of action. Permiabilization of Escherichia coli cells by polymyxin B significantly enhanced potency with these agents suggesting that poor cellular uptake was primarily responsible...

  10. Oxidation of some disubstituted anisole derivatives with ceric perchlorate in perchloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of concentration of particular reagents on the kinetics of Ce(IV) reduction by 2,6-dimethyl and 3,5-dimethyl-anisole as well as 2-methoxy-5-methyl- and 4-methoxy-2-methyl-aniline in perchloric acid solution was investigated, establishing the stoichiometry of these processes. Some intermediate products - macromolecular, derivatives of p-benzoquinone and 4,4'-diphenoquinone - were separated and identified. The effects of substituents and the conditions of performed oxidation processes on the kind and yields of the resultant products were considered. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  12. Polycarboxylate derivative of -amino acid as growth modifier of sulphide minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harjyoti Thakuria; Gopal Das

    2011-02-01

    Construction of modified inorganic mineral with controlled mineralization analogues of those produced by nature is now of current interest for understanding the mechanism of the in vivo biomineralization processes, as well as looking for fresh industrial and technological applications. Low-molecular-weight chiral polycarboxylate ligands derived fromnaturally occurring -\\alpha-amino acids have been used asmodel systems to study the effect of small organic matrix on crystal growth modification. The sulphide minerals are characterized by PXRD, FT–IR and SEM. Furthermore, the optical properties of these minerals have been characterized by UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  13. Enantioselective separation of amino acids as biomarkers indicating life in extraterrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara

    2013-10-01

    Traces of prebiotic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins, are excellent biomarkers that could provide evidence of extinct or extant life in extra-terrestrial environments. In particular, characterization of the enantiomeric excess of amino acids gives relevant information about the biotic or abiotic origin of molecules, because it is generally assumed that life elsewhere could be based on either L or D amino acids, but not both. The analytical procedures used in in-situ space missions for chiral discrimination of amino acids must meet severe requirements imposed by flight conditions: short analysis time, low energy consumption, robustness, storage for long periods under extreme conditions, high efficiency and sensitivity, automation, and remote-control operation. Such methods are based on gas chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, usually coupled with mass spectrometry; of these, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the only such combination yet used in space missions. Preliminary in-situ sample derivatization is required before GC-MS analysis to convert amino acids into volatile and thermally stable compounds. The silylation reagent most commonly used, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, is unsuitable for detection of homochirality, and alternative derivatization techniques have been developed that preserve the stereochemical configuration of the original compounds and are compatible with spaceflight conditions. These include the reagent N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal, which has already been used in the Rosetta mission, a mixture of alkyl chloroformate, ethanol, and pyridine, a mixture of perfluorinated anhydrides and perfluoro alcohols, and hexafluoroacetone, the first gaseous derivatizing agent. In all the space instruments, solvent extraction of organic matter and chemical derivatization have been combined in a single automatic and remote-controlled procedure in a

  14. Synthesis of 6-sulfamoyl-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives as integrase antagonists with anti-HIV activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai Gang Luo; Cheng Chu Zeng; Lei Fu Yang; Hong Qiu He; Cun Xin Wang; Li Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    A series of novel 6-sulfamoyl-4-oxoquinoline-3-earboxylic acids derivatives have been synthesized and screened for HIV integrase inhibition activity. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  15. The marine sponge-derived polyketide endoperoxide plakortide F acid mediates its antifungal activity by interfering with calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakortide F acid (PFA) is a marine-derived polyketide endoperoxide exhibiting strong inhibitory activity against several clinically important fungal pathogens. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model organism Sacch...

  16. In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and antitumor effect of amphiphilic poly(L-amino acids) micelles loaded with a novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihui; Wang, Xinqun; Wang, Ting; Chen, Feihu; Zhou, Jianping

    2014-01-23

    Poly(amino acid)s are well-known as biodegradable and environmentally acceptable materials. In this study, a series of poly(L-aspartic acid)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PAA-PPA) compounds with different degrees of polymerization were used to prepare copolymer micelles for a poorly water-soluble drug 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR, a novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative) and in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and antitumor efficacy of ATPR delivered by PAA-PPA micelles were evaluated. The area under the plasma concentration time curve AUC0→∞ of ATPR-loaded PAA20PPA20 micelles was 2.23 and 1.97 times higher than that of ATPR solution and ATPR CrmEL solution, respectively; In addition, the mean residence time (MRT) was increased 1.67 and 1.97-fold, respectively and the total body clearance (CL) was reduced 2.25 and 1.98-fold, respectively. The biodistribution study indicated that most of the ATPR in the ATPR-M group was distributed in the liver and there was delayed liver aggregation compared with the ATPR solution and ATPR CrmEL solution groups. Furthermore, the antitumor efficacy of ATPR-loaded PAA20PPA20 micelles was demonstrated in in vivo antitumor models involving mice inoculated with the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. At the same dose of 7mg/kg, the ATPR-loaded micelles group demonstrated a better tumor growth inhibition and induced differentiation than the groups given ATPR solution and ATPR CrmEL solution. Therefore, the ATPR-loaded PAA-PPA micelles appear to be a potentially useful drug delivery system for ATPR and suitable for the chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of N-ferrocenylmethyl amino acid benzene carboxamide derivatives and N-ferrocenyl benzoyl amino alkane derivatives as anti-cancer agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of ferrocenyl-bioconjugates. A series of N-(ferrocenylmethylamino acid)-fluorinated-benzene carboxamide derivatives and a series of N-(ferrocenyl)-benzoyl-aminoalkane derivatives have been synthesised, structurally characterised and biologically evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity on various cancer cell lines, principally, the (estrogen receptor positive) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The anti-c...

  18. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy A. Blondin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007 by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323. DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF and (BMI and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A.; Mueller, Megan P.; Bakun, Peter J.; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Economos, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk. PMID:26712784

  20. Amino acid size, charge, hydropathy indices and matrices for protein structure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biro JC

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Prediction of protein folding and specific interactions from only the sequence (ab initio) is a major challenge in bioinformatics. It is believed that such prediction will prove possible if Anfinsen's thermodynamic principle is correct for all kinds of proteins, and all the information necessary to form a concrete 3D structure is indeed present in the sequence. Results We indexed the 200 possible amino acid pairs for their compatibility regarding the three major physicoche...

  1. Isolation, modification, and aldose reductase inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid derivatives from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jie; Tang, Yanbo; Liu, Quan; Guo, Nan; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Zhiyan; Chen, Ruoyun; Shen, Zhufang

    2016-07-01

    To find aldose reductase inhibitors, two previously unreported compounds, grandifolias H and I, and five known compounds, including rosmarinic acid and rosmarinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Salvia grandifolia. A series of rosmarinic acid derivatives was obtained from rosmarinic acid using simple synthetic methods. The aldose reductase inhibitory activity of the isolated and synthesized compounds was assessed. Seven of the tested compounds showed moderate aldose reductase inhibition (IC50=0.06-0.30μM). The structure-activity relationship of aldose reductase inhibitory activity of rosmarinic acid derivatives was discussed for the first time. This study provided useful information that will facilitate the development of aldose reductase inhibitors. PMID:27233987

  2. Mechano-Responsive, Thermo-Reversible, Luminescent Organogels Derived from a Long-Chained, Naturally Occurring Fatty Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    The gelating ability of an α-diketo derivative of oleic acid, 9,10-dioxooctadecanoic acid (DODA), is investigated. DODA can gelate aromatic liquids and many other organic liquids. By contrast, none of the liquids examined can be gelated by the methyl ester of DODA. DODA is a more efficient gelator than stearic acid and the monoketo derivative due to its more extensive intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Formation of organogels of DODA can be induced by both thermal and mechanical stimuli, during which the luminescent and mechanical properties can be modulated significantly. The emission from DODA in 1-octanol exhibits a large, reversible, hypsochromic shift (≈25 nm) between its thermally cycled gel and sol states. The emission changes have been exploited to probe the kinetics of the aggregation and deaggregation processes. DODA is the simplest gelator of which we are aware that exhibits a reversible shift in the emission. Although the self-assembled fibrillar networks of the DODA gels in 1-octanol, benzonitrile, or silicone oil are crystalline, isothermal mechanical cycling between the gel and the sol states is rapid and can be repeated several times (i.e., they are thixotropic). The single-crystal structure of DODA indicates that extended intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions are crucial to the thermal and mechanical formation of DODA gels and the consequential changes in emissive and mechanical properties. From analyses of structural information, gelator packing, and morphology differences, we hypothesize that the mechanical destruction and reformation of the gel networks involves interconversion between the 3D networks and 1D fiber bundles. The thermal processes allow the fibrillar 3D networks and their 0D components (i.e., isolated molecules or small aggregates of DODA) to be interconverted. These results describe a facile approach to the design of mechano-responsive, thermo-reversible gels with control over their emission wavelengths. PMID

  3. [Study of pantothenic acid derivatives as cardiac protectors in a model of experimental ischemia and reperfusion of the isolated heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerova, A O; Utno, L Ia; Lipsberga, Z E; Shkestere, I Ia

    1992-04-01

    An isolated heart model with experimental ischemia and reperfusion was used to show effective decrease in lactate, increase in ATP content and prevention of conjugated dienes accumulation in the myocardium by derivatives of pantothenic acid: panthenol (9.0 mg/kg), calcium pantothenate (15.6 mg/kg) and by these ones applied simultaneously as ingredients of perfusate (25 microM) in postischemic period. In that way derivatives of pantothenic acid should be regarded as cardiac protectors. PMID:1391892

  4. Hydrolysis and rearrangement of phthalamic acid derivatives and assessment of their potential as prodrug forms for amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, H; Steffansen, B

    1990-01-01

    ) and various other N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted phthalamic acid derivatives were examined with the primary aim of assessing their degradation rate at physiological pH. Whereas the compounds I and II were indeed found to be easily degraded in neutral aqueous solutions, the degradation was not due....... It is concluded that phthalamic acid derivatives are too stable chemically and enzymatically to be considered as prodrug forms for primary or secondary amines....

  5. Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Gillian Z.; Hogan, Natacha S. [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada); Koellner, Bernd [Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Federal Research Institute of Animal Health, Institute of Immunology, Greifswald (Germany); Thorpe, Karen L.; Phalen, Laura J. [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada); Wagner, Brian D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown (Canada); Heuvel, Michael R. van den, E-mail: mheuvel@upei.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21 d. Half of the fish from the 21 d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5 d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100 mg/kg dose. However, at 21 d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100 mg/kg dose. In the 21 d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose Multiplication-Sign A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells.

  6. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations, crystal structures and DFT studies of nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazones derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, F. R. G.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Lancellotti, M.; Machado, D.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Cuin, A.; Formiga, A. L. B.; Corbi, P. P.

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the synthesis and characterization of the 1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazide (hzd) and six carbonyl hydrazones derivatives of the nalidixic with 1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene (hpyrr), 1H-imidazol-2-ylmethylidene (h2imi), pyridin-2-ylmethylidene (h2py), pyridin-3-ylmethylidene (h3py), pyridin-4-ylmethylidene(h4py) and (2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene (hsali). The carbonyl hydrazones were characterized by elemental and ESI-QTOF-MS analyses, IR and detailed NMR spectroscopic measurements. The 2D NMR experiments allowed the unambiguous assignment of the hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, which have not been reported for nalidixic acid carbonyl hydrazone derivatives so far. Crystal structures of hzd and the new carbonyl hydrazones h2imi, hpyrr and h3py were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Although the synthesis of hzd was reported decades ago, the hzd crystal structure have not been reported yet. Geometric optimizations of all the characterized structures were performed with the aid of DFT studies. Despite the fact that the hydrazones with 2-pyridine carboxylic acid (h2py) and salicyl aldehyde (hsali) were already reported by literature, a detailed spectroscopic study followed by DFT studies are also reported for such compounds in this manuscript. Antimicrobial studies of the compounds are also presented.

  8. Reducing Renal Uptake of 177Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of 177Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects

  9. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  10. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Some Novel Triazole Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Walter Pertino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroabietic acid (DHA is a naturally occurring diterpene with different and relevant biological activities. Previous studies have shown that some DHA derivatives display antiproliferative activity. However, the reported compounds did not include triazole derivatives. Starting from DHA (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-oic acid, and its alcohol dehydroabietinol (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-ol, four alkyl esters were prepared. The alkyl terpenes were treated with different aromatic azides to synthesize hybrid compounds using click chemistry. Some 16 new DHA hybrids were thus synthesized and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The antiproliferative activity of the new compounds was assessed towards human cell lines, namely normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, lung cancer (SK-MES-1 and bladder carcinoma (J82 cells. Better antiproliferative effect was found for compound 5, with an IC50 of 6.1 μM and selectivity on SK-MES-1 cells. Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of etoposide, was 1.83 µM.

  11. Hypolipidemic effect of pantothenic acid derivatives in mice with hypothalamic obesity induced by aurothioglucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruta, E; Buko, V

    2001-10-01

    The hypolipidemic effects of pantothenic acid derivatives (phosphopantothenate, panthenol and pantethine) were studied in mice with hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity in mice was induced by single injection of aurothioglucose (300 mg/kg body wt, i.p.). All the tested substances were administered during the last 10 days before decapitation (i.m., of dosage equivalent to 150 mg/kg body wt of phosphopantothenate). The studied substances inhibited the weight gain of the animals with hypothalamic obesity over the last 10 days of the experiment. The treatment with aurothioglucose increased food intake and mean body weight, blood glucose level; insulin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, the sum of LDL + VLDL and LDL-cholesterol concentration; triglyceride and cholesterol fractions in the liver; triglyceride and FFA content as well as lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue of experimental mice. The administration of the assay compounds lowered food intake and mean body weight, insulin and glucose levels and decreased the content of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol esters in serum and adipose tissue as well as raised the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue and serum lipolytic activity in obese mice. Among the compounds studied the reverse effect of panthenol was especially pronounced. The mechanism of hypolipidemic effects of pantothenic acid derivatives can be related to the reduced resistance to insulin and activation of lipolysis in serum and adipose tissue. PMID:11817109

  12. Toxicity of Some Cinnamic Acid Derivatives to Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra JITĂREANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives are an important class of biologically active compounds, playing an important role in the plants’ development, but may also present a wide range of actions: antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, antitumoral. The present study investigated the toxicity of ten cinnamic acid derivatives on Phaseolus vulgaris, this being the first step in evaluating their pharmacotoxicological potential (usually, plant toxicity tests are used for ecotoxicity assessment, but they can also provide some useful general information about the toxic potential of a pharmaceutical substance to living organisms. The bean seeds were exposed to three different concentrations of each substance (28.6 μg/cm2, 57.3 μg/cm2, 114.6 μg/cm2. All the tests were conducted in Petri dishes, using an artificial substrate (Whatman filter paper impregnated with the investigated compounds. The analyzed elements were seedling length, root length, percentage of seeds that developed into seedlings, fresh seedling weight and the total polyphenols content. The tested compounds showed phytotoxic effects, inhibiting the growth of the plants and the biosynthesis of polyphenols as compared to the control. The substances with high logP values showed greater phytotoxic potential, but to establish an exact correlation between hydrophobicity and toxicity of the molecules a QSAR analysis must be further done.

  13. Synthesis of ino Acid Derived β-Cyclodextrins Used in Chiral Separation by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴荣继; 佟斌; 魏征; 顾峻岭; 邓玉林; 李明愉; 傅若农

    2004-01-01

    Six new kinds of ino acid derived β-cyclodextrins were synthesized to improve their water solubility and chiral separation properties. They are heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-L-(1-isopropyl carboxyl methyl ino)-2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. L-Val-β-CD), heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-L-(1-benzyl carboxyl methyl ino)-2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. L-Phe-β-CD), heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-(D, L-1-benzyl carboxyl methyl ino)-2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. D,L-Phe-β-CD), heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-(L-1-hydroxymethyl carboxyl methyl ino)-2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. L-Ser-β-CD), heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-(L-1-carboxylmethyl carboxyl methyl ino)- 2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. L-Asp-β-CD), heptakis{2,6-di-O-[3-(L-2-carboxyl tetrethylene ino)-2-hydroxy propyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (i.e. L-Pro-β-CD). Their chemical structures were certified using FTIR and 1H NMR. Except for L-Phe-β-CD and D,L-Phe-β-CD, that are in soluble in water, the other ino acid derived β-CDs all have good water solubility. D,L-tyrosine and promethazine were baselinely separated by L-Val-β-CD in capillary electrophoresis.

  14. Rapid formation of β-allyl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives via Claisen rearrangement using a microfludic device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ping Ma; Zhi Ming Li; Quan Rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    The thermal Claisen rearrangement of O-allyl substituted isotetronic acids 1 was successfully carried out within a glass microreactor operated with temperature at 150 ℃ and a flow rate of 1 mL/h. The strategy provides an efficient alternative way to β-allyl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives 2 in high yields with much accelerated reaction speed.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

  16. Thermogenesis, blood metabolites and hormones, and growth of lambs born to ewes supplemented with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithly, J I; Kott, R W; Berardinelli, J G; Moreaux, S; Hatfield, P G

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality is a major factor affecting profitability in the sheep industry, and lamb thermogenesis is a key element in neonatal lamb survival. Increased lamb vigor has been reported when ewes were supplemented during late gestation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the effects of DHA on lamb thermogenesis and immunocompetence have not been investigated. Eighty twin-bearing Targhee ewes (ages 2 to 5 yr; 68.5 ± 3 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 supplement treatments to determine the effects of feeding DHA to ewes during late gestation and early lactation on lamb thermogenesis, serum metabolites and hormones, and lamb growth. Supplement treatments were 12 g·ewe(-1)·d(-1) of algae-derived DHA (DHA Gold Advanced Bionutrition Corp., Columbia, MD; algae-derived DHA); and no algae-derived DHA (control). Supplements were individually fed daily during the last 30 d (±7 d) of gestation and pen fed (6 pens/treatment with 6 or 7 ewes/pen) during the first 38 d (±7 d) of lactation. One hour after lambing and before nursing, twin-born lambs were weighed, blood sampled via jugular puncture, and placed in a dry cold chamber for 30 min (0°C), and rectal temperatures were recorded every minute for 30 min. Lambs were removed from the cold chamber, blood sampled, warmed for 15 min, and returned to their dam. Ewes were blood sampled, and colostrum samples were collected 1 h postpartum. Ewe and lamb sera were assayed for glucose, NEFA, cortisol, and leptin. Lamb rectal temperature, glucose, NEFA, cortisol, leptin, and birth weights did not differ between treatments. The BW at 38 d was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs born to control ewes than for lambs born to algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes; however, the colostrum of algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes had a greater specific gravity (P = 0.05) than for control ewes. Overall, despite a potentially positive effect on ewe colostral IgG concentrations, supplementation of algae-derived DHA during

  17. Amino acid esters substituted phosphorylated emtricitabine and didanosine derivatives as antiviral and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Kuruva Chandra; Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Narasimha, Golla; Raju, Chamarthi Naga; Ghosh, S K

    2014-07-01

    Owing to the promising antiviral activity of amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated nucleosides in the present study, a series of phosphorylated derivatives of emtricitabine and didanosine substituted with bioactive amino acid esters at P-atom were synthesized. Initially, molecular docking studies were screened to predict their molecular interactions with hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus and E2 protein of human papillomavirus. The title compounds were screened for their antiviral ability against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by their in ovo study in embryonated chicken eggs. Compounds 5g and 9c exposed well mode of interactions with HN protein and also exhibited potential growth of NDV inhibition. The remaining compounds exhibited better growth of NDV inhibition than their parent molecules, i.e., emtricitabine (FTC) and didanosine (ddI). In addition, the in vitro anticancer activity of all the title compounds were screenedagainst HeLa cell lines at 10 and 100 μg/mL concentrations. The compounds 5g and 9c showed an effective anticancer activity than that of the remaining title compounds with IC50 values of 40 and 60 μg/mL, respectively. The present in silico and in ovo antiviral and in vitro anticancer results of the title compounds are suggesting that the amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated FTC and ddI derivatives, especially 5g and 9c, can be used as NDV inhibitors and anticancer agents for the control and management of viral diseases with cancerous condition. PMID:24789416

  18. Characterization of Understory Shrub Expansion in a West Virginia Watershed from 1986 - 2011 Using Landsat Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. W.; Welsch, D. L.; Epstein, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Mid and southern Appalachian forests have been heavily influenced by human intervention, with much of the current forest area covered by secondary or tertiary growth following significant past logging or fire. The pre-logging forests of mid Appalachia were mainly comprised of large Quercus spp. and Liriodendron tulipiferia with Pinus rubens and Tsuga canadensis at higher elevations. These species have been supplanted by more mesic species such as Betula alleghaniensis and Acer rubrum. Within these forests, Rhododendron maximum is an abundant evergreen shrub that grows in dense thickets that can alter forest community structure, affect species diversity, lower decomposition rates, and affect forest carbon and nitrogen cycling through altering soil chemistry and physics. The spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of R. maximum within these forests, especially in the mid Appalachians, is not fully conceptualized. An increase in R. maximumspatial coverage could significantly affect basic forest ecosystem processes and be of interest to researchers and forest managers. Using Landsat derived vegetation indices--including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and Tasseled Cap Transformations--we quantified the expansion of R. maximum within a topographically complex watershed in West Virginia from 1986-2011. Our array of models show an initial shrub coverage (1986) in our target watershed of between 27.7 - 36.6% and a present-day shrub coverage (2011) of between 41.2 - 42.8%--with a range from 10.2 - 15.1% increase in shrub coverage over the 25 year study window. Averaged model output suggests an increase of 38.4 ha from 1986 to 2011 and a mean NDVI increase of 0.076 for the entire watershed. Furhter spatial analysis will elucidate possible connections and patterns related to distance-from-streams and/or elevation.

  19. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  20. Monoclonal antibody R24 distinguishes between different N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acid derivatives of ganglioside GD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T; Kawashima, I; Furukawa, K; Lloyd, K O

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) R24 was previously shown to be directed toward ganglioside GD3 [Pukel, C. S., Lloyd, K. O., Travassos, L. R., Dippold, W. G., Oettgen, H. F., and Old, L. J. (1982) J. Exp. Med. 155, 1133-1147]. The structural specificity of the MAb has now been further characterized based on binding to structurally related glycolipids, including four GD3 derivatives with different N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) substituents. Three assay systems (enzyme immunostaining on thin-layer chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immune adherence inhibition assay) were used. MAb R24 was found to react with (NeuAc-NeuAc-)GD3 and (NeuAc-NeuGc-)GD3 but not with (NeuGc-NeuAc-)GD3 or (NeuGc-NeuGc-)GD3. These results clearly indicate that the outer sialic acid (Sia) moiety of GD3 is crucial and must be a NeuAc residue, while the inner sialic acid is less involved in binding to the MAb and can be either NeuAc or NeuGc. The MAb was also found to cross-react weakly with two gangliosides, GT1a and GQ1b, but none of other gangliosides nor neutral glycolipids tested reacted. These findings suggest that the epitope detected by MAb R24 is the trisaccharide structure NeuAc alpha 2----8Sia alpha 2----3Gal-, which must be in a terminal position.

  1. Analysis of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives of some medicinal plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural phenolics, which are ubiquitously distributed in plants, have been reported as functional factors in phytotherapy. We have examined phenolic compounds in the leaves and inflorescences of five significant medicinal plants of different plant families: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae; Achillea clypeolata (Asteraceae; Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae; Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae and Allium ursinum (Alliaceae. The examined species were rich in total phenolics (up to 30.88 mg/g dry weight. According to their total phenolics contents, the plants can be arranged in the following order: A. clypeolata>N. alba>S. officinalis>R. acetosella>A. ursinum. Free phenolics prevailed in all species in comparison to the bound forms (63.72-82.68% of total phenolics. The highest content of total free phenolics was measured in the tissues of A. clypeolata and N. alba, and the lowest in A. ursinum. Five phenolic acids were isolated and measured. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids as derivatives of cinnamic acid prevailed in the leaves of R. acetosella and A. ursinum (up to 4.81%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  2. Synthesis, Activity, and Docking Study of Novel Phenylthiazole-Carboxamido Acid Derivatives as FFA2 Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Taijin; Shi, Min; Fu, Ping; Pei, Heying; Ye, Haoyu

    2016-07-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), also known as GPR43, is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are mainly produced by the gut microbiota through the fermentation of undigested carbohydrates and dietary fibers. FFA2 currently appears to be a potential target in the management of obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. In the study, a series of novel phenylthiazole-carboxamido acid derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated as potential orthosteric FFA2 ligands for the study of structure-activity relationships. Compound 6e was found to exhibit the twofold potent agonistic activity in the stable hFFA2-transfected CHO-K1 cells (EC50 = 23.1 μm) as that of positive control propionate (EC50 = 43.3 μm). We also reported the results of mutagenesis studies based on the crystal structure of hFFA1 bound to TAK-875 at 2.3 Å resolution to identify important residues for orthosteric agonist 6e inducing FFA2 activation. PMID:26808470

  3. DFT computational study on decarboxylation mechanism of salicylic acid and its derivatives in the anionic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Hu, Yanying; Zhang, Huitu; Liu, Yanchun; Song, Zhidan; Dai, Yujie

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of the decarboxylation of salicylic acid anion and its ortho substituted derivatives in gas phase and aqueous solution have been investigated by B3LYP method of DFT theory using the 6-31++G (d,p) basis set. The decarboxylation process includes hydrogen transfers from hydroxyl to carboxyl group and from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring. The mechanism suggested is a pseudo-unimolecular decomposition of the salicylic acid anion and the hydrogen transfer from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring is the rate determining step. Compared with the decarboxylation process in gas phase, the energy barriers in aqueous solution approximately declined by 25%-31%with the water mediation of the hydrogen transfer from carboxyl to the α-C of the aryl ring. The effects of substituents at the ortho position on the decarboxylation process were also investigated. Both the electron donating CH3 and withdrawing group NO2 at the ortho position of carboxyl group can further reduce the reaction energy barriers of the decarboxylation of salicylic acid anions.

  4. An efficient way to coupling amine with derivatives of steric N-Boc-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhi Liu; Hao Fang; Wen Fang Xu

    2007-01-01

    An efficient way to coupling amine with the derivatives of steric N-Boc-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid was reported in this paper.We have found that the synthesis of derivatives is problematic with the commonly used DCC/HOBT method. As a substitute, the mixed anhydride method was adopted. A series of 6-(3-nitroguanidino)hexanamidopyrrolidine derivatives were prepared with this method.

  5. Lanthanide nitrates as Lewis acids in the one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Juliana A.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: julianadqf@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Zampieri, Davila de S.; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose A.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] acting as catalyst in direct one pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups. (author)

  6. Rheological and Biological Characteristics of Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Modified by Polyethylene Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jinghua; CHEN Jingtao; XU Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically modified by polyethylene glycol. Meanwhile,the dynamic mechanics properties of HA derivative and its viscoelastic changes were measured on 3ARES3 Rheometer (Japan) at 25 ℃. Dried cross-linked films of 10×10 mm2 were immersed in phosphate buffered saline(PBS: pH 7.4) at 37 ℃ with different time periods to measure its water content and in vitro degradation. Moreover, cell cultured solutions, which were in the different cultivation vesse with 1 mg/mL Solution of HA derivative as doing experimental sample for 2 d, 4 d and 7 d, were observed, respectively, by an inverted discrepancy microscope. The cell relative growth rate was analyzed with the SPSS10.0 mathematic statistic software. Based on the above experiments,structure-modified HA derivative can meet the requirements of biomaterials in view of rheological and degradation in vitro and cytotoxicity charactereistics from clinical medical aspect under this experiment conditions.

  7. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Geisler, Carsten; Hansen, Morten; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Biagi, Elena; Andersen, Mads Hald; Brigidi, Patrizia; Ødum, Niels; Litman, Thomas; Woetmann, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly reduced the release of several pro-inflammatory chemokines including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Additionally, butyrate and propionate inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-12p40 showing a strong anti-inflammatory effect. This work illustrates that bacterial metabolites far from the site of their production can differentially modulate the inflammatory response and generally provides new insights into host-microbiome interactions. PMID:26541096

  8. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Camptothecin Derivatives Containing Analogs of Chrysanthemic Acid Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Li; ZHANG Lan; CAO Li-dong; XIE Ru-liang; ZHANG Yan-ning; HE Wei-zhi; JIANG Hong-yun

    2014-01-01

    Creating high-efifcient and environment-friendly pesticides is very important to produce the pollution free agriculture food and maintain the balance of the survival environmental of the human being. According to reports, camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives are now being explored as a class of botanical insecticide in agriculture due to its novel mode of action. In order to improve the insecticidal activity of CPT, ten novel camptothecin (1) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (2) derivatives (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e;2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e) were designed and synthesized via esteriifcation with analogs of chrysanthemic acid, which have outstanding insecticidal activity. The results showed that compound 2a exhibited potent antifeeding effect and the best contact toxicity among the target compounds against the third-instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner. Compound 2a was also found to be the most effective cytotoxic compound to the tested insect cell lines, IOZCAS-Spex-II, which were established from the fat bodies of S. exigua. It was proposed that the 10-hydroxyl group in the camptothecin derivatives is a key factor for the antifeeding activity of a compound. The nature of the substituents was considered the major factor in determining the insecticidal activity of these compounds.

  9. 取代苯甲酸类化合物在正辛醇中的固液平衡%Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Benzoic Acid Derivatives in 1-Octanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾青竹; 马沛生; 马少娜; 王昶

    2007-01-01

    The solid-liquid equilibrium of benzoic acid derivatives in 1-octanol was first determined in this article.Using a laser monitoring observation technique, the solubility data of o-amino-benzoic acid, p-amino-benzoic acid,o-chloro-benzoic acid, and m-nitro-benzoic acid in 1-octanol were measured by the polythermal method in the temperature range of 20-50 ℃. The experimental data were regressed with the Wilson equation and the λH equation. The experimental results showed that the solubility of the four chemicals in 1-octanol increased significantly with temperature. The results indicate that the molecular structure and interactions affect the solubility significantly.The solubility order of the benzoic acid derivatives is as follows: m-nitro-benzoic acid>o-chloro-benzoic acid>o-amino-benzoic acid>p-amino-benzoic acid. Both the Wilson equation and λH equation are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. The Use of Serum Uric Acid Concentration as an Indicator of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Doulami, Georgia; Tzanetakou, Irene P.; Natoudi, Maria; Kokoroskos, Nikolaos; Almpanopoulos, Konstantinos; Leandros, Emmanouil; Zografos, George; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) effectively reduces weight by restricting gastric capacity and altering gut hormones levels. We designed a prospective study to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and weight loss. SUA and body mass index (BMI) were measured preoperatively and on first postoperative month and year in patients who underwent LSG in our department of bariatric surgery. Data on 55 patients were analyzed. Preoperative SUA concentration had a significant positive correlation with percentage of total weight loss (TWL) on first postoperative month (P = 0.001) and year (P = 0.002). SUA concentration on first postoperative month had a positive correlation with percentage of TWL on first postoperative year (P = 0.004). SUA concentration could be used as a predictor of LSG's success and could help in early detection of patients with rapid loss of weight, in order to prevent complications. PMID:25594659

  11. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Rochmadi; Wijaya, Karna; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the esterification of PFAD using the sulfonatedcoconut shell biochar catalyst was studied. Carbon solid catalysts were prepared by a sulfonation of carbonized coconut shells. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of the reaction temperatures, the molar ratios of methanol to PFAD, the catalyst loading and the reaction times. The reusability of the solid acid carbon catalysts was also studied in this work. The results indicated that the FFA conversion was significantly increased with increasing catalyst loading and reaction times. It can be concluded that the optimal conditions were an PFAD to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60oC.At this optimum condition, the conversion to biodieselreached 88%.

  12. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field analysis. The obtained 2D-QSAR model gave a high predictive ability (R2train = 0.935, R2test = 0.902, Q2LOO = 0.899. It also uncovered that number of rotatable single bonds (b_rotN, relative negative partial charges (RPC−, oprea's lead-like (opr_leadlike, subdivided van der Waal’s surface area (SlogP_VSA2 and accessible surface area (ASA were important features in defining activity. Additionally, the derived3D-QSAR model presented a higher predictive ability (R2train = 0.944, R2test = 0.892, Q2LOO = 0.802. Meanwhile, the derived contour maps from the 3D-QSAR model revealed the significant structural features (steric and electronic effects required for improving FXR agonist activity. Finally, nine newly designed AAD with higher predicted EC50 values than the known template compound were docked into the FXR active site. The excellent molecular binding patterns of these molecules also suggested that they can be robust and potent partial FXR agonists in agreement with the QSAR results. Overall, these derived models may help to identify and design novel AAD with better FXR agonist activity.

  13. Structural Investigation for Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Derivatives as Partial FXR Agonists by in Silico Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Kang, Jie; Gan, Huijuan; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a three level in silico approach was applied to investigate some important structural and physicochemical aspects of a series of anthranilic acid derivatives (AAD) newly identified as potent partial farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists. Initially, both two and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (2D- and 3D-QSAR) studies were performed based on such AAD by a stepwise technology combined with multiple linear regression and comparative molecular field analysis. The obtained 2D-QSAR model gave a high predictive ability (R²train = 0.935, R²test = 0.902, Q²LOO = 0.899). It also uncovered that number of rotatable single bonds (b_rotN), relative negative partial charges (RPC(-)), oprea's lead-like (opr_leadlike), subdivided van der Waal's surface area (SlogP_VSA2) and accessible surface area (ASA) were important features in defining activity. Additionally, the derived3D-QSAR model presented a higher predictive ability (R²train = 0.944, R²test = 0.892, Q²LOO = 0.802). Meanwhile, the derived contour maps from the 3D-QSAR model revealed the significant structural features (steric and electronic effects) required for improving FXR agonist activity. Finally, nine newly designed AAD with higher predicted EC50 values than the known template compound were docked into the FXR active site. The excellent molecular binding patterns of these molecules also suggested that they can be robust and potent partial FXR agonists in agreement with the QSAR results. Overall, these derived models may help to identify and design novel AAD with better FXR agonist activity. PMID:27070594

  14. Comparing organic acids and salt derivatives as antimicrobials against selected poultry-borne Listeria monocytogenes strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lues, Jan Frederick Rykers; Theron, Maria Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    This article reports on the antilisterial properties of selected organic acids and salt derivatives in order to suggest possible alternatives in food preservation and pathogen control in the poultry meat processing industry. The susceptibility of two Listeria monocytogenes isolates was assessed against five organic acids (lactic, acetic, malic, citric, and propionic) and two acid-salt derivatives (sorbic acid [potassium salt] and benzoic acid [sodium salt]) across a series of pH environments. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the acids were tested against the two strains by means of an agar-dilution method. In general, strain CC60 was found to be more resistant than strain CC77 to both organic acids and salts. At pH values of 7 and above, high MIC levels (low susceptibility) were noted for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and lactic acids, whereas susceptibility at lower pH increased reaching pH5 where the isolates were susceptible to all the organic acids tested. A small increase in pH notably reduced antimicrobial activity against the organisms. At pH 7, the isolates just about lost susceptibility to benzoic, lactic, malic, and sorbic acids. Although the activity of the majority of acids was linked to pH, some acids were not as closely related (e.g., potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and citric acid), and this suggests that the type of organic acids plays a role in inhibition. The relatively high MICs reported for compounds that are conventionally used as preservatives against Listeria spp. raise concern. The results furthermore suggest that the type of organic acid used to set pH, and not only pH alone, plays a role in determining inhibition. It was confirmed that a "one size fits all" approach to preservation is not always effective. Furthermore, the need for microbiological data to the subspecies level to inform the selection of preservatives was highlighted. PMID:23190165

  15. Radioiodinated phenylalkyl malonic acid derivatives as pH-sensitive SPECT tracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bauwens

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vivo pH imaging has been a field of interest for molecular imaging for many years. This is especially important for determining tumor acidity, an important driving force of tumor invasion and metastasis formation, but also in the process of apoptosis. METHODS: 2-(4-[(123I]iodophenethyl-2-methylmalonic acid (IPMM, 2-(4-[(123I]iodophenethyl-malonic acid (IPM, 2-(4-[(123I]iodobenzyl-malonic acid (IBMM and 4-[(123I]iodophthalic acid (IP were radiolabeled via the Cu(+ isotopic nucleophilic exchange method. All tracers were tested in vitro in buffer systems to assess pH driven cell uptake. In vivo biodistribution of [(123I]IPMM and [(123I]IPM was determined in healthy mice and the pH targeting efficacy in vivo of [(123I]IPM was evaluated in an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb apoptosis model. In addition a mouse RIF-1 tumor model was explored in which tumor pH was decreased from 7.0 to 6.5 by means of induction of hyperglycemia in combination with administration of meta-iodobenzylguanidine. RESULTS: Radiosynthesis resulted in 15-20% for iodo-bromo exchange and 50-60% yield for iodo-iodo exchange while in vitro experiments showed a pH-sensitive uptake for all tracers. Shelf-life stability and in vivo stability was excellent for all tracers. [(123I]IPMM and [(123I]IPM showed a moderately fast predominantly biliary clearance while a high retention was observed in blood. The biodistribution profile of [(123I]IPM was found to be most favorable in view of pH-specific imaging. [(123I]IPM showed a clear pH-related uptake pattern in the RIF-1 tumor model. CONCLUSION: Iodine-123 labeled malonic acid derivates such as [(123I]IPM show a clearly pH dependent uptake in tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo which allows to visualize regional acidosis. However, these compounds are not suitable for detection of apoptosis due to a poor acidosis effect.

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel L-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives as potential influenza virus entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Shi, Yongying; Si, Longlong; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Han, Xu; Wu, Xingyu; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Xiao, Sulong

    2016-03-01

    Since the influenza viruses can rapidly evolve, it is urgently required to develop novel anti-influenza agents possessing a novel mechanism of action. In our previous study, two pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (Q8 and Y3) have been found to have anti-influenza virus entry activities. Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of pentacyclic triterpenes and l-ascorbic acid in mind, we synthesized a series of novel l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (18-26, 29-31, 35-40 and 42-43). Moreover, we evaluated these novel compounds for their anti-influenza activities against A/WSN/33 virus in MDCK cells. Among all evaluated compounds, the 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl-6-deoxy-l-ascorbic acid-betulinic acid conjugate (30) showed the most significant anti-influenza activity with an EC50 of 8.7 μM, and no cytotoxic effects on MDCK cells were observed. Time-of-addition assay indicated that compound 30 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle. Further analyses revealed that influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by treatment of compound 30, and the interaction between the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and compound 30 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a dissociation constant of KD = 3.76 μM. Finally, silico docking studies indicated that compound 30 and its derivative 31 were able to occupy the binding pocket of HA for sialic acid receptor. Collectively, these results suggested that l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenes were promising anti-influenza entry inhibitors, and HA protein associated with viral entry was a promising drug target. PMID:26866456

  17. Sulfur stable isotopic compositions as indicators of acid deposition histories in lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric acid deposition in perturbing many aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the northeastern US. Sulfate is one component of this deposition, and they have been studying the sulfur chemistry of lake sediments that record changes in sulfur deposition histories. They are measuring %S, S in organic and inorganic fractions, and 34S/32S isotopic compositions. Initial findings show that pyrite (FeS2) is a major component of many recent lake sediments. Pyrite is formed in the high-iron lake sediments where anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria actively produce sulfides. Sulfate levels are a key in determining the activities of these bacteria, and the recent sulfate increases are sufficient to cause widespread stimulation of sulfide production in many lake sediments. Isotopic fractionation during sulfate reduction causes sulfides to be depleted in 34S and have low δ34S values. Addition of sulfides to sediments increases total %S, amounts of inorganic sulfur species and results in shifts toward lower δ34S values. They are using these changes to estimate historical and contemporary contributions to the sulfur record in sediments

  18. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lipoic Acid Derivatives in Mice 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Kwiecień

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In mammals lipoic acid (LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA function as cofactors for multienzymatic complexes catalyzing the decarboxylation of α-ketoacids. Moreover, LA is used as a drug in a variety of diseases including inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.Material/methods:The present paper reports the chemical synthesis of 2,4-bismethylthio-butanoic acid (BMTBA and tetranor-dihydrolipoic acid (tetranor-DHLA. BMTBA is one of the biotransformation products of LA, while tetranor-DHLA is an analogue of DHLA. Structural identity of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR. These compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity in mice. For this purpose, the zymosan-induced peritonitis and the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema animal models were applied.Results/conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the early vascular permeability measured at 30 min of zymosan-induced peritonitis was significantly inhibited in groups receiving BMTBA (10, 30, 50 mg/kg. The early infiltration of neutrophils measured at 4 hours of zymosan-induced peritonitis was inhibited in the group receiving BMTBA (50 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (50 mg/kg. The results indicated that the increase in paw edema was significantly inhibited in the groups receiving BMTBA (50, 100 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (30, 50 mg/kg. In summary, the present studies clearly demonstrated that both BMTBA and tetranor-DHLA were able to act as anti-inflammatory agents. This is the first study examining in vivo the anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.

  19. Measurement of local cerebral protein synthesis in vivo: influence of recycling of amino acids derived from protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative autoradiographic method for the determination of local rates of protein synthesis in brain in vivo is being developed. The method employs L-[1-14C]leucine as the radiolabeled tracer. A comprehensive model has been designed that takes into account intracellular and extracellular spaces, intracellular compartmentation of leucine, and the possibility of recycling of unlabeled leucine derived from steady-state degradation of protein into the precursor pool for protein synthesis. We have evaluated the degree of recycling by measuring the ratio of the steady-state precursor pool distribution space for labeled leucine to that of unlabeled leucine. The values obtained were 0.58 in whole brain and 0.47 in liver. These results indicate that there is significant recycling of unlabeled amino acids derived from steady-state protein degradation in both tissues. Any method for the determination of rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with labeled tracers that depends on estimation of precursor pool specific activity in tissue from measurements in plasma must take this recycling into account

  20. Hydrazino-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine Derivatives' Excellent Corrosion Organic Inhibitors of Steel in Acidic Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faham, Ayman; Osman, Sameh M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion inhibition performance of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-tirazine (DMeHT), 2,4-dihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT), and 2,4,6-tridydrazino-1,3,5-triaizne (TH₃) on steel corrosion in acidic media was examined using electrochemical techniques. The results showed 2,4-Ddihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT) gave the best corrosion protection performance among the other hydrazino derivatives even at a low concentration of 25 ppm (95%). The number of hydrazino groups play an important role in the corrosion inhibition, where the two hydrazine groups increased the electrostatic interactions between the protonated tested compounds, the negatively charged steel surface resulted from the adsorption of the chloride anions, and the presence of the methoxy group made the compound more reliable for formation of film protection on the surface of steel through the lone pair of oxygen atoms. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements suggested that the corrosion process of steel in presence of the hydrazino-s-triazine derivatives (TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT) were being controlled by the charge transfer reaction. Polarization curves indicated that the examined TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT behaved as mixed type inhibitors.

  1. Hydrazino-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine Derivatives' Excellent Corrosion Organic Inhibitors of Steel in Acidic Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faham, Ayman; Osman, Sameh M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition performance of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-tirazine (DMeHT), 2,4-dihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT), and 2,4,6-tridydrazino-1,3,5-triaizne (TH₃) on steel corrosion in acidic media was examined using electrochemical techniques. The results showed 2,4-Ddihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT) gave the best corrosion protection performance among the other hydrazino derivatives even at a low concentration of 25 ppm (95%). The number of hydrazino groups play an important role in the corrosion inhibition, where the two hydrazine groups increased the electrostatic interactions between the protonated tested compounds, the negatively charged steel surface resulted from the adsorption of the chloride anions, and the presence of the methoxy group made the compound more reliable for formation of film protection on the surface of steel through the lone pair of oxygen atoms. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements suggested that the corrosion process of steel in presence of the hydrazino-s-triazine derivatives (TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT) were being controlled by the charge transfer reaction. Polarization curves indicated that the examined TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT behaved as mixed type inhibitors. PMID:27258241

  2. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  3. Poly-Acrylic Acid Derivatives as Diesel Flow Improver for Paraffin-Based Daqing Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiyu Jiang; Ming Xu; Xiaoli Xi; Panlun Qi; Hongyan Shang

    2006-01-01

    Since the diesel products from paraffin-based Daqing crude oil showed low sensitivity to certain commercial diesel pour point depressant (PPDs) that resulted from the high content of paraffin, certain poly-acrylic acid derivatives (PADE) with-COOR,-COOH,-CONHR, and -COO-NH3+R groups by molecular design on the mechanics of diesel; PPDs were synthesized and evaluated as cold flow improver for Daqing 0# diesel in this paper. The pure PADE was superior to the commercial PPDs and displayed a substantial ability of wax crystals dispersion. There was a synergistic effect among the PADE and T1804 and secondary amine. The synergism clearly improved the low temperature performance of Daqing diesel products and could reduce the cold filter plugging point of 0# diesel by 6-7 ℃.

  4. Fluorinated betulinic acid derivatives and evaluation of their anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jizhen; Goto, Masuo; Yang, Xiaoming; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Huang, Li; Chen, Chin-Ho; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Several fluorinated derivatives of the anti-HIV maturation agent bevirimat (1) were synthesized and evaluated for anti-HIV replication activity. The modified positions were the C-2, C-3, C-28, and C-30 positions, either directly on the betulinic acid (2) skeleton or in the attached side chains. Compound 18, which has a trifluoromethyl group added to C-30 of its isopropenyl group, exhibited similar potency to 1 against HIV-1NL4-3. In total, our current studies support our prior conclusion that C-30 allylic modification is unlikely to be a pharmacophore for anti-HIV activity, but could be a meaningful route to manipulate other properties of 2-related compounds.

  5. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  6. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, shikimic acid derivatives and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio kingii Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vásquez, Liliana; Reina, Matías; López-Rodríguez, M; Giménez, Cristina; Cabrera, Raimundo; Cuadra, Pedro; Fajardo, Víctor; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eleven eremophilanolides (1-11), one eremophilane (13), five shikimic acid derivatives (14-18), six flavonoids (19-24), and the macrocyclic unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid integerrimine (25) were isolated from Senecio kingii, an endemic species from the Magallanes Region (Chile). Compounds 3, 5, 6, 8-11 and 13-18 have not been previously reported as natural products. Their molecular structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published NMR data. An X-ray-analysis of compound 3 has been performed. Their insecticidal and antifungal activities were tested, being compound 3 the strongest insect antifeedant. Compounds 6, 9 and 18 were moderate antifungals. PMID:26101146

  7. Synthesis of some novel D-glucuronic acid acetylated derivatives as potential anti-tumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nezhawy, Ahmed O H; Adly, Frady G; Eweas, Ahmed F; Hanna, Atef G; El-Kholy, Yehya M; El-Sayed, Shahenaz H; El-Naggar, Tarek B A

    2011-10-01

    A structurally diverse series of Δ(4,5) -uronamide derivatives have been chemically synthesized starting from D-glucuronic acid itself by means of acetylation, activation, amide bond formation and base-catalyzed elimination protocols. Structure elucidation for all products along with optimization of the synthetic steps is described. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro anti-tumor activity against MCF-7, TK-10 and UACC-62 cell lines. The compounds 5, 11, 13, 15 and 16 were the most active against TK-10 cell line. On the other hand, the most active compounds against the MCF-7 cell line were 11 and 15. However, compounds 5, 7, 11, 13, 15 and 16 were the most active against the UACC-62 cell line.

  8. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623

  9. STRUCTURE BASED DRUG DESIGN STUDIES ON HETEROARYL PROPANOIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS PPARΓ AGONISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN KUMAR,MANGA RATNAM,ARCHANA KUMARI, AJAY BABU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are a group of nuclear receptorproteins. Docking studies are based on several factors. Among 15 entries of PPARγ, 2Q6S wastaken for docking analysis, as it showed 418 most favored regions, 35 in additionally allowedregion and none of the residue in disallowed regions. To carry out drug designing, moleculeswere considered from the literature in which substitution of R1 position with dihydrofurylreported to have high dock score (-14.98 Kcal/mol than the remaining analogues, with bettergeometry and interactions. Hence docking analysis using heteroaryl propionic acid derivatives asanti-diabetic agents suggest the reproducibility of active molecules being predicted bycomputational docking studies using Auto dock software.

  10. INFLUENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES ON THE LEVELS OF IMMUNE COMPLEXES UNDER IONIZED RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Boyajyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the present study, blood levels of circulating immune complexes and of their pathogenic subpopulations were determined in rats following ionizing irradiation. Experimental animals were treated with synthetic Schiff base aromatic amino acid derivatives, nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate or nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate, before irradiation, whereas untreated irradiated rats served as controls. The results obtained demonstrate significantly increased levels of immune complexes, as well as presence of a pathogenic subpopulation of circulating immune complexes in blood of irradiated animals. In addition, the data obtained suggest a normalizing effect of nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate upon the mentioned parameters. On the basis of these observations, a cyto- and immunoprotective ability of nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate may be proposed.

  11. The local atomic structure of di-alanine amino acid derivative of protoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of photosensitizers bearing potential for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and treatment (PDT) of malignant tissues strictly depend on the details of their chemical processing. In this work, the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques were applied to determine the nearest neighbourhood of iron in the di-alanine amino acid derivative of protoporphyrin IX (L-alanine diprotoporphyrinate). The investigated compound is a technological precursor for novel-class, highly water-soluble protoporphyrin IX-based photosensitizers, which have potential for applications in PDD and PDT and have just entered phase I clinical trials. Knowing the chemical content and exact atomic structures of the technological precursor, as well as of the high-purity final product, which all might contain some contamination, is a prerequisite for preparing photosensitizers for preliminary clinical tests

  12. Tautomeric and Microscopic Protonation Equilibria of Anthranilic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapała, Lidia; Woźnicka, Elżbieta; Kalembkiewicz, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The acid-base chemistry of three zwitterionic compounds, namely anthranilic (2-aminobenzoic acid), N-methylanthranilic and N-phenylanthranilic acid has been characterized in terms of the macroconstants K a1, K a2, the isoelectric point pH I, the tautomerization constant K z and microconstants k 11, k 12, k 21, k 22. The potentiometric titration method was used to determine the macrodissociation constants. Due to the very poor water solubility of N-phenylanthranilic acid the dissociation constants pK a1 and pK a2 were determined in MDM-water mixtures [MDM is a co-solvent mixture, consisting of equal volumes of methanol (MeOH), dioxane and acetonitrile (MeCN)]. The Yasuda-Shedlovsky extrapolation procedure has been used to obtain the values of pK a1 and pK a2 in aqueous solutions. The pK a1 and pK a2 values obtained by this method are 2.86 ± 0.01 and 4.69 ± 0.03, respectively. The tautomerization constant K z describing the equilibrium between unionized form ⇌ zwitterionic form was evaluated by the K z method based on UV-VIS spectrometry. The method uses spectral differences between the zwitterionic form (found at isoelectric pH in aqueous solution) and the unionized form (formed in an organic solvent of low dielectric constant). The highest value of the K z constant has been observed in the case of N-methylantranilic acid (log10 K z = 1.31 ± 0.04). The values of log10 K z for anthranilic and N-phenylanthranilic acids are similar and have values of 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.05, respectively. The results indicate that the tested compounds, in aqueous solution around the isoelectric point pHI, occur mainly in the zwitterionic form. Moreover, the influence of the type of substituent and pH of the aqueous phase on the equilibrium were analyzed with regard to the formation and the coexistence of different forms of the acids in the examined systems.

  13. Effect of a phytogenic additive on blood serum indicator levels and fatty acids profile in fattening turkeys meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive on blood serum indicator levels and fatty acids profile of breast, leg muscles and liver in fattening turkeys. The experiment was realized in private turkey farm and in the Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 300 clinically healthy female turkeys (broad-breasted white turkey, hybrid XL were used in the experiment. Female turkeys were randomly divided into two groups (150 pcs per each. In the control group, turkey were fed with standard complete feed mixtures for fattening, in the experimental group, standard diets from the beginning to 12th week were supplemented with the a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus fruits as well as a prebiotic rich fructooligosaccharides in dosage 1kg per 1000 kg of feed mixture. Fattening lasted 18 weeks. Blood serum was collected at the end of the experiment, during the slaughter of birds. Samples of breast and leg muscles, and liver for fatty acids composition evaluation were collected during birds dissection (10 samples per each group. After the 12 weeks of phytoadditive supplementation, a tendency of lower activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (53.963 vs. 3.499 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (6.238 vs. 1.012 U/L in experimental group of turkeys was found (P0.01 content of cis-8,11,14-eicosadienoic and arachidonic acids. The phytoadditive supplementation significantly (P<0.01 decreased content of some unsaturated fatty acids in turkeys tissues, as well. In experimental group of turkey have been recorded lower level of elaidic and oleic acids in the breast muscle and cis-11,14-eicosadienoic and arachidonic acids in the liver, compare to birds from control group.

  14. Effect of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Drug Derivatives of Anthranilic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Pobudkowska; Aleksandra Pelczarska; Urszula Domańska

    2011-01-01

    Guest-host complex formation of three drug derivatives of anthranilic acid, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, and flufenamic acid with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD) in aqueous solutions was investigated using “Phase solubility study” with UV-vis spectrophotometry. Solubility of sparingly soluble drugs has been improved by addition of 2HP-β-CD at two temperatures 298.15 K and 310.15 K and two pH values 2 and 7. The influence of different 2HP-β-CD concentration on solubility of drugs a...

  15. New Polyamides Based on Bis(p-amidobenzoic acid)-p-phenylene diacrylic acid and Hydantoin Derivatives: Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    FAGHIHI, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    Bis(p-amidobenzoic acid)-p-phenylene diacrylic acid (6) as a new monomer containing p-phenylenediacryloyl moiety was synthesized by using a 3-step reaction. At first p-phenylenediacrylic acid (3) was prepared by reaction of terephthal aldehyde (1) with malonic acid (2) in the presence of pyridine, and then diacid 3 was converted to p-phenylenediacryloyl chloride (4) by reaction with thionyl chloride. Finally bis(p-amidobenzoic acid)-p-phenylene diacrylic acid (6) was prepared by the ...

  16. Inhibition effects of acetyl coumarines and thiazole derivatives on corrosion of zinc in acidic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A V Shanbhag; T V Venkatesha; R A Prabhu; B M Praveen

    2011-06-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of acetyl coumarine (AC), bromo acetyl coumarine (BAC) and thiazole derivatives (BTMQ and BTCQ) on the corrosion of zinc in 0.1 M HCl solution were investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration upto 5 × 10-4 M, then gave almost same inhibition efficiency. The polarizationmeasurements indicated the mixed nature of inhibitors. The adsorption of compounds obeyed Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic functions for adsorption processes were evaluated.

  17. Synthesis and description of intermolecular interactions in new sulfonamide derivatives of tranexamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Danish, Muhammad; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khatoon, Sadia; Mustafa, Ghulam; Zolotarev, Pavel N.; Butt, Rabia Ayub; Şahin, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (4-aminomethyl-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid) was reacted with sulfonyl chlorides to produce structurally related four sulfonamide derivatives using simple and environmental friendly method to check out their three-dimensional behavior and van der Walls interactions. The molecules were crystallized in different possibilities, as it is/after alkylation at its O and N atoms/along with a co-molecule. All molecules were crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/n, P21/c and P21/a. X-ray studies reveal that the molecules stabilized themselves by different kinds of hydrogen bonding interactions. The molecules are getting connected through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers which are further connected through N-H⋯O interactions. The molecules in which N and O atoms were alkylated showed non-classical interaction and generated centro-symmetric R22(24) ring motif. The co-crystallized host and guest molecules are connected to each other via O-H⋯O interactions to generate different ring motifs. By means of the ToposPro software an analysis of the topologies of underlying nets that correspond to molecular packings and hydrogen-bonded networks in structures under consideration was carried out.

  18. Usnic Acid Derivatives with Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities from the Lichen Usnea longissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelong; Guo, Qiang; Su, Guozhu; Yang, Ailin; Hu, Zhongdong; Qu, Changhai; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Tu, Pengfei; Chai, Xingyun

    2016-05-27

    Eight usnic acid derivatives, that is, usenamines A-F (1-6), usone (7), and isousone (8), together with the known (+)-usnic acid (9), were isolated from the lichen Usnea longissima. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were defined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compounds 1, 2, and 8 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 6.0-53.3 μM compared with methotrexate as the positive control, which had an IC50 value of 15.8 μM. Furthermore, 1 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0-15.0 μM. The isolated compounds were also evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities, with 7 and 8 exhibiting weak inhibitory effects on fungal Trichophyton rubrum spp. with an MIC value of 41.0 μM. PMID:27186821

  19. Synthesis, structural characterization and quantum chemical studies of silicon-containing benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Shova, Sergiu; Sacarescu, Liviu; Cazacu, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The present paper is concerned with the synthesis and molecular structure investigation of two new benzoic acid derivatives having trimethylsilyl tails, 4-((trimethylsilyl)methoxy) and 4-(3-(trimethylsilyl)propoxy)benzoic acids. The structures of the novel compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR). The theoretical studies of molecules were conducted by using the quantum chemical methods, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G**), Hartree-Fock (HF/6-31 + G**) and semiempirical computations (PM3, PM6 and PM7). The optimized molecular geometries have been found to be in good agreement with experimental structures resulted from the X-ray diffraction. The maximum electronic absorption bands observed at 272-287 nm (UV-vis spectra) have been assigned to π → π* transitions, which were in reasonable agreement with the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The computed vibrational frequencies by DFT method were assigned and compared with the experimental FTIR spectra. The mapped electrostatic potentials revealed the reactive sites, which corroborated the observation of the dimer supramolecular structures formed in the crystals by hydrogen-bonding. The energies of frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO), energy gap, dipole moment and molecular descriptors for the new compounds were calculated and discussed.

  20. Effect of Retinoic acid on Platelet-derived Growth Factor and Lung Development in Newborn Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红兵; 常立文; 刘汉楚; 容志惠; 祝华平; 张谦慎; 李文斌

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The influence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on lung development in newborn rats and the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on PDGF in lung development were investigated. Newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control group and RA group.The rats in RA group was intraperitoneally injected with all trans-retinoic acid (500 μg/kg every day) for consecutive 3 days after birth, while those in the control group were not subjected to intervention, Immunohistochemical assay was performed to locate the expression of PDGF. mRNA levels of PDGF were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at age of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 days. The method of radial alveolar counts (RAC) was used to measure the amount of the alveoli of the lungs. It was found that with increasing days, levels of PDGF-A and PDGF-B changed to verying degrees. RA could elevate significantly the expression levels of PDGF A mRNA and protein (P<0.01), but not affect the expression levels of PDGF-B mRNA and pro tein markedly (P>0.05). It is suggested that PDGF might play an important role in lung development. RA can stimulate lung development through increasing the expression levels of PDGF-A mRNA and protein.

  1. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Á Santos, Luciana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Tempone, Andre G; Correa, Daniela S; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Quintiliano, Natalia F; Rodrigues-Oliveira, André F; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-05-07

    Chagas' disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL). Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL), which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid). Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  2. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Á. Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas’ disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 μg/mL. Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL, which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid. Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (α,α'-dimacro-carpoyl-β-oleylglycerol and α-macrocarpoyl-α'-oleylglycerol were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives.

  3. Sorption of a triazol derivative by soils: importance of surface acidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of a triazol derivative, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)- 4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)penten-3-ol with a common name of S3307D, on fifteen soils and three H2O2-treated soils was investigated. The sorption isotherm for each untreated and treated soil was non-linear, and was best fitted to Freundlich sorption equation. Soils containing high amount of clay content or organic matter or both sorbed much higher amounts of the chemical than soils that had low contents of these soil constituents. H2O2-treated soils showed considerable sorptive affinity for S3307D. It was concluded that both organic matter and mineral fraction in natural soils contributed to the sorption of the basic compound. Sorption by the H2O2 treated soils increased as suspension pH decreased, but all suspension pHs exceeded the pKa of the compound by more than two units. This implies that organic base protonation can occur on surfaces of soil components, and surface acidity (exchangeable acidity ) is important in sorption process of the organic base rather than suspension pH.

  4. In vitro skin permeation and retention of 5-aminolevulinic acid ester derivatives for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lange, Norbert; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado; Rotta, Jeane Cristina Gomes; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2003-04-29

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), 5-aminiolevulinic acid (5-ALA) applied topically is converted, via the heme cycle, into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a photosensitizing agent, which upon excitation with light can induce tumor destruction. Due to its hydrophilic and zwitterionic characteristics, 5-ALA has limited penetration into the skin. More lipophilic 5-ALA ester derivatives are expected to cross stratum corneum more easily than 5-ALA. According to the determination of the partition coefficients of 5-ALA methyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl and n-octyl esters, these compounds showed an increased affinity to the SC, with 5-ALA hexyl ester and 5-ALA-octyl ester having the highest partition coefficients. Our in vitro skin permeation studies demonstrated an increased permeated amount for hexyl-ALA after 6 h of incubation, compared to other esters and 5-ALA. After 6 h, more 5-ALA-hexyl ester and -octyl ester were retained at viable epidermis and dermis than 5-ALA. According to these results, and considering that the conversion of 5-ALA into PpIX occurs preferentially in epidermis, it can be supposed that topical use of ester derivatives with longer chains (C(6) or C(8)) is an interesting proposal to optimize topical 5-ALA-PDT

  5. Fatty Acid-Derived Pro-Toxicants of the Rat Selective Toxicant Norbormide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hans; Conole, Daniel; Atkinson, Darcy J; Laita, Olivia; Jay-Smith, Morgan; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Cavalli, Maurizio; Bova, Sergio; Hopkins, Brian; Brimble, Margaret A; Rennison, David

    2016-06-01

    Norbormide [5-(α-hydroxy-α-2-pyridylbenzyl)-7-(α-2-pyridylbenzylidene)-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, as an acute vasoactive, NRB has a rapid onset of action which makes it relatively unpalatable to rats, often leading to sublethal uptake and accompanying bait shyness. A series of NRB-derived pro-toxicants (3a - i, 4a - i, and 5a - i) were prepared in an effort to 'mask' this acute response and improve both palatability and efficacy. Their synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation (vasocontractile response in rat vasculature, stability in selected rat media) and palatability/efficacy in Sprague-Dawley, wild Norway, and wild ship rats is described. Most notably, pro-toxicant 3d was revealed to be free of all pre-cleavage vasoconstrictory activity in rat caudal artery and was subsequently demonstrated to release NRB in the presence of rat blood, liver, and pancreatic enzymes. Moreover, it consistently displayed a high level of acceptance by rats in a two-choice bait-palatability and efficacy trial, with accompanying high mortality. On this evidence, fatty acid ester prodrugs would appear to offer a promising platform for the further development of NRB-derived toxicants with enhanced palatability and efficacy profiles. PMID:27144301

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations. PMID:25369173

  7. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of ursolic acid and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Tian; Geng Lin; Rui-Xia Zheng; Feng Huang; Meng-Su Yang; Pei-Gen Xiao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor activity of ursolic acid (UA) and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro andin vivo.METHODS: In vivo cytotoxicity was first screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, DNA ladder, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot and real time PCR were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of UA. Implanted mouse hepatoma H22 was used to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of UA in vivo.RESULTS: UA could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and its drug-resistance strain, R-HepG2 cells,but had no inhibitory effect on primarily cultured normal mouse hepatocytes whereas all the six derivatives of UA could not inhibit the growth of all tested cell lines. Further study on mechanism demonstrated that apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest were involved in the cytotoxicity and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) protein and upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP) 105 mRNA correlated to the apoptosis of HepG2cells treated with UA. In addition, UA also could inhibit the growth of H22 hepatoma in vivo.CONCLUSION: UA is a promising anti-tumor agent, but further work needs to be done to improve its solubility.

  8. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin's Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C; Snyder, Solomon H; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA's multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson's drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death.

  9. A comparative study of the complexation of uranium(VI) withoxydiacetic acid and its amide derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin

    2005-05-01

    There has been significant interest in recent years in the studies of alkyl-substituted amides as extractants for actinide separation because the products of radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of amides are less detrimental to separation processes than those of organophosphorus compounds traditionally used in actinide separations. Stripping of actinides from the amide-containing organic solvents is relatively easy. In addition, the amide ligands are completely incinerable so that the amount of secondary wastes generated in nuclear waste treatment could be significantly reduced. One group of alkyl-substituted oxa-diamides have been shown to be promising in the separation of actinides from nuclear wastes. For example, tetraoctyl-3-oxa-glutaramide and tetraisobutyl-oxa-glutaramide form actinide complexes that can be effectively extracted from nitric acid solutions. To understand the thermodynamic principles governing the complexation of actinides with oxa-diamides, we have studied the complexation of U(VI) with dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) and tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA) in aqueous solutions, in comparison with oxydiacetic acid (ODA) (Figure 1). Previous studies have indicated that the complexation of U(VI) with ODA is strong and entropy-driven. Comparing the results for DMOGA and TMOGA with those for ODA could provide insight into the energetics of amide complexation with U(VI) and the relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the ligand structure.

  10. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Contrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  11. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta‐oxidation...... relative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Also, they had higher C6‐DC, C10‐OH/C8‐DC, and total hydroxyl‐/dicarboxyl‐acylcarnitine levels, which may suggest an increased fatty acid omega‐oxidation in the liver. Furthermore, LBW and NBW men decreased several acylcarnitine levels in response...

  12. Chiral Recognition for the Two Enantiomers of Phenylalanine and Four Amino Acid Derivatives with (S)-Phenylethylamine Derived Nickel(II) Macrocyclic Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Jae; Ryoo, Jae Jeong [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The potency of new chiral selector candidate was assessed by this simple chiral discrimination test. This experiment showed that the macrocyclic molecule can be a powerful candidate as a chiral selector to obtain optically pure amino acid or amino acid derivatives, particularly phenylalanine and N-benzoyl-phenylalanine enantiomers from racemic mixtures. This study attempted to use the chiral metal organic framework (MOF), 1, as a good chiral selector candidate for the chiral discrimination of racemic phenylalanine, N-benzoyl-alanine, N-benzoyl-phenylalanine, N-benzoyl-methionine, N-CBZ-alanine. The chiral recognition ability of the chiral macromolecule, was examined by varying the molar ratio of the macromolecule and racemates.

  13. Sterols and fatty acid biomarkers as indicators of changes in soil microbial communities in a uranium mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maria J; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Kátia; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Duarte, Armando C; Freitas, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Included in the 2nd tier of a site specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa uranium mine, Central Portugal), fatty acids biomarkers and sterols were analyzed to assess the impact of soil contamination with metals and radionuclides in the structure of the microbial community in seven sampling sites located at different distances from the mine. Surface soil samples were collected in those sampling sites in the four different seasons of the year. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on fatty acid biomarkers and sterols. Subsequently PCA scores obtained for both components were used to test the effect of sites and seasons, on soil samples collected in the Cunha Baixa uranium mine, through bi-factorial ANOVAs. Through PCA analysis, two distinct groups were set apart along the first two components. One group included sites at a great distance from the mine which were negatively correlated with higher contents of iC15:0 and iC17:0, both indicators of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as with ergosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol. The second group, in turn, was composed of the sampling sites most impacted by ore exploration, in situ leaching of poor ore, and spread of sludge from the effluent treatment pond. These sites were positively correlated with higher levels of iC16:0 (Gram-positive bacteria indicator), cyC17:0 (generally common in gram negative bacteria) and C18:0 and C17:0 biomarkers of non-specific bacteria. The profile of fatty acids obtained in the sampling sites revealed variable predominance of groups of bacteria which are a clear indication of differences in the soil microbial communities that are directly related to the environmental conditions prevailing in the uranium mine area. PMID:21547821

  14. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function.

  15. Reactivity of sarcosine and 1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid towards salicylaldehyde-derived alkynes and allenes

    OpenAIRE

    Laia, Fernanda M. Ribeiro; Gomes, Clara S. B.; Melo, Teresa M.V.D. Pinho e

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of sarcosine and 1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid with salicylaldehyde-derived alkynes and allenes opened the way to new chromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole and chromeno[2,3-b]pyrrole derivatives. Tetrahydro-chromeno[4,3-b]pyrroles were obtained from the reaction of these secondary amino acids with O-propargylsalicylaldehyde. Interestingly, sarcosine reacted with ethyl 4-(2-formylphenoxy)but-2-ynoate to give a monocyclic pyrrole resulting from rearrangement of the initially formed 1,3-dipol...

  16. N2-(1-Methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine, a new nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative from Amanita exitialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lang Chi; Hui Ye Zhang; Jing Hua Xue; Jing Hao; Mei Fang Liu; Xiao Yi Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new purine nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative, N2-(1-methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine 1, along with βearboline and russulaceramide was isolated from the fruiting bodies ofAmanita exitialis, a newly described poisonous mushroom. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report of naturally occurring nucleosides in which an α-amino acid derivative is bonded through its a-amino nitrogen to a nucleobase aglycone by a C-N bond. The new compound was found to be toxic in brine shrimp lethality test (BST).

  17. Harnessing Yeast Peroxisomes for Biosynthesis of Fatty-Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals with Relieved Side-Pathway Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhu, Zhiwei;

    2016-01-01

    Establishing efficient synthetic pathways for microbial production of biochemicals is often hampered by competing pathways and/or insufficient precursor supply. Compartmentalization in cellular organelles can isolate synthetic pathways from competing pathways, and provide a compact and suitable...... environment for biosynthesis. Peroxisomes are cellular organelles where fatty acids are degraded, a process that is inhibited under typical fermentation conditions making them an interesting workhouse for production of fatty-acid-derived molecules. Here, we show that targeting synthetic pathways...

  18. Expression Patterns of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Cell Derivatives Indicate Lineage Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gordeeva; Tatyana Yakovleva; Galina Poljanskaya; Tatyana Krylova; Anna Koltsova; Nadya Lifantseva

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various lineages but undergo genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term cultivation and, therefore, require regular monitoring. The expression patterns of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A8, -B2, and GAGE were examined in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells, their differentiated derivatives, teratocarcinoma (hEC) cells, and cancer cell lines of neuroectodermal and mesodermal origin. Undifferentiated hES ce...

  19. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A

    2008-11-15

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  20. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  1. Use of 2,6-dimethyl-γ-pyrone as a 13C NMR indicator for estimating the activity of heteropoly acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C NMR of solutions containing 2,6-dimethyl-γ-pyrone as a 13C NMR indicator were used to estimate the acidity of aqueous solutions of ordinary acids (HCl, HNO3, HClO4) and heteropoly acids (HPA) of the composition SiW12, PMo10V2, P2W18, PW12, PW11Zr, PMo12, P2Mo18, SiMo12, As2W21, PMo6W6, B3W39, P2W21, PW11Ti. In the concentration range [H+] = 0-1.7 mol/l the change in signal positions in the spectra reaches 10 ppm, which permits using the method for comparing the solution acidity of ordinary acids. In HPA solutions indicator-HPA anion and probably, indicator-H+-HPA anion interactions were detected. It suggests the conclusion that the indicator method is inapplicable for ascertaining the acidity in HPA solution

  2. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin's Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C; Snyder, Solomon H; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA's multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson's drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death. PMID:26606248

  3. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin's Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyong Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA's multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson's drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice, glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death.

  4. Human GAPDH Is a Target of Aspirin’s Primary Metabolite Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Harraz, Maged M.; Park, Sang-Wook; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) controls several physiological processes and is a key regulator of multiple levels of plant immunity. To decipher the mechanisms through which SA’s multiple physiological effects are mediated, particularly in immunity, two high-throughput screens were developed to identify SA-binding proteins (SABPs). Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) was identified in these screens. Similar screens and subsequent analyses using SA analogs, in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology, established that human GAPDH (HsGAPDH) also binds SA. In addition to its central role in glycolysis, HsGAPDH participates in several pathological processes, including viral replication and neuronal cell death. The anti-Parkinson’s drug deprenyl has been shown to suppress nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH, an early step in cell death and the resulting cell death induced by the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Here, we demonstrate that SA, which is the primary metabolite of aspirin (acetyl SA) and is likely responsible for many of its pharmacological effects, also suppresses nuclear translocation of HsGAPDH and cell death. Analysis of two synthetic SA derivatives and two classes of compounds from the Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza foetida (licorice), glycyrrhizin and the SA-derivatives amorfrutins, revealed that they not only appear to bind HsGAPDH more tightly than SA, but also exhibit a greater ability to suppress translocation of HsGAPDH to the nucleus and cell death. PMID:26606248

  5. Application of l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) in topical cosmetic formulations: stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate a topical skin-care cream (o/w emulsion) from l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) at 2% versus its vehicle (Control). Formulations were developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of o/w emulsion and were stored at 8 degree C, 25 degree C and 40 degree C (in incubator) for a period of four weeks to investigate their stability. In the physical analysis, the evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, centrifugation, and liquefaction. Chemical stability of both derivatives was established by HPLC analysis. In the chemical analysis, the formulation with sodium ascorbyl phosphate was more stable than those with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and l-ascorbic acid. The microbiological stability of the formulations was also evaluated. The findings indicated that the formulations with l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives were efficient against the proliferation of various spoilage microorganisms, including aerobic plate counts as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. The results presented in this work showed good stability throughout the experimental period. Newly formulated emulsion proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. (author)

  6. Unequivocal NMR assignments: O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives of acid chromanones from Calophyllum brasiliense CAMB. (Guanandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneppele, D; Vieira, P C; Dall'Oglio, E L; da Silva, L E; Sousa, P T

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the fractionation of the crude hexane extract (EBHEX) from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) stem bark. Derivatization of DCM(2-9) fraction with diazomethane afforded the chromanones inophylloidic acid, isobrasiliensic acid, as well as, a mixture containing isobrasiliensic and brasiliensic acids, in the form of their more stable O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The isolation of 1 from C. brasiliense is described for the first time herein. The use of two-dimensional NMR methods ((1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) allowed the precise determination of (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts of compounds 1, 2, and 3. PMID:18626818

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of some new 3-and 6-substituted coumarin amino acid derivatives. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. El-naggar; Ahmed, F. S. M.; El-Salam, A. M. A.; Radi, M. A.; Latif, M. S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of 6-nitrocouarrain-3-CO-amino acids and their corresponding methyl esters (II-XVII) and some dipeptide methyl esters (XVIII-XXVI) are described. 6-(N-Tosyl- or N-phthalylaminoacyl)aminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid methyl esters (XXXIV-XL) and 3-(N-phthalyl- or N-tosylaminoacytyaminocoumarins (XLV-LVI) have been prepared via the carbodiimide and acid chloride methods. Hydrazinolysis of 3- or 6-(N-phthalylaminoacyl)aminocoumarin derivatives in tetraline gave the corresponding 3- an...

  8. The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR controls the liver derived tumor suppressor histidine-rich glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Ulrich; Birkel, Manfred; Hambruch, Eva; Hornberger, Martin; Kinzel, Olaf; Perović-Ottstadt, Sanja; Schulz, Andreas; Hahn, Ulrike; Burnet, Michael; Kremoser, Claus

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is strongly expressed in liver and intestine, controls bile acid and lipid homeostasis and exerts tumor-protective functions in liver and intestine. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an abundant plasma protein produced by the liver with the proposed function as a pattern recognition molecule involved in the clearance of immune complexes, necrotic cells and pathogens, the modulation of angiogenesis, the normalization of deranged endothelial vessel structure in tumors and tumor suppression. FXR recognition sequences were identified within a human HRG promoter fragment that mediated FXR/FXR-agonist dependent reporter gene activity in vitro. We show that HRG is a novel transcriptional target gene of FXR in human hepatoma cells, human upcyte® primary hepatocytes and 3D human liver microtissues in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. Prolonged administration of the potent nonsteroidal FXR agonist PX20606 increases HRG levels in mouse plasma. Finally, daily oral administration of this FXR agonist for seven days resulted in a significant increase of HRG levels in the plasma of healthy human male volunteers during a clinical Phase I safety study. HRG might serve as a surrogate marker indicative of liver-specific FXR activation in future human clinical studies. Furthermore, potent FXR agonists might be beneficial in serious health conditions where HRG is reduced, for example, in hepatocellular carcinoma but also other solid cancers, liver failure, sepsis and pre-eclampsia. PMID:25363753

  9. In situ supramolecular hydrogel based on hyaluronic acid and dextran derivatives as cell scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Xiao; Cao, Lu-Juan; Shi, Yu; Wang, Ping; Chen, Jing-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this study, hyaluronic acid-β-cyclodextrin conjugate (HA-CD) and dextran-2-naphthylacetic acid conjugate (Dex-NAA) were synthesized as two gelators. The degrees of substitution (DS) of these two gelators were determined to be 15.5 and 7.4%, respectively. Taking advantages of the strong and selective host-guest interaction between β-CD and 2-NAA, the mixture of two gelators could form supramolecular hydrogel in situ. Moreover, the pore size, gelation time, swelling ratio as well as modulus of the hydrogel could be adjusted by simply varying the contents of HA-CD and Dex-NAA. NIH/3T3 cells that entrapped in hydrogel grew well as compared with that cultured in plates, indicating a favorable cytocompatibility of the hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the HA-Dex hydrogel could potentially be applied in tissue engineering as cell scaffold. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2263-2270, 2016. PMID:27087451

  10. Gut microbiota-derived short-chain Fatty acids, T cells, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H; Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo

    2014-12-01

    T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation. PMID:25550694

  11. Neptunium(5) compounds with some acetic acid derivatives. Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for formation of neptunium(4) salts with aminoacetic, glycolic and trichloroacetic acids are studied. Crystal NpO2CH2OHCOOxH2O (1) and NpO2CCl3COOxH2O (2) are synthesized. Crystal lattice parameters are defined. IR and electron spectra are taken off. The electron absorption spectra of (1) and (2) compounds indicate the shift of the NpO+ (980 nm) ion basic characteristic band into the long-wave range equalling 16 and 21 nm correspondingly. This fact makes it possible to assume the presence of cation-cation interaction in the crystals. The (1) compound looses water within the interval of 200-350 deg C with simultaneous decomposition up to NpO2. The (2) compound transforms by the temperature of 211 deg C into an intermediate product NpOCl2, which thereafter decays up to NpO2. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Hydrogen-bonded Supramolecular Hydrogels Derived from 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic Acid and Hydroxylpyridines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Yujiang; TANG, Liming; WANG, Li; YU, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four gelators (defined as G1--G4) were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BPTA) and para-hydroxylpyridine or meta-hydroxylpyridine at molar ratios 1 : 2 and 1 : 4 respectively, and characterized by ~1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra and elemental analysis. Due to the amphiphilic features, all the gelators were able to gel water via cooling their aqueous solution under different stimulations. The structure of the assembling fibers and the macroscopic properties of the gels were investigated by multiple techniques. The results indicated that the minimum gelator concentration (MGC) increased by the order of G1, G2, G3 and G4, while the gel-to-sol dissociation temperature (T_(gel)) decreased by the same order, which were explained from the assembling structures of the gels.

  13. Cytotoxicity of copper(II)-complexes with some S-alkyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid. Crystal structure of the binuclear copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš V.; Mijajlović, Marina Ž.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Ratković, Zoran R.; Novaković, Slađana B.; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Milovanović, Jelena; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Stojanović, Bojana; Trifunović, Srećko R.; Radić, Gordana P.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopically predicted structure of the obtained copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid was confirmed by X-ray structural study and compared to previously reported crystal structure of the Cu complex with S-methyl derivative. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurements were obtained by slow crystallization from a water solution. Cytotoxic effects of S-alkyl (R = benzyl (L1), methyl (L2), ethyl (L3), propyl (L4) and butyl (L5)) derivatives of thiosalicylic acid and the corresponding binuclear copper(II)-complexes on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, CT26 and CT26.CL25 and human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 were reported here. The analysis of cancer cell viability showed that all the tested complexes had low cytotoxic effect on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, but several times higher cytotoxicity on normal human colon carcinoma cells.

  14. Emerita analoga (Stimpson)--possible new indicator species for the phycotoxin domoic acid in California coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdin, M E; Kvitek, R G; Bretz, C K; Powell, C L; Doucette, G J; Lefebvre, K A; Coale, S; Silver, M W

    2002-09-01

    Blooms of domoic acid (DA) synthesizing diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) have been associated with the death and injury of hundreds of marine shorebirds and mammals, exposed humans to potentially serious health risks, and threatened to significantly impact coastal fisheries and commerce dependent on marine resources. While indicator organisms are widely utilized to monitor for marine biotoxins like paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, a reliable intertidal indicator species to monitor DA remains to be identified. Here we evaluate and confirm the utility of the common sand crab (Emerita analoga) as an indicator for DA in comparison with sea mussels (Mytilus californianus). Mussels and sand crabs, collected from natural populations in Santa Cruz, California (April 1999-February 2000), were tested for DA using the HPLC-UV method. Toxin loads in sand crabs ranged from below detectable limits to 13.4 micro g DA g(-1) and coincided with the abundance of DA producing Pseudo-nitzschia species nearshore. Toxin levels in mussels collected during the study period were below HPLC-UV detectable limits. The rise and fall of DA in sand crabs in synchrony with Pseudo-nitzschia abundance, combined with this common intertidal species' accessibility and ease of DA extraction, clearly indicate the utility of sand crabs as a reliable, cost-effective monitoring tool for DA in the nearshore coastal environment.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  16. Development of a bioprocess to convert PET derived terephthalic acid and biodiesel derived glycerol to medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Shane T.; Nikodinovic Runic, Jasmina; O' Connor, Kevin E. [University College Dublin (Ireland). School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences; Kaminsky, Walter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Materials Ireland Polymer Research Center

    2012-08-15

    Sodium terephthalate (TA) produced from a PET pyrolysis product and waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel manufacture were supplied to Pseudomonas putida GO16 in a fed-batch bioreactor. Six feeding strategies were employed by altering the sequence of TA and WG feeding. P. putida GO16 reached 8.70 g/l cell dry weight (CDW) and 2.61 g/l PHA in 48 h when grown on TA alone. When TA and WG were supplied in combination, biomass productivity (g/l/h) was increased between 1.3- and 1.7-fold and PHA productivity (g/l/h) was increased 1.8- to 2.2-fold compared to TA supplied alone. The monomer composition of the PHA accumulated from TA or WG was predominantly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid. PHA monomers 3-hydroxytetradeeanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid were not present in PHA accumulated from TA alone but were present when WG was supplied to the fermentation. When WG was either the sole carbon source or the predominant carbon source supplied to the fermentation the molecular weight of PHA accumulated was lower compared to PHA accumulated when TA was supplied as the sole substrate. Despite similarities in data for the properties of the polymers, PHAs produced with WG present in the PHA accumulation phase were tacky while PHA produced where TA was the sole carbon substrate in the polymer accumulation phase exhibited little or no tackiness at room temperature. The co-feeding of WG to fermentations allows for increased utilisation of TA. The order of feeding of WG and TA has an effect on TA utilisation and polymer properties. (orig.)

  17. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klessig, Daniel F; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  18. Dynamic Covalent Chemistry-based Sensing: Pyrenyl Derivatives of Phenylboronic Acid for Saccharide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xingmao; Fan, Jiayun; Wang, Min; Wang, Zhaolong; Peng, Haonan; He, Gang; Fang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized two specially designed pyrenyl (Py) derivatives of phenylboronic acid, PSNB1 and PSNB2, of which PSNB2 self-assemble to form dynamic aggregate in methanol-water mixture (1:99, v/v) via intermolecular H-bonding and pi-pi stacking. Interestingly, the dynamic aggregate shows smart response to presence of fructose (F) as evidenced by fluorescence color change from green to blue. More interestingly, the fluorescence emission of the resulted PSNB2-F changes from blue to green with the addition of formaldehyde (FA). The reason behind is formation of a PSNB2-F dimer via FA cross-linking. Based upon the reactions as found, sensitive and fast sensing of F and FA in water was realized, of which the experimental DLs could be significantly lower than 10 μM for both analytes, and the response times are less than 1 min. It is believed that not only the materials as created may have the potential to find real-life applications but also the strategy as developed can be adopted to develop other dynamic materials. PMID:27498703

  19. Dynamic Covalent Chemistry-based Sensing: Pyrenyl Derivatives of Phenylboronic Acid for Saccharide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xingmao; Fan, Jiayun; Wang, Min; Wang, Zhaolong; Peng, Haonan; He, Gang; Fang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized two specially designed pyrenyl (Py) derivatives of phenylboronic acid, PSNB1 and PSNB2, of which PSNB2 self-assemble to form dynamic aggregate in methanol-water mixture (1:99, v/v) via intermolecular H-bonding and pi-pi stacking. Interestingly, the dynamic aggregate shows smart response to presence of fructose (F) as evidenced by fluorescence color change from green to blue. More interestingly, the fluorescence emission of the resulted PSNB2-F changes from blue to green with the addition of formaldehyde (FA). The reason behind is formation of a PSNB2-F dimer via FA cross-linking. Based upon the reactions as found, sensitive and fast sensing of F and FA in water was realized, of which the experimental DLs could be significantly lower than 10 μM for both analytes, and the response times are less than 1 min. It is believed that not only the materials as created may have the potential to find real-life applications but also the strategy as developed can be adopted to develop other dynamic materials.

  20. Combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters derived from recycled cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yo-ping Greg Wu; Ya-fen Lin; Chang-Tang Chang [National Ilan University, Ilan (Taiwan). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    The goal of this study is to find out the exhaust emissions differences produced by different kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from used cooking oils and animal fats, as well as the importance of the purification step in exhaust emissions production. A total of 120 L of waste vegetable oil and 30 L of waste frying oil were collected and converted into three batches of FAME. There were two batches of FAME produced from waste vegetable oil (B01 and B02), and one batch of FAME produced by mixing 2% of waste frying oil with waste vegetable oil (B03). The FAMEs used in this study had higher density, kinematic viscosity, and flash point, but a lower gross heating value, when compared to the premium diesel. The B01 engine produced higher CO formation and the diesel-fuelled engine produced higher CO than the B02 and B03 did for engine speeds higher than 1400 rpm. Most of the FAME fuels produced higher CO{sub 2} than the diesel fuel did. The FAME fuels emitted higher NOx and PM, but lower SO{sub 2}, than the diesel fuel. C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}, diphenyl sulfone (C{sub 12}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}S), and diethyl phthalate (C{sub 12}H{sub 14}O{sub 4}) can be selected as the character index for the combustion of FAME. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.